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Sample records for rat periaqueductal gray

  1. Evidence for a periaqueductal gray-nucleus retroambiguus spinal cord pathway in the rat

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    Holstege, G.; Kerstens, Lenka; Moes, M.C.; Horst, V.G.J.M. van der

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus in the cat has been shown to receive strong projections from the periaqueductal gray and to send fibres to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in brainstem and spinal cord. The nucleus retroambiguus plays a role in the production of vocalization and possibly copulatory

  2. Presynaptic Glycine Receptors Increase GABAergic Neurotransmission in Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neurons

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    Kwi-Hyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the central regulation of nociceptive transmission by affecting the descending inhibitory pathway. In the present study, we have addressed the functional role of presynaptic glycine receptors in spontaneous glutamatergic transmission. Spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs were recorded in mechanically dissociated rat PAG neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch recording technique under voltage-clamp conditions. The application of glycine (100 µM significantly increased the frequency of sEPSCs, without affecting the amplitude of sEPSCs. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency was blocked by 1 µM strychnine, a specific glycine receptor antagonist. The results suggest that glycine acts on presynaptic glycine receptors to increase the probability of glutamate release from excitatory nerve terminals. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency completely disappeared either in the presence of tetrodotoxin or Cd2+, voltage-gated Na+, or Ca2+ channel blockers, suggesting that the activation of presynaptic glycine receptors might depolarize excitatory nerve terminals. The present results suggest that presynaptic glycine receptors can regulate the excitability of PAG neurons by enhancing glutamatergic transmission and therefore play an important role in the regulation of various physiological functions mediated by the PAG.

  3. Morphine-induced changes of adenylate and guanylate cyclase in locus ceruleus, periaqueductal gray, and substantia nigra in rats.

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    Shijun, Hong; Liping, Zhao; Yongqiang, Qu; Zhen, Li; Yonghe, Zhao; Lihua, Li

    2009-01-01

    To observe the changes of adenylate cyclase (AC) and guanylate cyclase (GC) in the cerebral regions including the locus ceruleus, periaqueductal gray, and substantia nigra in rats that were physiologically dependent on morphine. We also investigated the relationship of enzymatic changes in these cerebral regions to the mechanism of morphine dependence. A morphine-dependent rat model was established and withdrawal symptoms evaluated. Enzyme histochemistry was used to detect the variations of AC and GC in cerebral regions. Compared to controls, AC and GC significantly increased in morphine-dependent groups. Comparisons of four different morphine-dependent groups also showed AC and GC significantly differed at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Results found that the content of AC and GC increased in these cerebral regions in rats that demonstrated morphine dependence and appeared to be closely linked to increases in AC and GC activity.

  4. Stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray modulates preinspiratory neurons in the ventrolateral medulla in the rat in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in many basic survival behaviors that affect respiration. We hypothesized that the PAG promotes these behaviors by changing the firing of preinspiratory (pre-I) neurons in the pre-Botzinger complex, a cell group thought to be important in generating

  5. The Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Control of Respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Balnave, Ron J.; Holstege, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) organizes basic survival behavior, which includes respiration. How the PAG controls respiration is not known. We studied the PAG control of respiration by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid in the PAG in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats. Injections

  6. Defense reaction induced by a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray of rats

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    M.L. Molchanov

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of trans-(±-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD, a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR agonist, or 0.9% (w/v saline, injected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG, was investigated. Male Wistar rats showed defense reactions characterized by jumps toward the top edges of the cages (saline = 0 vs t-ACPD = 6.0, medians P<0.05 and gallops (saline = 0 vs t-ACPD = 10.0, medians P<0.05 during the 60-s period after the beginning of the injection. In another experiment animals were placed inside an open arena for 5 min immediately after injection. Their behavior was recorded by a video camera and a computer program analyzed the videotapes. Eleven of fifteen rats injected with t-ACPD showed a short-lasting (about 1 min flight reaction. No saline-treated animal showed this reaction (P<0.0005, chi-square test. The drug induced an increase in turning behavior (P = 0.002, MANOVA and a decrease in the number of rearings (P<0.001, MANOVA and grooming episodes (P<0.001, MANOVA. These results suggest that mGluRs play a role in the control of defense reactions in the DPAG.

  7. The effect of naloxone on trigemino-hypoglossal reflex inhibited by periaqueductal central gray stimulation in rats.

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    Zubrzycka, M; Janecka, A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolishes the influence of periaqueductal central gray (PAG) on nociceptive evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) - a trigemino-hypoglossal reflex induced by tooth pulp stimulation. In rats under chloralose anesthesia three subsequent series of perfusions of lateral ventricles - cerebellomedullary cistern with Mc Ilwain-Rodnight's solution, Met-enkaphalin (Enk-Met) and naloxone were carried out. The amplitudes of tongue jerks induced by tooth pulp stimulation were recorded during subsequent 10 min perfusions. Mean amplitude of tongue movements induced by tooth pulp stimulation was regarded as the indicator of the magnitude of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex. We observed that perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with Enk-Met (100 nmol/mL) inhibited the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex by 46%, whereas naloxone (100 nmol/mL), added to the solution perfusing the cerebral ventricles system, increased the reflex by 42%. The amplitude of ETJ was significantly reduced during PAG stimulation with a train of electrical impulses. After obtaining a significant 93% - inhibition of ETJ, naloxone (100 nmol/mL) was added to the perfusion fluid. This led to a significant increase of the reflex by 68%. The above results suggest that the inhibition of ETJ due to PAG stimulation is partially reversed by naloxone and mediated via interactions with endogenous opioid systems involved in modulation of nociception.

  8. Microinjection of muscimol into the periaqueductal gray suppresses cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to air jet stress in conscious rats.

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    de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Sarkar, Sumit; Fontes, Marco A P; Dimicco, Joseph A

    2008-09-01

    Microinjection of the neuronal inhibitor muscimol into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) suppresses increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) evoked in air jet stress in conscious rats. Similar injection of muscimol into the caudal region of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (l/dlPAG) reduces autonomic responses evoked from the DMH, leading to the suggestion that neurons in the l/dlPAG may represent a descending relay for DMH-induced increases in HR and MAP. Here, we examined the role of neuronal activity in the caudal l/dlPAG on the increases in MAP, HR, and plasma ACTH seen in air jet stress in rats. Microinjection of muscimol into the caudal l/dlPAG reduced stress-induced increases in HR and MAP, while identical injections into sites just dorsal or into the rostral l/dlPAG had no effect. Microinjection of a combination of the glutamate receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) into the caudal l/dlPAG decreased stress-induced increases in HR alone only at the end of the 20-min stress period but significantly accelerated return to baseline. Surprisingly, microinjection of muscimol into the caudal l/dlPAG also reduced the stress-induced increase in plasma ACTH by 51%. Compared with unstressed control rats, rats exposed to air jet stress exhibited approximately 3 times the number of Fos-positive neurons in the l/dlPAG. These findings suggest that neurons in the l/dlPAG are activated in air jet stress and that this activity contributes to increases in HR, MAP, and plasma ACTH.

  9. Involvement of cholecystokinin in the opioid tolerance induced by dipyrone (metamizol) microinjections into the periaqueductal gray matter of rats.

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    Tortorici, Victor; Nogueira, Lourdes; Aponte, Yexica; Vanegas, Horacio

    2004-11-01

    The analgesic effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is partly due to an action upon the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), which triggers the descending pain control system and thus inhibits nociceptive transmission. This action of NSAIDs engages endogenous opioids at the PAG, the nucleus raphe magnus and the spinal cord. Repeated administration of NSAIDs such as dipyrone (metamizol) and acetylsalicylate thus induces tolerance to these compounds and cross-tolerance to morphine. Since cholecystokinin plays a key role in opioid tolerance, the present study in rats investigated whether PAG cholecystokinin is also responsible for tolerance to PAG-microinjected dipyrone. Microinjection of cholecystokinin (1 ng/0.5 microl) into PAG blocked the antinociceptive effect of a subsequent microinjection of dipyrone (150 microg/0.5 microl) into the same site, as evaluated by the tail flick and hot plate tests. Microinjection of proglumide (0.4 microg/0.5 microl), a non-selective cholecystokinin antagonist, into PAG prevented the development of tolerance to subsequent microinjections of dipyrone, as well as cross-tolerance to microinjection of morphine (5 microg/0.5 microl) into the same site. In rats tolerant to PAG dipyrone, a PAG microinjection of proglumide restored the antinociceptive effect of a subsequent microinjection of dipyrone or morphine. These results suggest that PAG-microinjected dipyrone triggers and/or potentiates local opioidergic circuits leading to descending inhibition of nociception, on the one hand, and to a local antiopioid action by cholecystokinin, on the other. Reiteration of these events would then result in an enhancement of cholecystokinin's antiopioid action and thus tolerance to opioids and dipyrone in the PAG.

  10. Atp13a2 expression in the periaqueductal gray is decreased in the Pink1 -/- rat model of Parkinson disease.

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    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2016-05-16

    Vocal communication deficits are common in Parkinson disease (PD). Widespread alpha-synuclein pathology is a common link between familial and sporadic PD, and recent genetic rat models based on familial genetic links increase the opportunity to explore vocalization deficits and their associated neuropathologies. Specifically, the Pink1 knockout (-/-) rat presents with early, progressive motor deficits, including significant vocal deficits, at 8 months of age. Moreover, this rat model exhibits alpha-synuclein pathology compared to age-matched non-affected wildtype (WT) controls. Aggregations are specifically dense within the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a brainstem region involved in the coordination of emotional and volitional control of vocalizations. Here, we investigated changes in gene expression within the PAG at 8 months of age in Pink1 -/- rats compared to WT. Our data demonstrate that Pink1 -/- rat mRNA expression levels of alpha-synuclein are comparable to WT. However, Pink1 -/- rats show significantly decreased levels of Atp13a2, a transmembrane lysosomal P5-type ATPase suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed abnormal aggregation. We found no difference in the expression of glucocerebrosidase (Gba) or the CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (Cflar). Further, we show that mRNA expression levels of dopaminergic markers including Th, D1 and D2 receptor as well as GABA signaling markers including Gaba-A and glutamate decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) do not differ between genotypes. However, we found that glutamate decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) is significantly reduced in this PD model suggesting possible disruption of neurotransmission within the PAG. These results are the first to suggest the hypothesis that alpha-synuclein aggregation in this model is not a result of increased transcription, but rather a deficit in the breakdown and clearance, and that the observed vocal deficits may be related to impaired neural transmission. Altogether, these findings are

  11. Antihyperalgesic effect of 5-HT7 receptor activation on the midbrain periaqueductal gray in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

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    Li, Shu-Fa; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, You-Yan; Wen, Song; Xiao, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently discovered receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and only little is known about the analgesic potential of this receptor. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) modulates pain transmission by activating P2X/P2Y receptors, in which the P2X3 subtype is an important target for this effect. This study examined the antihyperalgesic effect of the 5-HT7 receptors in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), a crucial site for endogenous pain inhibition. This study also explored the importance of the interactions between the 5-HT7 and P2X3 receptors in this effect. To address this issue, neuropathic pain was induced through chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression level and distribution of the 5-HT7 receptor were evaluated through Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was measured by using an electronic pressure meter test. Different doses (3, 6, and 12μmol) of AS-19, a selective agonist of the 5-HT7 receptor, were administered in the vlPAG of CCI rats. The effects of pretreatment with the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 or the selective P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491 on the analgesic effect of AS-19 were observed. Results showed that CCI decreased the MWT values of the rats. The injury also increased the protein level of the 5-HT7 receptor in the vlPAG of neuropathic pain rats. AS-19 microinjection significantly elevated the MWT values in a dose-dependent manner, but SB-269970 pretreatment attenuated the antihyperalgesic effect of AS-19. Furthermore, the antihyperalgesic effect of the 5-HT7 receptor was partially but significantly blocked by A-317491 pretreatment. These data indicate that the 5-HT7 receptor in the vlPAG exerts an antihyperalgesic effect on rats with neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 and P2X3 receptors interact in the vlPAG and exhibit an analgesic action through the enhanced function of the

  12. Activation of P2X7 receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray of rats facilitates morphine tolerance.

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    Xiao, Zhi; Li, You-Yan; Sun, Meng-Jie

    2015-08-01

    Opiates such as morphine exhibit analgesic effect in various pain models, but repeated and chronic morphine administration may develop resistance to antinociception. The purinergic signaling system is involved in the mechanisms of pain modulation and morphine tolerance. This study aimed to determine whether the P2X7 receptor in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is involved in morphine tolerance. Development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine was induced in normal adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through subcutaneous injection of morphine (10mg/kg). The analgesic effect of morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWTs) in rats with an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. The expression levels and distribution of the P2X7 receptor in the vlPAG was evaluated through Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The acute effects of intra-vlPAG injection of the selective P2X7 receptor agonist Bz-ATP, the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A-740003, or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) targeting the P2X7 receptor on morphine-treated rats were also observed. Results demonstrated that repeated morphine administration decreased the mechanical pain thresholds. By contrast, the expression of the P2X7 receptor protein was up-regulated in the vlPAG in morphine tolerant rats. The percent changes in MWT were markedly but only transiently attenuated by intra-vlPAG injection of Bz-ATP (9nmol/0.3μL) but elevated by A-740003 at doses of 10 and 100nmol/0.3μL. AS ODN (15nmol/0.3μL) against the P2X7 receptor reduced the development of chronic morphine tolerance in rats. These results suggest that the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine is partially mediated by activating the vlPAG P2X7 receptors. The present data also suggest that the P2X7 receptors may be a therapeutic target for improving the analgesic effect of morphine in treatments of pain when morphine tolerance

  13. A discrete dopaminergic projection from the incertohypothalamic A13 cell group to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray in rat

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    Fany eMessanvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several findings have indicated an involvement of dopamine in panic and defensive behaviors. The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG is crucially involved in the expression of panic attacks in humans and defensive behaviors, also referred to as panic-like behaviors, in animals. Although the dlPAG is known to receive a specific innervation of dopaminergic fibers and abundantly expresses dopamine receptors, the origin of this dopaminergic input is largely unknown. This study aimed at mapping the dopaminergic projections to the dlPAG in order to provide further insight into the panic-like related behavior circuitry of the dlPAG. For this purpose, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb was injected into the dlPAG of male Wistar rats and double immunofluorescence for CTb and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, was performed. Neurons labeled for both CTb and TH were counted in different dopaminergic cell groups. The findings indicate that the dopaminergic nerve terminals present in the dlPAG originate from multiple dopamine-containing cell groups in the hypothalamus and mesencephalon. Interestingly, the A13 cell group is the main source of dopaminergic afferents to the dlPAG and contains at least 45% of the total number of CTb/TH-positive neurons. Anterograde tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA combined with double immunofluorescence for BDA and TH confirmed the projections from the A13 cell group to the dlPAG. The remainder of the dopamine-positive terminals present in the dlPAG was found to originate from the extended A10 cell group and the A11 group. The A13 cell group is known to send dopaminergic efferents to several other brain regions implicated in defensive behavior, including the central amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, although direct behavioral evidence is lacking, our finding that the A13 cell group is also the main source of dopaminergic

  14. The hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray are the sources of dopamine fibers in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in the rat

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    Sa eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT sends a very dense projection to the nucleus accumbens. This area of the striatum plays a key role in motivation and recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT may have a similar function. It is well known that a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA to the nucleus accumbens is a key regulator of motivation and reward-related behavior. Dopamine (DA fibers have also been localized in the PVT but the source of these fibers in the rat has not been unequivocally identified. The present study was done to re-examine this question. Small iontophoretic injections of cholera toxin B (CTb were made in the PVT to retrogradely label tyrosine hydroxylase (TH neurons. Neurons that were double-labeled for TH/CTb were found scattered in DA cell groups of the hypothalamus (ventrorostral A10, A11, A13, A15 DA cell groups and the midbrain (dorsocaudal A10 embedded in the periaqueductal gray. In contrast, double-labeled neurons were absent in the retrorubral field (A8, substantia nigra (A9 and VTA (A10 of the midbrain. We conclude that DA fibers in the PVT do not originate from VTA but from a heterogeneous population of DA neurons located in the hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray.

  15. Effects of rizatriptan on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide and cholecystokinin in the periaqueductal gray of a rat migraine model.

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    Yao, Gang; Han, Ximei; Hao, Tingting; Huang, Qian; Yu, Tingmin

    2015-02-05

    Triptans are serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B/D agonists that are highly effective in the treatment of migraine. We previously found that rizatriptan can reduce the expression of proenkephalin and P substance in the rat midbrain, suggesting that rizatriptan may exert its analgesic effects by influencing the endogenous pain modulatory system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are mainly responsible for antagonizing the analgesic effects of opioid peptides in the endogenous pain modulatory system. In this study, we investigated the effects of rizatriptan on the expression of CGRP and CCK in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key structure of the endogenous pain modulatory system, in a rat migraine model induced by nitroglycerin. We found that the mRNA and protein levels of CGRP and CCK in the PAG of migraine rats were significantly increased compared to those in control rats, and these levels were significantly reduced upon treatment with rizatriptan in migraine rats (P<0.05). Our results suggest that the expression of CGRP and CCK in the endogenous pain modulatory system may be increased during migraine attacks, which further antagonizes the analgesic effects of endogenous opioid peptides and induces sustained migraine. Rizatriptan, however, significantly reduces the levels of CGRP and CCK to enhance the inhibition of pain signals via the endogenous pain modulatory system, resulting in effective treatment of migraine.

  16. A serotonergic deficit in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter may underpin enhanced panic-like behavior in diabetic rats.

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    Gambeta, Eder; Sestile, Caio C; Fogaça, Manoela V; Guimarães, Francisco S; Audi, Elisabeth A; da Cunha, Joice M; Zangrossi, Hélio; Shimene de Melo Yamashita, Paula; Zanoveli, Janaina M

    2017-08-09

    It is known that diabetic (DBT) animals present dysregulation on the serotonergic system in several brain areas associated with anxiety-like responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors on dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in the behavioral response related to panic disorder in type-1 DBT animals. For this, the escape response by electric stimulation (ES) of dPAG in DBT and normoglycemic (NGL) animals was assessed. Both NGL and DBT animals were exposed to an open-field test (OFT) 28 days after DBT confirmation. The current threshold to induce escape behavior in DBT animals was reduced compared with NGL animals. No impairment in locomotor activity was observed when DBT animals were compared with NGL animals. An intra-dPAG injection of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) increased the [INCREMENT] threshold in both DBT and NGL, suggesting a panicolytic-like effect. DBT animals presented a more pronounced panicolytic-like response compared with NGL as a higher [INCREMENT] threshold was observed after 8-OH-DPAT treatment, which could be a consequence of the increased expression of the 5-HT1A receptor in the dPAG from DBT animals. Our results are in line with the proposal that a deficiency in serotonergic modulation of the dPAG is involved in triggering the panic attack and the 5-HT1A receptors might be essential for the panicolytic-like response.

  17. Switching from morphine to fentanyl attenuates the decline of μ-opioid receptor expression in periaqueductal gray of rats with morphine tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-peng; SUN Li; LIU Xiao-yan; LIU Ruo-shan

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioid switching is a therapeutic maneuver to improve analgesic response and/or reduce adverse side effects although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) has an important role in mediating the actions of morphine and other analgesic agents.This study is aimed at exploring the changes of MOR in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in rats when morphine is substituted for equianalgesic fentanyl.Methods Forty rats were randomly assigned to five treatment groups:7 days normal saline group (N group),7 days fentanyl group (F group),7 days morphine group (M group),7 days morphine and 7 days fentanyl-switching group (MF group),and 14 days morphine group (MM group).Rats repeatedly received subcutaneous injections of morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) or equianalgesic fentanyl sulfate (0.1 mg/kg) twice daily.Rats' antinociceptive response to thermal pain was evaluated by the tail flick latency assay.MOR mRNA and protein expression in the PAG were measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses respectively.Results This study showed that after morphine was substituted with fentanyl on day 8,the tail flick latency (TFL) increased from (3.9±0.4) seconds to (11.4±0.4) seconds.The results also demonstrated that both MOR mRNA and protein expression in the PAG of rats in the MF group were less than that in the M group (P<0.05) but more than that in MM group (P<0.05).Conclusions Equianalgesic fentanyl was still antinociceptive effective in rats with morphine tolerance,which may be due to the switching from morphine to fentanyl attenuating the decline of MOR expression in the PAG of rats.

  18. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

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    Camplesi, M. Jr. [Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Bortoli, V.C. de [Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES (Brazil); Paula Soares, V. de [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nogueira, R.L. [Laboratório de Psicologia Comparada, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zangrossi, H. Jr. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-03

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.

  19. Opiorphin causes a panicolytic-like effect in rat panic models mediated by μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray.

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    Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Rangel, Marcel Pereira; Bonfim, Antonio Joaquim; Kitayama, Mariana; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Zangrossi, Hélio; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Reported evidence indicates that endogenous opioid peptides regulate the expression of escape behavior in rats, a panic-related defensive response, through μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). These peptides are rapidly catabolized by degrading enzymes, including neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). Opiorphin is a peptide inhibitor of both NEP and APN and potentiates the action of endogenous enkephalins. This study evaluated the effects of intravenous and intra-dPAG administration of opiorphin on escape responses in the elevated T-maze and in a dPAG electrical stimulation test in rats. We also evaluated the involvement of MORs in the effects of opiorphin using the selective MOR antagonist CTOP. A dose of 2.0 mg/kg, i.v., of opiorphin impaired escape performance in both tests. Similar effects were observed with intra-dPAG administration of 5.0 nmol of opiorphin. Local pretreatment with 1.0 nmol CTOP antagonized the anti-escape effects of intra-dPAG opiorphin in both tests, as well as the effect of systemically administered opiorphin (2.0 mg/kg, i.v.) in the electrical stimulation test. These results indicate that opiorphin has an antipanic-like effect that is mediated by MORs in the dPAG. They may open new perspectives for the development of opiorphin analogues with greater bioavailability and physicochemical characteristics in the pursuit of new medications for the treatment of panic disorder.

  20. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Klop, EM; Broman, J; Zhang, ML; Holstege, G; Zhang, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on s

  1. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  2. Tolerance to the Antinociceptive Effect of Morphine in the Absence of Short-Term Presynaptic Desensitization in Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Opioids activate the descending antinociceptive pathway from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) by both pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons (i.e., disinhibition). Previous research has shown that short-term desensitization of postsynaptic μ-opioid receptors (MOPrs) in the vlPAG is increased with the development of opioid tolerance. Given that pre- and postsynaptic MOPrs are coupled to different signaling mechanisms, the present study tested the hy...

  3. Periaqueductal gray knockdown of V2, not V1a and V1b receptor influences nociception in the rat. yj6676@yahoo.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Min; Wang, Gen; Xu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Wen-Yan; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Our pervious study has proved that arginine vasopressin (AVP) in periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a role in antinociception. After establishing a model of local special gene knockdown, the nociceptive effect of vasopressin receptor subunit in PAG was investigated in the rat. Microinjection of short-interfering RNA (siRNA) into PAG, which targeted vasopressin receptor subtypes (V(1a), V(1b) and V(2)), locally weakened the associated mRNA expression and depressed the related receptor synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, in which the significant inhibitive effect occurred on from 7th day to 14th day following 1microg or 2microg siRNA administration. PAG knockdown of V(2) receptor gene markedly decreased pain threshold in from 6th day to 13th day after siRNA administration, whereas local knockdown of either V(1a) or V(1b) receptor gene could not influence pain threshold. The data suggest that V(2) rather than V(1a) and V(1b) receptor in PAG involves in nociception.

  4. Neural Correlates of Fear in the Periaqueductal Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas C; Cerminara, Nadia L; Lumb, Bridget M; Apps, Richard

    2016-12-14

    The dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray (dPAG and vPAG, respectively) are embedded in distinct survival networks that coordinate, respectively, innate and conditioned fear-evoked freezing. However, the information encoded by the PAG during these survival behaviors is poorly understood. Recordings in the dPAG and vPAG in rats revealed differences in neuronal activity associated with the two behaviors. During innate fear, neuronal responses were significantly greater in the dPAG compared with the vPAG. After associative fear conditioning and during early extinction (EE), when freezing was maximal, a field potential was evoked in the PAG by the auditory fear conditioned stimulus (CS). With repeated presentations of the unreinforced CS, animals displayed progressively less freezing accompanied by a reduction in event-related field potential amplitude. During EE, the majority of dPAG and vPAG units increased their firing frequency, but spike-triggered averaging showed that only ventral activity during the presentation of the CS was significantly coupled to EMG-related freezing behavior. This PAG-EMG coupling was only present for the onset of freezing activity during the CS in EE. During late extinction, a subpopulation of units in the dPAG and vPAG continued to show CS-evoked responses; that is, they were extinction resistant. Overall, these findings support roles for the dPAG in innate and conditioned fear and for the vPAG in initiating but not maintaining the drive to muscles to generate conditioned freezing. The existence of extinction-susceptible and extinction-resistant cells also suggests that the PAG plays a role in encoding fear memories. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) orchestrates survival behaviors, with the dorsal (dPAG) and ventral (vPAG) PAG concerned respectively with innate and learnt fear responses. We recorded neural activity from dPAG and vPAG in rats during the expression of innate fear and extinction of learned freezing. Cells in dPAG responded

  5. Neural Correlates of Fear in the Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Nadia L.; Lumb, Bridget M.; Apps, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray (dPAG and vPAG, respectively) are embedded in distinct survival networks that coordinate, respectively, innate and conditioned fear-evoked freezing. However, the information encoded by the PAG during these survival behaviors is poorly understood. Recordings in the dPAG and vPAG in rats revealed differences in neuronal activity associated with the two behaviors. During innate fear, neuronal responses were significantly greater in the dPAG compared with the vPAG. After associative fear conditioning and during early extinction (EE), when freezing was maximal, a field potential was evoked in the PAG by the auditory fear conditioned stimulus (CS). With repeated presentations of the unreinforced CS, animals displayed progressively less freezing accompanied by a reduction in event-related field potential amplitude. During EE, the majority of dPAG and vPAG units increased their firing frequency, but spike-triggered averaging showed that only ventral activity during the presentation of the CS was significantly coupled to EMG-related freezing behavior. This PAG–EMG coupling was only present for the onset of freezing activity during the CS in EE. During late extinction, a subpopulation of units in the dPAG and vPAG continued to show CS-evoked responses; that is, they were extinction resistant. Overall, these findings support roles for the dPAG in innate and conditioned fear and for the vPAG in initiating but not maintaining the drive to muscles to generate conditioned freezing. The existence of extinction-susceptible and extinction-resistant cells also suggests that the PAG plays a role in encoding fear memories. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The periaqueductal gray (PAG) orchestrates survival behaviors, with the dorsal (dPAG) and ventral (vPAG) PAG concerned respectively with innate and learnt fear responses. We recorded neural activity from dPAG and vPAG in rats during the expression of innate fear and extinction of learned freezing

  6. Antiaversive Effects of Cannabinoids: Is the Periaqueductal Gray Involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Guimarães

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids play an important role in activity-dependent changes in synaptic activity and can interfere in several brain functions, including responses to aversive stimuli. The regions responsible for their effects, however, are still unclear. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, a midbrain structure closely involved in responses related to aversive states. Accordingly, exposure to stressful stimuli increases endocannabinoid (eCB levels in the PAG, and local administration of CB1 agonists or drugs that facilitate eCB-mediated neurotransmission produces antinociceptive and antiaversive effects. To investigate if these drugs would also interfere in animal models that are sensitive to anxiolytic drugs, we verified the responses to intra-PAG injection of CB1 agonists in rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze, the Vogel punished licking test, or contextual aversive conditioning model. The drugs induced anxiolytic-like effects in all tests. The same was observed with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and with cannabidiol, a nonpsychotomimetic phytocannabinoid that produces anxiolytic-like effects after systemic administration in humans and laboratory animals. These results, therefore, suggest that the PAG could be an important site for the antiaversive effects of cannabinoids.

  7. (+)-Morphine and (−)-morphine stereoselectively attenuate the (−)-morphine-produced tail-flick inhibition via the naloxone-sensitive sigma receptor in the ventral periaqueductal gray of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that (+)-morphine and (−)-morphine pretreated spinally for 45 min stereoselectively attenuates the tail-flick inhibition produced by (−)-morphine given spinally in the mouse. The present study is then undertaken to determine if the same phenomenon observed in the mouse spinal cord can also take place in the ventral periaqueductal gray of the rat. Pretreatment with (+)-morphine for 45 min at 0.3 to 3.3 fmol dose-dependently attenuated the tail-flick inhibition p...

  8. Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum

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    Almeida R.M.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG and the medial septal (MS area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 10, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9, and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9. The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 7, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 6 and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 5. For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7 and the MS (N = 12. Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (1.6 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.3 into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 ± 1.1. There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 µg/0.2 µl decreased locomotion when microinjected

  9. NOC-9, a selective nitric oxide donor, induces flight reactions in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats by activating soluble guanylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Andréa Arantes; Aguiar, Daniele Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2009-08-07

    Previous studies have showed that SIN-1, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, injected into the dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) induces flight reactions. This drug, however, can also produce peroxynitrite, which may interfere in this effect. In addition, it is also unknown if this effect is mediated by local activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). The aims of this study, therefore, were (1) to investigate if NOC-9 (6-(2-Hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine), a NO donor that does not produce peroxynitrite, would produce flight reactions after intra-dlPAG administration similar to those induced by SIN-1; (2) to verify if these responses could be prevented by local injection of a selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ). Male Wistar rats (n=5-12) with cannulae aimed at the dlPAG received injections of TRIS (pH 10.0, 0.5 microl), NOC-9 (75 and 150 nmol), saline or SIN-1 (200 nmol) and were placed in an open arena for 10 min. In a subsequent experiment animals (n=7-8) were pretreated with ODQ (1 nmol/0.5 microl) before receiving NOC-9 150 nmol. NOC-9 induced a significant dose-dependent increase in flight reactions in the first minute after injection (% of animals displaying flight: vehicle=0%, NOC 75=67%, NOC 150=75%). SIN-1 had a similar effect (100% of animals showing flight) but the effects lasted longer (10 min) than those of NOC-9. The effect of NOC-9 (150 nmol) was prevented by pretreatment with ODQ (% of animals displaying flight: vehicle+NOC 150=71%, ODQ+NOC 150=37%). The results suggest that NO donors injected into the dlPAG induce defensive responses that are not mediated by secondary peroxynitrite production. Moreover, they also indicate that these defensive responses depend on activation of local sGC. The data strengthen the proposal that NO can modulate defensive reactions in the dlPAG.

  10. Periaqueductal gray matter modulates the hypercapnic ventilatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luana T; Patrone, Luis G A; Bícego, Kênia C; Coimbra, Norberto C; Gargaglioni, Luciane H

    2012-08-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a midbrain structure directly involved in the modulation of defensive behaviors. It has direct projections to several central nuclei that are involved in cardiorespiratory control. Although PAG stimulation is known to elicit respiratory responses, the role of the PAG in the CO(2)-drive to breathe is still unknown. The present study assessed the effect of chemical lesion of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial and ventrolateral/lateral PAG (dlPAG, dmPAG, and vPAG, respectively) on cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypercapnia. Ibotenic acid (IBO) or vehicle (PBS, Sham group) was injected into the dlPAG, dmPAG, or vPAG of male Wistar rats. Rats with lesions outside the dlPAG, dmPAG, or vPAG were considered as negative controls (NC). Pulmonary ventilation (VE: ), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and body temperature (Tb) were measured in unanesthetized rats during normocapnia and hypercapnic exposure (5, 15, 30 min, 7 % CO(2)). IBO lesioning of the dlPAG/dmPAG caused 31 % and 26.5 % reductions of the respiratory response to CO(2) (1,094.3 ± 115 mL/kg/min) compared with Sham (1,589.5 ± 88.1 mL/kg/min) and NC groups (1,488.2 ± 47.7 mL/kg/min), respectively. IBO lesioning of the vPAG caused 26.6 % and 21 % reductions of CO(2) hyperpnea (1,215.3 ± 108.6 mL/kg/min) compared with Sham (1,657.3 ± 173.9 mL/kg/min) and NC groups (1,537.6 ± 59.3). Basal VE: , MAP, HR, and Tb were not affected by dlPAG, dmPAG, or vPAG lesioning. The results suggest that dlPAG, dmPAG, and vPAG modulate hypercapnic ventilatory responses in rats but do not affect MAP, HR, or Tb regulation in resting conditions or during hypercapnia.

  11. New perspective on the pathophysiology of panic: merging serotonin and opioids in the periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder patients are vulnerable to recurrent panic attacks. Two neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this susceptibility. The first assumes that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organize defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats and of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate most of the neurovegetative symptoms of the panic attack. The second suggests that endogenous opioids buffer normal subjects from the behavioral and physiological manifestations of the panic attack, and their deficit brings about heightened suffocation sensitivity and separation anxiety in panic patients, making them more vulnerable to panic attacks. Experimental results obtained in rats performing one-way escape in the elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic, indicate that the inhibitory action of serotonin on defense is connected with activation of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray. This allows reconciliation of the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic pathophysiology, the periaqueductal gray being the fulcrum of serotonin-opioid interaction.

  12. Lesion of the Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Reduces Conditioned Fear but Does Not Change Freezing Induced by Stimulation of the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Daniel M.L.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Brandão, Marcus L.

    2001-01-01

    Previously-reported evidence showed that freezing to a context previously associated with footshock is impaired by lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). It has also been shown that stepwise increase in the intensity of the electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces alertness, then freezing, and finally escape. These aversive responses are mimicked by microinjections of GABA receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline, or blockers of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), such as semicarbazide, into the dPAG. In this work, we examined whether the expression of these defensive responses could be the result of activation of ventral portion of the periaqueductal gray. Sham- or vPAG electrolytic–lesioned rats were implanted with an electrode in the dPAG for the determination of the thresholds of freezing and escape responses. The vPAG electrolytic lesions were behaviorally verified through a context-conditioned fear paradigm. Results indicated that lesion of the vPAG disrupted conditioned freezing response to contextual cues associated with footshocks but did not change the dPAG electrical stimulation for freezing and escape responses. In a second experiment, lesion of the vPAG also did not change the amount of freezing and escape behavior produced by microinjections of semicarbazide into the dPAG. These findings indicate that freezing and escape defensive responses induced by dPAG stimulation do not depend on the integrity of the vPAG. A discussion on different neural circuitries that might underlie different inhibitory and active defensive behavioral patterns that animals display during threatening situations is presented. PMID:11390636

  13. Effects of electrostimulation and administration of succinylcholine on the expression of Fos protein in mesencephalic periaqueductal gray matter of rats after simulated weightlessness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjin Zhu; Sudi Wu; Xiaoli Fan; Xinai Song; Linping Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of Fos in neurons of periaqueductal gray (PAG) is used to reflect the excitability.However, changes of expression of Fos in neurons of PAG are caused by injured electrostimulation after simulated weightlessness, and the relationship between pretreatment and injection of succinylcholine has not been determined yet.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of expression of Fos in PAG induced by injured electrostimulation,pretreatment and injection of succinylcholine at 2 weeks after simulated weightlessness.DESIGN: Observational and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education.MATERIALS: A total of 24 adult female SD rats, of clean grade and weighing 180-220 g, were selected in this study.METHODS: The experiment was completed in the Experimental Animal Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University.① All rats were randomly divided into 2 groups according to body mass: simulated weightlessness group and control group with 12 in each group. And then, each group was also divided into 3 subgroups: electrostimulation group, succinylcholine-pretreatment group and succinylcholine-injection group with 4 in each subgroup. ② The model of weightlessness was simulated by tail-suspended female rats, which were described and modified by Cheng Jie. Rats in normal control group were given the same interventions as simulated weightlessness group except for tail-suspended. ③ Experimental method: The rats in electrostimulation group were given nociceptive stimulus by a pair of subcutaneous electrodes inserted into 1 and 5 claw of left hindlimb. The stimulus (current: 10 mA; duration: 1 ms; interval: 1 s) lasted for 30 minutes. The rats in succinylcholine-pretreatment group received stimulus after intravenous administration of succinylcholine, rats in succinylcholine-injection group were not given stimulus, just received

  14. Deactivation of the parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus after fear-like behaviour following electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Yasin; Blokland, Arjan; Lim, Lee Wei

    2012-08-01

    The majority of patients with panic disorder express a fearful sensation when encountered with panic-related cues. A subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus has been demonstrated in the regulation of behavioural learning, especially during the contextual fear-conditioning. Here, we examined the influence of panic/fear response induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periaqueductal gray on these hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons. We found that fear-like behaviour did not change the number of c-Fos immunoreactive and parvalbumin-positive cells. However, a remarkable decrease of c-Fos and parvalbumin co-localization was shown in the hippocampal regions when compared to non-stimulated sham animals. In line with previous studies, our results support the hypothesis that GABAergic regulation resulted in enhanced behavioural reactivity to fear conditioning. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the inhibition of this subpopulation of hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons induced a long lasting anxiety- or fear-like behaviour.

  15. Inhibition of the NMDA receptor/Nitric Oxide pathway in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray causes anxiolytic-like effects in rats submitted to the Vogel conflict test

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    Guimarães Francisco S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies had demonstrated the involvement of the dorsolateral portion of periaqueductal grey matter (dlPAG in defensive responses. This region contains a significant number of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS and previous studies showed that non-selective NOS inhibition or glutamate NMDA-receptor antagonism in the dlPAG caused anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze. Methods In the present study we verified if the NMDA/NO pathway in the dlPAG would also involve in the behavioral suppression observed in rats submitted to the Vogel conflict test. In addition, the involvement of this pathway was investigated by using a selective nNOS inhibitor, Nω-propyl-L-arginine (N-Propyl, 0.08 nmol/200 nL, a NO scavenger, carboxy-PTIO (c-PTIO, 2 nmol/200 nL and a specific NMDA receptor antagonist, LY235959 (4 nmol/200 nL. Results Intra-dlPAG microinjection of these drugs increased the number of punished licks without changing the number of unpunished licks or nociceptive threshold, as measure by the tail flick test. Conclusion The results indicate that activation of NMDA receptors and increased production of NO in the dlPAG are involved in the anxiety behavior displayed by rats in the VCT.

  16. Collateral projections of neurons in laminae I, III, and IV of rat spinal cord to thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, and lateral parabrachial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khater, Khulood M; Todd, Andrew J

    2009-08-20

    Projection neurons in lamina I, together with those in laminae III-IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), form a major route through which nociceptive information reaches the brain. Axons of these cells innervate various targets, including thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and lateral parabrachial area (LPb), and many cells project to more than one target. The aims of this study were to quantify projections from cervical enlargement to PAG and LPb, to determine the proportion of spinothalamic neurons at lumbar and cervical levels that were labelled from PAG and LPb, and to investigate morphological differences between projection populations. The C7 segment contained fewer lamina I spinoparabrachial cells than L4, but a similar number of spino-PAG cells. Virtually all spinothalamic lamina I neurons at both levels were labelled from LPb and between one-third and one-half from PAG. This suggests that significant numbers project to all three targets. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons differed from those labelled only from LPb in that they were generally larger, were more often multipolar, and (in cervical enlargement) had stronger NK1r immunoreactivity. Most lamina III/IV NK1r cells at both levels projected to LPb, but few were labelled from PAG. The great majority of these cells in C7 and over one-fourth of those in L4 were spinothalamic, and at each level some projected to both thalamus and LPb. These results confirm that neurons in these laminae have extensive collateral projections and suggest that different neuronal subpopulations in lamina I have characteristic patterns of supraspinal projection.

  17. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T; Wald, Lawrence L; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-10-15

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95-104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei.

  18. Dorsolateral and ventral regions of the periaqueductal gray matter are involved in distinct types of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, D M; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Brandão, M L

    2001-12-01

    Stepwise increases in the electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) produces alertness, then freezing and finally escape. This paper examines whether this freezing is (i) caused by Pavlovian fear conditioning to the contextual cues present during stimulation and (ii) the result of the stimulation of neurons located inside the dlPAG or elsewhere. To this end, freezing behavior was assessed in rats exposed either to the same or a different environment (context shift test) following the application of either footshocks or stimulation of the dlPAG at the freezing threshold. Rats submitted to footshocks presented freezing to the context 24h later whereas rats submitted to the dlPAG stimulation showed freezing only immediately after the stimulation, regardless of the context. In the second experiment, aversive states generated by activation of the dlPAG were assessed either by measuring the thresholds for freezing and escape responses or the duration of these responses following microinjections of semicarbazide inside the dlPAG. The duration of freezing behavior was also measured in rats submitted to a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm using footshocks as unconditioned stimulus. Lesions of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) disrupted conditioned freezing to contextual cues associated to footshocks but vPAG lesions did not change the threshold of either freezing or escape responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the dlPAG. Lesions of the vPAG did not change the amount of freezing or escape responses produced by microinjections of semicarbazide into the dlPAG. These results indicate that stimulation of dlPAG neurons produce freezing behavior independent of any contextual fear conditioning and add to previously reported evidence showing that the vPAG is a critical structure for the expression of conditioned fear. In contrast, the neural substrate of unconditioned dlPAG stimulation-induced freezing is likely to elaborate

  19. Antinociception induced by intravenous dipyrone (metamizol) upon dorsal horn neurons: involvement of endogenous opioids at the periaqueductal gray matter, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the spinal cord in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Enrique; Hernandez, Norma; Escobar, William; Vanegas, Horacio

    2005-06-28

    Microinjection of dipyrone (metamizol) into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in rats causes antinociception. This is mediated by endogenous opioidergic circuits located in the PAG itself, in the nucleus raphe magnus and adjacent structures, and in the spinal cord. The clinical relevance of these findings, however, is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, dipyrone was administered intravenously, and the involvement of endogenous opioidergic circuits in the so-induced antinociception was investigated. In rats, responses of dorsal spinal wide-dynamic range neurons to mechanical noxious stimulation of a hindpaw were strongly inhibited by intravenous dipyrone (200 mg/kg). This effect was abolished by microinjection of naloxone (0.5 microg/0.5 microl) into the ventrolateral and lateral PAG or into the nucleus raphe magnus or by direct application of naloxone (50 microg/50 microl) onto the spinal cord surface above the recorded neuron. These results show that dipyrone, a non-opioid analgesic with widespread use in Europe and Latin America, when administered in a clinically relevant fashion causes antinociception by activating endogenous opioidergic circuits along the descending pain control system.

  20. Neural substrates for expectation-modulated fear learning in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P; Tarpley, Jason W; LeDoux, Joseph E; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-08-01

    A form of aversively motivated learning called fear conditioning occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS). UCS-evoked depolarization of amygdala neurons may instruct Hebbian plasticity that stores memories of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus association, but the origin of UCS inputs to the amygdala is unknown. Theory and evidence suggest that instructive UCS inputs to the amygdala will be inhibited when the UCS is expected, but this has not been found during fear conditioning. We investigated neural pathways that relay information about the UCS to the amygdala by recording neurons in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of rats during fear conditioning. UCS-evoked responses in both amygdala and PAG were inhibited by expectation. Pharmacological inactivation of the PAG attenuated UCS-evoked responses in the amygdala and impaired acquisition of fear conditioning, indicating that PAG may be an important part of the pathway that relays instructive signals to the amygdala.

  1. Neurons in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) lateral lumbosacral spinal cord project to the central part of the lateral periaqueductal gray matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Rutger; Klop, Esther Marije

    2006-01-01

    In order to micturate successfully, information from the bladder has to be conveyed to the brainstem. In most experimental animals, this information is relayed, via the lumbosacral spinal cord, to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Although the rat is the most used experimental animal in

  2. Eyelid apraxia associated with deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal gray area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Srikandarajah, Nisaharan; Krahl, Scott E; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Behnke, Eric; Malkasian, Dennis; DeSalles, Antonio A F

    2014-09-01

    We report a patient with eyelid apraxia following deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal gray area. Based on the position of our electrode, we argue that the phenomenon is linked to inhibition of the nearby central caudal nucleus of the oculomotor nucleus by high frequency stimulation.

  3. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  4. Deficiency of female sex hormones augments PGE2 and CGRP levels within midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Jian; Li, Jingqing; Yu, Shengyuan; Guo, Xinjin

    2014-11-15

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial component of the descending modulatory network to control on nociceptive transmission and autonomic functions. Also, accumulated evidence has suggested that the PAG plays a crucial role in regulating migraine headache, a neurovascular disorder. The purpose of this study was to employ ELISA methods to examine the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the PAG of rats who received ovariectomy and subsequent hormone replacement with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, or the combination of 17β-estradiol and progesterone. In addition, using Western blot analysis we examined expression of subtypes of PGE2 receptor in the PAG of rats with different conditions of female sex hormones. Results of our study demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly increased the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the dorsolateral PAG (P PGE2 EP3 receptors (P PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG (r = 092, P EP3 receptors by chronic administration of L-798106 (EP3 antagonist) into the lateral ventricles significantly attenuated expression of CGRP in the PAG of ovariectomized animals (P PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG; (2) a lower level of 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone augments PGE2 and its EP3 receptor; and (3) PGE2 plays a role in regulating expression of CGRP in the PAG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Differences in GABAA Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray Induced by Persistent Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is a key structure in the descending pain modulatory circuit. Activation of the circuit occurs via disinhibition of GABAergic inputs onto vlPAG output neurons. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition is increased during persistent inflammation, dampening activation of the descending circuit from the vlPAG. Our results indicate that persistent inflammation induced by Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) modulates GABA signa...

  6. Anxiolytic effect of methylene blue microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG has been implicated in the behavioral and autonomic expression of defensive reactions. Several results suggest that, along with GABA, glutamate and serotonin, nitric oxide (NO may play a role in defense reactions mediated by this region. To further investigate this possibility we microinjected methylene blue (MB; 10, 30 or 100 nmol/0.5 µl into the DPAG of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze test, an animal model of anxiety. MB has been used as an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC to demonstrate cGMP-mediated processes, and there is evidence that NO may exert its biological effects by binding to the heme part of guanylate cyclase, causing an increase in cGMP levels. The results showed that MB (30 nmol significantly increased the percent of time spent in the open arms (saline = 11.57 ± 1.54, MB = 18.5 ± 2.45, P<0.05 and tended to do the same with the percentage of open arm entries (saline = 25.8 ± 1.97, MB = 33.77 ± 3.07, P<0.10, but did not change the number of enclosed arm entries. The dose-response curve, however, had an inverted U shape. These results indicate that MB, within a limited dose range, has anxiolytic properties when microinjected into the DPAG.

  7. NPY Y1 receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter regulate anxiety in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, A; Rägo, L; Harro, J

    1998-08-24

    We have reported previously that the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226 applied into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has an anxiogenic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. In the present study the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor antagonists BIBP3226 (500 pmol) and 1229U91 (formerly also GR231118, GW1229 and EXBP68, 100 and 500 pmol) administered into the DPAG were investigated in the social interaction test in rats. BIBP3226 and 1229U91 (both 500 pmol) significantly decreased the time spent in active social interaction. These results provide additional evidence that NPY-ergic neurotransmission in the DPAG may be involved in the modulation of anxiety-related behaviour and suggest that endogenous NPY, released under stressful conditions in the DPAG, relieves anxiety via the NPY Y1 receptors. This is the first report demonstrating the effect of NPY receptor active agent on social behaviour.

  8. The amygdala to periaqueductal gray pathway: plastic changes induced by audiogenic kindling and reversal by gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupal, S; Faingold, C L

    2012-09-26

    Repeated, periodic induction of AGS (AGS kindling) in GEPR-9s increases seizure duration and induces an additional generalized clonus phase [post-tonic clonus (PTC)], which involves expansion of the localized brainstem AGS network to the amygdala. The pathway between central amygdala (CeA) and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is implicated in several disorders, including pain and anxiety. This pathway is also implicated in the network of audiogenic seizures (AGS) in genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s). We examined AGS kindling-induced changes in vlPAG extracellular action potentials evoked by electrical stimuli in CeA in awake, behaving GEPR-9s, using chronically-implanted stimulation electrodes in CeA and microwire recording electrodes in vlPAG. The effect of gabapentin, an anticonvulsant drug that is also effective in pain and anxiety disorders, on the CeA to vlPAG pathway in AGS-kindled GEPR-9s was also evaluated. Electrical stimulation in CeA evoked consistent, short latency and intensity-dependent vlPAG neuronal firing increases. However, in AGS-kindled GEPR-9s these responses showed a precipitous firing increase with increasing stimulus intensity, as compared to non-kindled GEPR-9s. Gabapentin (50mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced vlPAG neuronal responses to CeA stimulation to pre-AGS-kindled levels and reversibly blocked PTC in AGS-kindled GEPR-9s. These data suggest that the amygdala to vlPAG pathway may be critical in mediating the emergence of PTC during AGS kindling. The ability of gabapentin to suppress this pathway may be important for its anticonvulsant effects in AGS-kindled GEPR-9s, and this effect may contribute to gabapentin's effectiveness in anxiety and pain in which the amygdala to PAG pathway is also implicated.

  9. Opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray regulate extinction of pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P; Pigg, Michael; Weidemann, Gabrielle

    2004-08-01

    Four experiments studied the role of opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), an important structure eliciting conditioned fear responses, in the extinction of Pavlovian fear. Rats received pairings of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a foot shock unconditioned stimulus (US). The freezing conditioned response (CR) elicited by the CS was then extinguished via nonreinforced presentations of the CS. Microinjection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone into the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) before nonrein-forced CS presentations impaired development of extinction, but such microinjections at the end of extinction did not reinstate an already extinguished freezing CR. This role for opioid receptors in fear extinction was specific to the vlPAG because infusions of naloxone into the dorsal PAG did not impair fear extinction. Finally, the impairment of fear extinction produced by vlPAG infusions of naloxone was dose-dependent. These results show for the first time that the midbrain PAG contributes to fear extinction and specifically identify a role for vlPAG opioid receptors in the acquisition but not the expression of such extinction. Taken together with our previous findings, we suggest that, during fear conditioning, activation of vlPAG opioid receptors contributes to detection of the discrepancy between the actual and expected outcome of the conditioning trial. vlPAG opioid receptors regulate the learning that accrues to the CS and other stimuli present on a trial because they instantiate an associative error correction process influencing US information reaching the site of CS-US convergence in the amygdala. During nonreinforcement, this vlPAG opioid receptor contribution signals extinction.

  10. Lamina I-periaqueductal gray (PAG) projections represent only a limited part of the total spinal and caudal medullary input to the PAG in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Klop, Esther-Marije; Holstege, Gert

    2001-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray is well known for its involvement in nociception control, but it also plays an important role in the emotional motor system. To accomplish these functions the periaqueductal gray receives input from the limbic system and from the caudal brainstem and spinal cord. Earlier

  11. Cholecystokinin exerts an effect via the endocannabinoid system to inhibit GABAergic transmission in midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Vanessa A; Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Drew, Geoffrey M; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2011-08-01

    Cholecystokinin modulates pain and anxiety via its functions within brain regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The aim of this study was to examine the cellular actions of cholecystokinin on PAG neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro to examine the postsynaptic effects of cholecystokinin and its effects on synaptic transmission. Sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-S, 100-300 nM), but not non-sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-NS, 100-300 nM) produced an inward current in a sub-population of opioid sensitive and insensitive PAG neurons, which did not reverse over a range of membrane potentials. The CCK-S-induced current was abolished by the CCK1 selective antagonist devazepide (100 nM), but not by the CCK2 selective antagonists CI988 (100 nM, 1 μM) and LY225910 (1 μM). CCK-S, but not CCK-NS produced a reduction in the amplitude of evoked GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and an increase in the evoked IPSC paired-pulse ratio. By contrast, CCK-S had little effect on the rate and amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature IPSCs under basal conditions and when external K(+) was elevated. The CCK-S-induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 μM), the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP (10 μM) and the 1, 2-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGLα) inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (10 μM). In addition, CCK-S produced an increase in the rate of spontaneous non-NMDA-mediated, TTX-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). These results suggest that cholecystokinin produces direct neuronal depolarisation via CCK1 receptors and inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission via action potential-dependent release of glutamate and mGluR5-induced endocannabinoid signaling. Thus, cholecystokinin has cellular actions within the PAG that can both oppose and reinforce opioid and cannabinoid modulation of pain and anxiety within this

  12. Hypovolemic shock: critical involvement of a projection from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to the caudal midline medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagg, D J; Bandler, R; Keay, K A

    2008-04-09

    Previous research has suggested that the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a crucial role in triggering a decompensatory response (sympathoinhibition, hypotension, bradycardia) to severe blood loss. vlPAG excitation triggers also quiescence, decreased vigilance and decreased reactivity, the behavioral response which usually accompanies hypovolemic shock. The aim of this study was to identify, in unanesthetized rats, the main descending pathway(s) via which vlPAG neurons trigger sympathoinhibition and bradycardia in response to severe blood loss. Firstly, immediate early gene (c-Fos) expression was used to identify vlPAG neurons selectively activated by severe blood loss. Subsequently, the specific medullary projections of these vlPAG neurons were defined by combined c-Fos, retrograde tracing (double-label) experiments. It was found that vlPAG neurons selectively activated by severe hemorrhage project overwhelmingly to the vasodepressor portion of the caudal midline medulla (CMM). Previous studies indicate that this CMM region mediates behaviorally-coupled cardiovascular adjustments and the findings described here fit with the idea that CMM neurons are uniquely recruited by salient challenges, the adaptive responses to which require more than reflexive homeostatic cardiovascular adjustments.

  13. Antidepressant treatment reduces Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by swim stress in different columns of the periaqueductal gray matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene; de Oliveira, Rúbia M W; Pádua Carobrez, Antonio; de Lima, Thereza C M; del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2006-10-16

    Antidepressant treatment attenuates behavioral changes induced by uncontrollable stress. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is proposed to be a brain site involved in the behavioral responses to uncontrollable stress and antidepressant effects. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant treatment on the pattern of neural activation of the PAG along its mediolateral and rostrocaudal subregions after a forced swim stress episode. Male Wistar rats were sub-acutely treated with desipramine (a selective noradrenaline re-uptake blocker, three injections of 10 mg/kg in 24 h) or clomipramine (a non-selective serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake blocker, three injections of 10 mg/kg in 24 h) and submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). Two hours after the test their brain were removed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in rostral, intermediate and caudal portions of dorsomedial (dmPAG), dorsolateral (dlPAG), lateral (lPAG) and ventrolateral (vlPAG) PAG were quantified by a computerized system. The FST session increased FLI in most parts of the PAG. Previous treatment with desipramine or clomipramine reduced FLI in all columns of the PAG. FLI in the PAG correlated positively with to the immobility time and negatively with to climbing behavior scored during the test. These results indicate that neurons in the PAG are activated by uncontrollable stress. Moreover, inhibitory action of antidepressants on this activity may be associated with the anti-immobility effects of these drugs in the FST.

  14. Contribution of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling within Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray to Pain Sensitivity in Parkinson's disease via GABAergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Zhuang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hypersensitive pain response is often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; however, the mechanisms responsible for hyperalgesia are not well understood. Chronic neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. Since the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG is an important component of the descending inhibitory pathway controlling on central pain transmission, we examined the role for pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs system of PAG in regulating exaggerated pain evoked by PD. Methods: We used a rat model of PD to perform the experimental protocols. PD was induced by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine to lesion the left medial forebrain bundle. Pain responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation were first examined in control rats and PD rats. Then, ELISA and Western Blot analysis were used to determine PIC levels and their receptors expression. Results: Protein expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α receptors (namely, IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR subtype TNFR1 in the plasma membrane PAG of PD rats was upregulated, whereas the total expression of PIC receptors was not significantly altered. The ratio of membrane protein and total protein (IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR1 was 1.48±0.15, 1.59±0.18 and 1.67±0.16 in PAG of PD rats (P < 0.05 vs. their respective controls. This was accompanied with increases of PICs of PAG, and decreases of GABA (623±21 ng/mg in control rats and 418±18 ng/mg in PD rats; P < 0.05 vs. control rats and withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. Our data further showed that the concentrations of GABA and withdrawal thresholds were largely restored by blocking those PIC receptors in PAG of PD rats. Stimulation of GABA receptors in PAG of PD rats also blunted a decrease in withdrawal thresholds. Conclusions: Our data suggest that upregulation of the membrane PIC receptor in the PAG of PD rats is likely to impair the descending inhibitory pathways in regulating pain transmission

  15. Fine-tuning of defensive behaviors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray by atypical neurotransmitters

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    M.V. Fogaça

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an up-to-date review of the evidence indicating that atypical neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO and endocannabinoids (eCBs play an important role in the regulation of aversive responses in the periaqueductal gray (PAG. Among the results supporting this role, several studies have shown that inhibitors of neuronal NO synthase or cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor agonists cause clear anxiolytic responses when injected into this region. The nitrergic and eCB systems can regulate the activity of classical neurotransmitters such as glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA that control PAG activity. We propose that they exert a ‘fine-tuning’ regulatory control of defensive responses in this area. This control, however, is probably complex, which may explain the usually bell-shaped dose-response curves observed with drugs that act on NO- or CB1-mediated neurotransmission. Even if the mechanisms responsible for this complex interaction are still poorly understood, they are beginning to be recognized. For example, activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1 receptors by anandamide seems to counteract the anxiolytic effects induced by CB1 receptor activation caused by this compound. Further studies, however, are needed to identify other mechanisms responsible for this fine-tuning effect.

  16. Divergent Modulation of Nociception by Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neuronal Subpopulations in the Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Reyes, Jose G.; Copits, Bryan A.; O’Brien, Daniel E.; Trigg, Sarah L.; Gomez, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) constitutes a major descending pain modulatory system and is a crucial site for opioid-induced analgesia. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate and GABA play critical opposing roles in nociceptive processing in the vlPAG. It has been suggested that glutamatergic neurotransmission exerts antinociceptive effects, whereas GABAergic neurotransmission exert pronociceptive effects on pain transmission, through descending pathways. The inability to exclusively manipulate subpopulations of neurons in the PAG has prevented direct testing of this hypothesis. Here, we demonstrate the different contributions of genetically defined glutamatergic and GABAergic vlPAG neurons in nociceptive processing by employing cell type-specific chemogenetic approaches in mice. Global chemogenetic manipulation of vlPAG neuronal activity suggests that vlPAG neural circuits exert tonic suppression of nociception, consistent with previous pharmacological and electrophysiological studies. However, selective modulation of GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons demonstrates an inverse regulation of nociceptive behaviors by these cell populations. Selective chemogenetic activation of glutamatergic neurons, or inhibition of GABAergic neurons, in vlPAG suppresses nociception. In contrast, inhibition of glutamatergic neurons, or activation of GABAergic neurons, in vlPAG facilitates nociception. Our findings provide direct experimental support for a model in which excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the PAG bidirectionally modulate nociception. PMID:28374016

  17. Regulation of extinction-related plasticity by opioid receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Parsons

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has led to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Long-term synaptic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are critical for extinction learning, but very little is currently known about how the mPFC and other brain areas interact during extinction. The current study examined the effect of drugs that impair the extinction of fear conditioning on the activation of the extracellular-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK in brain regions that likely participate in the consolidation of extinction learning. Inhibitors of opioid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors were applied to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG and amygdala shortly before extinction training. Results from these experiments show that blocking opioid receptors in the vlPAG prevented the formation of extinction memory, whereas NMDA receptor blockade had no effect. Conversely, blocking NMDA receptors in the amygdala disrupted the formation of fear extinction memory, but opioid receptor blockade in the same brain area did not. Subsequent experiments tested the effect of these drug treatments on the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in various brain regions following extinction training. Only opioid receptor blockade in the vlPAG disrupted ERK phosphorylation in the mPFC and amygdala. These data support the idea that opiodergic signaling derived from the vlPAG affects plasticity across the brain circuit responsible for the formation of extinction memory.

  18. Neuropathic pain-induced enhancement of spontaneous and pain-evoked neuronal activity in the periaqueductal gray that is attenuated by gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samineni, Vijay K; Premkumar, Louis S; Faingold, Carl L

    2017-07-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pathological condition that is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal central processing occurs during the development of neuropathic pain induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. Yet, it is unclear what role neurons in supraspinal pain network sites, such as the periaqueductal gray, play in altered behavioral sensitivity seen during chronic pain conditions. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied the spontaneous and thermally evoked firing patterns of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons in awake-behaving rats treated with paclitaxel to induce neuropathic pain. In the present study, vlPAG neurons in naive rats exhibited either excitatory, inhibitory, or neutral responses to noxious thermal stimuli, as previously observed. However, after development of behavioral hypersensitivity induced by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel, vlPAG neurons displayed increased neuronal activity and changes in thermal pain-evoked neuronal activity. This involved elevated levels of spontaneous firing and heightened responsiveness to nonnoxious stimuli (allodynia) as well as noxious thermal stimuli (hyperalgesia) as compared with controls. Furthermore, after paclitaxel treatment, only excitatory neuronal responses were observed for both nonnoxious and noxious thermal stimuli. Systemic administration of gabapentin, a nonopioid analgesic, induced significant dose-dependent decreases in the elevated spontaneous and thermally evoked vlPAG neuronal firing to both nonnoxious and noxious thermal stimuli in rats exhibiting neuropathic pain, but not in naive rats. Thus, these results show a strong correlation between behavioral hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli and increased firing of vlPAG neurons in allodynia and hyperalgesia that occur in this neuropathic pain model.

  19. Microinjection of the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the periaqueductal gray modulates morphine antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Erin N; Lisowski, Mark J; Macey, Tara A; Ingram, Susan L; Morgan, Michael M

    2008-04-14

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. Given that DMSO has varying cellular and behavioral effects ranging from increased membrane permeability to toxicity, microinjection of DMSO as a vehicle could confound the effects of other drugs. For example, DMSO is often used as a vehicle for studies examining the neurochemical mechanisms underlying morphine antinociception. Given that the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a major role in morphine antinociception and tolerance, the effects of DMSO on morphine antinociception mediated by the vlPAG needs to be evaluated. The present experiment tested whether co-administration of DMSO (0, 0.2, 2, or 20%) would alter the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the vlPAG. DMSO had no effect on nociception when microinjected into the vlPAG alone, but 2% DMSO enhanced morphine potency when co-administered with morphine. In contrast, twice daily microinjections of DMSO (5 or 20%) for two days reduced the potency of subsequent microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG--an effect that persisted for at least one week. A similar rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve was caused by morphine tolerance. Co-administration of morphine and DMSO during the pretreatment did not cause a greater shift in the morphine dose-response curve compared to morphine pretreated alone. In conclusion, DMSO can alter morphine antinociception following both acute (enhancement) and chronic (inhibition) administration depending on the concentration. These data reinforce the need to be cautious when using DMSO as a vehicle for drug administration.

  20. fMRI functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Sherain; Rabellino, Daniela; Frewen, Paul A; Densmore, Maria; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Schore, Allan N; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively. We examined PAG subregion (dorsolateral and ventrolateral) resting-state functional connectivity in three groups: PTSD patients without the dissociative subtype (n = 60); PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (n = 37); and healthy controls (n = 40) using a seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM12. All PTSD patients showed extensive DL- and VL-PAG functional connectivity at rest with areas associated with emotional reactivity and defensive action as compared to controls (n = 40). Although all PTSD patients demonstrated DL-PAG functional connectivity with areas associated with initiation of active coping strategies and hyperarousal (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate; anterior insula), only dissociative PTSD patients exhibited greater VL-PAG functional connectivity with brain regions linked to passive coping strategies and increased levels of depersonalization (e.g., temporoparietal junction; rolandic operculum). These findings suggest greater defensive posturing in PTSD patients even at rest and demonstrate that those with the dissociative subtype show unique patterns of PAG functional connectivity when compared to those without the subtype. Taken together, these findings represent an important first step toward identifying neural and behavioral targets for therapeutic interventions that address defensive strategies in trauma-related disorders.

  1. Imaging the functional connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray during genuine and sham electroacupuncture treatment

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    Tu Peichi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA is currently one of the most popular acupuncture modalities. However, the continuous stimulation characteristic of EA treatment presents challenges to the use of conventional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI approaches for the investigation of neural mechanisms mediating treatment response because of the requirement for brief and intermittent stimuli in event related or block designed task paradigms. A relatively new analysis method, functional connectivity fMRI (fcMRI, has great potential for studying continuous treatment modalities such as EA. In a previous study, we found that, compared with sham acupuncture, EA can significantly reduce Periaqueductal Gray (PAG activity when subsequently evoked by experimental pain. Given the PAG's important role in mediating acupuncture analgesia, in this study we investigated functional connectivity with the area of the PAG we previously identified and how that connectivity was affected by genuine and sham EA. Results Forty-eight subjects, who were randomly assigned to receive either genuine or sham EA paired with either a high or low expectancy manipulation, completed the study. Direct comparison of each treatment mode's functional connectivity revealed: significantly greater connectivity between the PAG, left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and precuneus for the contrast of genuine minus sham; significantly greater connectivity between the PAG and right anterior insula for the contrast of sham minus genuine; no significant differences in connectivity between different contrasts of the two expectancy levels. Conclusions Our findings indicate the intrinsic functional connectivity changes among key brain regions in the pain matrix and default mode network during genuine EA compared with sham EA. We speculate that continuous genuine EA stimulation can modify the coupling of spontaneous activity in brain regions that play a role in modulating pain

  2. The Dorsolateral Periaqueductal Gray and Its Role in Mediating Fear Learning to Life Threatening Events

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    Kincheski, Grasielle C.; Mota-Ortiz, Sandra R.; Pavesi, Eloisa; Canteras, Newton S.; Carobrez, Antônio P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) integrates aversive emotional experiences and represents an important site responding to life threatening situations, such as hypoxia, cardiac pain and predator threats. Previous studies have shown that the dorsal PAG also supports fear learning; and we have currently explored how the dlPAG influences associative learning. We have first shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) 100 pmol injection in the dlPAG works as a valuable unconditioned stimulus (US) for the acquisition of olfactory fear conditioning (OFC) using amyl acetate odor as conditioned stimulus (CS). Next, we revisited the ascending projections of the dlPAG to the thalamus and hypothalamus to reveal potential paths that could mediate associative learning during OFC. Accordingly, the most important ascending target of the dlPAG is the hypothalamic defensive circuit, and we were able to show that pharmacological inactivation using β-adrenoceptor blockade of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, the main exit way for the hypothalamic defensive circuit to thalamo-cortical circuits involved in fear learning, impaired the acquisition of the OFC promoted by NMDA stimulation of the dlPAG. Moreover, our tracing study revealed multiple parallel paths from the dlPAG to several thalamic targets linked to cortical-hippocampal-amygdalar circuits involved in fear learning. Overall, the results point to a major role of the dlPAG in the mediation of aversive associative learning via ascending projections to the medial hypothalamic defensive circuit, and perhaps, to other thalamic targets, as well. These results provide interesting perspectives to understand how life threatening events impact on fear learning, and should be useful to understand pathological fear memory encoding in anxiety disorders. PMID:23209724

  3. Roles of the periaqueductal gray in descending facilitatory and inhibitory controls of intramuscular hypertonic saline induced muscle nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Sun, Tao; Lumb, Bridget M; You, Hao-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the modulation of nociception and pain, many aspects of the roles of the different columns of the PAG in descending controls: facilitation and inhibition, are not understood. Employing a tonic muscle pain model established by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline into the gastrocnemius muscle, we now report the results of investigations designed to explore any differences in Fos expression in the different functional columns of the PAG in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a second series of experiments, effects of the PAG on descending control of spinally-organized nociception were assessed by measuring hind paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimulation before and after electrolytic lesion of specific columns of the PAG. Our results show that Fos expression within different columns of the PAG increases significantly and differentially following i.m. injection of 5.8% saline. The mean number of Fos positive neurons in the dorsolateral (dl), lateral (l), dorsomedial (dm) PAG elicited by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline reached a peak at 4h with a gradual decrease over time, whereas the maximum number of Fos-positive neurons in the ventrolateral (vl) PAG was observed 8h after i.m. injection. Contralateral lesion of the dl PAG significantly depressed ipsilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia in intramuscularly induced (5.8% saline) nociception (P0.05). By contrast, contralateral lesion of the vl PAG completely blocked the occurrence of ipsilateral heat hypoalgesia (P0.05). In conclusion, functions of specific columns of the PAG in the control of spinal nociceptive activities are not homogeneous. It is suggested that, in this muscle pain model, the dl PAG and vl PAG participate in descending facilitation and inhibition of nociception, respectively.

  4. Dorsolateral periaqueductal gray matter CB1 and TRPV1 receptors exert opposite modulation on expression of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, D L; Hott, S C; Lisboa, S F; Resstel, L B M

    2016-04-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and Transient Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) matter are involved in the modulation of conditioned response. Both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors are related to glutamate release and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It was previously demonstrated that both NMDA glutamate receptors and NO are involved in the conditioned emotional response. Therefore, one aim of this work was to verify whether dlPAG CB1 and TRPV1 receptors modulate the expression of contextual conditioned emotional response. Moreover, we also investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors and the NO pathway in this response. Male Wistar rats with local dlPAG guide cannula were submitted to contextual fear conditioning. Following 24 h, a polyethylene catheter was implanted in the femoral artery for cardiovascular recordings. After an additional 24 h, drugs were administered in the dlPAG and freezing behavior and autonomic responses were recorded during chamber re-exposure. Both a CB1 antagonist (AM251) and a TRPV1 agonist (Capsaicin; CPS) increased the expression of a conditioned emotional response. This response was prevented by an NMDA antagonist, a preferential neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, an NO scavenger and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (sGC). Furthermore, pretreatment with a TRPV1 antagonist also prevented the increased conditioned emotional response induced by AM251. Considering that GABA can counterbalance glutamate effects, we also investigated whether GABAA receptors were involved in the effect of a higher dose of AM251. Pretreatment with a GABAA receptor antagonist caused an increased conditioned emotional response by AM251. Our results support the possibility that dlPAG CB1 and TRPV1 receptors are involved in the expression of conditioned emotional response through the NMDA/NO/sGC pathway. Moreover, the opposite effects exerted by GABA and glutamate could produce different outcomes of drugs modulating eCBs.

  5. G protein activation by endomorphins in the mouse periaqueductal gray matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, M; Mizoguchi, H; Narita, M; Dun, N J; Hwang, B H; Endoh, T; Suzuki, T; Nagase, H; Suzuki, T; Tseng, L F

    2000-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is an important brain region for the coordination of mu-opioid-induced pharmacological actions. The present study was designed to determine whether newly isolated mu-opioid peptide endomorphins can activate G proteins through mu-opioid receptors in the PAG by monitoring the binding to membranes of the non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS). An autoradiographic [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding study showed that both endomorphin-1 and -2 produced similar anatomical distributions of activated G proteins in the mouse midbrain region. In the mouse PAG, endomorphin-1 and -2 at concentrations from 0.001 to 10 microM increased [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in a concentration-dependent manner and reached a maximal stimulation of 74.6+/-3.8 and 72.3+/-4.0%, respectively, at 10 microM. In contrast, the synthetic selective mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2),NHPhe(4), Gly-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) had a much greater efficacy and produced a 112.6+/-5.1% increase of the maximal stimulation. The receptor specificity of endomorphin-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was verified by coincubating membranes with endomorphins in the presence of specific mu-, delta- or kappa-opioid receptor antagonists. Coincubation with selective mu-opioid receptor antagonists beta-funaltrexamine or D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Phe-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP) blocked both endomorphin-1 and-2-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. In contrast, neither delta- nor kappa-opioid receptor antagonist had any effect on the [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by either endomorphin-1 or -2. These findings indicate that both endomorphin-1 and -2 increase [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding by selectively stimulating mu-opioid receptors with intrinsic activity less than that of DAMGO and suggest that these new endogenous ligands might be partial agonists for mu-opioid receptors in the mouse PAG.

  6. Periaqueductal gray c-Fos expression varies relative to the method of conditioned taste aversion extinction employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Biesan, Orion R; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna

    2011-11-14

    A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). Following CTA training, animals will avoid the taste that was previously associated with malaise. This defensive reaction to a learned fear can be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone (CS-only; CSO-EXT). However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). Through the use of an explicitly unpaired extinction procedure (EU-EXT) we have shown that we can speed up extinction and attenuate SR of the CTA. Here we compared and contrasted the ability of CSO and EU extinction procedures to affect c-Fos expression in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Fluid-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA [via 3 pairings of 0.3% oral saccharin (SAC; the CS) and 81mg/kg i.p. lithium chloride (LiCl; the US)] followed by extinction trials consisting of multiple exposures to either, (a) the CS every-other day (CSO-EXT), or (b) CS and US on alternate days (EU-EXT). A different group of rats did not receive multiple CS exposures and served as a "no extinction" (NE) control. Both extinction procedures resulted in ≥90% reacceptance of SAC (achieving asymptotic extinction). Some of the animals were sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemical analysis following asymptotic extinction. Other rats entered a 30-day latency period where they drank water only. These remaining animals were then tested for SR with a final exposure to SAC before being sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. As reported previously, rats in the CS-only group exhibited a significant SR of the CTA. However, animals in the EU extinction group reached asymptotic extinction more rapidly than did CSO rats and they did not show SR of the CTA. As compared to rats that retained their CTA, both groups of extinguished rats showed suppression in the number of c-Fos-labeled neurons in all 4 longitudinal columns of

  7. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Kerstens, L; VanderWant, J; Holstege, G

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise loca

  8. Projections from estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray to the lateral medulla oblongata in the rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2004-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) contains numerous estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons that are distributed in a species-specific way. These neurons might modulate different types of behavior that are mediated by the PAG such as active and passive coping responses, analgesia,

  9. Motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry may involve in modulation of nociception: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in spinally transected transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that motor cortex stimulation provided pain relief by motor cortex plasticity and activating descending inhibitory pain control systems. Recent evidence indicated that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R in the periaqueductal gray played an important role in neuropathic pain. This study was designed to assess whether MC4R signaling existed in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry modulated the activity of sympathetic pathway by a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study. Pseudorabies virus (PRV-614 was injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle in adult male MC4R-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice (n = 15. After a survival time of 4-6 days, the mice (n = 5 were randomly assigned to humanely sacrifice, and spinal cords and brains were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-614 visualization. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the left gastrocnemius muscle were identified following visualization of PRV-614 retrograde tracing. The neurochemical phenotype of MC4R-GFP-positive neurons was identified using fluorescence immunocytochemical labeling. PRV-614/MC4R-GFP dual labeled neurons were detected in spinal IML, periaqueductal gray and motor cortex. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may participate in the modulation of the melanocortin-sympathetic signaling and contribute to the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission, suggesting that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may modulate the activity of sympathetic outflow sensitive to nociceptive signals.

  10. Serotonin-1A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter mediate the panicolytic-like effect of pindolol and paroxetine combination in the elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Vânia Ramos; Biesdorf, Carla; Ramos, Diego Henrique; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2011-05-01

    The β-adrenergic blocker and 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist pindolol has been combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders to shorten the onset of the clinical action and/or increase the proportion of responders. The results of a previous study have shown that pindolol potentiates the panicolytic effect of paroxetine in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). Since reported evidence has implicated the 5-HT(1A) receptors of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) in the panicolytic effect of antidepressants, rats treated with pindolol (5.0mg/kg, i.p.) and paroxetine (1.5mg/kg, i.p.) received a previous intra-DPAG injection of the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY-100635 (0.4 μg) and were submitted to the ETM. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 reversed the increase in escape latency, a panicolytic effect, determined by the pindolol-paroxetine combination. These results implicate the 5-HT(1A) receptors of the DPAG in the panicolytic effect of the pindolol-paroxetine combination administered systemically. They also give further preclinical support for the use of this drug combination in the treatment of panic disorder.

  11. Sumatriptan inhibits synaptic transmission in the rat midbrain periaqueductal grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Mark

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG has a role in migraine and the actions of the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the present study we examined the serotonergic modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro. Results Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT, IC50 = 142 nM and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (30 μM produced a reduction in the amplitude of GABAA-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs in all PAG neurons which was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Real time PCR revealed that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor mRNA was present in the PAG. The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT (3 μM, CP93129 (3 μM and L694247 (3 μM, but not the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864 (1 – 3 μM inhibited evoked IPSCs. The 5-HT (1 μM induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the 5-HT1B antagonist NAS181 (10 μM, but not by the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D antagonists WAY100135 (3 μM and BRL15572 (10 μM. Sumatriptan also inhibited evoked IPSCs with an IC50 of 261 nM, and reduced the rate, but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The sumatriptan (1 μM induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by NAS181 (10 μM and BRL15572 (10 μM, together, but not separately. 5-HT (10 μM and sumatriptan (3 μM also reduced the amplitude of non-NMDA mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs in all PAG neurons tested. Conclusion These results indicate that sumatriptan inhibits GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the PAG via a 5-HT1B/D receptor mediated reduction in the probability of neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. These actions overlap those of other analgesics, such as opioids, and provide a mechanism by which centrally acting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands might lead to novel anti

  12. Relevance of dorsomedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus and the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter in the organization of freezing or oriented and non-oriented escape emotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farhad; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; dos Santos, Ieda Regina; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-10-15

    Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter and ventromedial hypothalamus in humans showed the involvement of both these structures in panic attacks. The aim of this work was to make clear the role of dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) matter, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and the dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (dmVMH) in panic attack-like behaviors. DMH, dmVMH and dPAG of Wistar rats were treated with N-methyl- d-aspartic acid (NMDA) at different doses. The rodents were then kept in a polygonal arena with a burrow to record panic attack-like responses and oriented defensive behaviors. In dmVMH, 6nmol of NMDA elicited alertness, freezing and oriented escape. The same set of behaviors was elicited by DMH neurons when stimulated by 9nmol of NMDA. Treatment of dmVMH with 9nmol of NMDA elicited typical explosive behaviors followed by freezing and oriented behaviors. The stimulation of the dPAG with NMDA at different doses provoked alertness and freezing (1nmol) or alertness, freezing, tail twitching, explosive behavior and oriented escape (3nmol), and explosive behavior followed by long-lasting freezing (6nmol). These data suggest that mainly dPAG plays a role in panic attack-like behaviors that resemble panic syndrome in humans. However, hypothalamic nuclei like dmVMH that mainly elicits oriented escape, can also produce explosive reaction when stimulated with 9nmol NMDA, whereas, DMH plays a role in coordinating defensive behaviors.

  13. Pharmacological evidence for the mediation of the panicolytic effect of fluoxetine by dorsal periaqueductal gray matter μ-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila Marroni; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-12-01

    Previously reported results have shown that the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on escape behavior, interpreted as a panicolytic-like effect, is blocked by pretreatment with either the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) antagonist WAY100635 via injection into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG). Additionally, reported evidence indicates that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) interacts with the 5-HT1A-R in the dPAG. In the present work, pretreatment of the dPAG with the selective MOR blocker CTOP antagonized the anti-escape effect of chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p., daily, for 21 days), as measured in the elevated T-maze (ETM) test, indicating mediation of this effect by the MOR. In addition, the combined administration of sub-effective doses of the selective MOR agonist DAMGO (intra-dPAG) and sub-effective doses of chronic as well as subchronic (7 days) fluoxetine increased avoidance and escape latencies, suggesting that the activation of MORs may facilitate and accelerate the effects of fluoxetine. The current observation that MORs located in the dPAG mediate the anti-escape effect of fluoxetine may open new perspectives for the development of more efficient and fast-acting panic-alleviating drugs.

  14. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

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    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  15. Lower Functional Connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray Is Related to Negative Affect and Clinical Manifestations of Fibromyalgia

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    Marie-Andrée Coulombe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC of the periaqueductal gray (PAG, a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. We found that patients with FM exhibit statistically significant disruptions in PAG FC, particularly with brain regions implicated in negative affect, self-awareness and saliency. Specifically, we found that, compared to HCs, the FM patients had stronger PAG FC with the lingual gyrus and hippocampus but weaker PAG FC with regions associated with motor/executive functions, the salience (SN and default mode networks (DMN. The attenuated PAG FC was also negatively correlated with FIQ scores, and positively correlated with the magnification subscale of the PCS. These alterations were correlated with emotional and behavioral symptoms of FM. Our study implicates the PAG as a site of dysfunction contributing to the clinical manifestations and pain in FM.

  16. Anxiogenic effects of activation of NK-1 receptors of the dorsal periaqueductal gray as assessed by the elevated plus-maze, ultrasound vocalizations and tail-flick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel S; Nobre, Manoel J; de Araújo, João E; Brandão, Marcus L

    2007-12-01

    Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) known as 22kHz are usual components of the defensive responses of rats exposed to threatening conditions. The amount of emission of 22kHz USVs depends on the intensity of the aversive stimuli. While moderate fear causes an anxiolytic-sensitive enhancement of the defensive responses, high fear tended to reduce the defensive performance of the animals to aversive stimuli. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is an important vocal center and a crucial structure for the expression of defensive responses. Substance P (SP) is involved in the modulation of the defensive response at this midbrain level, but the type of neurokinin receptors involved in this action is not completely understood. In this study we examined whether local injections of the selective NK-1 agonist SAR-MET-SP (10-100 pmol/0.2microL) into the dPAG (i) cause anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) (Exp. I), (ii) influence the novelty-induced 22kHz USVs recorded within the frequency range of 20-26kHz (Exp. II) and (iii) change the nociceptive reactivity to heat applied to the rat's tail (Exp III). The data obtained showed that SAR-MET-SP elicited significant "anxiety-like" behaviors, as revealed by the decrease in the number of entries into and time spent onto the open arms of the EPM. These anxiogenic effects were accompanied with antinociception and disruption of the novelty-induced increase in the number and duration of 22kHz USVs. These findings are in agreement with the notion that NK-1 receptors of the dPAG may be an important neurochemical target for new selective drugs aimed at the control of pathological anxiety states.

  17. B2-kinin receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray are implicated in the panicolytic-like effect of opiorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestile, Caio César; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Rangel, Marcel Pereira; Santana, Rosangela Getirana; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-08-07

    Reported results have shown that the pentapeptide opiorphin inhibits oligopeptidases that degrade brain neuropeptides, and has analgesic and antidepressant effects in experimental animals, without either tolerance or dependency after chronic administration. In a previous study we showed that opiorphin has a panicolytic-like effect in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) electrical stimulation test (EST), mediated by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). This study further analyzes the mechanism of opiorphin panicolytic action, using the EST and drug injection inside the dPAG. The obtained results showed that blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors with WAY-100635 did not change the escape-impairing effect of opiorphin, and combined injection of sub-effective doses of opiorphin and the 5-HT1A-agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not have a significant anti-escape effect. In contrast, the anti-escape effect of opiorphin was antagonized by pretreatment with the kinin B2 receptor blocker HOE-140, and association of sub-effective doses of opiorphin and bradykinin caused a significant anti-escape effect. The anti-escape effect of bradykinin was not affected by previous administration of WAY-100635. Therefore, the anti-escape effect of opiorphin in the dPAG seems to be mediated by endogenous bradykinin, acting on kinin B2 receptors, which previous results have shown to interact synergistically with MOR in the dPAG to restrain escape in two animal models of panic. Chemical compounds: Opiorphin (PubChem CID: 25195667); WAY100635 maleate salt (PubChem CID: 11957721); 8-OH-DPAT hydrobromide (PubChem CID: 6917794); Bradykinin (PubChem CID: 439201); HOE-140 (Icatibant) (PubChem CID: 6918173). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Panicolytic-like action of bradykinin in the dorsal periaqueductal gray through μ-opioid and B2-kinin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestile, Caio César; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Gama, Vanessa Scalco; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-09-01

    A wealth of evidence has shown that opioid and kinin systems may control proximal defense in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a critical panic-associated area. Studies with drugs that interfere with serotonin-mediated neurotransmission suggest that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) synergistically interacts with the 5-HT1A receptor in the dPAG to inhibit escape, a panic-related behavior. A similar inhibitory effect has also been reported after local administration of bradykinin (BK), which is blocked by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. The latter evidence, points to an interaction between BK and opioids in the dPAG. We further explored the existence of this interaction through the dPAG electrical stimulation model of panic. We also investigated whether intra-dPAG injection of captopril, an inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that also degrades BK, causes a panicolytic-like effect. Our results showed that intra-dPAG injection of BK inhibited escape performance in a dose-dependent way, and this panicolytic-like effect was blocked by the BK type 2 receptor (B2R) antagonist HOE-140, and by the selective MOR antagonist CTOP. Conversely, the panicolytic-like effect caused by local administration of the selective MOR agonist DAMGO was antagonized by pre-treatment with either CTOP or HOE-140, indicating cross-antagonism between MOR and B2R. Finally, intra-dPAG injection of captopril also impaired escape in a dose-dependent way, and this panicolytic-like effect was blocked by pretreatment with HOE-140, suggesting mediation by endogenous BK. The panicolytic-like effect of captopril indicates that the use of ACE inhibitors in the clinical management of panic disorder may be worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mu Opioid Receptor Modulation of Dopamine Neurons in the Periaqueductal Gray/Dorsal Raphe: A Role in Regulation of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia; Sugam, Jonathan A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; McElligott, Zoe A; McCall, Nora M; Lopez, Alberto J; McKlveen, Jessica M; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a brain region involved in nociception modulation, and an important relay center for the descending nociceptive pathway through the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Given the dense expression of mu opioid receptors and the role of dopamine in pain, the recently characterized dopamine neurons in the ventral PAG (vPAG)/dorsal raphe (DR) region are a potentially critical site for the antinociceptive actions of opioids. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate synaptic modulation of the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons by mu opioid receptors and to (2) dissect the anatomy and neurochemistry of these neurons, in order to assess the downstream loci and functions of their activation. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that mu opioid receptor activation led to a decrease in inhibitory inputs onto the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons. Furthermore, combining immunohistochemistry, optogenetics, electrophysiology, and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a TH-cre mouse line, we demonstrated that these neurons also express the vesicular glutamate type 2 transporter and co-release dopamine and glutamate in a major downstream projection structure-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Finally, activation of TH-positive neurons in the vPAG/DR using Gq designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs displayed a supraspinal, but not spinal, antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that vPAG/DR dopamine neurons likely play a key role in opiate antinociception, potentially via the activation of downstream structures through dopamine and glutamate release.

  20. THE EFFECT OF 5-HT7 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION ON ATP-INDUCED CURRENT IN RATS PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY NEURONS%5-HT7受体活化对中脑导水管周围灰质ATP诱发电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 李尤艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueductal gray,PAG)神经元5-HT7受体活化对α,β-meATP诱发内向电流的影响.方法:取SD大鼠乳鼠PAG组织进行原代神经元细胞培养,运用全细胞膜片钳技术观察PAG神经元α,β-meATP激活电流以及5-HT7受体活化对PAG神经元α,β-meATP激活电流的影响.结果:α,β-meATP能够引起PAG神经元产生3种内向电流,即快反应电流、慢反应电流和混合电流.其中快反应内向电流能够被P2X3受体特异性阻断剂A-317491阻断;5-HT7受体特异性激动剂AS-19对α,β-meATP激活快电流的增大效应呈浓度依赖性;5-HT7受体特异性阻断剂SB-269970能够翻转AS-19对α,β-meATP激活快电流的增大效应.结论:PAG神经元上5-HT7受体可与P2X3受体在功能上产生协同作用,进而促进机体内源性镇痛系统的功能,产生镇痛作用.

  1. ROLE OF P2X7 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY IN A RAT MODEL OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE%中脑导水管周围灰质P2X7受体在大鼠电针耐受中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 李尤艳

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察电针耐受大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质外侧区(lateral periaqueductal gray, lPAG)中P2X7受体表达变化并探讨其拮抗剂(A-740003)在电针耐受中的作用.方法:SD大鼠分为对照组、假电针组、电针耐受组、正常+生理盐水组、正常+ A-740003组、电针耐受+生理盐水组、电针耐受+ A-740003(1、10、100nmol)组.电针耐受组大鼠给予连续电针刺激6天,首先检测大鼠机械痛阈变化百分数,并应用免疫组化法检测电针后第6天大鼠lPAG中P2X7受体蛋白表达情况;在电针耐受大鼠lPAG中注射不同剂量的A-740003后再次电针刺激,观察A-740003对电针耐受的影响.结果:多次电针刺激后,大鼠机械痛阈变化百分数逐渐减少伴lPAG中P2X7受体的表达增多;A-740003可翻转电针耐受的形成.结论:lPAG中P2X7受体活化促进大鼠电针耐受形成.

  2. Dorsal Periaqueductal gray simultaneously modulates ventral Subiculum induced-plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala and the Nucleus Accumbens

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    Omer eHorovitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ventral subiculum of the hippocampus projects both to the basolateral amygdala, which is typically, associated with a response to aversive stimuli, as well as to the nucleus accumbens, which is typically associated with a response to appetitive stimuli. Traditionally, studies of the responses to emotional events focus on either negative or positive affect-related processes, however, emotional experiences often affect both. The ability of high-level processing brain regions (e.g. medial prefrontal cortex to modulate the balance between negative and positive affect-related regions was examined extensively. In contrast, the ability of low-level processing areas (e.g. periaqueductal grey - PAG to do so, has not been sufficiently studied. To address whether midbrain structures have the ability to modulate limbic regions, we first examined the ventral subiculum stimulation’s (vSub ability to induce plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA and nucleus accumbens (NAcc simultaneously in rats. Further, dorsal PAG (dPAG priming ability to differentially modulate vSub stimulation induced plasticity in the BLA and the NAcc was subsequently examined. vSub stimulation resulted in plasticity in both the BLA and the NAcc simultaneously. Moreover, depending on stimulus intensity, differential dPAG priming effects on LTP in these two regions were observed. The results demonstrate that negative and positive affect-related processes may be simultaneously modulated. Furthermore, under some conditions lower-level processing areas, such as the dPAG, may differentially modulate plasticity in these regions and thus affect the long-term emotional outcome of the experience.

  3. The Role of the Periaqueductal Gray in the Modulation of Pain in Males and Females: Are the Anatomy and Physiology Really that Different?

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    Dayna R. Loyd

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and physiological studies conducted in the 1960s identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and spinal cord dorsal horn, as a primary anatomical pathway mediating opioid-based analgesia. Since these initial studies, the PAG-RVM-spinal cord pathway has been characterized anatomically and physiologically in a wide range of vertebrate species. Remarkably, the majority of these studies were conducted exclusively in males with the implicit assumption that the anatomy and physiology of this circuit were the same in females; however, this is not the case. It is well established that morphine administration produces greater antinociception in males compared to females. Recent studies indicate that the PAG-RVM pathway contributes to the sexually dimorphic actions of morphine. This manuscript will review our anatomical, physiological, and behavioral data identifying sex differences in the PAG-RVM pathway, focusing on its role in pain modulation and morphine analgesia.

  4. [Role of the Periaqueductal Gray Matter of the Midbrain in Regulation of Somatic Pain Sensitivity During Stress: Participation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Glucocorticoid Hormones].

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    Yarushkina, N I; Filaretova, L P

    2015-01-01

    Periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain (PAGM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of pain sensitivity under stress, involving in the stress-induced analgesia. A key hormonal system of adaptation under stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis's hormones, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, are involved in stress-induced analgesia. Exogenous hormones of the HPA axis, similarly to the hormones produced under stress, may cause an analgesic effect. CRF-induced analgesia may be provided by glucocorticoid hormones. CRF and glucocorticoids-induced effects on somatic pain sensitivity may be mediated by PAGM. The aim of the review was to analyze the data of literature on the role of PAGM in the regulation of somatic pain sensitivity under stress and in providing of CRF and glucocorticoid-induced analgesia.

  5. Viral Vector Induction of CREB Expression in the Periaqueductal Gray Induces a Predator Stress-Like Pattern of Changes in pCREB Expression, Neuroplasticity, and Anxiety in Rodents

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    Robert Adamec

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Predator stress is lastingly anxiogenic. Phosphorylation of CREB to pCREB (phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein is increased after predator stress in fear circuitry, including in the right lateral column of the PAG (periaqueductal gray. Predator stress also potentiates right but not left CeA-PAG (central amygdala-PAG transmission up to 12 days after stress. The present study explored the functional significance of pCREB changes by increasing CREB expression in non-predator stressed rats through viral vectoring, and assessing the behavioral, electrophysiological and pCREB expression changes in comparison with handled and predator stressed controls. Increasing CREB expression in right PAG was anxiogenic in the elevated plus maze, had no effect on risk assessment, and increased acoustic startle response while delaying startle habituation. Potentiation of the right but not left CeA-PAG pathway was also observed. pCREB expression was slightly elevated in the right lateral column of the PAG, while the dorsal and ventral columns were not affected. The findings of this study suggest that by increasing CREB and pCREB in the right lateral PAG, it is possible to produce rats that exhibit behavioral, brain, and molecular changes that closely resemble those seen in predator stressed rats.

  6. Opioid tolerance induced by metamizol (dipyrone) microinjections into the periaqueductal grey of rats.

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    Tortorici, V; Vanegas, H

    2000-11-01

    Non-opioid analgesics have been shown to elicit antinociception by an action upon central nervous system structures, in addition to their well known action upon peripheral tissues. Microinjection of metamizol (dipyrone), a widely used nonopioid analgesic, into the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) of rats activates pain-modulating systems in the nucleus raphe magnus and inhibits spinal nociceptive neurons and the tail-flick reflex. Since these effects involve an activation of endogenous opioidergic systems, the possibility that metamizol induces opioid tolerance was investigated. Microinjection of metamizol into the ventrolateral PAG in awake rats induced antinociception, as demonstrated in the heat-elicited tail flick and hot plate tests. When microinjected into the ventrolateral PAG twice daily for 2 days, metamizol induced tolerance, i.e. a progressive loss of its antinociceptive effect. In contrast to rats repeatedly microinjected with saline, metamizol-tolerant rats were also tolerant to morphine microinjection into the same PAG site, and displayed signs of opioid withdrawal upon systemic administration of naloxone. These and other results suggest that metamizol activates endogenous opioid systems and that nonopioid analgesics may, by an action upon the central nervous system, lead to opioid tolerance and the risk of opioid withdrawal.

  7. Effects of a metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 negative allosteric modulator in the periaqueductal grey on pain responses and rostral ventromedial medulla cell activity in rat.

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    Palazzo, Enza; Marabese, Ida; Luongo, Livio; Boccella, Serena; Bellini, Giulia; Giordano, Maria Elvira; Rossi, Francesca; Scafuro, Mariantonietta; Novellis, Vito de; Maione, Sabatino

    2013-09-03

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) negative allosteric modulator, 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP), was locally microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VL PAG) and the effect on pain responses in formalin and spare nerve injury (SNI) -induced neuropathic pain models was monitored in the rat. The activity of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) "pronociceptive" ON and "antinociceptive" OFF cells was also evaluated. Intra-VL PAG MMPIP blocked the first and second phase of nocifensive behaviour in the formalin pain model. MMPIP increased the tail flick latency and simultaneously increased the activity of the OFF cells while inhibiting that of ON cells in rats with SNI of the sciatic nerve. MMPIP failed to modify nociceptive responses and associated RVM ON and OFF cell activity in sham rats. An increase in mGluR7 gene, protein and staining, the latter being associated with vesicular glutamate transporter-positive profiles, has been found in the VL PAG in SNI rats. Blockade of mGluR7 within the VL PAG has an antinociceptive effect in formalin and neuropathic pain models. VL PAG mGluR7 blockade offers a target for dis-inhibiting the VL PAG-RVM pathway and silencing pain in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models.

  8. Afferent Connections to the Rostrolateral Part of the Periaqueductal Gray: A Critical Region Influencing the Motivation Drive to Hunt and Forage

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    Sandra Regina Mota-Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a particular site in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, the rostrolateral PAG, influences the motivation drive to forage or hunt. To have a deeper understanding on the putative paths involved in the decision-making process between foraging, hunting, and other behavioral responses, in the present investigation, we carried out a systematic analysis of the neural inputs to the rostrolateral PAG (rlPAG, using Fluorogold as a retrograde tracer. According to the present findings, the rlPAG appears to be importantly driven by medial prefrontal cortical areas involved in controlling attention-related and decision-making processes. Moreover, the rlPAG also receives a wealth of information from different amygdalar, hypothalamic, and brainstem sites related to feeding, drinking, or hunting behavioral responses. Therefore, this unique combination of afferent connections puts the rlPAG in a privileged position to influence the motivation drive to choose whether hunting and foraging would be the most appropriate adaptive responses.

  9. Highly differentiated cellular and circuit properties of infralimbic pyramidal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray and amygdala.

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    Ashley N Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infralimbic (IL cortex is a key node in an inter-connected network involved in fear and emotion processing. The cellular and circuit-level mechanisms whereby IL neurons receive, filter, and modulate incoming signals they project onward to diverse downstream nodes in this complex network remain poorly understood. Using the mouse as our model, we applied anatomical labeling strategies, brain slice electrophysiology, and focal activation of caged glutamate via laser scanning photostimulation (glu-LSPS for quantitative neurophysiological analysis of projectionally defined neurons in IL. Injection of retrograde tracers into the periaqueductal grey (PAG and basolateral amygdala (BLA was used to identify cortico-PAG (CP and cortico-BLA (CA neurons in IL. CP neurons were found exclusively in layer 5 of IL whereas CA neurons were detected throughout layer 2, 3 and 5 of IL. We also identified a small percentage of IL neurons that project to both the PAG and the BLA. We found that layer 5 CP neurons have a more extensive dendritic structure compared to layer 5 CA neurons. Neurophysiological recordings performed on retrogradely labeled neurons in acute brain slice showed that CP and CA neurons in IL could be broadly classified in two groups: neuronal resonators and non-resonators. Layer 2 CA neurons were the only class that was exclusively non-resonating. CP, CA, and CP/CA neurons in layers 3 and 5 of IL consisted of heterogeneous populations of resonators and non-resonators showing that projection target is not an exclusive predictor of intrinsic physiology. Circuit mapping using glu-LSPS revealed that the strength and organization of local excitatory and inhibitory inputs were stronger to CP compared to CA neurons in IL. Together, our results establish an organizational scheme linking cellular neurophysiology with microcircuit parameters of defined neuronal subclasses in IL that send descending commands to subcortical structures involved in fear

  10. Contrasting effects of nitric oxide and corticotropin-releasing factor within the dorsal periaqueductal gray on defensive behavior and nociception in mice

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    Miguel, T.T. [Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos and Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gomes, K.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Nunes-de-Souza, R.L. [Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos and Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    The anxiogenic and antinociceptive effects produced by glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) matter have been related to nitric oxide (NO) production, since injection of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors reverses these effects. dPAG corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFr) activation also induces anxiety-like behavior and antinociception, which, in turn, are selectively blocked by local infusion of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRFr1) antagonist, NBI 27914 [5-chloro-4-(N-(cyclopropyl)methyl-N-propylamino)-2-methyl-6- (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)aminopyridine]. Here, we determined whether i) the blockade of the dPAG by CRFr1 attenuates the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects induced by local infusion of the NO donor, NOC-9 [6-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine], and ii) the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects induced by intra-dPAG CRF are prevented by local infusion of N{sup ω}-propyl-L-arginine (NPLA), a neuronal NOS inhibitor, in mice. Male Swiss mice (12 weeks old, 25-35 g, N = 8-14/group) were stereotaxically implanted with a 7-mm cannula aimed at the dPAG. Intra-dPAG NOC-9 (75 nmol) produced defensive-like behavior (jumping and running) and antinociception (assessed by the formalin test). Both effects were reversed by prior local infusion of NBI 27914 (2 nmol). Conversely, intra-dPAG NPLA (0.4 nmol) did not modify the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects of CRF (150 pmol). These results suggest that CRFr1 plays an important role in the defensive behavior and antinociception produced by NO within the dPAG. In contrast, the anxiogenic and antinociceptive effects produced by intra-dPAG CRF are not related to NO synthesis in this limbic midbrain structure.

  11. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat.

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    Mouton, L J; Kerstens, L; Van der Want, J; Holstege, G

    1996-11-01

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise location of these dorsal border PAG-spinal neurons and their terminal organization. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP) injections into cervical and upper thoracic spinal segments resulted in several hundreds of small retrogradely labeled neurons at the dorsal border of the ipsilateral caudal PAG. These neurons were not found after injections in more caudal segments. WGA-HRP injections in the dorsal border PAG region surprisingly resulted in anterogradely labeled fibers terminating in the area dorsally and laterally adjoining the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord. No anterogradely labeled fibers were found more caudal in the spinal cord. The labeled fibers found in the upper cervical cord were not located in the area immediately adjoining the ependymal layer of the central canal, but in the lateral part of laminae VI, VII and VIII and in area X bilaterally. Electronmicroscopic results of one case show that the dorsal border PAG-spinal neurons terminate in the neuropil of the subependymal area and in the vicinity of the basal membranes of capillaries located laterally to the central canal. The terminal profiles contain electron-lucent and densecored vesicles, suggesting a heterogeneity of possible transmitters. A striking observation was the lack of synaptic contacts, suggesting nonsynaptic release from the profiles. The function of the dorsal border PAG-spinal projection is unknown, but considering the termination pattern of the dorsal border PAG neurons on the capillaries the intriguing similarity between this projection system and the hypothalamohypophysial system is discussed.

  12. Role of TRPV1 channels of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the modulation of nociception and open elevated plus maze-induced antinociception in mice.

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    Mascarenhas, Diego Cardozo; Gomes, Karina Santos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings have identified the presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels within the dorsal portion of the periaqueductal gray (dPAG), suggesting their involvement in the control of pain and environmentally-induced antinociception. Environmentally, antinociception may be achieved through the use of an open elevated plus maze (oEPM, an EPM with 4 open arms), a highly aversive environmental situation. Here, we investigated the role of these TRPV1 channels within the dPAG in the modulation of a tonic pain and in the oEPM-induced antinociception. Male Swiss mice, under the nociceptive effect of 2.5% formalin injected into the right hind paw, received intra-dPAG injections of the TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin: 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 nmol/0.2 μL; Experiment 1) or antagonist (capsazepine: 0, 10 or 30 nmol/0.2 μL; Experiment 2) or combined injections of capsazepine (30 nmol) and capsaicin (1.0 nmol) (Experiment 3) and the time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded. In Experiment 4, mice received intra-dPAG capsazepine (0 or 30 nmol) and were exposed to the oEPM or to a control situation, an enclosed EPM (eEPM; an EPM with 4 enclosed arms). Results showed that while capsaicin (1 nmol) decreased the time spent licking the formalin-injected paw, capsazepine did not change nociceptive response. Capsazepine (30 nmol) blocked pain inhibition induced by capsaicin and mildly attenuated the oEPM-induced antinociception. Our results revealed an important role of TRPV1 channels within the dPAG in the modulation of pain and in the phenomenon known as fear-induced antinociception in mice.

  13. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

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    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism.

  14. Activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray increases antinociception in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze.

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    Baptista, Daniela; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2012-11-01

    Several findings have pointed to the role of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A-C) receptor subtypes in the modulation of defensive behavior in animals exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Besides displaying anxiety-like behavior, rodents also exhibit antinociception in the EPM. This study investigated the effects of intra-dPAG injections of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor ligands on EPM-induced antinociception in mice. Male Swiss mice received 0.1 μl intra-dPAG injections of vehicle, 5.6 and 10 nmol of 8-OHDPAT, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (Experiment 1), or 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 nmol of mCPP, a 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist (Experiment 2). Five minutes later, each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g body weight; nociceptive stimulus) and was individually confined in the open (OA) or enclosed (EA) arms of the EPM for 5 min, during which the number of abdominal writhes induced by the acetic acid was recorded. While intra-dPAG injection of 8-OHDPAT did not change open-arm antinociception (OAA), mCPP (0.01 nmol) enhanced it. Combined injections of ketanserin (10 nmol/0.1 μl), a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist, and 0.01 nmol of mCPP (Experiment 3), selectively and completely blocked the OAA enhancement induced by mCPP. Although intra-dPAG injection of mCPP (0.01 nmol) also produced antinociception in EA-confined mice (Experiment 2), this effect was not confirmed in Experiment 3. Moreover, no other compound changed the nociceptive response in EA-confined animals. These results suggest that the 5-HT(2C) receptors located within the PAG play a role in this type of environmentally induced pain inhibition in mice.

  15. Participation of dorsal periaqueductal gray 5-HT1A receptors in the panicolytic-like effect of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist Nor-BNI.

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    Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Almeida, Camila Biesdorf; Rangel, Marcel Pereira; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Sestile, Caio César; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-06-01

    Panic patients may have abnormalities in serotonergic and opioidergic neurotransmission. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) plays an important role in organizing proximal defense, related to panic attacks. The 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) is involved in regulating escape behavior that is organized in the dPAG. Activation of κ-opioid receptor (KOR) in this region causes anxiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the involvement of KOR in regulating escape behavior, using systemic and intra-dPAG injection of the KOR antagonist Nor-BNI. As panic models, we used the elevated T-maze (ETM) and the dPAG electrical stimulation test (EST). We also evaluated whether activation of the 5-HT1A-R or the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in the dPAG contributes to the Nor-BNI effects. The results showed that systemic administration of Nor-BNI, either subcutaneously (2.0 and 4.0mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (2.0mg/kg), impaired escape in the EST, indicating a panicolytic-like effect. Intra-dPAG injection of this antagonist (6.8nmol) caused the same effect in the EST and in the ETM. Association of ineffective doses of Nor-BNI and the 5-HT1A-R agonist 8-OH-DPAT caused panicolytic-like effect in these two tests. Previous administration of the 5-HT1A-R antagonist WAY-100635, but not of the MOR antagonist CTOP, blocked the panicolytic-like effect of Nor-BNI. These results indicate that KOR enhances proximal defense in the dPAG through 5-HT1A-R modulation, independently of MOR. Because former results indicate that the 5-HT1A-R is involved in the antipanic action of antidepressants, KOR antagonists may be useful as adjunctive or alternative drug treatment of panic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

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    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  17. Behavioral effects of "vehicle" microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey of rats tested in the elevated plus maze

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    Matheus M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the behavioral effects of different vehicles microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG of male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, tested in the elevated plus maze, animals were implanted with cannulas aimed at this structure. One week after surgery the animals received microinjections into the DPAG of 0.9% (w/v saline, 10% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 2% (v/v Tween-80, 10% (v/v propylene glycol, or synthetic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ten min after the injection (0.5 µl the animals (N = 8-13/group were submitted to the elevated plus maze test. DMSO significantly increased the number of entries into both the open and enclosed arms when compared to 0.9% saline (2.7 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 1.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.9, respectively, Duncan test, P<0.05, and tended to increase enclosed arm entries as compared to 2% Tween-80 (8.7 ± 1.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.9, Duncan test, P<0.10. In a second experiment no difference in plus maze exploration was found between 0.9% saline- or sham-injected animals (N = 11-13/group. These results indicate that intra-DPAG injection of some commonly used vehicles such as DMSO, saline or Tween-80 affects the exploratory activity of rats exposed to the elevated plus maze in statistically different manners

  18. Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 7 and 8 mediate opposite effects on cardiosomatic motor reflex in rats%中脑导水管周围灰质腹外侧区促代谢型谷氨酸受体亚型7和8对大鼠心脏-躯体运动反射的双向调节作用

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    孙娜; 孔令恒; 牛利刚; 朱娟霞; 徐燕; 杜剑青

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察中脑导水管周围灰质腹外侧区(VL-PAG)内促代谢型谷氨酸受体亚型7(mGluR 7)和8(mGluR 8)对大鼠心脏-躯体运动反射(CMR)的调节作用。方法通过心包插管术制作CMR大鼠模型,在VL-PAG内分别注射mGluR 7和mGluR 8的激动剂AMN082和DCPG,观察其对大鼠CMR的调节作用;同时电损毁延髓头端腹内侧区(rostroventral medulla, RVM)亚核中的中缝大核或双侧网状巨细胞核,观察VL-PAG对大鼠CMR的下行调控作用。结果AMN082选择性激活VL-PAG内mGluR 7后,对辣椒素诱发的CMR具有明显的易化作用(P0.05),VL-PAG内DCPG微注射所产生的抑制效应被部分地减弱(P0.05), but partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of DCPG microinjection (P<0.05). Both the facilitatory effect of AMN082 and the inhibitory effect of DCPG were reduced obviously after bilateral Gi damage (P<0.05). Conclusion VL-PAG mGluR 7 and mGluR 8 mediate biphasic regulation of CMR in rats probably through activation of different sub-nuclei and different neurons in the rostroventral medulla.

  19. Columnar organization of estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray projecting to the nucleus para-retroambiguus in the caudal brainstem of the female golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Krukerink, M; Veening, J G

    2009-06-30

    In the hamster brainstem estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) are present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA), located in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) ventrolaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA). NPRA neurons project mainly to the thoracic and upper lumbar cord and are probably involved in the autonomic adaptations during the estrous cycle. The periaqueductal gray (PAG), projecting to the CVLM, also contains ER-alpha-IR neurons. This raises the questions: how are these projections organized and are ER-alpha-IR neurons in PAG and NPRA linked directly? Combined retro- and anterograde tracing techniques, using wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), were carried out to demonstrate neuronal relationships between PAG and NPRA and/or NRA. Finally, a double-label immunostaining was performed in ovariectomized hamsters combining anti-ER-alpha antibody immunocytochemistry with cholera toxin B injections into the CVLM, to differentiate between ER-alpha-IR projections from the PAG to either NRA or NPRA. The experiments showed that retrograde labeling from the NRA mainly occurred in the rostral and intermediate ipsilateral PAG, while injections involving both NRA and NPRA resulted in numerous labeled neurons in the ipsilateral rostral, intermediate and especially the caudal PAG. The anterograde tracing studies confirmed these projections: from the rostral PAG almost exclusively to the NRA and from the caudal PAG to the NPRA, while the intermediate lateral PAG projects to both NPRA and NRA. Our double-immunostudies revealed that ER-alpha-IR projections descend only towards the NPRA and mainly originate from the ipsilateral caudal PAG. Retrogradely labeled ER-alpha-IR neurons in the PAG were observed in two separate columns, laterally and ventrolaterally in the caudal half of the PAG. The results provide evidence for the existence of differentiated PAG-CVLM projections to NRA and NPRA, respectively, originating from

  20. Fear-induced suppression of nociceptive behaviour and activation of Akt signalling in the rat periaqueductal grey: role of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ryan K; Ford, Gemma K; Hogan, Michelle; Roche, Michelle; Doyle, Karen M; Kelly, John P; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria; Finn, David P

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system regulates nociception and aversion and mediates fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA). We investigated the effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which inhibits the catabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines, on expression of FCA and fear and pain related behaviour per se in rats. We also examined associated alterations in the expression of the signal transduction molecule phospho-Akt in the periaqueductal grey (PAG) by immunoblotting. FCA was modelled by assessing formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in an arena previously paired with footshock. URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced FCA and increased fear-related behaviour in formalin-treated rats. Conditioned fear per se in non-formalin-treated rats was associated with increased expression of phospho-Akt in the PAG. URB597 reduced the expression of fear-related behaviour in the early part of the trial, an effect that was accompanied by attenuation of the fear-induced increase in phospho-Akt expression in the PAG. Intra-plantar injection of formalin also reduced the fear-induced increase in phospho-Akt expression. These data provide evidence for a role of FAAH in FCA, fear responding in the presence or absence of nociceptive tone, and fear-evoked increases in PAG phospho-Akt expression. In addition, the results suggest that fear-evoked activation of Akt signalling in the PAG is abolished in the presence of nociceptive tone.

  1. 中脑导水管周围灰质中 P2X7R 调控慢性神经病理性疼痛的研究%P2X7R in periaqueductal gray matter participates in nociception modulation of chronic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程祝强; 章洁; 陈浩飞; 朱红梅; 贾宏彬; 刘红军; 刘晓明; 金毅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the distribution and possible mechanism of P2X7R in periaq-ueductal gray matter (PAG)in a rat model with chronic neuropathic pain in vivo.Methods The in-trathecal catheterization and sciatic nerve injury (SNI)were performed.All animals were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 26 rats in each,which was group Sham,control group (group C)and brilliant blue G (BBG)group (group BBG),respectively.Normal saline or BBG 10 μl were intrathe-cally injected after SNI and repeated for seven days.Paw-withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWT) were measured on day 0,day 7,day 14,and day 21 after SNI.The rats were sacrificed and PAG tis-sues were collected on day 14 and day 21,separately.The distributions of P2X7R were observed by immunofluorescence.The protein contents of P2X7R and GFAP were assessed by Western blot assays.Results The P2X7R was expressed in PAG in rats.The PWTs of the control group showed a significant decrease during the 21-day period compared with the sham group.The P2X7R signals were predominantly expressed in astrocytes in PAG after SNI.Both P2X7R and GFAP expression remark-ably increased.Administration of BBG increased the PWTs,and inhibited the P2X7R and GFAP ex-pressions compared with those atthe same point of time of the control group.Conclusion These results indicated that P2X7R in PAG might participate in nociception modulation in the midbrain in chronic neuropathic pain.%目的:研究神经病理性疼痛大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueductal gray matter,PAG)中 P2X7受体(P2X7 receptor,P2X7R)的分布和表达变化规律,并观察鞘内给予 P2X7R 拮抗剂对疼痛的影响及探讨可能的机制。方法成年雄性 SD 大鼠78只鞘内置管,手术成功后行保留性坐骨神经损伤(spared nerve injury,SNI)手术。术后将大鼠随机均分为三组:假手术组(Sham 组)、对照组(C 组)、亮蓝 G(brilliant blue G,BBG)组(BBG 组)。术毕当天起连续7 d 鞘内给予生理盐水或 P2X7R

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANALGESIA AND EXTRACELLULAR MORPHINE IN BRAIN AND SPINAL-CORD IN AWAKE RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATES, FF; ROLLEMA, H; TAIWO, YO; LEVINE, JD; BASBAUM, AI

    1995-01-01

    Extracellular concentrations of morphine from the dorsal spinal cord, the periaqueductal gray (FAG) including the dorsal raphe, and the lateral hypothalamus were measured by microdialysis in awake rats after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg morphine. Morphine concentrat

  3. Cooperative regulation of anxiety and panic-related defensive behaviors in the rat periaqueductal grey matter by 5-HT1A and μ-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila M; Biesdorf, Carla; Coimbra, Norberto C; Audi, Elisabeth A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2013-12-01

    Previous results with the elevated T-maze (ETM) test indicate that the antipanic action of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) depends on the activation endogenous opioid peptides. The aim of the present work was to investigate the interaction between opioid- and serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the modulation of defensive responses in rats submitted to the ETM. The obtained results showed that intra-dPAG administration of morphine significantly increased escape latency, a panicolytic-like effect that was blocked by pre-treatment with intra-dPAG injection of either naloxone or the 5-HT1A antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1 piperazinyl] ethyl] -N- 2- pyridinyl-ciclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635). In addition, previous administration of naloxone antagonized both the anti-escape and the anti-avoidance (anxiolytic-like) effect of the 5-HT1A agonist (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), but did not affect the anti-escape effect of the 5-HT2A agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI). Moreover, the combination of sub-effective doses of locally administered 5-HT and morphine significantly impaired ETM escape performance. Finally, the µ-antagonist D-PHE-CYS-TYR-D-TRP-ORN-THR-PEN (CTOP) blocked the anti-avoidance as well as the anti-escape effect of 8-OHDPAT, and the association of sub-effective doses of the µ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt (DAMGO) and of 8-OHDPAT had anti-escape and anti-avoidance effects in the ETM. These results suggest a synergic interaction between the 5-HT1A and the µ-opioid receptor at post-synaptic level on neurons of the dPAG that regulate proximal defense, theoretically related to panic attacks.

  4. 舒马曲坦对偏头痛模型大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质区核转录因子-κB表达的影响%The influence of NF-κB protein expression in the periaqueductal gray matter induced by sumatriptan in migraine animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉飞; 于生元

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨舒马曲坦治疗偏头痛的作用机制.方法 应用电刺激大鼠上矢状窦区硬脑膜制作偏头痛动物模型,观察给予舒马曲坦后中脑导水管周围灰质核转录因子-κB(NF-κB)蛋白表达的变化.结果 空白组、假手术组、电刺激组、舒马曲坦组、生理盐水对照组每张切片的NF-κB阳性神经元计数分别为111.7±15.7、112.9±10.7、508.7±30.8、179.5±14.9、497.8±20.6.刺激组与空白组、假手术组及舒马曲坦组比较,差异有统计学意义(F=944.78,P<0.05).结论 电刺激大鼠上矢状窦区硬脑膜后,在中脑导水管周围灰质区出现了NF-κB细胞的激活,舒马曲坦可使其表达降低.%Objectiye To investigate the possible mechanism of sumatriptan in treating migraine.Methods Migraine model rat was electrically stimulated at cerebral dura mater in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) to induce migraine.Each of 10 male SD rats were randomly selected into groups of normal control (no intervention), pseudo-stimulation group ( no electrical stimulation), stimulation group ( no treatment after stimulation), saline group (treated with saline after migraine stimulation ) and sumatriptan group ( treated with sumatriptan after migraine stimulation).The neurons expressing NF-κB in periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) were evaluated in each group by immnunostaining.Results The numbers of NF-κB immunoreactive positive neurons were 179.5 ± 14.9 in sumatriptan group, 497.8 ± 20.6 in saline group,508.7 ± 30.8 in stimulation group, 112.9 ± 10.7 in pseudo-stimulation group and 111.7 ± 15.7 in normal group.The stimulation group was higher than normal group, pseudo-stimulation group and sumatriptan group (F=944.78, P <0.05).Conclusions The NF-κB positive neurons were activated in the PAG by electric stimulation of the dura mater near the SSS.Sumatriptan can reduce the expression of NF-κB protein.

  5. The Fos expression in rat brain following electrical stimulation of dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus changed with the pre-treatment of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan; Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei

    2011-01-07

    Fos expression in the brain was systematically investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining after electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious rats. Fos-like immunoreactive neurons are distributed mainly in the upper cervical spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. With the pre-treatment of intraperitoneal injection of rizatriptan benzoate, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons decreased in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part and raphe magnus nucleus, increased in the periaqueductal gray, and remained unchanged in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. These results provide morphological evidence that the nuclei described above are involved in the development and maintenance of the trigeminovascular headache.

  6. 氟桂利嗪对偏头痛模型大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质区NF-κB蛋白表达的影响%THE INFLUENCE OF NF-κB PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN THE PERIAQUEDUNCTAL GRAY MATTER INDUCED BY FLUNARIZINE IN RAT MIGRAINE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉飞; 于生元

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible mechanism of action of the flunarizine in treating migraine. Method: Migraine model of electrical stimulation is applied to observe the level of NF-κB expression in the periaqueductal gray matter following administration of flunarizine in rats. Result: The numbers of NF-κB immunoreactive positive neurons was 209.2 ± 18.5 in flunarizine group, 502.7 ±33.1 in normal saline group, 508.7 ± 30.8 in stimulated group, and 111.7 ± 15.7 and 112.9 ± 10.7 in blank group and control group. Conclusion: The NF-κB positive neurons were activated in the periaqueductal gray in response to electric stimulation of the dura mater near the superior sagittal sinus. The expression of NF-κB protein could be suppressed by flunarizine.%目的:探讨氟桂利嗪治疗偏头痛的可能作用机制.方法:应用大鼠电刺激偏头痛模型,观察给予氟桂利嗪后中脑导水管周围灰质NF-κB蛋白表达的变化.结果:空白组、假手术组、电刺激组,氟桂利嗪组、生理盐水对照组每张切片的NF-κB阳性神经元数分别为111.7±15.7、112.9±10.7、508.7±30.8、209.2±18.5、502.7±33.1.结论:电刺激大鼠上矢状窦区硬脑膜后,在中脑导水管周围灰质区出现了NF-κB细胞的激活,氟桂利嗪使其表达降低.

  7. Antinociception induced by PAG-microinjected dipyrone (metamizol) in rats: involvement of spinal endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, N; Vanegas, H

    2001-03-30

    Dipyrone microinjection into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits antinociception in rats by activating endogenous opioidergic circuits in PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla. We have now found that endogenous opioids in the spinal cord are also involved. Responses of dorsal spinal neurons to noxious stimulation of a hindpaw were diminished (to 38-44%) by dipyrone microinjection (100 microg/0.5 microl) into the PAG. This was abolished by application of naloxone (50 microg/50 microl) to the spinal cord. The fact that dipyrone, a non-opioid analgesic, activates opioidergic circuits may be clinically important.

  8. A remote constant current stimulator designed for rat-robot navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Kedi; Ye, Shuming; Guo, Songchao; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a remote stimulator is developed for rat-robot navigation based on the technique of Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI). The stimulator can output constant current from 0 to 1000 µA, which overcome several shortages of our previous constant voltage stimulator. The constant current stimulator consists of four major components, including power supply, micro control unit (MCU), constant current source and bluetooth transceiver for downloading stimulation commands. The stimulator has a weight of about 20 g and size of 32 mm*25 mm*6mm. It has five channels of stimulation, which are connected with implanted microelectrodes in rat brain. The electrical parameters were characterized on three rats with different recovery time after brain surgery. Increasing current stimulations were applied on the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) area to prove the effect of current stimulation on rat behavior.

  9. Encode the "STOP" command by photo-stimulation for precise control of rat-robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sicong; Qu, Yi; Guo, Songchao; Shi, Zhaoyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Studies on behavior control are important for bio-robots designation. For auto or manual navigation of the bio-robots, the accuracy of the command execution is especially critical. In this paper, we reported a precise "STOP" command for the rat-robots by optical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). We labeled dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) neurons with light sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and directly probed the optical fiber to reactivate these neurons. The rats showed freezing behavior only upon the optical stimulation with an appropriate range of laser intensity and stimulation frequency. Neuron spikes and local field potential (LFP) were simultaneously recorded with optical stimulation by optrodes on free moving rat-robots. Together, our findings demonstrated the utility of deep brain optical stimulation for the stopping behavior of rat-robot control and indicated a potential application of optogenetics for precise control of bio-robots in further work.

  10. Fos expression in the midbrain periaqueductal grey after trigeminovascular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoskin, KL; Bulmer, DCE; Lasalandra, M; Jonkman, A; Goadsby, PJ

    2001-01-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans have shown that the caudal ventrolateral midbrain, encompassing the ventrolateral PAG, has activations during m

  11. Complementary Roles for Amygdala and Periaqueductal Gray in Temporal-Difference Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; McNally, Gavan P.

    2009-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is not a unitary process. At the neurobiological level multiple brain regions and neurotransmitters contribute to fear learning. At the behavioral level many variables contribute to fear learning including the physical salience of the events being learned about, the direction and magnitude of predictive error, and the…

  12. Calcitonin receptors in the rat mesencephalon mediate its analgesic actions: autoradiographic and behavioral analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, A.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.; Fraioli, F.

    1985-09-23

    Autoradiographic analyses of salmon calcitonin (sCT) binding in the rat mesencephalon revealed an exceptionally high concentration of receptors in the ventral and ventrolateral segments of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) extending along the entire rostralcaudal axis. Relatively heavy labeling was also seen along a band extending ventrolaterally through the mesencephalic reticular formation. Other receptor-rich areas include the nucleus linearis, pars compacta and lateralis of the substantia nigra, locus coeruleus, parabrachial nuclei and nucleus raphe pontis of the pontine reticular formation. The biological effects are consistent with the potencies of both peptides in displacing SVI-sCT from slide-mounted sections of rat PAG. Naloxone failed to antagonize sCT-induced analgesia, suggesting an opiate independent mechanism for this peptide in elicting analgesia. (Auth.). 60 refs.; 9 figs.

  13. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datto, Jeffrey P; Bastidas, Johana C; Miller, Nicole L; Shah, Anna K; Arheart, Kristopher L; Marcillo, Alexander E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint.

  14. Premature graying of hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    .... It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying...

  15. Neural responses of rats in the forced swimming test: [F-18]FDG micro PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Pyo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Park, Chan-Woong; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo

    2009-10-12

    The forced swimming test (FST) is a widely used tool in the assessment of behavioral despair and prediction of response to antidepressants. However, the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral changes between pretest and test sessions of the FST remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in rat brain activity during the FST using [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose micro PET. In both pretest and test sessions, the activity of the cerebellum and striatum increased, whereas significant deactivation was observed in the hippocampus, inferior colliculus, orbital cortex, and insula. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) region activated markedly in the pretest session, but did not activate in the test session. There was a significant increase in immobility and a decrease in climbing during the behavioral analysis test session. These results suggest that the PAG region may play an important role in the modulation of FST coping strategies subsequent to failure of the escape response during the pretest session.

  16. Panicolytic-like effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaes, Gislaine Cardoso de Souza; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Sestile, Caio Cesar; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Souza, Rodolfo Luis Silva; Porcu, Mauro; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-05-30

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, acting as agonist of μ-opioid receptors and serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) reuptake inhibitor. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM), an animal model that evaluates behavioural parameters such as anxiety and panic. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated acutely with tramadol (16 and 32mg/kg) and were submitted to the ETM. Tramadol (32mg/kg) promoted a panicolytic-like effect. Considering that dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) is the main brain structure related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD), this study also evaluated the participation of 5-HT and opioid receptors located in the dPAG in the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. Seven days after stereotaxic surgery for implantation of a cannula in the dPAG, the animals were submitted to the test. To assess the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors on the effect of tramadol, we combined the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.37nmol), microinjected intra-dPAG, 10min prior to the administration of tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). WAY100635 did not block the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. We also associated the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, systemically (1mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-dPAG (0.5nmol) administered 10min prior to tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). Naloxone blocked the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol in both routes of administrations, showing that tramadol modulates acute panic defensive behaviours through its interaction with opioid receptors located in the dPAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis.

  18. Antipanic procedures reduce the strychnine-facilitated wild running of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, H M G; Hoshino, Katsumasa

    2003-12-17

    Wild running (WR) behavior of rats seen in response to intense acoustic stimulation of audiogenic seizure-paradigm is very similar to the panic flight and can be facilitated by subconvulsive doses of strychnine. The present work aimed to test whether antipanic procedures, such as dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) lesion and imipramine treatments, affect the strychnine-facilitated WR. In study 1, six Wistar male adult rats with electrolytic lesion of dPAG had their WR completely blocked, whereas it was facilitated in 50% of sham-lesioned control rats by a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of strychnine administered intraperitoneal. This effect was not reproduced with a higher strychnine dose (1.0 mg/kg). In study 2, the effects of imipramine were investigated by testing 36 rats under a dose of strychnine that induces WR in 50% of subjects. They were assigned into three experimental groups: imipramine treatments of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, and infusions of saline. All these treatments were subchronical with three intraperitoneal injections within 24 h. Imipramine (10.0 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of WR in comparison to the saline results. It is concluded that strychnine-facilitated WR is reduced by antipanic procedures and, therefore, can be viewed as a manifestation closely related to panic.

  19. Tolerance effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs microinjected into central amygdala, periaqueductal grey, and nucleus raphe Possible cellular mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Merab G. Tsagareli; Nana Tsiklauri; Ivliane Nozadze; Gulnaz Gurtskaia

    2012-01-01

    Pain is a sensation related to potential or actual damage in some tissue of the body. The mainstay of medical pain therapy remains drugs that have been around for decades, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or opiates. However, adverse effects of opiates, particularly tolerance, limit their clinical use. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic (intraperitoneal) administration of NSAIDs induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. In this review, we report that repeated microinjection of NSAIDs analgin, clodifen, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala, the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus in the following 4 days result in progressively less antinociception compared to the saline control testing in the tail-flick reflex and hot plate latency tests. Hence, tolerance develops to these drugs and cross-tolerance to morphine in male rats. These findings strongly support the suggestion of endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain-control system. Moreover, the periaqueductal grey-rostral ventro-medial part of medulla circuit should be viewed as a pain-modulation system. These data are important for human medicine. In particular, cross-tolerance between non-opioid and opioid analgesics should be important in the clinical setting.

  20. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  1. Elevated [(18)F]FDOPA utilization in the periaqueductal gray and medial nucleus accumbens of patients with early Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Danielsen, Erik H; Gjedde, Albert;

    2009-01-01

    %) in the bilateral medial nucleus accumbens, whereas the expected declines in the trapping of FDOPA were seen in the caudate and putamen. This observation suggests hyperfunction of catecholamine fibres innervating specifically the limbic striatum, which could guide the design of future prospective FDOPA-PET studies...

  2. 中脑导水管周围灰质5-HT7受体在神经病理性疼痛中的镇痛作用研究%THE ANALGESIC EFFECT OF 5-HT7 RECEPTOR IN MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY ON NEUROPATHIC PAIN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 文松

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨神经病理性疼痛大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质外侧区(lPAG)中5-羟色胺7(5-HT7)受体活化在神经病理性疼痛中的镇痛作用.方法:SD大鼠60只,均分为5组:正常组、神经病理性疼痛组(CCI组)、假CCI组、CCI加AS-19和CCI加SB-269970组.制备CCI大鼠模型,检测各组大鼠机械痛阈变化;免疫印迹法检测lPAG中5-HT7受体蛋白表达情况;在CCI大鼠lPAG中微量注射5-HT7受体特异性激动剂AS-19(6 μmol/0.3μl)以及特异性拮抗剂SB-269970(3 μmol/0.3 μl)后观察药物对CCI大鼠机械痛阈的影响.结果:神经病理性疼痛大鼠机械痛阈下降伴lPAG中5-HT7受体蛋白表达上调,与假手术组大鼠比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.001). CCI大鼠lPAG注射AS-19后,机械痛阈显著上升(P<0.001)且可被预先注射SB-269970所抑制.结论:lPAG中5-HT7受体活化后通过激活机体内源性镇痛系统对神经病理性疼痛大鼠产生镇痛作用.

  3. 鞘内注射吗啡对大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质、海马和脊髓μ阿片受体mRNA表达的影响%Alteration in mu opioid receptor mRNA expression in periaqueductal gray matter, hippocampus and spinal cord following intrathecal morphine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹望远; 郭曲练; 王锷

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究鞘内注射吗啡对大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质(PAG)、海马和脊髓μ阿片受体(MOR)mRNA表达的影响,探讨大鼠鞘内注射吗啡免疫功能抑制的机制.方法 清洁级成年雄性SD大鼠,鞘内置管成功的16只大鼠随机分为2组(n=8):生理盐水组(NS组)和吗啡组(M组).M组鞘内持续输注吗啡10 μg/h 7 d(生理盐水稀释),NS组给予等体积的生理盐水.输注7 d后断头处死大鼠,取出大鼠PAG、海马和脊髓标本,采用巢式RT-PCR测定MOR mRNA的表达.结果 与NS组比较,M组PAG和海马MOR mRNA表达下调(P<0.05或0.01),脊髓MOR mRNA表达无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 大鼠PAG和海马MOR表达下调可能是鞘内注射吗啡导致免疫功能抑制的机制之一.

  4. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can get gray hair at any age. Some people go gray at a young age — as early as when they are in ... around the same age that our parents or grandparents first did. Gray hair is more noticeable in people with darker hair because it stands out, but ...

  5. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  6. Gene-environment interaction affects substance P and neurokinin A in the entorhinal cortex and periaqueductal grey in a genetic animal model of depression: implications for the pathophysiology of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husum, Henriette; Wörtwein, Gitta; Andersson, Weronika

    2008-01-01

    of the congenitally 'depressed' Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. It is also known that environmental stress may affect brain levels of tachykinins. In view of these results we decided to superimpose maternal deprivation, an early life environmental stressor......, onto the genetically predisposed 'depressed' FSL rats and the FRL control rats and use this paradigm as a model of gene-environment interaction. The adult animals were sacrificed, adrenal glands and brains dissected out and SP-, NKA- and CRH-LI levels were determined in ten discrete brain regions....... Maternal deprivation led to a marked increase in SP-LI and NKA-LI levels in the periaqueductal grey (PAG) and entorhinal cortex of the 'depressed' FSL strain while it had no significant effect in the FRL controls. Furthermore, specific strain differences in peptide-LI content were confirmed. No difference...

  7. On the relationships between ultrasonic calling and anxiety-related behavior in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarting, R.K.W.; Wöhr, M. [Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2012-03-23

    In the present review, the phenomenon of ultrasonic vocalization in rats will be outlined, including the three classes of vocalizations, namely 40-kHz calls of pups, and 22- and 50-kHz calls of juvenile and adult rats, their general relevance to behavioral neuroscience, and their special relevance to research on anxiety, fear, and defense mechanisms. Here, the emphasis will be placed on 40- and 22-kHz calls, since they are typical for various situations with aversive properties. Among other topics, we will discuss whether such behavioral signals can index a certain affective state, and how these signals can be used in social neuroscience, especially with respect to communication. Furthermore, we will address the phenomenon of inter-individual variability in ultrasonic calling and what we currently know about the mechanisms, which may determine such variability. Finally, we will address the current knowledge on the neural and pharmacological mechanisms underlying 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization, which show a substantial overlap with mechanisms known from other research on fear and anxiety, such as those involving the periaqueductal gray or the amygdala.

  8. Viper venom induced inflammation with Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849) and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Erel, Sura Baykan; Köksal, Cinel; Göçmen, Bayram; Yıldız, Mehmet Zülfü; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, Nefise Ülkü

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the characterization of Montivipera xanthina crude venom partially by in vitro and in vivo and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in comparison with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in rats. The LD50 value was estimated as 8.78 mg/kg within 24 h by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. The IC50 value was 0.43 ± 0.18 μg/ml after 48 h treatment while the calculated value was 0.73 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the culture media totally refreshed after 2 h treatment with venom. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with A. absinthium extract, 30 min before venom or carrageenan was injected subplantarly into the left hind paw. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg extract was inhibited venom induced paw swelling at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h (p in vivo toxicity and inflammatory actions and in vitro cytotoxic actions of crude M. xanthina venom were performed as a first report and inhibition of venom-induced inflammation by methanolic extract of A. absinthium was described.

  9. Effects of electroacupuncture on orphanin FQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ mRNA in nucleus of raphe magnus in the neuropathic pain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Xie, Hong; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wu, Gen-Cheng

    2004-07-15

    Orphanin FQ (OFQ) is an endogenous ligand for opioid receptor-like-1 (ORL1) receptor. Previous studies have shown that both OFQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ (ppOFQ) mRNA expression could be observed in the brain regions involved in pain modulation, e.g., nucleus of raphe magnus (NRM), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). It was reported that electroacupuncture (EA) has analgesic effect on neuropathic pain, and the analgesic effect was mediated by the endogenous opioid peptides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EA on the changes of OFQ in the neuropathic pain rats. In the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, we investigated the changes of ppOFQ mRNA and OFQ immunoreactivity in NRM after EA by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Then, the ppOFQ mRNA-positive and OFQ immunoreactive cells were counted under a computerized image analysis system. The results showed that expression of ppOFQ mRNA decreased and OFQ immunoreactivity increased after EA treatment in the neuropathic pain rats. These results indicated that EA modulated OFQ synthesis and OFQ peptide level in NRM of the neuropathic pain rats.

  10. Contributions of the amygdala central nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey to freezing and instrumental suppression in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A

    2010-07-29

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning animals receive pairings of a neutral cue and an aversive stimulus such as an electric foot-shock. Through such pairings, the cue will come to elicit a central state of fear that produces a variety of autonomic and behavioral responses, among which are conditioned freezing and suppression of instrumental responding, termed conditioned suppression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) has been strongly implicated in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. However, previous work suggests different roles for the CeA and vlPAG in fear learning maybe revealed when fear is assessed with conditioned freezing or conditioned suppression. To further explore this possibility we gave rats selective lesions of either the CeA or vlPAG and trained them in Pavlovian first-order fear conditioning as well as Pavlovian second-order fear conditioning. We concurrently assessed the acquisition of conditioned freezing and conditioned suppression. We found that vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired both first- and second-order conditioned freezing. VlPAG lesions did not impair, and CeA lesions only transiently impaired, first-order conditioned suppression. However, both vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired second-order conditioned suppression. These results suggest that the CeA and vlPAG are critically important to expressing fear through conditioned freezing but play different and less critical roles in expressing fear through conditioned suppression.

  11. Fos expression in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons in rat brainstem after visceral noxious stimulation: an immunohistochemical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Han; Yu-Fei Zhang; Yun-Qing Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To prove that neurons in the different structures of the brainstem that express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) are involved in the transmission and modulation of visceral or somatic nociceptive information in rat.METHODS: Immunohistochemical double-staining method was used to co-localize TH and Fos expression in neurons of the rat brainstem in visceral or subcutaneous noxious stimulation models.RESULTS: Neurons co-expressing TH/Fos were observed in lateral reticular nucleus (LRT), rostroventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL), solitary tract nucleus (SOL), locus coeruleus (LC), A5, A7 neuronal groups and ventrolateral subdivision of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) in both models. But the proportion and number of the double-labeled neurons responding to the two noxious stimuli were significantly different in the LRT, RVL and LC nuclei. The proportion and number of the TH/Fos double-labeled neurons in the visceral pain model were smaller than that in the subcutaneous pain model. However, in the case of SOL, they were similar in the two models.CONCLUSION: Differences of Fos expression in TH immunoreactive neurons in animals after visceral and somatic noxious stimulation indicate that the mechanisms of the transmission and modulation of visceral nociceptive information in the brainstem may be different from that of somatic nociceptive information.

  12. Gray Whale Population Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale abundance is estimated from data collected during the southbound migration from feeding grounds in the Arctic to breeding grounds in the lagoons of...

  13. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  14. O retrato de Dorian Gray

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Carolina Maria Dias

    2012-01-01

    O título Retrato de Dorian Gray oferece, à partida, alguma informação sobre a obra, podendo o leitor presumir a existência de uma personagem principal chamada Dorian Gray. No entanto, este título só consegue ser realmente compreendido após a leitura completa da obra. Tem algum cariz enigmático e tornase interessante pelas hipóteses que levanta sobre o possível enredo.

  15. Neurons in the lateral sacral cord of the cat project to periaqueductal grey, but not to thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Kuipers, R; Holstege, G; Klop, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Previous work of our laboratory has shown that neurons in the lateral sacral cord in cat project heavily to the periaqueductal grey (PAG), in all likelihood conveying information from bladder and genital organs. In humans this information usually does not reach consciousness, which raises the questi

  16. Substance P content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles during elicitation and inhibition of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Maria; Janecka, Anna

    2002-06-21

    The aim of this study was to establish whether tooth pulp and periaqueductal central gray (PAG) stimulation affects the release of substance P (SP) into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rats. The content of substance P in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles was determined during incisor pulp stimulation with electrical impulses inducing nociceptive trigemino-hypoglossal reflex and then during inhibition of the reflex by stimulation of PAG. Perfusion of the cerebral ventricles was carried out using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) was determined in the samples by radioimmunoassay. Samples were collected in four groups: first group-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); second group-aCSF perfusates without stimulation; third group-aCSF perfusates during incisor pulp stimulation; fourth group-aCSF perfusates during incisor pulp stimulation and simultaneous inhibition of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex by PAG stimulation. It was shown that incisor pulp stimulation led to the increased release of SP-LI into the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Stimulation of PAG reduced the release of SP-LI into the cerebro-ventricular system to the values obtained before the tooth pulp stimulation. The results indicate that PAG significantly inhibits the release of SP-LI into the rat cerebral ventricular system and may be involved in the inhibition of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex.

  17. Role of steroid hormones and morphine treatment in the modulation of opioid receptor gene expression in brain structures in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wesley Soares; Pereira, Lucas Assis; Cezar, Luana Carvalho; Camarini, Rosana; Felicio, Luciano Freitas; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Teodorov, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of acute treatment with morphine on the expression of the Oprm1, Oprk1, and Oprd1 genes (which encode μ, κ, and δ receptors, respectively) in the striatum, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) in ovariectomized female rats treated with estrogen. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into five equal groups. Two groups received estrogen (50 µg/kg, 54 h before testing) and saline (ES group) or 3.5 mg/kg morphine (EM group) 2 h before euthanasia. The SS group received saline solution 54 and 2 h before the experiments. The SM group received saline 54 h and 3.5 mg/kg morphine 2 h before the experiments. The W group remained undisturbed. The genes expression were evaluated. Oprm1 and Oprk1 expression were activated, respectively, in the hypothalamus and PAG and in the striatum and PAG by morphine only in estrogen-treated animals. Oprd1 expression in the hypothalamus and PAG was activated by morphine in both estrogen-treated and -nontreated animals. The Oprm1 and Oprk1 gene response to morphine might depend on estrogen, whereas the Oprd1 gene response to morphine might not depend on estrogen, supporting the hypothesis of a functional role for ovarian hormones in opioid receptor-mediated functional adaptations in the female brain.

  18. Novel G Protein-Coupled Oestrogen Receptor GPR30 Shows Changes in mRNA Expression in the Rat Brain over the Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Spary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, ventrolateral medulla (VLM and periaqueductal gray (PAG GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways.

  19. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels.

  20. Neural plasticity and stress induced changes in defense in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Blundell, J; Collins, A

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the effects of predator stress on behavior and amygdala afferent and efferent neural transmission in rats. Pathways studied were: ventral angular bundle input to the basolateral amygdala; central and basolateral amygdala output to the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Predator stress was 'anxiogenic' in elevated plus maze, light/dark box and acoustic startle tests one week after stress. Lasting changes were also observed in neural transmission. Predator stress appeared to potentiate right and depotentiate left hemisphere afferent amygdala transmission. In contrast, predator stress potentiated amygdala efferent transmission to right and left PAG, depending on the amygdala nucleus stimulated. Paired pulse and intensity series analysis suggests that transmission changes may be postsynaptic or presynaptic, depending on the pathway. Path analysis relating brain and behavioral changes suggests that potentiation and depotentiation in both hemispheres participate jointly in effecting some, but not all, of the behavioral changes produced by predator stress. Potentiation in left hemisphere amygdala afferents and efferents predicts anxiolytic-like effects, while potentiation in the right hemisphere amygdala afferents predicts anxiogenic-like effects. Path analysis also supports the view that changes in different neural systems mediate changes in different behaviors. These findings have their parallel in studies in the cat, but there are species differences.

  1. Effect of cerebral ventricles perfusion with naloxone on trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, M; Janecka, A

    2001-02-02

    The goal of this study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolishes the influence of periaqueductal central gray (PAG) on nociceptive evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) -- a trigemino-hypoglossal reflex induced by tooth pulp stimulation. In rats under chloralose anesthesia three series of experiments were performed. In the first two groups perfusions of lateral ventricles-cerebellomedullary cistern with McIlwain-Rodnight's solution and naloxone were carried out. In group 3 naloxone was infused through a catheter through the jugular vein. The amplitudes of tongue jerks induced by tooth pulp stimulation were recorded during subsequent 10 min perfusions. Mean amplitude of tongue movements induced by tooth pulp stimulation was regarded as the indicator of the magnitude of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex. We observed that perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with naloxone (100 nmol/ml) increased the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex up to 143%. The amplitude of ETJ was significantly reduced during PAG stimulation with a train of electrical impulses. After obtaining a significant -- 93% -- inhibition of ETJ (7% of the control), naloxone (100 nmol/ml) was added to the perfusion fluid. This led to a significant increase of the reflex up to 68%. Infusion of naloxone through the jugular vein did not affect the reflex. The above results suggest that the inhibition of ETJ due to PAG stimulation is partially reversed by naloxone and mediated via interactions with endogenous opioid systems involved in modulation of nociception.

  2. 1-Oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid: a new mediator of emotional behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Castilla-Ortega

    Full Text Available The role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the control of emotional behavior remains to be determined. We analyzed the effects of the central administration of 1-oleoyl-LPA (LPA 18∶1 in rats tested for food consumption and anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze, open field, Y maze, forced swimming and food intake tests were performed. In addition, c-Fos expression in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG was also determined. The results revealed that the administration of LPA 18∶1 reduced the time in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze and induced hypolocomotion in the open field, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. Interestingly, these effects were present following LPA 18∶1 infusion under conditions of novelty but not under habituation conditions. In the forced swimming test, the administration of LPA 18∶1 dose-dependently increased depression-like behavior, as evaluated according to immobility time. LPA treatment induced no effects on feeding. However, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed that LPA 18∶1 increased c-Fos expression in the DPAG. The abundant expression of the LPA1 receptor, one of the main targets for LPA 18∶1, was detected in this brain area, which participates in the control of emotional behavior, using immunocytochemistry. These findings indicate that LPA is a relevant transmitter potentially involved in normal and pathological emotional responses, including anxiety and depression.

  3. The Pronociceptive Effect of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation in Rats: Evidence for a Role of Descending Pain Modulation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomim, Dabna H; Pontarolla, Felipe M; Bertolini, Jessica F; Arase, Mauricio; Tobaldini, Glaucia; Lima, Marcelo M S; Fischer, Luana

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not known. In this study, we asked whether PSD increases tonic nociception in the formalin test, decreases the antinociceptive effect of morphine administered into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and disrupts endogenous descending pain modulation. PSD for either 24 or 48 h significantly increased formalin-induced nociception and decreased mechanical nociceptive paw withdrawal threshold. The maximal antinociceptive effect induced by morphine (0.9-9 nmol, intra-PAG) was significantly decreased by PSD. The administration of a low dose of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (30-300 pmol, intra-PAG), decreased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. Furthermore, the administration of the cholecystokinin (CCK) 2 receptor antagonist, YM022 (0.5-2 pmol) in the rostral ventral medulla (RVM), decreased nociception in paradoxical-sleep-deprived rats but not in control ones. While a dose of the CCK 2 receptor agonist, CCK-8 (8-24 pmol intra-RVM), increased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. In addition, the injection of lidocaine (QX-314, 2%, intra-RVM) decreased nociception in sleep-deprived rats, but not in control rats, while the lesion of the dorsolateral funiculus prevented the pronociceptive effect of PSD. Finally, PSD significantly increased c-Fos expression in the RVM. Therefore, PSD increases pain independently of its duration or of the characteristic of the nociceptive stimulus and decreases morphine analgesia at the PAG. PSD appears to increase pain by decreasing descending pain inhibitory activity and by increasing descending pain facilitatory activity.

  4. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  5. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  6. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  7. The panicolytic-like effect of fluoxetine in the elevated T-maze is mediated by serotonin-induced activation of endogenous opioids in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila M; Biesdorf, Carla; Santana, Rosangela G; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G; Audi, Elisabeth A

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), opioids and the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of panic disorder. In order to study 5-HT-opioid interaction, the opioid antagonist naloxone was injected either systemically (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-DPAG (0.2 μg/0.5 μL) to assess its interference with the effect of chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 21 days) or of intra-DPAG 5-HT (8 μg/0.5 μL). Drug effects were measured in the one-escape task of the rat elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic. Pretreatment with systemic naloxone antagonized the lengthening of escape latency caused by chronic fluoxetine, considered a panicolytic-like effect that parallels the drug's therapeutic response in the clinics. Pretreatment with naloxone injected intra-DPAG antagonized both the panicolytic effect of chronic fluoxetine as well as that of 5-HT injected intra-DPAG. Neither the performance of the inhibitory avoidance task in the elevated T-maze, a model of generalized anxiety nor locomotion measured in a circular arena was affected by the above drug treatments. These results indicate that the panicolytic effect of fluoxetine is mediated by endogenous opioids that are activated by 5-HT in the DPAG. They also allow reconciliation between the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic disorder pathophysiology.

  8. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  9. Tsenseerimata Dorian Gray? / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus üllitas 2011. a. kevadel Oscar Wilde'i ainsaks jäänud romaani "Dorian Gray portree" esialgse versiooni, mis on varustatud toimetaja Nicholas Frankeli põhjalike kommentaaridega ja kus eessõna manifesteerib jõuliselt autori esteetilisi vaateid

  10. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  11. On the genus Rheithrosciurus Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1881-01-01

    As I wrote my paper on Sciurus (Rheithrosciurus) microtis, see Notes from the Leyden Museum, Part I, 1879, p. 40, I knew Rheithrosciurus macrotis only from the both short annotations of the late Gray about that Squirrel. I here verbally copie his descriptions: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 341,

  12. Tsenseerimata Dorian Gray? / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus üllitas 2011. a. kevadel Oscar Wilde'i ainsaks jäänud romaani "Dorian Gray portree" esialgse versiooni, mis on varustatud toimetaja Nicholas Frankeli põhjalike kommentaaridega ja kus eessõna manifesteerib jõuliselt autori esteetilisi vaateid

  13. Top-Down Effect of Direct Current Stimulation on the Nociceptive Response of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Luiz Fabio; Franciosi, Adriano Cardozo; Campos, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; Brunoni, André Russowsky

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging, noninvasive technique of neurostimulation for treating pain. However, the mechanisms and pathways involved in its analgesic effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of direct current stimulation (DCS) on thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds and on the activation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC) in rats; these central nervous system areas are associated with pain processing. Male Wistar rats underwent cathodal DCS of the motor cortex and, while still under stimulation, were evaluated using tail-flick and paw pressure nociceptive tests. Sham stimulation and naive rats were used as controls. We used a randomized design; the assays were not blinded to the experimenter. Immunoreactivity of the early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1), which is a marker of neuronal activation, was evaluated in the PAG and DHSC, and enkephalin immunoreactivity was evaluated in the DHSC. DCS did not change the thermal nociceptive threshold; however, it increased the mechanical nociceptive threshold of both hind paws compared with that of controls, characterizing a topographical effect. DCS decreased the Egr-1 labeling in the PAG and DHSC as well as the immunoreactivity of spinal enkephalin. Altogether, the data suggest that DCS disinhibits the midbrain descending analgesic pathway, consequently inhibiting spinal nociceptive neurons and causing an increase in the nociceptive threshold. This study reinforces the idea that the motor cortex participates in the neurocircuitry that is involved in analgesia and further clarifies the mechanisms of action of tDCS in pain treatment. PMID:27071073

  14. Differential behavioral sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Andrew; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Naik, Devanshi; Sah, Renu

    2017-03-27

    Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats. We also assessed tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2)-positive serotonergic neurons in anxiety/panic regulatory subdivisions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), as well as dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH)-positive noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, implicated in central CO2-chemosensitivity. Behavioral responsivity to CO2 inhalation varied between strains. CO2-evoked immobility was significantly higher in LE and WK rats as compared with W and SD cohorts. Differences were also observed in CO2-evoked rearing and grooming behaviors. Exposure to CO2 did not produce conditioned behavioral responses upon re-exposure to CO2 context in any strain. Reduced TPH-2-positive cell counts were observed specifically in the panic-regulatory dorsal raphe ventrolateral (DRVL)-ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) subdivision in CO2-sensitive strains. Conversely, DβH-positive cell counts within the LC were significantly higher in CO2-sensitive strains. Collectively, our data provide evidence for strain dependent, differential CO2-sensitivity and potential differences in monoaminergic systems regulating panic and anxiety. Comparative studies between CO2-vulnerable and resistant strains may facilitate the mechanistic understanding of differential CO2-sensitivity in the development of panic and anxiety disorders.

  15. Gray Code for Cayley Permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Baril

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.

  16. Inhibitory effects of microinjection of morphine into thalamic nucleus submedius on ipsilateral paw bee venom-induced inflammatory pain in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Feng; Ning Jia; Jun-yang Wang; Xin-ai Song; Xiao-ying Li; Jing-shi Tang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether microinjectlon of morphine into the rat thaiamle nucleus submedlus (Sin) could depress the bee venom (BV)-induced nociceptive behaviours. Methods In inflammatory pain model induced by BV subcutaneous injection into rat unilateral hind paw, the inhibitory effects of morphine microinjection into thalamic nucleus suhmedius (Sin) on the spontaneous nociecptlve behavior, heat hyperalgesia and tactile ailodynia, and the influence of naioxone on the morphine effects were observed in the rat. Results A single dose of morphine (5.0 μg, 0. 5μL) applied into the Sm ipsilaterni to the BV injected paw significantly depressed the spontaneous paw flinching response. Morphine also significantly increased the heat paw withdrawal iateneies in the bilateral hind paw and the tactile paw withdrawal threshold in the ipsilnteral hind paw 2 hours after BV injection. All these depressive effects could be effectively antagonized by pre-treatment with the opiuld receptor antagonist naloxone (1.0μg, 0. 5μL) in the Sm 5rain prior to morphine administration. Naloxone alone injected to the Sm had no effect on the BV-induecd nociceptive behavior. Conclusion These results suggest that Sm is involved in opioid receptor-mediated antt-nociception in the rat with the BV-induced inflammatory pain. Together with results from previous studies, it is likely that this effect is produced by activation of the Sm-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaqueductal gray pathway, leading to activation of the brainstem descending inhibitory system and depression of the nodceptive inputs at the spinal cord level.

  17. Mammal-Like Organization of the Avian Midbrain Central Gray and a Reappraisal of the Intercollicular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Marcy A.; Kelly, Aubrey M.; Schrock, Sara E.; Goodson, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG) extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo), suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG. PMID:21694758

  18. Mammal-like organization of the avian midbrain central gray and a reappraisal of the intercollicular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy A Kingsbury

    Full Text Available In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo, suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG.

  19. Underwater sonar image recognition based on gray-spatial histograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo-fu; SANG En-fang

    2003-01-01

    A new gray-spatial histogram is proposed, which incorporates spatial information with gray compositions without sacrificing the robustness of traditional gray histograms. The purpose is to consider the representation role of gray compositions and spatial information simultaneously. Each entry in the gray-spatial histogram is the gray frequency and corresponding position information of images. In the experiments of sonar image recognition, the results show that the gray-spatial histogram is effective in practical use.

  20. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  1. Infrared image gray adaptive adjusting enhancement algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zi-long; Liu, Yong; Chen, Ruo-wang

    2016-11-01

    In view of the histogram equalizing algorithm to enhance image in digital image processing, an Infrared Image Gray adaptive adjusting Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gray Redundancy Histogram-dealing Technique is proposed. The algorithm is based on the determination of the entire image gray value, enhanced or lowered the image's overall gray value by increasing appropriate gray points, and then use gray-level redundancy HE method to compress the gray-scale of the image. The algorithm can enhance image detail information. Through MATLAB simulation, this paper compares the algorithm with the histogram equalization method and the algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique , and verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the parietal and temporal cortices of young rats. The gestational ... smaller left anterior cingulated volume and lower gray matter .... the temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex of the rats in the ...

  3. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  4. Response to Deep Brain Stimulation in Three Brain Targets with Implications in Mental Disorders: A PET Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquero-Veiga, Marta; Hadar, Ravit; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Desco, Manuel; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolic changes in brain networks by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsomedial thalamus (DM) using positron emission tomography (PET) in naïve rats. Methods 43 male Wistar rats underwent stereotactic surgery and concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were bilaterally implanted into one of the three brain sites. [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-PET (18FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at the 7th (without DBS) and 9th day (with DBS) after surgery. Stimulation period matched tracer uptake period. Images were acquired with a small-animal PET-CT scanner. Differences in glucose uptake between groups were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results DBS induced site-specific metabolic changes, although a common increased metabolic activity in the piriform cortex was found for the three brain targets. mPFC-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, temporal and amygdala, and reduced it in the cerebellum, brainstem (BS) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). NAcc-DBS increased metabolic activity in the subiculum and olfactory bulb, and decreased it in the BS, PAG, septum and hypothalamus. DM-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, NAcc and thalamus and decreased it in the temporal and cingulate cortex. Conclusions DBS induced significant changes in 18FDG uptake in brain regions associated with the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Stimulation of mPFC, NAcc and DM induced different patterns of 18FDG uptake despite interacting with the same circuitries. This may have important implications to DBS research suggesting individualized target selection according to specific neural modulatory requirements. PMID:28033356

  5. Gray-scale morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, Peter; Valle, Marcos Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Neural models of associative memories are usually concerned with the storage and the retrieval of binary or bipolar patterns. Thus far, the emphasis in research on morphological associative memory systems has been on binary models, although a number of notable features of autoassociative morphological memories (AMMs) such as optimal absolute storage capacity and one-step convergence have been shown to hold in the general, gray-scale setting. In this paper, we make extensive use of minimax algebra to analyze gray-scale autoassociative morphological memories. Specifically, we provide a complete characterization of the fixed points and basins of attractions which allows us to describe the storage and recall mechanisms of gray-scale AMMs. Computer simulations using gray-scale images illustrate our rigorous mathematical results on the storage capacity and the noise tolerance of gray-scale morphological associative memories (MAMs). Finally, we introduce a modified gray-scale AMM model that yields a fixed point which is closest to the input pattern with respect to the Chebyshev distance and show how gray-scale AMMs can be used as classifiers.

  6. Effects of rearing conditions on behaviour and endogenous opioids in rats with alcohol access during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palm

    Full Text Available Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg(6Phe(7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15, and long, 360 min (MS 360, maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg(6Phe(7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  7. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  8. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  9. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC)

  10. Gray matter pathology and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Christiane; Stadelmann, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Gray matter demyelination is frequent and extensive in most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and has recently received much attention in neuropathologic and imaging studies. Gray matter lesions show distinct pathologic features that make their detection difficult with conventional imaging techniques. Thus, despite their high prevalence, their impact on clinical symptoms has not been defined well so far. This review focuses on recent information from pathologic and imaging studies and summarizes our current knowledge on cortical pathology derived from human and experimental studies.

  11. Herbertus Gray 1821, Herbertia Sweet 1827 und Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florschütz, Peter A.; Grolle, Riclef

    1975-01-01

    Conservation of Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875 was rejected by the ‘General Committee’ because of the existence of Herbertia Sweet 1827, a legitimate name in common usage for an Iridaceae genus. Therefore the illegitimate Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875 must be abandoned. The simplest solution seems

  12. Herbertus Gray 1821, Herbertia Sweet 1827 und Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florschütz, Peter A.; Grolle, Riclef

    1975-01-01

    Conservation of Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875 was rejected by the ‘General Committee’ because of the existence of Herbertia Sweet 1827, a legitimate name in common usage for an Iridaceae genus. Therefore the illegitimate Herberta Gray mut. Lindb. 1875 must be abandoned. The simplest solution seems

  13. Discovery of the gray phenotype and white-gray-opaque tristable phenotypic transitions in Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Huizhen; Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Tao, Li; Du, Han; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-04-02

    Candida dubliniensis is closely related to Candida albicans, a major causative agent of candidiasis, and is primarily associated with oral colonization and infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Despite the high similarity of genomic and phenotypic features between the 2 species, C. dubliniensis is much less virulent and less prevalent than C. albicans. The ability to change morphological phenotypes is a striking feature of Candida species and is linked to virulence. In this study, we report a novel phenotype, the gray phenotype, in C. dubliniensis. Together with the previously reported white and opaque cell types, the gray phenotype forms a tristable phenotypic switching system in C. dubliniensis that is similar to the white-gray-opaque tristable switching system in C. albicans. Gray cells of C. dubliniensis are similar to their counterparts in C. albicans in terms of several biological aspects including cellular morphology, mating competence, and genetic regulatory mechanisms. However, the gray phenotypes of the 2 species have some distinguishing features. For example, the secreted aspartyl protease (Sap) activity is induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA) in gray cells of C. albicans, but not in gray cells of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the biological features and regulatory mechanisms of white-gray-opaque tristable transitions are largely conserved in the 2 pathogenic Candida species.

  14. Gray matter heterotopias: MR and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Myung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To evaluate types of gray matter heterotopias, associated brain anomalies, and its correlation with the patterns of seizure. We evaluated retrospectively 19 patients (male:female=10:9, mean age 21 years) with gray matter heterotopias on brain MRI. Using 1.0T superconducting MR unit, spin echo T1-, proton -density and T2-weighted images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were obtained. Types of gray matter heterotopias were single subependymal in four patients, multiple subependymal in one, focal subcortical in eight, diffuse subcortical in two, mixed multiple subependymal and focal subcortical in four. Associated anomalies were seen in 11 patients: other neuronal migration anomalies in eight patients, corpus callosum agenesis in two, and combined holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation in one. Fifteen patients had seizure. The patterns of seizure were not correlated with the types of heterotopias. In addition to subependymal, focal subcortical, and diffuse subcortical types, gray matter heterotopias included mixed variant of multiple subependymal and subcortical type. Schizencephaly was the most common form of accompanying anomalies, and patterns of seizure were not correlated with types of gray matter heterotopias, even though main clinical manifestation was seizure.

  15. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts.

  16. Connections of the superior paraolivary nucleus of the rat: II. Reciprocal connections with the tectal longitudinal column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eViñuela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON, a prominent GABAergic center of the mammalian auditory brainstem, projects to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC and sends axons through the commissure of the IC (CoIC. Herein we demonstrate that the SPON is reciprocally connected with the recently discovered tectal longitudinal column (TLC. The TLC is a long and narrow structure that spans nearly the entire midbrain tectum longitudinally, immediately above the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG and very close to the midline.Unilateral injections of biotinylated dextran into the SPON of the rat label abundant terminal fibers in the TLC of both sides, with an ipsilateral predominance. The SPON provides a dense innervation of the entire rostrocaudal extent of the ipsilateral TLC, and a relatively sparser innervation of the caudal and rostral portions of the contralateral TLC. SPON fibers reach the TLC by two routes: as collaterals of axons of the CoIC, and as axons that circumvent the ipsilateral IC before traveling in the deep layers of the superior colliculus.The density of these projections identifies SPON as a significant source of input to the TLC. Other targets of the SPON discovered in this study include the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the PAG. The same experiments reveal numerous labeled cell bodies in the TLC, interspersed among the labeled SPON fibers. This observation suggests that the SPON is a significant target of TLC projections.The discovery of novel reciprocal connections between the SPON and the TLC opens unexpected avenues for investigation of sound processing in mammalian brainstem circuits.

  17. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J G

    1979-05-01

    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone.

  18. Gray's paradox: A fluid mechanical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Hao, Max; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Patel, Namrata; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Gray reported that the drag power experienced by a dolphin was larger than the estimated muscle power – this is termed as Gray's paradox. We provide a fluid mechanical perspective of this paradox. The viewpoint that swimmers necessarily spend muscle energy to overcome drag in the direction of swimming needs revision. For example, in undulatory swimming most of the muscle energy is directly expended to generate lateral undulations of the body, and the drag power is balanced not by the muscle power but by the thrust power. Depending on drag model utilized, the drag power may be greater than muscle power without being paradoxical. PMID:25082341

  19. C-peptide of preproinsulin-like peptide 7: localization in the rat brain and activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, E; Dun, S L; Gao, X; Brailoiu, G C; Li, J-G; Luo, J J; Yang, J; Chang, J K; Liu-Chen, L-Y; Dun, N J

    2009-03-17

    With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against a conserved region (54-118) of C-peptide of human preproinsulin-like peptide 7, referred to herein as C-INSL7, neurons expressing C-INSL7-immunoreactivity (irC-INSL7) were detected in the pontine nucleus incertus, the lateral or ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe nuclei and dorsal substantia nigra. Immunoreactive fibers were present in numerous forebrain areas, with a high density in the septum, hypothalamus and thalamus. Pre-absorption of C-INSL7 antiserum with the peptide C-INSL7 (1 microg/ml), but not the insulin-like peptide 7 (INSL7; 1 microg/ml), also known as relaxin 3, abolished the immunoreactivity. Optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye bis-[1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid] trimethineoxonol (DiSBAC4(3)) showed that C-INSL7 (100 nM) depolarized or hyperpolarized a small population of cultured rat hypothalamic neurons studied. Ratiometric imaging studies with calcium-sensitive dye fura-2 showed that C-INSL7 (10-1000 nM) produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured hypothalamic neurons with two distinct patterns: (1) a sustained elevation lasting for minutes; and (2) a fast, transitory rise followed by oscillations. In a Ca2+-free Hanks' solution, C-INSL7 again elicited two types of calcium transients: (1) a fast, transitory increase not followed by a plateau phase, and (2) a transitory rise followed by oscillations. INSL7 (100 nM) elicited a depolarization or hyperpolarization in a small population of hypothalamic neurons, and an increase of [Ca2+]i with two patterns that were dissimilar from that of C-INSL7. [125I]C-INSL7 bindings to rat brain membranes were inhibited by C-INSL7 in a dose-dependent manner; the Kd and Bmax. values were 17.7 +/- 8.2 nM and 45.4 +/- 20.5 fmol/mg protein. INSL7 did not inhibit [125I]C-INSL7 binding to rat brain membranes, indicating that C-INSL7 and INSL7 bind to distinct binding sites. Collectively, our result

  20. Norma Gray: Leading the Way for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Founded by Norma Gray in 1972 as an early-childhood demonstration center, River Valley Child Development Services now operates various programs related to young children in nine southern West Virginia counties and a statewide apprenticeship program for child-development specialists. Programs provide child care, after-school programs,…

  1. The Return to Gray Flannel Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, James J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The liberal mood of the 1960s has given way to a conservatism reminiscent of the gray flannel thinking of the 1950s. Today's young people are cautious, cynical, and dead serious about personal survival. Innovation and liberalism in education are being replaced by fiscal conservatism and emphasis on standards. (Author/SJL)

  2. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldwell, Michael S; Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M

    2014-01-01

    Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones...

  3. Response to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, WeiWei

    2013-01-01

    The recent "TESOL Quarterly" article by Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011) raises important considerations with respect to the use of syntactic complexity (SC) measures in second language (L2) studies. The article draws the field's attention to one particular measure--complexity of noun phrases (NP) (i.e., noun phrases with modifiers, such as…

  4. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  6. Norma Gray: Leading the Way for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Founded by Norma Gray in 1972 as an early-childhood demonstration center, River Valley Child Development Services now operates various programs related to young children in nine southern West Virginia counties and a statewide apprenticeship program for child-development specialists. Programs provide child care, after-school programs,…

  7. Paroxetine engenders analgesic effects through inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in a rat migraine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanming Wang; Wei Bi; Yanran Liang; Xiuna Jing; Songhua Xiao; Yannan Fang; Qiaoyun Shi; Enxiang Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus in rats. These rats were then treated orally with paroxetine at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg per day for 14 days. Following treatment, mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly higher, extracellular concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis were higher, and the expression of phosphorylated p38 in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis was lower. Our experimental findings suggest that paroxetine has analgesic effects in a rat migraine model, which are mediated by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation.

  8. Role of glutamatergic receptors located in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Soltani-Hekmat, Ava; Khani, Abbas; Komaki, Alireza

    2007-10-29

    Neurons in the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), located just ventrolateral to the periaqueductal gray, project to medullary nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), which is a key medullary relay for descending pain modulation and is critically involved in opioid-induced analgesia. Previous studies have shown that antinociceptive response of CnF-microinjected morphine can be modulated by the specific subtypes of glutamatergic receptors within the CnF. In this study, we evaluated the role of NMDA and kainate/AMPA receptors that are widely distributed within the NRM on morphine-induced antinociception elicited from the CnF. Hundred and five male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Morphine (10, 20 and 40 microg) and NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10 microg) or kainate/AMPA receptor antagonist, DNQX (0.5 microg) in 0.5 microl saline were stereotaxically microinjected into the CnF and NRM, respectively. The latency of tail-flick response was measured at set intervals (2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27 min after microinjection) by using an automated tail-flick analgesiometer. The results showed that morphine microinjection into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). MK-801 microinjected into the NRM, just 1 min before morphine injection into the CnF, significantly attenuated antinociceptive effects of morphine. On the other hand, DNQX microinjected into the NRM, significantly increased TFL after local application of morphine into the CnF. We suggest that morphine related antinociceptive effect elicited from the CnF is mediated, in part, by NMDA receptor at the level of the NRM whereas kainite/AMPA receptor has a net inhibitory influence at the same pathway.

  9. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  10. Aestheticism in the Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康妮芝

    2009-01-01

    Aestheticism or aestheticism movement Was an impomuat phenomenon during the hter nineteenth century.Aestheticism advocated the phrase"art for art's sake".Oscar Wildewas the most famous aestheticism writer during the later nineteenth century in Enghnd.His novel the Picture of Dorian Gray was the representative show of his aestheticism thought.The passage mainly shows Wilde's aestheticism thought of the novel in three aspects.

  11. Automatic gray scale correction of video data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochia, Pavel A.

    1995-01-01

    Automatic gray scale correction of captured video data (both still and moving images) is one of the least researched questions in the image processing area, in spite of this the question is touched almost in every book concerned with image processing. Classically it is related to the image enhancement, and frequently is classified as histogram modification techniques. Traditionally used algorithms, based on analysis of the image histogram, are not able to decide the problem properly. The investigating difficulties are associated with the absence of a formal quantitative estimate of image quality -- till now the most often used criteria are human visual perception and experience. Hence, the problem of finding out some measurable properties of real images, which might be the basis for automatic building of gray scale correction function (sometimes identified also as gamma-correction function), is still unsolved. In the paper we try to discern some common properties of real images that could help us to evaluate the gray scale image distortion, and, finally, to construct the appropriate correction function to enhance an image. Such a method might be sufficiently used for automatic image processing procedures, like enhancing of medical images, reproducing of pictures in the publishing industry, correcting of remote sensing images, preprocessing of captured data in the computer vision area, and for many other applications. The question of complexity of analysis procedure becomes important when an algorithm is realized in real-time (for example in video input devices, like video cameras).

  12. Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder David H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations. Findings First, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific interests and general intelligence and between Realistic (“blue-collar” interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability. Conclusions Two of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations.

  13. Pharmacopuncture of Anti-inflammatory Herbal Compounds Suppresses Colon Inflammation-induced c-Fos like Protein Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song, Jeong-Bang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by colonic mucosal inflammation and chronic relapsing events represents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of pharmacopuncture of anti-inflammatory herbal compound (AiC applied to the different acupoints in the acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS intracolonic injection in rats. Methods: In Male Sprague - Dawley rats, weighing 250~400g, TNBS (5 mg/kg was infused intrarectally through a silicon rubber catheter into the anus under isoflurane anaesthesia. Acupoints of LI4 (Hapkok, ST25 (Cheonchu, ST36 (Joksamni, and BL25 (Daejangsu were intramuscularly injected by AiC, respectively (injection volume & times: 0.2 ml / acupoint, twice times on the 2nd & 3rd day. Expressions of cFos protein in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, locus coeruleus (LC, nucleus of solitary tract (Sol, and the 6th lumbar spinal cord (L6 s.c. were observed at 24 hr after TNBS induced colitis by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of c-Fos protein in the L6 s.c., Sol, LC and PAG increased 24 hr after TNBS injection into colorectum as compared to normal and 50% ethanol treated group. AiC to LI4 inhibited the expression of c-Fos protein in Sol and PAG but not L6 s.c. and LC. AiC to ST36 showed significant inhibition the c-Fos expression in L6 s.c., Sol and PAG. AiC to ST25 only showed the effects in L6 s.c. and PAG. AiC to BL25 inhibited significantly the expression of c-Fos protein all over the areas. To investigate whether or not endogenous opioids are involved, intrathecal injection of naltrexone (30ug/30ul was applied before the 2nd pharmacopuncture treatment 24 hr after TNBS-induced colitis in rat. Naltrexone reversed the inhibition of c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord and brainstem. Conclusions: These data show that pharmacopuncture of Aic potently inhibits signal pathways ascending hypersensitivity of colorectum after TNBS induced colitis and depends

  14. GABAA receptor partially mediated propofol-induced hyperalgesia at superspinal level and analgesia at spinal cord level in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-yun WANG; Jun-li CAO; Yin-ming ZENG; Ti-jun DAI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe effects of propofol on nociceptive response at superspinal and spinal level in rats. METHODS:Two hundreds and fifty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into thirty-two groups. Propofol and bicuculline were microinjected into lateral ventricle (icv), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), intrathecal (ith), and intraperitoneal (ip). The noxious responses were evaluated by hot plate and formalin test. RESULTS: In hot-plate test, systemic and superspinal administration of propofol (40 mg·kg-1 ip, 100μg in 10μL, icy, and 4μg in 0.4μL vlPAG microinjection) produced hyperalgesia (P<0.01). Hyperalgesia induced by vlPAG microinjection of propofol was significantly antagonized by 69.8%, 71.2%, 98.8% at 10, 20, and 30 min by microinjection of bicuculline (10 ng in 0.4μL, vlPAG) (P<0.01). Analgesia induced by ith propofol (100μg·10μL-1) was antagonized about 81.3%, 54.8%, 80.8%, and 97.4% at 10, 20, 30 and 40 min by ith bicuculline (P<0.05). In formalin test,systemic and superspinal administration of propofol (40 mg·kg-1 ip, 4μg in 0.4μL, vlPAG) also produced hyperalgesia (P<0.01). The increased formalin pain scores were antagonized about 57.1% by bicuculline (10ng, vlPAG)(P<0.05) at 60 min after formalin injection. The decreased formalin pain scores induced by ith propofol (100μg in 10μL) were antagonized about 66.7% at 30 min by ith bicuculline (P<0.05) after formalin injection. Hyperalgesia produced by ip propofol in both hot plate and formalin test could not be antagonized by vlPAG administration of bicuculline. CONCLUSION: GABAA receptor partly mediated propofol-induced hyperalgesia at superspinal and analgesia at spinal cord in rats.

  15. Information fusion for the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) recently published a white paper describing the "Gray Zone", security challenges characterized by "ambiguity about the nature of the conflict, opacity of the parties involved…competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality."1 Ambiguity and related uncertainty about actors, situations, relationships, and intent require new approaches to information collection, processing and fusion. General Votel, the current SOCOM commander, during a recent speech on "Operating in the Gray Zone" emphasized that it would be important to get left of the next crises and stated emphatically, "to do that we must understand the Human Domain."2 This understanding of the human domain must come from making meaning based on different perspectives, including the "emic" or first person/participant and "etic" or third person/observer perspectives. Much of the information currently collected and processed is etic. Incorporation and fusion with the emic perspective enables forecasting of behaviors/events and provides context for etic information (e.g., video).3 Gray zone challenges are perspective-dependent; for example, the conflict in Ukraine is interpreted quite differently by Russia, the US and Ukraine. Russia views it as war, necessitating aggressive action, the US views it as a security issue best dealt with by economic sanctions and diplomacy and the Ukraine views it as a threat to its sovereignty.4 General Otto in the Air Force ISR 2023 vision document stated that Air Force ISR is needed to anticipate strategic surprise.5 Anticipatory analysis enabling getting left of a crisis inherently requires a greater focus on information sources that elucidate the human environment as well as new methods that elucidate not only the "who's" and "what's", but the "how's and "why's," extracting features and/or patterns and subtle cues useful for forecasting behaviors and

  16. Gray Extinction in the Orion Trapezium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krełowski, J.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Strobel, A.; Mulas, G.

    2016-12-01

    We estimated distances to several Orion Trapezium stars using our CaII-method and confirm the distance recommended by Menten et al. However, we found that in the case of HD 37020 both individual distances (based on the trigonometric VLBI parallax and/or CaII-method) differ from the spectrophotometric distance by a factor of 2.5. We interpret this fact as a result of presence of gray (neutral) extinction of about 1.8 mag in front of this star. The correctness of the applied spectral type/ luminosity class, Sp/L, (based on new original spectra from HARPS-N) and measurements of color indices is discussed.

  17. Gray Related Analysis on Shaped-charge Rod Penetrator Shaped

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng-xiang; ZHANG Xian-feng; CHEN Hui-wu

    2005-01-01

    The gray relation among the design parameters of the cumulative charge rod penetrator (CCRP) is analyzed adopting the gray systematic theory and method, and the gray related matrix among the parameters is obtained. The result parameters of CCRP and the main parameters of influencing the CCRP molding are obtained utilizing numerical simulation. This lays the foundation of CCRP design and provides a kind of effective research method.

  18. Are you using "gray-market" or counterfeit dental products?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, Christensen discusses the prevalence of gray-market and counterfeit products, manufacturers' concerns about them, the need for communication between the dentist and the staff member ordering...

  19. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  20. Gray Matter Changes in Demyelinating Disease: Correlations with Clinical Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Mihaela; Aroceanu, Adina; Ferastraoaru, Victor; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    Recent MR studies have shown that, in multiple sclerosis, selective regional, but not global gray matter atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to identify specific areas of gray matter volume changes and explore the relationship between atrophy and clinical motor outcomes. Nine patients with relapsing remitting MS and 9 matched healthy controls were recruited. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite was administered. For MR acquisitions, a GE- Genesis- Signa, 1.5T MR system, was used. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM), subcortical structures segmentation (FIRST) and volumetric (SIENAx) FSL tools were used in the study. Group comparison showed atrophy for several gray matter regions. The most important volume reductions were found for subcortical deep gray matter areas. Correlations with clinical scores were checked and specific gray matter areas showed significant volume reductions associated with motor scores (9-hole peg time and 25-feet walk time) and EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale). We performed a voxelwise analysis of gray matter changes in MS and found a more prominent atrophy for the subcortical structures than for cortical gray matter. Using an additional analysis (FIRST and SIENAx segmentation/volumetry) we were able to confirm the VBM results and to quantify the degree of atrophy in specific structures. Specific gray matter regions which volume reductions correlate with 25-feet walk, 9-hole peg times and EDSS suggest that 25-feet walk time is the best predictor of disease progression in terms of gray matter reduction.

  1. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  2. Gray matter imaging in multiple sclerosis: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulst Hanneke E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the early onset of the 20th century, several studies already reported that the gray matter was implicated in the histopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However, as white matter pathology long received predominant attention in this disease, and histological staining techniques for detecting myelin in the gray matter were suboptimal, it was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the true extent and importance of gray matter pathology in MS was finally recognized. Gray matter damage was shown to be frequent and extensive, and more pronounced in the progressive disease phases. Several studies subsequently demonstrated that the histopathology of gray matter lesions differs from that of white matter lesions. Unfortunately, imaging of pathology in gray matter structures proved to be difficult, especially when using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques. However, with the recent introduction of several more advanced MRI techniques, the detection of cortical and subcortical damage in MS has considerably improved. This has important consequences for studying the clinical correlates of gray matter damage. In this review, we provide an overview of what has been learned about imaging of gray matter damage in MS, and offer a brief perspective with regards to future developments in this field.

  3. On the motivational drivers of gray entrepreneurship: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Luck, Florian; Kraus, Sascha; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, gray entrepreneurship has become more prevalent. When gray entrepreneurs chose to leave paid employment to become self-employed, it is of concern for companies who may lose highly capable older employees. One of the reasons for this can be a failure to

  4. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  5. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) death by stick impalement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Schmidt, Lori; Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    Although Canis lupus L. (Gray Wolf) individuals are sometimes impaled by sticks, we could find no documentation of natural impalement by sticks as a cause of death for wild Wolves. Here we report on a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota that died due to stick puncture of its thorax and abdomen.

  6. Rapid recovery of Dutch gray seal colonies fueled by immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Polanen Petel, van T.; Gerrodette, T.; Meesters, E.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Aarts, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gray seals were first observed breeding in the Dutch Wadden Sea in 1985, after centuries of absence. The breeding colony there is now the largest on the European continent. We describe the changes in gray seal numbers and their geographical expansion, and estimate how these processes were influenced

  7. On the motivational drivers of gray entrepreneurship: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Luck, Florian; Kraus, Sascha; Walsh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, gray entrepreneurship has become more prevalent. When gray entrepreneurs chose to leave paid employment to become self-employed, it is of concern for companies who may lose highly capable older employees. One of the reasons for this can be a failure to u

  8. 利扎曲普坦对偏头痛大鼠内源性痛觉调制系统缩胆囊肽表达的影响%Rizatriptan effects on the cholecystokinin expression in endogenous pain modulatory system of a rat mi-graine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚刚; 郝婷婷; 黄倩; 于挺敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察利扎曲普坦对偏头痛大鼠中脑导水管周围灰质( Periaqueductal gray,PAG)缩胆囊肽( cholecystokinin,CCK)表达的影响,探讨曲普坦类药物对偏头痛发作时内源性痛觉调制系统的干预作用。方法健康Wistar大鼠随机分4组:A组:对照组,B组:偏头痛组,C组:利扎曲普坦对照组,D组:利扎曲普坦治疗组。利扎曲普坦给药组( C、D组)大鼠给予利扎曲普坦1 mg/( kg·d)灌胃。给药7 d后,B、D组大鼠制备硝酸甘油型偏头痛动物模型,造模2 h留取中脑标本。实时定量PCR及免疫组化法检测CCK的表达情况。结果 A、B、C、D组大鼠中脑每250 ng总RNA CCK mRNA拷贝数(×106)分别为:1.25±0.41、1.71±0.93、0.17±0.12、0.22±0.07。 A、B、C、D组大鼠PAG区CCK⁃8免疫反应阳性细胞个数分别为:37.17±12.62、40.17±11.09、27.33±7.71、20.67±7.66。 C组大鼠中脑CCK mRNA拷贝数明显低于A组(P<0.05),D组大鼠中脑CCK mRNA拷贝数明显低于B组(P<0.05);D组大鼠中脑PAG区CCK⁃8免疫反应阳性细胞数少于B组(P<0.05)。结论利扎曲普坦能够下调偏头痛大鼠中脑CCK基因表达,减弱CCK⁃8对内源性阿片肽镇痛效应的抑制作用,从而提高阿片肽镇痛效应,增强内源性痛觉调制系统的镇痛作用。%Objective To assess the influence of Rizatriptan on the cholecystokinin( CCK) expression in periaqueductal gray( PAG) of migraine model rat to investigate the possible mechanism by which Triptans treat mi⁃graine. Methods A total of 24 rats were randomly divided into four groups:normal control groups(A),migraine model groups(B),Rizatriptan control groups(C) and Rizatriptan treatment groups(D).C and D groups were intra⁃gastrically perfused with Rizatriptan,1 mg/kg per day. After 7 days,nitroglycerin was subcutaneously injected into the buttocks of the B and D group to

  9. Generalized Gray Codes for Local Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Eyal En; Schwartz, Moshe; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    We consider the local rank-modulation scheme in which a sliding window going over a sequence of real-valued variables induces a sequence of permutations. Local rank-modulation is a generalization of the rank-modulation scheme, which has been recently suggested as a way of storing information in flash memory. We study Gray codes for the local rank-modulation scheme in order to simulate conventional multi-level flash cells while retaining the benefits of rank modulation. Unlike the limited scope of previous works, we consider code constructions for the entire range of parameters including the code length, sliding window size, and overlap between adjacent windows. We show our constructed codes have asymptotically-optimal rate. We also provide efficient encoding, decoding, and next-state algorithms.

  10. Biometric user authentication using Gray Wolf Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandrasekar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Major issue in computer security is the need to protect data and computer system from intruders. Hence user authentication is certainly an interesting option for standard security. Keystrokedynamics is a biometrics technique and it plays an important role in user authentication.It is based on the analysis of typing rhythm. In this paper the feature data values are recorded, Hausdroff timing values are calculated and stored as a dataset. Using the dataset the keystroke dynamics provide a more performance. The proposed Gray wolf optimization is used for feature selection. By providing sufficient training and testing the text length, number of dataset and same keyboard type, the keystroke biometric effectively identified the genuine user and impostor.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of rat fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Yo; Kawanishi, Hiroaki (Imamichi Institute for Animal Reproduction, Ibaraki (Japan)); Hasegawa, Kenichi; Otsu, Shinichi

    1993-06-01

    The internal structures of rat fetuses on day 18.0 of pregnancy were studied by magnetic resonance imaging in 1-mm sagittal slices. Each organ was represented as white to gray images different in tone according to the [sup 1]H proton content and the relaxation time. In solid organs, portions with high cell density were seen as white areas and those with low cell density as gray areas. In the tubular organs, the margins were imaged as white and the lumina as gray. (author).

  12. Ultrastructural Evidence For A Paucity Of Projections From The Lumbosacral Cord To The Pontine Micturition Center Or M-region In The Cat : A New Concept For The Organization Of The Micturition Reflex With The Periaqueductal Gray As Central Relay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Bertil F.M.; Weerd, Henk de; Holstege, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Information concerning the rate of bladder filling is determined by receptors in the bladder wall and conveyed via afferent fibers in the pelvic nerve to sensory neurons in the lumbosacral cord. It was assumed that this information is relayed from the lumbosacral cord to a medial cell group in the d

  13. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR A PAUCITY OF PROJECTIONS FROM THE LUMBOSACRAL CORD TO THE PONTINE MICTURITION CENTER OR M-REGION IN THE CAT - A NEW CONCEPT FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE MICTURITION REFLEX WITH THE PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY AS CENTRAL RELAY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLOK, BFM; DEWEERD, H; HOLSTEGE, G

    1995-01-01

    Information concerning the rate of bladder filling is determined by receptors in the bladder wall and conveyed via afferent fibers in the pelvic nerve to sensory neurons in the lumbosacral cord. It was assumed that this information is relayed from the lumbosacral cord to a medial cell group in the d

  14. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood

  15. Differences in quantitative assessment of myocardial scar and gray zone by LGE-CMR imaging using established gray zone protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi; Ego-Osuala, Kelechi; Jeudy, Jean; Purtilo, James; Synowski, Stephen; Abutaleb, Ameer; Niekoop, Michelle; Abdulghani, Mohammed; Asoglu, Ramazan; See, Vincent; Saliaris, Anastasios; Shorofsky, Stephen; Dickfeld, Timm

    2015-02-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging is the gold standard for myocardial scar evaluation. Heterogeneous areas of scar ('gray zone'), may serve as arrhythmogenic substrate. Various gray zone protocols have been correlated to clinical outcomes and ventricular tachycardia channels. This study assessed the quantitative differences in gray zone and scar core sizes as defined by previously validated signal intensity (SI) threshold algorithms. High quality LGE-CMR images performed in 41 cardiomyopathy patients [ischemic (33) or non-ischemic (8)] were analyzed using previously validated SI threshold methods [Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), n-standard deviation (NSD) and modified-FWHM]. Myocardial scar was defined as scar core and gray zone using SI thresholds based on these methods. Scar core, gray zone and total scar sizes were then computed and compared among these models. The median gray zone mass was 2-3 times larger with FWHM (15 g, IQR: 8-26 g) compared to NSD or modified-FWHM (5 g, IQR: 3-9 g; and 8 g. IQR: 6-12 g respectively, p scar that was gray zone) also varied significantly among the three methods, 51 % (IQR: 42-61 %), 17 % (IQR: 11-21 %) versus 38 % (IQR: 33-43 %) for FWHM, NSD and modified-FWHM respectively (p scar core. Infarct core and total myocardial scar mass also differ using these methods. Further evaluation of the most accurate quantification method is needed.

  16. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any.

  17. A Gray path on binary partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Colthurst, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A binary partition of a positive integer $n$ is a partition of $n$ in which each part has size a power of two. In this note we first construct a Gray sequence on the set of binary partitions of $n$. This is an ordering of the set of binary partitions of each $n$ (or of all $n$) such that adjacent partitions differ by one of a small set of elementary transformations; here the allowed transformatios are replacing $2^k+2^k$ by $2^{k+1}$ or vice versa (or addition of a new +1). Next we give a purely local condition for finding the successor of any partition in this sequence; the rule is so simple that successive transitions can be performed in constant time. Finally we show how to compute directly the bijection between $k$ and the $k$th term in the sequence. This answers a question posed by Donald Knuth in section 7.2.1 of The Art of Computer Programming.

  18. Cognitive Radios Exploiting Gray Spaces via Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieruch, Dennis; Jung, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Dekorsy, Armin; Haustein, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We suggest an interweave cognitive radio system with a gray space detector, which is properly identifying a small fraction of unused resources within an active band of a primary user system like 3GPP LTE. Therefore, the gray space detector can cope with frequency fading holes and distinguish them from inactive resources. Different approaches of the gray space detector are investigated, the conventional reduced-rank least squares method as well as the compressed sensing-based orthogonal matching pursuit and basis pursuit denoising algorithm. In addition, the gray space detector is compared with the classical energy detector. Simulation results present the receiver operating characteristic at several SNRs and the detection performance over further aspects like base station system load for practical false alarm rates. The results show, that especially for practical false alarm rates the compressed sensing algorithm are more suitable than the classical energy detector and reduced-rank least squares approach.

  19. Trap-related injuries to gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.W.; Fuller, T.K.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in traps with toothed jaws offset 1.8 cm incurred fewer injuries than those captured in 3 other types of steel traps. Few wolves seriously damaged canine or carnassial teeth while in traps.

  20. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  1. INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF MODIFIERS FOR GRAY CAST-IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that for the purpose of increase of modifying efficiency of the melt from gray cast iron it is possible to use mechanically alloyed aluminum powder with superdispersed particles of aluminum and graphite oxide.

  2. Gray energy of building materials; Graue Energie von Baustoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasser, U.; Poell, M. [Buero fuer Umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-05-15

    The report highlights the importance of gray energy and discusses the relationship to environmental balances. Literature values for the most important building materials are collated and commented. 9 figs., tabs., 59 refs.

  3. Gray energy of building materials; Graue Energie von Baustoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasser, U.; Poell, M.

    1995-12-31

    The tables of this publication present gray energy data for 500 building materials, chemicals, processes and transportation processes stemming from over 50 sources. Explications and recommendations for the building practice are included. 9 figs., tabs., 59 refs.

  4. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo' ; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  5. Characterization of Titanium-Containing Compounds in Gray Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Daxin; ZHANG Yuanhao; LIU Jianyong; HE Hanjun; HONG Xiaoxian

    2008-01-01

    Titanium produces different compounds in gray iron. In order to determine their characteristics, a scanning electron microscope, an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and an optical microscopy were used to analyze the morphology, distribution, and composition of titanium-containing compounds in metal-lographic specimens and machined surfaces in four gray irons. The results show that the titanium-containing compounds in the gray irons are complex compounds containing V, Nb, Mn, S, and other metals, depending on the concentration of these elements in the iron. The number of titanium-containing compounds increases with increasing Ti content in the gray iron. Most of the titanium-containing compounds are located in the peariite matrix, with some in the steadite and carbides. The results suggest that titanium-containing com-pounds reduce tool lifetime.

  6. Gray matter is targeted in first-attack multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS, its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups compared to established relapsing remitting (RR MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse. Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  7. Comparison of Cox and Gray's survival models in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasal, Jan; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Clermont, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate.......Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate....

  8. The ARGOS system used for tracking gray whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, B. R.; Beaty, D.; Hoisington, C.; Kutz, R.; Mate, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of satellite whale tags used to track gray whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean is summarized. Two gray whales were radio-tagged in San Ignacio Lagoon (Mexico) and tracked on their northbound migration. One of the transmitters was modified to record and relay depth-of-dive information at 15 sec intervals throughout the course of the dive. Technical elements of data acquisition and analysis are outlined. The major biological findings are discussed.

  9. Accelerated Gray and White Matter Deterioration With Age in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Klauser, Paul; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Bruggemann, Jason; Sundram, Suresh; Bousman, Chad; Pereira, Avril; Di Biase, Maria A; Weickert, Thomas W; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years. Polynomial regression was used to model the influence of age on gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy at a whole-brain and voxel level. Between-group differences in gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were regionally localized across the lifespan using permutation testing and cluster-based inference. Significant loss of gray matter volume was evident in schizophrenia, progressively worsening with age to a maximal loss of 8% in the seventh decade of life. The inferred rate of gray matter volume loss was significantly accelerated in schizophrenia up to middle age and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, significant reductions in fractional anisotropy emerged in schizophrenia only after age 35, and the rate of fractional anisotropy deterioration with age was constant and best modeled with a straight line. The slope of this line was 60% steeper in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects, indicating a significantly faster rate of white matter deterioration with age. The rates of reduction of gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were significantly faster in males than in females, but an interaction between sex and diagnosis was not evident. The findings suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by an initial, rapid rate of gray matter loss that slows in middle life, followed by the emergence of a deficit in white matter that progressively worsens with age at a constant rate.

  10. Effect of inoculating addition on machinability of gray cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fengzhang; LI Fengjun; LIU Weiming; MA Zhanhong; TIAN Baohong

    2009-01-01

    Gray cast irons were inoculated with FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants. The changes of apex angle of the drills before and af-ter being used were used to evaluate machinability of gray cast irons. Effect of FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants on mechanical proper-ties, machinability and sensibility of gray cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. Experimental results showed that gray cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40% RE inoculants exhibited tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and im-proved metallurgical quality. While gray cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80% Sr inoculants exhibited the best machinability, the low-est cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The tool flank wear of the drill increased correspondingly with the in-crease of the microhardness difference of the matrix, indicating the great effect of homogeneity of the matrix on the machinability of gray cast iron.

  11. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  12. Fast gray-to-gray switching of a hybrid-aligned liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Wook; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate fast gray-to-gray (GTG) switching of a hybrid-aligned liquid crystal cell by applying both vertical and inplane electric fields to liquid crystals (LCs) using a four-terminal electrode structure. The LCs are switched to the bright state through downward tilting and twist deformation initiated by applying an in-plane electric field, whereas they are switched back to the initial dark state through optically hidden relaxation initiated by applying a vertical electric field for a short duration. The top electrode in the proposed device is grounded, which requires a much higher voltage to be applied for in-plane rotation of LCs. Thus, ultrafast turn-on switching of the device is achieved, whereas the turn-off switching of the proposed device is independent of the elastic constants and the viscosity of the LCs so that fast turn-off switching can be achieved. We experimentally obtained a total response time of 0.75 ms. Furthermore, fast GTG response within 3 ms could be achieved.

  13. Mapping apparent eccentricity and residual ensemble anisotropy in the gray matter using angular double-pulsed-field-gradient MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Barazany, Daniel; Sadan, Ofer; Bar, Leah; Zur, Yuval; Barhum, Yael; Sochen, Nir; Offen, Daniel; Assaf, Yaniv; Cohen, Yoram

    2012-09-01

    Conventional diffusion MRI methods are mostly capable of portraying microarchitectural elements such as fiber orientation in white matter from detection of diffusion anisotropy, which arises from the coherent organization of anisotropic compartments. Double-pulsed-field-gradient MR methods provide a means for obtaining microstructural information such as compartment shape and microscopic anisotropies even in scenarios where macroscopic organization is absent. Here, we apply angular double-pulsed-gradient-spin-echo MRI in the rat brain both ex vivo and in vivo for the first time. Robust angular dependencies are detected in the brain at long mixing time (t(m) ). In many pixels, the oscillations seem to originate from residual directors in randomly oriented media, i.e., from residual ensemble anisotropy, as corroborated by quantitative simulations. We then developed an analysis scheme that enables one to map of structural indices such as apparent eccentricity (aE) and residual phase (φ) that enables characterization of the rat brain in general, and especially the rat gray matter. We conclude that double-pulsed-gradient-spin-echo MRI may in principle become important in characterizing gray matter morphological features and pathologies in both basic and applied neurosciences.

  14. Structural gray and white matter changes in patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, Michael; Rabe, K; Esser, S; Gizewski, E R; Husstedt, I W; Maschke, M; Obermann, M

    2011-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based voxel based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of HIV positive patients to detect structural gray and white matter changes. Forty-eight HIV positive subjects with (n = 28) or without (n = 20) cognitive deficits (mean age 48.5 ± 9.6 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched HIV negative controls underwent MRI for VBM analyses. Clinical testing in HIV patients included the HIV dementia scale (HDS), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the grooved pegboard test. Comparing controls with HIV positive patients with cognitive dysfunction (n = 28) VBM showed gray matter decrease in the anterior cingulate and temporal cortices along with white matter reduction in the midbrain region. These changes were more prominent with increasing cognitive decline, when assigning HIV patients to three cognitive groups (not impaired, mildly impaired, overtly impaired) based on performance in the HIV dementia scale. Regression analysis including all HIV positive patients with available data revealed that prefrontal gray matter atrophy in HIV was associated with longer disease duration (n = 48), while motor dysfunction (n = 48) was associated with basal ganglia gray matter atrophy. Lower CD4 cell count (n = 47) correlated with decrease of occipital gray matter. Our results provide evidence for atrophy of nigro-striatal and fronto-striatal circuits in HIV. This pattern of atrophy is consistent with motor dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome found in HIV patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

  15. Gray cases of child abuse: Investigating factors associated with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Asnes, Andrea G; Moles, Rebecca L; Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M

    2016-01-01

    Research in child abuse pediatrics has advanced clinicians' abilities to discriminate abusive from accidental injuries. Less attention, however, has been paid to cases with uncertain diagnoses. These uncertain cases - the "gray" cases between decisions of abuse and not abuse - represent a meaningful challenge in the practice of child abuse pediatricians. In this study, we describe a series of gray cases, representing 17% of 134 consecutive children who were hospitalized at a single pediatric hospital and referred to a child abuse pediatrician for concerns of possible abuse. Gray cases were defined by scores of 3, 4, or 5 on a 7-point clinical judgment scale of the likelihood of abuse. We evaluated details of the case presentation, including incident history, patient medical and developmental histories, family social histories, medical studies, and injuries from the medical record and sought to identify unique and shared characteristics compared with abuse and accidental cases. Overall, the gray cases had incident histories that were ambiguous, medical and social histories that were more similar to abuse cases, and injuries that were similar to accidental injuries. Thus, the lack of clarity in these cases was not attributable to any single element of the incident, history, or injury. Gray cases represent a clinical challenge in child abuse pediatrics and deserve continued attention in research.

  16. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Gray Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Herui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting provides the basis for the preparation of power planning, especially the accurate short-term power load forecasting. It can formulate power rationing program of area load reliably and timely, to maintain the normal production and life. This article describes the gray prediction method, and improves GM (1,1 model via processing the original data sequence smoothly, using the correction model of parameteramending parameter values​​, adding the residual model, and also applying the idea of the metabolism. It conducts an empirical analysis of the 10KV large cable of Guigang Power Supply Bureau in Nan Ping, and verifies the limitations of ordinary gray theory. The improved gray model has a higher prediction accuracy than the conventional GM (1,1 model.  

  17. Wavelet-based gray-level digital image watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The watermarking technique has been proposed as a method by hiding secret information into the im age to protect the copyright of multimedia data. But most previous work focuses on the algorithms of embedding one-dimensional watermarks or two-dimensional binary digital watermarks. In this paper, a wavelet-based method for embedding a gray-level digital watermark into an image is proposed. By still image decomposition technique, a gray-level digital watermark is decompounded into a series of bitplanes. By discrete wavelet transform ( DWT ), the host image is decomposed into multiresolution representations with hierarchical structure. Thedifferent bitplanes of the gray-level watermark is embedded into the corresponding resolution of the decomposed host image. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques can successfully survive image processing operations and the lossy compression techniques such as Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).

  18. Seismic wave separation by the gray-scale Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Asma; Benaïssa, Zahia; Benaissa, Abdelkader; Boudella, Amar; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali

    2016-04-01

    In a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) recording, the useful signal is composed of the superposition of two wavefields: 1/ a downgoing wavefield with positive apparent velocities, and 2/ an upgoing wavefield with negative apparent velocities. To make best use of them, they need to be separated. Several methods exist to perform this separation, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The most frequently used in the industry is median filtering which remains, however, unsuitable when amplitude preservation is critical. In this study, we purpose a new method based on the gray-scale Hough transform (GSHT) which is an extension of the conventional Hough transform used to detect straight lines and other curves. The GSHT has been proposed to detect thick lines or bands in a gray-scale image. The technique, we suggest here, directly maps the gray-scale PSV image, including the downgoing and upgoing events linear bands, in image coordinate space (x, t, G) to the gray Hough parameter counting space (ρ, θ, G). In this new space, the downgoing events appear in the negative angles θ quadrant and the upgoing in the positive quadrant. The inverse GSHT algorithm, we developed, is then performed to extract the bands that satisfy the filtering conditions: θ negative for the downgoing PSV wavefield and θ positive for the upgoing PSV wavefield. The experimental results on synthetic and real VSP datasets are convincing. The wave separation is well performed, even in the presence of loud noise levels, with signal to noise ratio improvement and amplitude preservation, in contrast to median filtering. Key words: Conventional Hough transform - Gray-scale Hough transform - Inverse gray-scale Hough transform - VSP - Seismic wave - Upgoing wavefield - Downgoing wavefield.

  19. Wave-splitting in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.E.; Mazin, W.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator concentra......The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator...

  20. James N Gray - An eScience Visionary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    James N Gray (Jim Gray) was a computer scientist whosemajor contributions include formalising a theory for reliabletransaction processing of large databases and implementingsystems based on his theory. This work was crucial to implementreliable financial transactions by banks and other financialinstitutions. (Financial transactions are a subset of alltransactions.) In addition, he is credited with coining the termFourth Paradigm, i.e., data driven scientific discovery byscientists who collect humongous amount of data with modernscientific instruments. He also collaborated with diversegroups of scientists to organize the data collected by them tofacilitate easy retrieval and interpretation.

  1. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of an...

  2. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  3. Paradox of the Characters in The Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东博

    2014-01-01

    Oscar Wilde is a brilliant Irish dramatist, novelist and critic. His only novel - The Picture of Dorian Gray- is one of the most influential works by Wilde. This paper aims to study the paradox of the three main characters’ life in this novel through close reading in order to achieve a better understanding of this controversial book.

  4. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  5. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  6. Neural response to reward anticipation is modulated by Gray's impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M; Heinzel, Sebastian; Polak, Thomas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Breuer, Felix; Jakob, Peter M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2009-07-15

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between Gray's impulsivity as defined by the RST and event-related fMRI BOLD-response to anticipation of reward in twenty healthy human subjects in brain regions previously associated with reward processing. Anticipation of reward during a Monetary Incentive Delay Task elicited activation in key components of the human reward circuitry such as the ventral striatum, the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. Interindividual differences in Gray's impulsivity accounted for a significant amount of variance of the reward-related BOLD-response in the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Specifically, higher trait reward sensitivity was associated with increased activation in response to cues indicating potential reward. Extending previous evidence, here we show that variance in functional brain activation during anticipation of reward is attributed to interindividual differences regarding Gray's dimension of impulsivity. Thus, trait reward sensitivity contributes to the modulation of responsiveness in major components of the human reward system which thereby display a core property of the BAS. Generally, fostering our understanding of the neural underpinnings of the association of reward-related interindividual differences in affective traits might aid researchers in quest for custom-tailored treatments of psychiatric disorders, further disentangling the complex relationship between personality traits, emotion, and health.

  7. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  8. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, in the littoral forest fragments of south eastern Madagascar. ... and vegetation structure represent suitable habitat for mouse le- ..... ment of tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Biological .... major histocompatibility complex in the Malagasy mouse lemur, Microce-.

  9. Dance and music share gray matter structural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2017-02-15

    Intensive practise of sensorimotor skills, such as music and dance, is associated with brain structural plasticity. While the neural correlates of music have been well-investigated, less is known about the neural correlates of dance. Additionally, the gray matter structural correlates of dance versus music training have not yet been directly compared. The objectives of the present study were to compare gray matter structure as measured by surface- and voxel-based morphometry between expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls, as well as to correlate gray matter structure with performance on dance- and music-related tasks. Dancers and musicians were found to have increased cortical thickness compared to controls in superior temporal regions. Gray matter structure in the superior temporal gyrus was also correlated with performance on dance imitation, rhythm synchronization and melody discrimination tasks. These results suggest that superior temporal regions are important in both dance- and music-related skills and may be affected similarly by both types of long-term intensive training. This work advances knowledge of the neural correlates of dance and music, as well as training-associated brain plasticity in general.

  10. 75 FR 13534 - Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership application for...

  11. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  12. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  13. Is There A Favorable Cultural Profile For IFRS?: An Examination And Extension Of Gray's Accounting Value Hypotheses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David R. Borker

    2013-01-01

    Gray (Gray, 1988) proposed a link between Geert Hofstedes (Hofstede, 1980) popular national culture dimensions used in comparative management analysis and his own comparative concepts for accounting...

  14. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  15. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the... International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement...

  16. 大鼠中枢内源性镇痛系统内GABAB受体的分布%Localization of GABAB receptor in the centr al endogenous pain control system of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫励; 赵华; 李云庆

    2001-01-01

    目的观察α-氨基丁酸B受体(GABABR)在大鼠中枢内源性镇痛系统内的定位分布. 方法 GABABR特异性抗体的免疫组织化学染色方法. 结果 GABABR样阳性胞体较密集地分布于中缝核簇的核团,如中缝背核、中缝正中核、中缝桥核、中缝大核、中缝苍白核、中缝隐核. 此外,中脑导水管周围灰质和巨细胞网状核α部内也有GABABR样阳性胞体. 上述核团内亦可见GABABR样阳性纤维和终末. 结论中枢内源性镇痛系统内有GABABR样阳性胞体、纤维及终末,这些阳性结构可能与对该系统的调控有关.%AIM To examine the distribution of gamma-aminob utyric acid B receptor (GABABR) in the central endogenous pain control system of the rat. METHODS Immunohistochemical staining technique was used with specific antibody agains t GABABR. [ WTHZ〗RESULTS Densely stained GABABR-like immunoreactive neuronal ce ll bodies were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), median raphe nucleus (MnR), pontine raphe nucleus (PnR), nuc leus raphe magnus (NRM), nucleus raphe obscurus (ROb) and nucleus raphe pallidus (RPa). Add itionally, GABABR-like immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were also found in the midbra in periaqueductal gray (PAG) and gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars α (GiA). G ABABR-like immunoreactive fibers and terminals were encountered in those nuclei as well. [ WTHZ〗CONCLUSION Present results indicate that GABABR-like immunorea ctive neuronal cell bodies, fibers and terminals are located in the central endogenous pain control system. They might be involved in the regulatory effects upon this system.

  17. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  18. Mercury and cesium-137 in urban gray squirrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.H. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens); Davis, A.H.; Bigler, W.J.; Hoff, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    Recent emphasis upon the revitalization of major cities has underscored a need for urban wildlife management. Intensive management of the wildlife populations indigenous to metropolitan areas will enhance our quality of life in many ways. One important benefit is that certain species can serve as sensitive indicators of environmental change. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is usually abundant in cities and they are often subject to a variety of destructive environmental factors. In an attempt to evaluate the gray squirrel as an indicator of zoonoses and pollutants, the Health Program Office of the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services conducted a multifaceted study in Jacksonvlle, Florida during 1974. This report presents baseline measurements of body burdens of mercury and cesium-137.

  19. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  20. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  1. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  2. Multiuser-based Gray-level Watermarking Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel watermarking sharing system having the ability of sharing gray-level secret images with multi-user is proposed. Multiple-based number system is used to split the secret into n meaningless shares, each share is embedded into respective cover image with controlled distortion and to be assigned to each user afterwards. The architecture of the proposed watermarking system is an open issue, which means the system is easy to be implemented according to the purposes and concerns of the users. The main feature of the proposed system is sharing a secret of gray-level image among multi-users; another application of such system is ownership verification. To reveal the secret, the necessary amount of shares has to be presented. That is, the secret can be recovered even if some shares were lost. Simulation results show that the recovered secret has robustness against a wide range of imaging processing operations.

  3. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  4. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  5. GrayStar: Web-based pedagogical stellar modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C. Ian

    2017-01-01

    GrayStar is a web-based pedagogical stellar model. It approximates stellar atmospheric and spectral line modeling in JavaScript with visualization in HTML. It is suitable for a wide range of education and public outreach levels depending on which optional plots and print-outs are turned on. All plots and renderings are pure basic HTML and the plotting module contains original HTML procedures for automatically scaling and graduating x- and y-axes.

  6. A Case for Hydrothermal Gray Hematite in Aram Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor has detected deposits of coarsegrained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris [1]. Detailed features in the hematite spectral signature of the Sinus Meridiani region show that the spectrum is consistent with emission dominated by crystal c-faces of hematite, implying that the hematite is specular [2]. Gray specular hematite (also known as specularite ) is a particular gray crystalline form that has intergrown, hexagonal plates with a silvery metallic luster. We believe that the key to the origin of specularite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 C. In reviewing the occurrence of gray hematite on Earth, we find no exceptions to this warm temperature requirement [3]. Thermal crystallization on Mars could occur (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in lowtemperature waters, or (2) as direct precipitation from hydrothermal solution. Aram Chaos has unique chaotic terrain that offers more clues to the formation of the hematite than the relatively featureless flat terrain (as seen from orbit) of Sinus Meridiani. Aram Chaos provides the opportunity to look at a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography. This combination of data suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps a lag deposit. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of 3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse

  7. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  8. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  9. On pattern formation in the Gray-Scott model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming-xin WANG

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, we investigate an elliptic system well-known as the Gray-Scott model and present some further results for positive solutions of this model. More precisely, we give the refined a priori estimates of positive solutions, and improve some previous results for the non-existence and existence of positive non-constant solutions as the parameters are varied, which imply some certain conditions where the pattern formation occurs or not.

  10. MULTI—GRAY EDGE DETECTION BASED ON GENERALIZED FUZZY SET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHui

    2002-01-01

    In this letter,drawbacks of the classical algorithm to enhance the fuzzy contrast among adjacent regions are analyzed.Based on it ,a new fuzzy enhancement algorithm and a linear fuzzy distribution that maps the gray images to corresponding generalized fuzzy set are proposed.Results of two examples illustrate that the algorithm is more effective and faster when used to detect the multi-level edges of images.

  11. MULTI-GRAY EDGE DETECTION BASED ON GENERALIZED FUZZY SET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, drawbacks of the classical algorithm to enhance the fuzzy contrast among adjacent regions are analyzed. Based on it, a new fuzzy enhancement algorithm and a linear fuzzy distribution that maps the gray images to corresponding generalized fuzzy set are proposed. Results of two examples illustrate that the algorithm is more effective and faster when used to detect the multi-level edges of images.

  12. Outplayed: Regaining Strategic Initiative in the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    says study: Satellite images, digital detective work and social media provide strongest evidence yet of Russian crossborder shelling, according to...crowd out effective resistance, establish local or regional advantages , and manipu- late risk perceptions in their favor. So far, the United States has...on the socialization of two important concepts—adaptation and activism. The defense en- terprise needs to adapt to how it sees its gray zone

  13. Gray tone image watermarking with complementary computer generated holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Christophe; Laulagnet, Fabien; Lemonnier, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    We present herein an original approach for the watermarking of holograms in gray tone images for use in microscopic halftone image archiving. Our concept is based on the principle of complementary holography presented in a previous contribution. The efficiency of the concept is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate the interest of elliptical diffraction patterns as an alternative to the usual rectangular diffraction patterns and confirm the subsidiary role of the hologram amplitude in the hologram recovery process.

  14. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  15. Mastering the Gray Zone: Understanding a Changing Era of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    origins and engines of such strategies. But it is important to recognize some of the potential ana - lytical challenges with this category. 14 To...new emphasis on gray zone strategies. HYBRID WARFARE One leading proponent of this concept, scholar Frank Hoffman, defines hybrid threats as “Any...on guerrilla tactics but is a fascinating and im- pressive survey. 3. Cited in Frank Hoffman, “On Not-So-New Warfare: Politi- cal Warfare vs. Hybrid

  16. Dorian Gray, Tom Ripley, and the Queer Closet

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In their paper, "Dorian Gray, Tom Ripley, and the Queer Closet," Jonathan Alexander and Deborah Meem present and portray an imaginary conversation among an impossible but intriguing group of writers, critics, and fictional characters. These individuals speak in their own (published) voices, which are moderated by the author-facilitators and shaped into an extended rumination on art, the Doppelgänger, queerness, and literary influence. Through their dialogue, the actors reveal a tradition of t...

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in gray wolves in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, C; Jakubek, E-B; Arnemo, J M; Malmsten, J

    2010-10-11

    Transmission of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. Because of the close relationship between gray wolf (Canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in Scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. The investigation was based on blood samples collected from 109 wolves between 1998 and 2009 within the Scandinavian wolf project Skandulv. They were analysed by N. caninum iscom ELISA and those with absorbance values exceeding 0.20 were also analysed by immunoblotting. Samples that were positive in both tests were deemed positive. Four (3.7%) wolves were positive at the first sampling. They were all sampled 2005 at different locations, and were both females and males. From one male wolf three samples were collected over a 7-year period. No antibodies were detected at the first sampling in 1998 when he was approximately 8 months old but when he was sampled again 5 and 7 years later the ELISA and immunoblotting were positive. The results indicate that N. caninum infection is present in Scandinavian wolves. It is unclear how the wolves acquired the infection.

  18. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  19. Abnormal gray and white matter volume in delusional infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiro Ichinose

    Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  1. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  2. Consistency analysis of accelerated degradation mechanism based on gray theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia Chen; Hongxia Chen; Zhou Yang; Rui Kang; Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental premise of an accelerated testing is that the failure mechanism under elevated and normal stress levels should remain the same. Thus, verification of the consistency of failure mechanisms is essential during an accelerated testing. A new consistency analysis method based on the gray theory is pro-posed for complex products. First of al , existing consistency ana-lysis methods are reviewed with a focus on the comparison of the differences among them. Then, the proposed consistency ana-lysis method is introduced. Two effective gray prediction models, gray dynamic model and new information and equal dimensional (NIED) model, are adapted in the proposed method. The process to determine the dimension of NIED model is also discussed, and a decision rule is expanded. Based on that, the procedure of ap-plying the new consistent analysis method is developed. Final y, a case study of the consistency analysis of a reliability enhancement testing is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed method.

  3. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  4. Magnetotransport properties in a compensated semimetal gray arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingxiao; Xu, Qiunan; Wang, Xinmin; He, Junbao; Li, Jing; Yang, Huaixin; Long, Yujia; Chen, Dong; Liang, Hui; Li, Chunhong; Xue, Mianqi; Li, Jianqi; Ren, Zhian; Lu, Li; Weng, Hongmin; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Chen, Genfu

    2017-03-01

    We report the observation of an extremely large magnetoresistance (up to 15 000 000% at 1.8 K in a magnetic field of 9 T) in a simple chemical element, gray arsenic, in which the magnitude of the magnetoresistance increases as approximately the square of the magnetic field strength without any signs of saturation. The Hall-effect study confirms that gray arsenic is a nearly perfect "compensated semimetal," with a small concentration of very mobile carriers, which lead to an extremely large magnetoresistance. The analysis of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations reveals a nontrivial π Berry phase, a strong signature of Dirac fermions with three-dimensional dispersion. Furthermore, in the presence of parallel magnetic and electric fields, a weak antilocalization effect and a pronounced negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, which may be linked to novel topological states, are also observed. These findings which uncover the material's basis in gray arsenic not only open avenues in spintronics and magnetic sensor applications but also provide more platforms to study topological materials.

  5. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  6. Histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix on gray-scale ultrasound images for diagnosing lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Gyung; Yoo, Jaeheung; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether texture analysis using histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters can help clinicians diagnose lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and differentiate LT according to pathologic grade. The background thyroid pathology of 441 patients was classified into no evidence of LT, chronic LT (CLT), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Histogram and GLCM parameters were extracted from the regions of interest on ultrasound. The diagnostic performances of the parameters for diagnosing and differentiating LT were calculated. Of the histogram and GLCM parameters, the mean on histogram had the highest Az (0.63) and VUS (0.303). As the degrees of LT increased, the mean decreased and the standard deviation and entropy increased. The mean on histogram from gray-scale ultrasound showed the best diagnostic performance as a single parameter in differentiating LT according to pathologic grade as well as in diagnosing LT.

  7. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  8. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  11. Exact results in modeling planetary atmospheres-I. Gray atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, L. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Laboratoire LUTH, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon cedex (France)]. E-mail: loic.chevallier@obspm.fr; Pelkowski, J. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, J.W. Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert Mayer Strasse 1, D-60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Rutily, B. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, F-69000 (France) and Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622 (France) and Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, Saint-Genis Laval cedex, F-69561 (France) and CNRS, UMR 5574; Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2007-04-15

    An exact model is proposed for a gray, isotropically scattering planetary atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. The slab is illuminated on one side by a collimated beam and is bounded on the other side by an emitting and partially reflecting ground. We provide expressions for the incident and reflected fluxes on both boundary surfaces, as well as the temperature of the ground and the temperature distribution in the atmosphere, assuming the latter to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Tables and curves of the temperature distribution are included for various values of the optical thickness. Finally, semi-infinite atmospheres illuminated from the outside or by sources at infinity is dealt with.

  12. FUSION OF WAVELET AND CURVELET COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for gray texture classification based on the fusion of wavelet and curvelet features. The two main frequency domain transformations Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT are analyzed. The features are extracted from the DWT and DCT decomposed image separately and their performance is evaluated independently. Then feature fusion technique is applied to increase the classification accuracy of the proposed approach. Brodatz texture images are used for this study. The results show that, only two texture images D105 and D106 are misclassified by the fusion approach and 99.74% classification accuracy is obtained.

  13. Douglas Gray et al., ed. The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen MORRISON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Students and other readers of English medieval literature might well be forgiven for doubting the usefulness of yet another guide to the life and works of Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400, around whom a veritable publishing industry has developed in the course of the last few decades. In the case of the Oxford Companion, expertly edited by Professor Douglas Gray of Oxford University, such doubts are misplaced: students and teachers alike will derive great profit and pleasure from this compact,...

  14. Gray Matter Volumes in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-wei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue with uncertain pathologic mechanism. Neuroimage may be an important key to unveil the central nervous system (CNS mechanism in CFS. Although most of the studies found gray matter (GM volumes reduced in some brain regions in CFS, there are many factors that could affect GM volumes in CFS, including chronic pain, stress, psychiatric disorder, physical activity, and insomnia, which may bias the results. In this paper, through reviewing recent literatures, we discussed these interferential factors, which overlap with the symptoms of CFS.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray short-tailed opossum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria.../Metatheria Monodelphis_domestica_L.png Monodelphis_domestica_NL.png Monodelphis_domestica_S.png Monodelphis_domestic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NS ...

  16. Improved Methods For Generating Quasi-Gray Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jansens, Dana; Carmi, Paz; Maheshwari, Anil; Morin, Pat; Smid, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Consider a sequence of bit strings of length d, such that each string differs from the next in a constant number of bits. We call this sequence a quasi-Gray code. We examine the problem of efficiently generating such codes, by considering the number of bits read and written at each generating step, the average number of bits read while generating the entire code, and the number of strings generated in the code. Our results give a trade-off between these constraints, and present algorithms that do less work on average than previous results, and that increase the number of bit strings generated.

  17. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Brief Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement Recommendations (cont’d) located at DoD-fielded locations when forecasting spare...spare parts for Gray Eagle. Review of Internal Controls DoD Instruction 5010.40, “ Managers ’ Internal Control Program Procedures,” May 30, 2013...intended and to evaluate the effectiveness of the controls . We identified internal control weaknesses within the Army’s management of Gray Eagle

  18. Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special Operations in Phases 0-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special Operations in Phases 0-1 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special Operations in Phases 0-1 by Joshua O...18 iii Paper Abstract Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special

  19. Reproductive traits of the gray ratsnake Ptyas korros from three geographically distinct populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Hui LIN; Fei MAO; Ce CHEN; Xiang JI

    2012-01-01

    We collected gravid gray rat snakes Ptyas korros from three geographically distinct populations in China,Chenzhou (CZ),Jiangshan (JS) and Dinghai (DH),to study geographical variation in female reproductive traits.Egg-laying dates differed among the three populations such that at the most northern latitude egg-laying was latest,and earliest at the most southern latitutde.Clutch size,clutch mass,egg mass,egg shape,within clutch variability in egg sizes and relative clutch mass differed among the three populations,whereas post-oviposition body mass did not.Except for egg-laying date,none of the traits examined varied in a geographically continuous trend.CZ and DH females,although separated by a distance of approximately 1100 km as the crow flies,were similar in nearly all traits examined.JS females were distinguished from CZ and DH females by their higher fecundity (clutch size),greater reproductive output (clutch mass) and more rounded eggs.Our data do not validate the prediction that larger offspring should be produced in colder localities.The absence of an egg size-number trade-off in each of the three populations presumably suggests that P.korros is among species where eggs are well optimized for size within a population.

  20. Gray-Scale Image Dehazing Guided by Scene Depth Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with two different types of image dehazing strategies based on image enhancement and atmospheric physical model, respectively, a novel method for gray-scale image dehazing is proposed in this paper. For image-enhancement-based strategy, the characteristics of its simplicity, effectiveness, and no color distortion are preserved, and the common guided image filter is modified to match the application of image enhancement. Through wavelet decomposition, the high frequency boundary of original image is preserved in advance. Moreover, the process of image dehazing can be guided by the image of scene depth proportion directly estimated from the original gray-scale image. Our method has the advantages of brightness consistency and no distortion over the state-of-the-art methods based on atmospheric physical model. Particularly, our method overcomes the essential shortcoming of the abovementioned methods that are mainly working for color image. Meanwhile, an image of scene depth proportion is acquired as a byproduct of image dehazing.

  1. Changes in gray matter induced by learning--revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joenna Driemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help to elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to fast adapting cortical processes that may be relevant to learning. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 3 Tesla scanner and monitoring whole brain structure we repeated and extended our original study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, focussing on the temporal aspects of the structural changes and investigated whether these changes are performance or exercise dependant. The data confirmed our earlier observation using a mean effects analysis and in addition showed that learning to juggle can alter gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as after 7 days of training. Neither performance nor exercise alone could explain these changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task.

  2. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  3. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Rasser, Paul E; Thompson, Paul M; Cavedo, Enrica; Cotelli, Maria; Rosini, Sandra; Beneduce, Rossella; Bignotti, Stefano; Magni, Laura R; Rillosi, Luciana; Magnaldi, Silvia; Cobelli, Milena; Rossi, Giuseppe; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients‘ affective,cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38±11; females: 16, 61%). Results BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (p<0.005). Our BPD subjects displayed a symmetric distribution of anomalies in the dorsal aspect of the cortical mantle, but a wider involvement of the left hemisphere in the mesial aspect in terms of lower density. A few restricted regions of higher density were detected in the right hemisphere. All regions remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons via permutation testing. Conclusions BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. PMID:25561291

  4. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R; Lanfredi, M; Pievani, M; Boccardi, M; Rasser, P E; Thompson, P M; Cavedo, E; Cotelli, M; Rosini, S; Beneduce, R; Bignotti, S; Magni, L R; Rillosi, L; Magnaldi, S; Cobelli, M; Rossi, G; Frisoni, G B

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients' affective, cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38 ± 11; females: 16, 61%). BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (Pmultiple comparisons via permutation testing. BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gray matter alterations in first-admission adolescents with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Romy; Brunner, Romuald; Thiemann, Ulf; Parzer, Peter; Richterich, Andreas; Essig, Marco; Resch, Franz; Stieltjes, Bram

    2011-07-01

    Imaging studies of patients with schizophrenia have described a variety of cerebral alterations. However, long-term medication and the chronicity of the disorder may have contributed substantially to these alterations. Studies examining patients in the early stages of the disorder reduce the possibility of such confounding factors but are rare. In light of this, the aim of the present study was to examine adolescents in the early stages of the disorder to observe primary structural brain abnormalities. Gray and white matter were measured in 13 adolescents with schizophrenia and 13 healthy controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and school type using voxel-based morphometry. Subjects with schizophrenia displayed decreased gray matter in the cerebellar vermis, and alterations in the left putamen and in several parts of the visual system. These findings support cerebellar involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and the alterations observed in several parts of the visual system may provide insights into the nature of hallucinations and delusional interpretations. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. Gray Models of convection in core collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Swesty, F D

    1998-01-01

    One of the major difficulties encountered in modeling core collapse supernovae is obtaining an accurate description of the transport of neutrinos through the collapsed stellar core. The behavior of the neutrino distribution function transitions from an LTE distribution in the center of the core to a non-LTE distribution in the outer regions of the core. One method that has been recently employed in order to model the flow of neutrinos in 2-D models is the gray approximation. This approximation assumes that the neutrino distribution can be described by a function that is parameterized in terms of a neutrino temperature and a neutrino chemical potential. However, these parameters must be assumed. Furthermore, the parameters will also differ between the LTE and NLTE regions. Additionally, within the gray approximation the location at which the neutrino distribution function transitions from LTE to NLTE must be assumed. By considering a series of models where the LTE/NLTE decoupling point is varied we show that t...

  8. Increased cerebellar gray matter volume in head chefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarica, Alessia; Martino, Iolanda; Fabbricatore, Carmelo; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Rocca, Federico; Caracciolo, Manuela; Quattrone, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. Methods Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations. Results Voxel-based analysis performed with SUIT, as well as, automated volumetric measurement assessed with Freesurfer, revealed increased gray matter volume in the cerebellum in chefs compared to non-experts. The most significant changes were detected in the anterior vermis and the posterior cerebellar lobule. The magnitude of the brigade staff and the higher performance in the Tower of London test correlated with these specific gray matter increases, respectively. Conclusions We found that chefs are characterized by an anatomical variability involving the cerebellum. This confirms the role of this region in the development of similar expert brains characterized by learning dexterous skills, such as pianists, rock climbers and basketball players. However, the nature of the cellular events underlying the detected morphological differences remains an open question. PMID:28182712

  9. Outdoor relative radiometric calibration method using gray scale targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; YiNi; YAN; Lei; YANG; Bin; JING; Xin; CHEN; Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiometric calibration of remote sensors is a basis and prerequisite of information quantification in remote sensing. This paper proposes a method for outdoor relative radiometric calibration using gray scale targets. In this method, the idea of two substitutions is adopted. Sunlight is used to replace the integrating sphere light source, and gray scale targets are used to re-place the diffuser. In this way, images at different radiance levels obtained outdoors can calculate the relative radiometric cali-bration coefficients using the least square method. The characteristics of this method are as follows. Firstly, compared with la-boratory calibration, it greatly reduces the complexity of the calibration method and the test cost. Secondly, compared with the existing outdoor relative radiometric calibration of a single radiance level, it uses test images of different radiance levels to re-duce errors. Thirdly, it is easy to operate with fewer environmental requirements, has obvious advantages in the rapid calibra-tion of airborne remote sensors before or after flight and is practical in engineering. This paper theoretically and experimental-ly proves the feasibility of this method. Calibration experiments were conducted on the wide-view multispectral imager (WVMI) using this method, and the precision of this method was evaluated by analyzing the corrected images of large uniform targets on ground. The experiment results have demonstrated that the new method is effective and its precision meets the re-quirement of the absolute radiometric calibration.

  10. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  11. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  12. Detection of visual signals by rats: A computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied a neural network model of classical conditioning proposed by Schmajuk, Lam, and Gray (1996) to visual signal detection and discrimination tasks designed to assess sustained attention in rats (Bushnell, 1999). The model describes the animals’ expectation of receiving fo...

  13. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  14. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favero, B.T.; Benato, E.A.; Dias, G.M.;

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  15. 75 FR 17055 - Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Regulations on the Use of Spearfishing Gear; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Sanctuary Regulations on the Use of Spearfishing Gear; Correction AGENCY: Office of National Marine... and possession of spearfishing gear in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary. That document was... possession of spearfishing gear in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (75 FR 7361). After the...

  16. Relationship between Hounsfield unit in CT scan and gray scale in CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Noorshaida; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Yusof, Asilah; Aziz, Mohd Ezane

    2016-12-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging system which has advantages over computed tomography (CT). Recently, CBCT has become widely used for oral and maxillofacial imaging. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU) is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value). The aim of the present (in vitro) study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and HU in CT scan. In this descriptive study, the anthropomorphic head phantom was scanned with CBCT and CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images at the crown of the teeth, trabecular and cortical bone of mandible. The images were analyzed to obtain the gray scale value and HU value. The obtained value then used to investigate the relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. For the statistical analysis, t-test, Pearson's correlation and regression analysis were used. The differences between the gray scale of CBCT and HU of CT were statistically not significant, whereas the Pearson's correlation coefficients demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between gray scale of CBCT and HU of CT values. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is important in pre assessment evaluation of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  17. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  18. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  19. Gray water recycle: Effect of pretreatment technologies on low pressure reverse osmosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray water can be a valuable source of water when properly treated to reduce the risks associated with chemical and microbial contamination to acceptable levels for the intended reuse application. In this study, the treatment of gray water using low pressure reverse osmosis (RO) filtration after pre...

  20. 75 FR 73066 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC; Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Corps of Engineers (Corps) Grays Landing Lock & Dam located on the Monongahela River in Greene County... without the owners' express permission. Descriptions of the proposed Grays Landing Lock & Dam Projects...-foot-long excavated power canal; (2) a proposed powerhouse ] containing three generating units having...

  1. Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Olusola; Narr, Katherine; Rosenthal, Jonah; Pham, Daniel; Hamilton, Liberty; Watari, Kecia; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Darwin, Christine; Toga, Arthur; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods. Results All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominately in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects. Conclusion Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas. PMID:20832254

  2. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  3. Theoretical foundations of spatially-variant mathematical morphology part ii: gray-level images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Schonfeld, Dan

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we develop a spatially-variant (SV) mathematical morphology theory for gray-level signals and images in the Euclidean space. The proposed theory preserves the geometrical concept of the structuring function, which provides the foundation of classical morphology and is essential in signal and image processing applications. We define the basic SV gray-level morphological operators (i.e., SV gray-level erosion, dilation, opening, and closing) and investigate their properties. We demonstrate the ubiquity of SV gray-level morphological systems by deriving a kernel representation for a large class of systems, called V-systems, in terms of the basic SV graylevel morphological operators. A V-system is defined to be a gray-level operator, which is invariant under gray-level (vertical) translations. Particular attention is focused on the class of SV flat gray-level operators. The kernel representation for increasing V-systems is a generalization of Maragos' kernel representation for increasing and translation-invariant function-processing systems. A representation of V-systems in terms of their kernel elements is established for increasing and upper-semi-continuous V-systems. This representation unifies a large class of spatially-variant linear and non-linear systems under the same mathematical framework. Finally, simulation results show the potential power of the general theory of gray-level spatially-variant mathematical morphology in several image analysis and computer vision applications.

  4. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland...

  5. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, K I; Raji, C A; Lopez, O L; Becker, J T; Rosano, C; Newman, A B; Gach, H M; Thompson, P M; Ho, A J; Kuller, L H

    2010-10-19

    Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to spare gray matter volume in late adulthood, but longitudinal data testing an association has been lacking. Here we tested whether PA would be associated with greater gray matter volume after a 9-year follow-up, a threshold could be identified for the amount of walking necessary to spare gray matter volume, and greater gray matter volume associated with PA would be associated with a reduced risk for cognitive impairment 13 years after the PA evaluation. In 299 adults (mean age 78 years) from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study, we examined the association between gray matter volume, PA, and cognitive impairment. Physical activity was quantified as the number of blocks walked over 1 week. High-resolution brain scans were acquired 9 years after the PA assessment on cognitively normal adults. White matter hyperintensities, ventricular grade, and other health variables at baseline were used as covariates. Clinical adjudication for cognitive impairment occurred 13 years after baseline. Walking amounts ranged from 0 to 300 blocks (mean 56.3; SD 69.7). Greater PA predicted greater volumes of frontal, occipital, entorhinal, and hippocampal regions 9 years later. Walking 72 blocks was necessary to detect increased gray matter volume but walking more than 72 blocks did not spare additional volume. Greater gray matter volume with PA reduced the risk for cognitive impairment 2-fold. Greater amounts of walking are associated with greater gray matter volume, which is in turn associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment.

  6. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  7. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  8. Efficient 2-D Gray-Scale Dilations and Erosions with Arbitrary Flat Structuring Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbach, Erik R.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of gray-scale morphological operations with 2-D structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. For circular S.E.s, it always outperforms the only existing comp

  9. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  10. Gibberellic acid, ozone and 1-methylcyclopropene on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' Rose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favero, B. T.; Benato, E. A.; Dias, G. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered the major disease of greenhouse grown flowers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ozone, and 1-MCP, applied on postharvest, on the gray mold control in 'Avant Garde' rose. Rose flowers were artificially ...

  11. Captures of Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Heather L. Bateman; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    We captured >2000 Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) in a riparian forest mainly consisting of cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Little has been published about abundance and habitat of Crawford's gray shrew throughout its distributional range. During 7 summers, we...

  12. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  13. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  15. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  16. Gray Level of FIC using Zero-Mean Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Al-Hilo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a fractal image compression (FIC based on zero-mean block matching method is adopted. In this method the mean of the range blocks is used instead of traditional offset parameter. The parameter ( has a smaller dynamic range [0,255] than the (o parameter [-255,511] which using in traditional method. This may cause large errors in some image regions (or points especially those which belong to high contrast area. Replace this factors also reduces and simplifies the computations of the affine parameters during the encoding process. The test results conducted on 24 bits/pixel gray Cat image indicated that the encoding time (7.47 sec, compression ratio (5.63 ,PSNR (35.16

  17. Three temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bryan M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully-ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray-diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and co...

  18. Segmented gray-code kernels for fast pattern matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wanli; Zhang, Renqi; Cham, Wai-Kuen

    2013-04-01

    The gray-code kernels (GCK) family, which has Walsh Hadamard transform on sliding windows as a member, is a family of kernels that can perform image analysis efficiently using a fast algorithm, such as the GCK algorithm. The GCK has been successfully used for pattern matching. In this paper, we propose that the G4-GCK algorithm is more efficient than the previous algorithm in computing GCK. The G4-GCK algorithm requires four additions per pixel for three basis vectors independent of transform size and dimension. Based on the G4-GCK algorithm, we then propose the segmented GCK. By segmenting input data into L(s) parts, the SegGCK requires only four additions per pixel for 3L(s) basis vectors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly accelerate the full-search equivalent pattern matching process and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  19. [Opportunistic fungi as producers of gray colonies and mycetomata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, D

    1979-01-01

    Madurella grisea Mackinnon, Ferrada and Montemayor, 1949, is not the unique species that produces gray colonies and black-grained mycetomata. Perhaps, it is not one species, because its grains and colonies may be confounded with those of several species that can be distinguished through their fertile structures. I take this opportunity to compare some characters of Pyrenochaeta romeroi, Phoma-Phillosticta sp., Chaetosphaeronema larense, Pyrenochaeta mackinnonii, Plendomus avramii and of another aleurisopores Dematiacea with those assigned to Madurella grisea. The need is stressed for the search, the introduction and the divulgation of new methods fostering the formation of disseminating structures (pycnidospores in this case), in order to ensure the proper specification of the agent in every case of mycetoma.

  20. Association between use of tobacco and age on graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the association between smoking, chewing tobacco (gutka, and age of individual on graying of hair. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 patients attending the Outpatient Department of the DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, UP. The individuals were classified into four groups (group I, II, III, IV on the basis of the form of tobacco use (smoking or chewing. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to find the correlation between the mean percentage of individuals with gray hair, risk multiplication factor (RMF, and age of the individual. Results: Mean percentage of individual with gray hair and RMF (r = 0.6487 are found to be positively associated. A significant and positive correlation was observed between the age of the individual and the frequency of individuals with gray hair. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant association between tobacco use and aging on graying of hair.

  1. Overlapping clusters of gray matter deficits in paranoid schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar mania with family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liqian; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Guo, Wanjun; Ma, Xiaohong; Huang, Chaohua; Jiang, Lijun; Wang, Yingcheng; Collier, David A; Gong, Qiyong; Li, Tao

    2011-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to assess volumetric abnormalities of gray matter throughout the entire brain in patients with paranoid schizophrenia or with bipolar mania compared with control groups. We obtained weighted 3D T1 magnetic resonance images from 23 patients with paranoid schizophrenia, 24 patients with psychotic bipolar mania, and 36 healthy controls. Gray matter volume differences were assessed using optimized volumetric voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Both paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania group showed reduction of gray matter volume in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) (Brodmann Area, BA 22 areas), and the inferior parietal lobule, and enlargement of putamen, although different sides of the inferior parietal lobule and putamen were affected in the groups. Our findings showed the presence of overlapping clusters of gray matter deficits in paranoid-type schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar mania. The overlap in gray matter pathology between the two disorders may be attributed to risk factors common to both disorders.

  2. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  3. [Imaging Observation of Scalp Acupuncture on Brain Gray Matter Injury in Stroke Patients with Cerebral Infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yi; Cui, Fang-yuan; Li, Kuang-shi; Tan, Zhong-jian; Zou, Yi-huai

    2016-03-01

    To study features of brain gray matter injury in cerebral infarction patients and intervention of scalp acupuncture by using voxel-based morphology. A total of 16 cerebral infarction patients were recruited in this study, and assigned to the scalp acupuncture group and the control group, 8 in each group. Another 16 healthy volunteers were recruited as a normal group. All patients received scanning of T1 structure. Images were managed using VBM8 Software package. Difference of the gray matter structure was compared among the scalp acupuncture group, the control group, and the healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients mainly occurred in 14 brain regions such as cingulate gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, anterior central gyrus, insular lobe, and so on. They were mainly distributed in affected side. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the scalp acupuncture group still existed in 8 brain regions such as bilateral lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and so on. New gray matter injury occurred in lingual gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the control group existed in 23 brain regions: bilateral anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, cuneate lobe, insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, paracentral lobule, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and so on. New gray matter injury still existed in 9 cerebral regions such as lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and so on. Brain gray matter structure is widely injured after cerebral infarction. Brain gray matter volume gradually decreased as time went by. Combined use of

  4. Optimal voxel size for measuring global gray and white matter proton metabolite concentrations using chemical shift imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Adalsteinsson, E; Pfefferbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    Quantification of gray and white matter levels of spectroscopically visible metabolites can provide important insights into brain development and pathological conditions. Chemical shift imaging offers a gain in efficiency for estimation of global gray and white matter metabolite concentrations...

  5. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorevic Peter D

    2005-07-01

    retained within and around these blood vessels and by periaqueductal gray matter. Tissue profiles at two sites next to ventricular CSF showed that IGF-1 penetrated less than 1.25 mm into brain tissue and appreciable 125I-activity remained at the tissue-ventricular CSF interface after 180 min. Conclusion Our findings suggest that entry of IGF-1 into normal brain parenchyma after lateral ventricle administration is limited by rapid clearance from CSF and brain and slow movement, apparently by diffusion, into the periventricular tissue. Various growth factors and other neuroactive agents have been reported to be neuroprotective within the injured brain after intraventricular administration. It is postulated that the delivery of such factors to neurons and glia in the injured brain may be facilitated by abnormal CSF flow. These several observations suggest that the flow of CSF and entrained solutes may differ considerably between normal and abnormal brain and even among various neuropathologies.

  6. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  7. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy...

  8. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker...

  9. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this... duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  10. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and... Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened..., January 4, 1974). We listed a third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi) as...

  11. 77 FR 55529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of..., January 4, 1974). We listed a third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi) as...

  12. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  13. Optogenetics Based Rat-Robot Control: Optical Stimulation Encodes "Stop" and "Escape" Commands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SiCong; Zhou, Hong; Guo, SongChao; Zhang, JiaCheng; Qu, Yi; Feng, ZhouYan; Xu, KeDi; Zheng, XiaoXiang

    2015-08-01

    Electric brain stimulation is frequently used in bio-robot control. However, one possible limitation of electric stimulation is the resultant wide range of influences that may lead to unexpected side-effects. Although there has been prior research done towards optogenetics based brain activation, there has not been much development regarding the comparisons between electric and optical methods of brain activation. In this study, we first encode "Stop" and "Escape" commands by optical stimulation in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG). The rats behavioral comparisons are then noted down under these two methods. The dPAG neural activity recorded during optical stimulation suggests rate and temporal coding mechanisms in behavioral control. The behavioral comparisons show that rats exhibit anxiety under the "Stop" command conveyed through both optical and electric methods. However, rats are able to recover more quickly from freezing only under optical "Stop" command. Under "Escape" commands, also conveyed through optical means, the rat would move with lessened urgency but the results are more stable. Moreover, c-Fos study shows the optical stimulation activates restricted range in midbrain: the optical stimulation affected only dPAG and its downstreams but electric stimulation activates both the upstream and downstream circuits, in which the glutamatergic neurons are largely occupied and play important role in "Stop" and "Escape" behavior controls. We conclude that optical stimulation is more suited for encoding "Stop" and "Escape" commands for rat-robot control.

  14. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  15. Gray matter decrease of the anterior cingulate cortex in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlau, Mark; Gaser, Christian; Ilg, Rüdiger; Conrad, Bastian; Leibl, Carl; Cebulla, Marian H; Backmund, Herbert; Gerlinghoff, Monika; Lommer, Peter; Schnebel, Andreas; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Zimmer, Claus; Nunnemann, Sabine

    2007-12-01

    The brain regions that are critically involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa have not been clearly elucidated. Moreover, decrease in cerebral tissue during extreme malnutrition has been demonstrated repeatedly in anorexia nervosa, but data regarding the reversibility of this cerebral tissue decrease are conflicting. The authors examined region-specific gray matter changes and global cerebral volumes in recovered patients with anorexia nervosa. High-resolution, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry were performed in 22 recovered women with anorexia nervosa and in 37 healthy comparison women. Recovery was defined as a body mass index above 17.0 kg/m(2) and regular menses for at least 6 months. The global volumes of gray matter (but not white matter) were decreased in patients with anorexia nervosa by approximately 1%. Analyses of region-specific gray matter changes revealed a gray matter decrease bilaterally in the anterior cingulate cortex of approximately 5%, which remained significant after correction for global effects. This gray matter decrease correlated significantly with the lowest body mass index of lifetime but not with other clinical variables. In anorexia nervosa, part of the global gray matter loss persists over the long run. Region-specific gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate cortex is directly related to the severity of anorexia nervosa, indicating an important role of this area in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Further research is warranted to determine the cause, specificity, and functional consequences of this structural brain change in anorexia nervosa.

  16. A gray-natural logarithm ratio bilateral filtering method for image processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanan Chen; Kuntao Yang; Rong Chen; Zhiming Xie

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on gray-natural logarithm ratio bilateral filtering is presented for image smoothing in this work. A new gray-natural logarithm ratio range filter kernel, leading to adaptive magnitude from image gray distinction information, is pointed out for the bilateral filtering. The new method can not only well restrain noise but also keep much more weak edges and details of an image, and preserve the original color transition of color images. Experimental results show the effectiveness for image denoising with our method.

  17. A Tentative Interpretation of the Picture of Dorian Gray with Psychoanalytical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇怡彬

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies Freudian psychoanalytical method to interpreting the characteristics of the three heroes in the Picture of Dorian Gray.Based on Freud's theory of psychoanalysis,the paper presents that the harmony of the tripartite personality is the underlying highlight of the novel and concludes that the concepts of the id,the ego,and the superego correspond with the images of Lord Henry,Dorian Gray and Basil Hallward respectively.And this paper claims that Dorian Gray's self-destruction is the most ext...

  18. Introduction to the anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Deméré, Thomas A; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-04-01

    The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is the sole living representative of the mysticete (baleen whale) family Eschrichtiidae. Previous anatomical work on gray whales has been limited owing, in part, to difficulties of specimen access. These contributions to the anatomy of the gray whale head based on dissection of a stranded specimen from northern California include detailed investigation of internal and external features that confirm existing information and provide new evidence for their functional roles, particularly in thermoregulation and feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in neonatal rats of both genders: influence of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; de Ceballos, María L; Ramirez, Belén G; Marco, Eva Maria; Fernández, Beatriz; Rubio, Marina; Guaza, Carmen; Viveros, Ma-Paz

    2004-07-01

    We have studied behavioural, biochemical and endocrine responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in neonatal rats, as well as the effects of weaning on such responses. We used preweanling rats (20 days of age), 25-day-old weaned rats (weaning at Day 22) and 25-day-old nonweaned rats of both sexes. The behavioural effects of WIN were assessed in the nociceptive tail immersion test and in the open field. We also analysed the effect of weaning on corticosterone responses to WIN (radioimmunoassay) as well as on WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in periaqueductal grey (PAG) and striatum. The cannabinoid agonist induced a modest increase in pain thresholds, whereas the effect of the drug on open-field activity, particularly on vertical activity, was much more marked. The weaning process appeared to reduce the baseline nociceptive latencies of the female rats. No significant effect of weaning on the behavioural responses to WIN was found. However, the group of weaned females (but not males) showed a significantly reduced WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in the striatum. The cannabinoid agonist significantly increased the corticosterone levels of 25-day-old rats with the effect being more marked in weaned than in nonweaned animals. The results suggest that the weaning process might produce some sexually dimorphic developmental changes in CB1 receptor function.

  20. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  1. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  2. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-02-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter-gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. © 2016 Fan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-07-15

    Nationalism and patriotism both entail positive evaluations of one's nation. However, the former inherently involves derogation of other nations, whereas the latter is independent of comparisons with other nations. We used voxel-based morphometry and psychological measures and determined nationalism and patriotism's association with gray matter density (rGMD) and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (433 men and 344 women; age, 20.7 ± 1.9 years) using whole-brain multiple regression analyses and post hoc analyses. We found higher nationalism associated with greater rGMD in (a) areas of the posterior cingulate cortex and greater rGMD in (b) the orbitofrontal cortex, and smaller rGMD in (c) the right amygdala area. Furthermore, we found higher patriotism associated with smaller rGMD in the (d) rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Post hoc analyses revealed the mean rGMD of the cluster (a) associated with compassion, that of (b) associated with feeling of superiority, that of (c) associated with suicide ideation, and that of (d) associated with quality of life. These results indicate that individual nationalism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in social-related areas and limbic neural mechanisms, whereas patriotism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in areas related to well-being.

  4. Three-temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. M.; Klein, R. I.

    2017-03-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and coupling coefficients are compared to a full numerical simulation with a good match between the two, demonstrating that steady shock solutions constitute a straightforward and comprehensive verification test methodology for multi-physics numerical algorithms.

  5. Experienced Gray Wolf Optimization Through Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, E; Zawbaa, Hossam M; Grosan, Crina

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, a variant of gray wolf optimization (GWO) that uses reinforcement learning principles combined with neural networks to enhance the performance is proposed. The aim is to overcome, by reinforced learning, the common challenge of setting the right parameters for the algorithm. In GWO, a single parameter is used to control the exploration/exploitation rate, which influences the performance of the algorithm. Rather than using a global way to change this parameter for all the agents, we use reinforcement learning to set it on an individual basis. The adaptation of the exploration rate for each agent depends on the agent's own experience and the current terrain of the search space. In order to achieve this, experience repository is built based on the neural network to map a set of agents' states to a set of corresponding actions that specifically influence the exploration rate. The experience repository is updated by all the search agents to reflect experience and to enhance the future actions continuously. The resulted algorithm is called experienced GWO (EGWO) and its performance is assessed on solving feature selection problems and on finding optimal weights for neural networks algorithm. We use a set of performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency of the method. Results over various data sets demonstrate an advance of the EGWO over the original GWO and over other metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

  6. Gray matter volumetric abnormalities associated with the onset of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Hoon eJung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with psychosis display structural brain abnormalities in multiple brain regions. The disorder is characterized by a putative prodromal period called ultra-high-risk (UHR status, which precedes the onset of full-blown psychotic symptoms. Recent studies on psychosis have focused on this period. Neuroimaging studies of UHR individuals for psychosis have revealed that the structural brain changes observed during the established phases of the disorder are already evident prior to the onset of the illness. Moreover, certain brain regions show extremely dynamic changes during the transition to psychosis. These neurobiological features may be used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers for psychosis. With advances in neuroimaging techniques, neuroimaging studies focusing on gray matter abnormalities provide new insights into the pathophysiology of psychosis, as well as new treatment strategies. Some of these novel approaches involve antioxidants administration, because it is suggested that this treatment may delay the progression of UHR to a full-blown psychosis and prevent progressive structural changes. The present review includes an update on the most recent developments in early intervention strategies for psychosis and potential therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia. First, we provide the basic knowledge of the brain regions associated with structural abnormalities in individuals at UHR. Next, we discuss the feasibility on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-biomarkers in clinical practice. Then, we describe potential etiopathological mechanisms underlying structural brain abnormalities in prodromal psychosis. Finally, we discuss the potentials and limitations related to neuroimaging studies in individuals at UHR.

  7. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

  8. Structure Analysis at the Micro Iron Pour at Gray Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melya D. Sebayang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gray cast iron brake drum as the material is the most appropriate choice, because it has properties which have good heat conductivity, hardness, toughness, good friction properties and the ability to absorb vibration. The purpose of this study to determine the ratio of the microstructure on both original material drum that is new and original drum ex-wear. With the aim of analysis is expected to be used as basis in planning the development of better vehicle brakes. Of all the test results it can be mentioned chemical composition of test results with the main alloying elements, to drum new original: C 4:13%, 2:51% Si, 0.15% S, 0.65% Mn, 0.0054% P, and the original drum ex-wear: C 4:13%, 2:17% Si, 0.15% S, 0.53% Mn, 0.0054% P. So the comparison of properties of the resulting structure after the testing process on each drum is the hardness and resistance to wear and tear on a new original drum better when compared with the original drum ex-wear.

  9. Hydrogeology of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from 35 new test coreholes and aquifer-test, water-level, and water-quality data were combined with existing hydrogeologic data to define the extent, thickness, hydraulic properties, and degree of confinement of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida. This aquifer, previously known to be present only in southeastern Florida (Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties) below, and to the west of, the Biscayne aquifer, extends over most of central-south Florida, including eastern and central Collier County and southern Hendry County; it is the same as the lower Tamiami aquifer to the north, and it becomes the water-table aquifer and the upper limestone part of the lower Tamiami aquifer to the west. The aquifer generally is composed of gray, shelly, lightly to moderately cemented limestone with abundant shell fragments or carbonate sand, abundant skeletal moldic porosity, and minor quartz sand. The gray limestone aquifer comprises the Ochopee Limestone of the Tamiami Formation, and, in some areas, the uppermost permeable part of an unnamed formation principally composed of quartz sand. Underlying the unnamed formation is the Peace River Formation of the upper Hawthorn Group, the top of which is the base of the surficial aquifer system. Overlying the aquifer and providing confinement in much of the area is the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The thickness of the aquifer is comparatively uniform, generally ranging from 30 to 100 feet. The unnamed formation part of the aquifer is up to 20 feet thick. The Ochopee Limestone accumulated in a carbonate ramp depositional system and contains a heterozoan carbonate-particle association. The principal rock types of the aquifer are pelecypod lime rudstones and floatstones and permeable quartz sands and sandstones. The pore types are mainly intergrain and separate vug (skeletal-moldic) pore spaces. The rock fabric and associated primary and secondary pore spaces combine to form a dual diffuse

  10. Application of a single-instruction computer to dilation and erosion of gray-valued images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Phillip A.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the single instruction architecture is used to construct circuitry to perform dilation and erosion of gray valued images, where the gray values are discrete but limited only by the number of bits chosen for the binary encoding. In addition, methods for minimizing the number of cells needed, using basic digital techniques, are discussed. While others have constructed architectures for gray valued dilation and erosion, these are based on non- homogeneous circuits, and typically use Umbra transformations to handle the gray values, rather than binary encoding. Finally, it is shown that the half-adder elements used in the single instruction architecture can easily be replaced with uniform multiplexer cells in deference to the McCulloch-Pitts model of the neuron. This analogy between the single instruction architecture and the neuronal construction of the brain is intentional.

  11. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  12. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  13. Partner Selection Analysis and System Development Based on Gray Relation Analysis for an Agile Virtual Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the state of the art of partner selection and enumerates the advantage of partner selection based on gray relation analysis comparing to the other algorithms of the partner selection. Furthermore, partner selection system based on gray relation for an Agile Virtual Enterprise(AVE) is analyzed and designed based on the definition and characteristics of the AVE. According to J2EE mode, the architecture of the partner selection system is put forward and the system is developed using JSP, EJB and SQL Server. The paper lays emphasis on a gray relational mathematic model, AVE evaluation infrastructure, a core algorithm of partner selection and a multi-layer gray relation selection process.

  14. Accuracy of Gray-scale and Three-dimensional Power Doppler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2D gray-scale ultrasound for antenatal diagnosis of MAP. Crowded ... optimum time for planned delivery is around 34–35 weeks following a ... covering scar of previous cesarean section and scar by ... following a course of corticosteroids.

  15. [Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston and Best, 1942 (Acanthocephala) in Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus entropia Gray, 1846 (Cetacea: Delphinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, L; Puga, S

    1990-01-01

    The finding of Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston and Best 1942, as a parasite of Cephalorhynchus eutropia Gray, 1846, is reported. This constitutes the first record of this acanthocephala in a new host, as well a new geographic distribution.

  16. GRay: a Massively Parallel GPU-Based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Ozel, Feryal

    2013-01-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This GPU-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 nanosecond per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing CPU-based ray tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and lightcurves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of K...

  17. Effects of rizatriptan on cortical spreading depression and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对皮质扩布性抑制及中脑导水管周围灰质c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤鹏; 刘若卓; 姜磊; 于生元; 管维平; 石宏; 陈淑莉; 晋志高; 吴士文; 董钊; 邱恩超

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rizatriptan has an effect on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey (PAG) induced by CSD in rats. Methods The experimental SD rats were randomly divided into group A injected with KCl, group B KCl plus rizatriptan and group C NaCL The number and amplitude of CSD were recorded after KCl or NaCl injection. C-Fos positive neurons of different layer were identified by the immunohistochemical technique 2 hours after the first injection of KCl or NaCl. Results There was no CSD in group C. The number of CSD in group A ( 10.70±3.23 ) was significantly more than that in group B (6.10±2.56, t = - 3.528, P < 0.01 ). The amplitude of CSD in group A ( 17.33 (95% CI 11.45--23.11 ) mV) was significantly greater than that in group B (11.82 (95%CI 9.24--14.70) mV, Z= -4.360, P< 0.01). There were more cFos-like immnoreactive neurons in every layer in group A than in group C (P < 0.01 ) and in group B (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rizatriptan has an inhibitory effect on CSD, which might induce the headache through exciting the neurons in PAG.%目的 观察苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对大鼠皮质扩布性抑制(cortical spreading depression,CSD)和CSD引起中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueduetal grey,PAG)内c-Fos表达的影响.方法 实验选用的SD大鼠随机分为3组,A组:氯化钾刺激组;B组:氯化钾刺激+苯甲酸利扎曲普坦组;C组:氯化钠刺激组.对各组大鼠使用氯化钾(或氯化钠)刺激,以观察CSD出现的个数和波幅;第1次刺激2 h后使用免疫组织化学法检测各组PAG内不同层面c-Fos阳性神经元.结果 C组未记录到CSI).A组CSD个数(10.70±3.23)较B组(6.10±2.56)显著增多(t=-3.528,P<0.01);A组CSD波幅[17.33(95%CI 11.45~23.11)mV]较B组[11.82(95%CI 9.24~14.70)mV]显著增加(Z=-4.360,P<0.01).A组各层面c-Fos阳性细胞数较B、C组显著增多(P<0.05).结论 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对CSD有抑制作用,可使CSD引起PAG内神经元兴奋作用减弱.

  18. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We fit our diffusion...... model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each...

  19. Construction of engineering Trichoderma strains and their characteristics against tomato gray mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian; ZHUANG Jing-hua; GAO Zeng-gui; YANG Chang-cheng; CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The transformed Trichoderma strains Ttrm31, Ttrm34 and Ttrm55 were obtained from Trichoderma wild strain T21 mutated by REMI technique for more effective biocontrol of tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) with Trichoderma agent. Those transformants appeared much better in biocontrol activity in vitro or in vivo against tomato gray mold were better than that of wild strain T21. The main results were as follow:

  20. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to p...

  1. Hand Vein Images Enhancement Based on Local Gray-level Information Histogram

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wang; Guoqing Wang; Ming Li; Wenkai Du; Wenhui Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Histogram equalization theory, this paper presents a novel concept of histogram to realize the contrast enhancement of hand vein images, avoiding the lost of topological vein structure or importing the fake vein information. Firstly, we propose the concept of gray-level information histogram, the fundamental characteristic of which is that the amplitudes of the components can objectively reflect the contribution of the gray levels and information to the representation of image in...

  2. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrices: Generalisation and Some New Features

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Bino; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) are one of the earliest techniques used for image texture analysis. In this paper we defined a new feature called trace extracted from the GLCM and its implications in texture analysis are discussed in the context of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). The theoretical extension of GLCM to n-dimensional gray scale images are also discussed. The results indicate that trace features outperform Haralick features when applied to CBIR.

  3. Risk for Early-Onset Schizophrenia Assessed via Gray-Matter Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated image analysis algorithms were used to measure regional gray matter volumes in children with early-onset schizophrenia. Logistic regression analysis of gray matter volumes within Brodman areas was used to test the ability to predict whether a subject was normal or schizophrenic. The ROC area-under-the-curve was 0.84 ± 0.15 across the 10 cross validation groups indicating good discrimination between schizophrenic and normal subjects.

  4. Risk for early-onset schizophrenia assessed via gray-matter distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, James D

    2005-01-01

    Automated image analysis algorithms were used to measure regional gray matter volumes in children with early-onset schizophrenia. Logistic regression analysis of gray matter volumes within Brodman areas was used to test the ability to predict whether a subject was normal or schizophrenic. The ROC area-under-the-curve was 0.84 +/- 0.15 across the 10 cross validation groups indicating good discrimination between schizophrenic and normal subjects.

  5. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  6. Gray comprehensive assessment and optimal selection of water consumption forecasting model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessing method based on the principle of the gray system theory and gray relational grade analysis was put forward to optimize water consumption forecasting models. The method provides a better accuracy for the assessment and the optimal selection of the water consumption forecasting models. The results show that the forecasting model built on this comprehensive assessing method presents better self-adaptability and accuracy in forecasting.

  7. 灰色收入浅析%Analysis of Gray Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 蒋欣妤

    2013-01-01

    In the market-oriented reform process, there will be widening income gap, these gaps in the normal range. It is acceptable, but the gray income caused by abnormal income, people with a strong public anger emotions, and even lead to social problems. The gray income is divided into light and dark gray, and the existence of gray income areas, light gray areas include teachers, the tourism industry, medicine, and reporters; dark gray areas include the operation of financial capital, lending operations and rent-seeking behavior of gray income from the social, political and economic analysis of three levels of gray income hazards, put forward a sound legal system, strengthen ideological and strengthen social supervision countermeasures and suggestions.%  在市场化改革过程中,必然出现收入差距扩大,这些差距在正常范围内。人们是可以接受的,但灰色收入所导致的不正常的收入,人们具有强烈的公愤情绪、甚至引发社会问题。将灰色收入划分为浅灰和深灰,以及灰色收入存在的领域,浅灰领域主要包括教师、旅游行业、医药和记者;深灰领域主要包括财政资金的运作、贷款操作和寻租行为的灰色收入,从社会、政治和经济三个层面分析灰色收入的危害,提出完善法制、加强思想建设和增强社会监督的对策和建议。

  8. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-04-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 'GORGEOUS MONSTROSITY': DERRIDA'S DECONSTRUCTION AS AN ALTERNATIVE POSTMODERNIST TOOL IN ANALYSING ALASDAIR GRAY'S POOR THINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Małecka

    2009-01-01

    The article is a postmodernism interpretation of Alasdair Gray's acclaimed novel "The Poor Things". The main motifs in the novel are re-read in the light of the theories of Jacques Derrida and Ludwig Wittgenstein. At the centre of the analysis stands the intertextual and deconstructive reading of the role of the main heroine, Bella Baxter. As the novel's 'gorgeous monstrosity', Bella is a prototype construct embedded in the linguistic nature of reality. In Gray's postmodern vision, Bella embo...

  10. Fabrication of a curved microlens array using double gray-scale digital maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ningning; Zhang, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    Digital maskless lithography is considered to be a high-efficiency and low-cost approach for the fabrication of microstructures, but is limited by the gray scale capability of spatial light modulators. In this work, a novel method of double gray-scale digital maskless lithography is presented for forming a curved microlens array. The target exposure dose profile of the curved microlens array is first split into two individual 3D energy profiles, and then each 3D energy profile can be respectively realized by a single gray-scale digital lithography. Two gray-scale digital masks obtained by projection calculation are superposed on the substrate so as to realize the exposure dose profile of the curved microlens array. Thus, the effective steps that are achieved through the photoresist response to the modulated UV exposure are doubled, so a smoother profile with a steep gradient can be formed by the precise modulation of double gray-scale masks. As a result of the double gray-scale method, a curved microlens array with 183 micro lenslets on a 1024 µm  ×  768 µm spherical surface has been successfully fabricated.

  11. Cannabis, Cigarettes, and Their Co-Occurring Use: Disentangling Differences in Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Rao, Hengyi; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques are powerful tools for examining the effects of drug use on the brain. The nicotine and cannabis literature has demonstrated differences between nicotine cigarette smokers and cannabis users compared to controls in brain structure; however, less is known about the effects of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry to examine gray matter volume differences between four groups: (1) cannabis-dependent individuals who do not smoke tobacco (Cs); (2) cannabis-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (CTs); (3) cannabis-naïve, nicotine-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (Ts); and (4) healthy controls (HCs). We also explored associations between gray matter volume and measures of cannabis and tobacco use. Results: A significant group effect was observed in the left putamen, thalamus, right precentral gyrus, and left cerebellum. Compared to HCs, the Cs, CTs, and Ts exhibited larger gray matter volumes in the left putamen. Cs also had larger gray matter volume than HCs in the right precentral gyrus. Cs and CTs exhibited smaller gray matter volume than HCs in the thalamus, and CTs and Ts had smaller left cerebellar gray matter volume than HCs. Conclusions: This study extends previous research that independently examined the effects of cannabis or tobacco use on brain structure by including an examination of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use, and provides evidence that cannabis and tobacco exposure are associated with alterations in brain regions associated with addiction. PMID:26045474

  12. Fast retrieval of calcification from sequential intravascular ultrasound gray-scale images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Bing-Ru, Liu

    2016-08-12

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization is invaluable for the computer-aided diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiac vessel diseases. Although the analysis of raw backscattered signals allows more accurate plaque characterization than gray-scale images, its applications are limited due to its nature of electrocardiogram-gated acquisition. Images acquired by IVUS devices that do not allow the acquisition of raw signals cannot be characterized. To address these limitations, we developed a method for fast frame-by-frame retrieval and location of calcification according to the jump features of radial gray-level variation curves from sequential IVUS gray-scale images. The proposed method consists of three main steps: (1) radial gray-level variation curves are extracted from each filtered polar view, (2) sequential images are preliminarily queried according to the maximal slopes of radial gray-level variation curves, and finally, (3) key frames that include calcification are selected through checking the gray-level features of successive pixel columns in the preliminary results. Experimental results with clinically acquired in vivo data sets indicate key frames that include calcification can be retrieved with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and accuracy. Recognition results correlate well with manual characterization results obtained by experienced physicians and through virtual histology.

  13. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and Hounsfield Unit (HU in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  14. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Tahmineh; Niknami, Mahdi; Alavi Ghazani, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT). In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU) is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT) and Hounsfield Unit (HU) in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  15. Gray Matter Volume Reduction Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Neuromyelitis Optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Qin, W; Li, Y; Fu, Y; Li, T; Shao, J; Yang, L; Shi, F-D; Yu, C

    2015-10-01

    Whether gray matter impairment occurs in neuromyelitis optica is a matter of ongoing debate, and the association of gray matter impairment with cognitive deficits remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volume reductions and their association with cognitive decline in patients with neuromyelitis optica. This study included 50 patients with neuromyelitis optica and 50 sex-, age-, handedness-, and education-matched healthy subjects who underwent high-resolution structural MR imaging examinations and a battery of cognitive assessments. Gray matter volume and cognitive differences were compared between the 2 groups. The correlations of the regional gray matter volume with cognitive scores and clinical variables were explored in the patients with neuromyelitis optica. Compared with healthy controls (635.9 ± 51.18 mL), patients with neuromyelitis optica (602.8 ± 51.03 mL) had a 5.21% decrease in the mean gray matter volume of the whole brain (P optica affected the frontal and temporal cortices and the right thalamus (false discovery rate correction, P optica (Alphasim correction, P optica had impairments in memory, information processing speed, and verbal fluency (P optica and is associated with cognitive impairment and disease severity in this group. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Higher Potassium Concentration in Shoots Reduces Gray Mold in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermiyahu, Uri; Israeli, Lior; David, Dalia Rav; Faingold, Inna; Elad, Yigal

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional elements can affect plant susceptibility to plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea. We tested the effect of potassium (K) fertilization on gray mold in sweet basil grown in pots, containers, and soil. Increased K in the irrigation water and in the sweet basil tissue resulted in an exponential decrease in gray mold severity. Potassium supplied to plants by foliar application resulted in a significant decrease in gray mold in plants grown with a low rate of K fertigation. Lower K fertigation resulted in a significant increase in B. cinerea infection under semi-commercial conditions. Gray mold severity in harvested shoots was significantly negatively correlated with K concentration in the irrigation solution, revealing resistance to B. cinerea infection as a result of high K concentration in sweet basil tissue. Gray mold was reduced following K foliar application of the plants. In general, there was no synergy between the fertigation and foliar spray treatments. Proper K fertilization can replace some of the required chemical fungicide treatments and it may be integrated into gray mold management for improved disease suppression.

  17. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  18. Nesting ecology of waterbirds at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Montane wetlands provide valuable habitat for nesting waterfowl and other waterbirds in the western United States, but relatively little information is available about the nesting ecology of their waterbird communities. We describe the general nesting ecology of breeding waterbirds at a large, shallow montane wetland in southeast Idaho during 1997-2000. Habitats included upland grasslands and intermittently to semipermanently flooded wetland habitats. We located a total of 1207 nests of 23 bird species: eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), American wigeon (A. americana), green-winged teal (A. crecca), blue-winged teal (A. discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), northern pintail (A. acuta), redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), ruddy duck (Oxyuris jamaicensis), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), American coot (Fulica americana), Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida), American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus), Wilsons snipe (Gallinago delicta), Wilsons phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Most nests were initiated in May-early June and were terminated (hatched or destroyed) by the third week of June. Mean daily survival rate (DSR) for Canada goose nests was 0.954 0.005 (SE) (n = 127 nests), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 21%. Mean DSR for dabbling duck nests over all four years was 0.938 0.006 (n = 141), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 11%. For all other species where we found >10 nests each year (eared grebe, redhead, canvasback, coot, sandhill crane, American avocet, and Wilsons snipe), >50% of nests found hatched at least one young. Success rates for geese, cranes, and ducks were lower than reported for Grays Lake during 1949-1951 and lower than most other wetlands in

  19. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  20. Insulin resistance and gray matter volume in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J K; Vidoni, E D; Perea, R D; Rada, R; Johnson, D K; Lyons, K; Pahwa, R; Burns, J M; Honea, R A

    2014-06-13

    The goal of this study was to compare insulin resistance in aging and aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, and to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and gray matter volume (GMV) in each cohort using an unbiased, voxel-based approach. Insulin resistance was estimated in apparently healthy elderly control (HC, n=21) and neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer's disease (AD), n=20; Parkinson's disease (PD), n=22) groups using Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance 2 (HOMA2) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). HOMA2 and GMV were assessed within groups through General Linear Model multiple regression. We found that HOMA2 was increased in both AD and PD compared to the HC group (HC vs. AD, p=0.002, HC vs. PD, p=0.003), although only AD subjects exhibited increased fasting glucose (p=0.005). Furthermore, our voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that HOMA2 was related to GMV in all cohorts in a region-specific manner (p<0.001, uncorrected). Significant relationships were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (HC), medial temporal regions (AD), and parietal regions (PD). Finally, the directionality of the relationship between HOMA2 and GMV was disease-specific. Both HC and AD subjects exhibited negative relationships between HOMA2 and brain volume (increased HOMA2 associated with decreased brain volume), while a positive relationship was observed in PD. This cross-sectional study suggests that insulin resistance is increased in neurodegenerative disease, and that individuals with AD appear to have more severe metabolic dysfunction than individuals with PD or PD dementia.

  1. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  2. Coat color genotypes and risk and severity of melanoma in gray quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R B C; Rendahl, A K; Anderson, S M; Mickelson, J R; Sigler, D; Buchanan, B R; Coleman, R J; McCue, M E

    2013-01-01

    Both graying and melanoma formation in horses have recently been linked to a duplication in the STX17 gene. This duplication, as well as a mutation in the ASIP gene that increases MC1R pathway signaling, affects melanoma risk and severity in gray horses. To determine if melanoma susceptibility in gray Quarter Horses (QH) is lower than gray horses from other breeds because of decreased MC1R signaling resulting from a high incidence of the MC1R chestnut coat color allele in the QH population. A total of 335 gray QH with and without dermal melanomas. Blood or hair root samples were collected from all horses for DNA extraction and genotyping for STX17, ASIP, and MC1R genotypes. Age, sex, and external melanoma presence and grade were recorded. The effect of age and genotype on melanoma presence and severity was evaluated by candidate gene association. Melanoma prevalence (16%) and grade (0.35) in this QH cohort was lower than that reported in other breeds. Age was significantly associated with melanoma prevalence (P = 5.28 × 10(-11)) and severity (P = 2.2 × 10(-13)). No significant effect of MC1R genotype on melanoma prevalence or severity was identified. An effect of ASIP genotype on melanoma risk was not detected. Low STX17 homozygosity precluded evaluation of the gray allele effect. Melanoma prevalence and severity is lower in this population of gray QH than what is reported in other breeds. This could be because of the infrequent STX17 homozygosity, a mitigating effect of the MC1R mutation on ASIP potentiation of melanoma, other genes in the MC1R signaling pathway, or differences in breed genetic background. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish S; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Regner, Michael F; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody L; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at pbrain cluster-level threshold. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation of outcomes, decision-making, reward, risk-taking, and rule

  4. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  5. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C.; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference—misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action—is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7–54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9–51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07–2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15–2.23, p<0.001; Cohen’s effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05–2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12–2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40–2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM

  6. THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ: IN VITRO ANDROGEN ANTAGONISM, PARTURITION DELAYS, AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fungicide Prochloraz: In vitro Androgen Antagonism, Parturition Delays, and Male Reproductive Malformations in Rats.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr., noriega.nigel@epa.govUS EPAProchloraz (PZ) is an imid...

  7. PERIPUBERTAL DEHP EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripubertal DEHP exposure inhibits androgen-dependent development in Sprague-Dawley rats.N.C. Noriega, J. Furr, C. Lambright, V.S. Wilson and L.E. Gray.noriega.nigel@epa.govUS EPA, MD-72 RTD, NHEERL, ORD, RTP, NC 27711The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhe...

  8. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  9. Digital gray-level transformation for the reduction of redundant shadows in rotational panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Wakoh, M; Yamamoto, K; Ueno, H; Kuroyanagi, K

    1990-08-01

    In rotational panoramic radiography, the tomographic motion in combination with a slit scanning method make an image layer wide. But some objects outside the image layer are hard to blur and they result to redundant shadows. The gray-level transformation, as one form of digital image processing for the reduction of these redundant shadows, was evaluated. Two methods, the gamma transformation and the histogram flattening method, were examined. A drum scanner was used as the image scanner. The panoramic image on the x-ray film was turned into an 8 bit digital image on the image memory, which had the size of a 512 x 480 matrix. In rotational panoramic radiography, there are low density and contrast regions where redundant shadows of the cervical vertebrae and the mandibular ramus are superimposed on the tomographic image. The histogram of the gray-level was suppressed for the lower gray-levels. The stretching of this gray-level distribution was effective in the reducing redundant shadows. When processed by gamma transformation, the smaller gamma coefficient below 1.0 clarified the tomographic image, and when processed by the histogram flattening method, the setting of the level (L) value around 64-128 effectively reduced the redundant shadows. However, the effectiveness of both gray-level transformations was greatest in restricted cases in which the area where redundant shadows were superimposed on the tomographic image was comparatively large.

  10. Changes of brain gray matter structure in Parkinson's disease patients with dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia; Weizhong Tian; Jinlin Miu; Hongbin Ding; Xiuping Wang; Hua Chen; Juan Wang; Juan Wu; Jingli Zhao; Huanxin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry is gaining considerable interest for studies examining Parkinson's disease dementia patients. In this study, 12 patients with clinically defined Parkinson's disease and dementia and 12 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease were examined using a T1WI three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo sequence. Gray matter data were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry method and independent sample t-test based on Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software. Differences in gray matter volume were represented with statistical parametric mapping. Compared with Parkinson's disease patients without dementia, decreased gray matter volume in Parkinson's disease dementia patients was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate and left cingulate gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, right precuneus and right cuneus, left inferior frontal gyrus and left insular lobe. No increased gray matter volume was apparent. These data indicate that gray matter atrophy in the limbic system and cerebral neocortex is related to the presence of dementia.

  11. Microstructural Abnormalities Were Found in Brain Gray Matter from Patients with Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain, presented as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs-related pain, is a common, chronic disease involving skeletal muscle, but its underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that chronic pain can induce microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter. However, it remains unclear whether the brain gray matter of patients with chronic MTrPs-related pain undergo alteration. In this study, we employed the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI technique, which is particularly sensitive to brain microstructural perturbation, to monitor the MTrPs-related microstructural alterations in brain gray matter of patients with chronic pain. Our results revealed that, in comparison with the healthy controls, patients with chronic myofascial pain exhibited microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter and these lesions were mainly distributed in the limbic system and the brain areas involved in the pain matrix. In addition, we showed that microstructural abnormalities in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC had a significant negative correlation with the course of disease and pain intensity. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that there are microstructural abnormalities in the brain gray matter of patients with MTrPs-related chronic pain. Our findings may provide new insights into the future development of appropriate therapeutic strategies to this disease.

  12. Comparison of gray matter volume and thickness for analysis of cortical changes in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kunchen; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2011-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two indices of concern in brain structure magnetic resonance imaging research. Gray matter volume reflects mixed-measurement information of cerebral cortex, while cortical thickness reflects only the information of distance between inner surface and outer surface of cerebral cortex. Using Scaled Subprofile Modeling based on Principal Component Analysis (SSM_PCA) and Pearson's Correlation Analysis, this study further provided quantitative comparisons and depicted both global relevance and local relevance to comprehensively investigate morphometrical abnormalities in cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that factor scores from the first 8 principal components accounted for ~53.38% of the total variance for gray matter volume, and ~50.18% for cortical thickness. Factor scores from the fifth principal component showed significant correlation. In addition, gray matter voxel-based volume was closely related to cortical thickness alterations in most cortical cortex, especially, in some typical abnormal brain regions such as insula and the parahippocampal gyrus in AD. These findings suggest that these two measurements are effective indices for understanding the neuropathology in AD. Studies using both gray matter volume and cortical thickness can separate the causes of the discrepancy, provide complementary information and carry out a comprehensive description of the morphological changes of brain structure.

  13. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Nestor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III, and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. Hierarchical regression indicated that Trails B response time specifically explained 15.13% to 19.18% of the variation in IQ and WCS perseverative errors accounted for an additional 8.12% to 11.29% of the variance. Full-scale IQ correlated very strongly with right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=0.610, p=0.002, as did Trails B response time with left middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=-0.608, p=0.003. Trails B response time and right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume jointly accounted for approximately 32.95% to 54.82% of the variance in IQ scores. These results provided evidence of the unique contributions of attentional control and OFC gray matter to intelligence.

  14. Prediction analysis of long-term memory effect for calamity gray series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Zhaonan(CHEN; Chaonan); LI; Zongyang(LEE; Tzongye

    2004-01-01

    It is adequate to use the gray theory for modeling and forecasting short-term calamity series. The forecast of calamity gray series is equivalent to predicting an extraordinary event in nature. In order to look for the regularity, the calamity date series, created from the threshold for a fixed time-interval series, are studied. In this paper, the Hurst exponent is applied to defining the long-term memory effect of the simulated calamity series, and is tested for the feasibility of using it as pre-requisite information before the gray modeling and forecasting. Based on the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model, the time series with a definite length or quantity of data are derived assuming that various kinds of memory effect exist. Different threshold values are defined to yield or to analogize the calamity date series that are required in the prediction of the gray calamity events. After case study, both of the simulated and real seismic data show that the Hurst exponents are greater than 0.5 and, therefore, indicate that the long-term memory effect exists. The correlation between the Hurst exponent and the gray modeling parameter, a, provides criteria for the classification of the forecast.

  15. Gray matter atrophy in narcolepsy: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Wu, Chih-Ying; Lee, Meng; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-12-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on the use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in narcolepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies via the use of a meta-analysis of neuroimaging to identify concordant and specific structural deficits in patients with narcolepsy as compared with healthy subjects. We used PubMed to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and March 2014. The authors included all VBM research on narcolepsy and compared the findings of the studies by using gray matter volume (GMV) or gray matter concentration (GMC) to index differences in gray matter. Stereotactic data were extracted from 8 VBM studies of 149 narcoleptic patients and 162 control subjects. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique and found significant regional gray matter reduction in the bilateral hypothalamus, thalamus, globus pallidus, extending to nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left mid orbital and rectal gyri (BAs 10 and 11), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), and the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in patients with narcolepsy. The significant gray matter deficits in narcoleptic patients occurred in the bilateral hypothalamus and frontotemporal regions, which may be related to the emotional processing abnormalities and orexin/hypocretin pathway common among populations of patients with narcolepsy.

  16. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is known about the history of Atlantic gray whales or their relationship to the extant Pacific population, the extirpation of the Atlantic population during historical times has been attributed to whaling. We used a combination of ancient and modern DNA, radiocarbon dating and predictive habitat modelling to better understand the distribution of gray whales during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that dispersal between the Pacific and Atlantic was climate dependent and occurred both during the Pleistocene prior to the last glacial period and the early Holocene immediately following the opening of the Bering Strait. Genetic diversity in the Atlantic declined over an extended interval that predates the period of intensive commercial whaling, indicating this decline may have been precipitated by Holocene climate or other ecological causes. These first genetic data for Atlantic gray whales, particularly when combined with predictive habitat models for the year 2100, suggest that two recent sightings of gray whales in the Atlantic may represent the beginning of the expansion of this species' habitat beyond its currently realized range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  18. Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hybská

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapis alba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303, negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production.

  19. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  20. Gray matter changes following limb amputation with high and low intensities of phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Sandra; Feiler, Johanna; Dietrich, Caroline; Hofmann, Gunther O; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Limb amputation and chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) are both associated with neural alterations at all levels of the neuraxis. We investigated gray matter volume of 21 upper limb amputees and 14 healthy control subjects. Results demonstrate that amputation is associated with reduced gray matter in areas in the motor cortex representing the amputated limb. Additionally, patients show an increase in gray matter in brain regions that belong to the dorsal and ventral visual stream. We subdivided the patient group into patients with medium to high PLP (HPLP; N = 11) and those with slight PLP (SPLP; N = 10). HPLP patients showed reduced gray matter in brain areas involved in pain processing. SPLP patients showed a significant gray matter increase in regions of the visual stream. Results indicate that all patients may have an enhanced need for visual control to compensate the lack of sensory feedback of the missing limb. As we found these alterations primarily in the SPLP patient group, successful compensation may have an impact on PLP development. Therefore, we hypothesize that visual adaptation mechanisms may compensate for the lack of sensorimotor feedback and may therefore function as a protection mechanism against high PLP development.

  1. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWEyoung adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture.

  2. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  3. Red, green, and blue gray-value shift-based approach to whole-field imaging for tissue diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiyambath Krishnan, Mohankumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Krishnan, Sathiyamoorthy; Parasuraman, Padmanabhan; Joseph, James; Bhakoo, Kishore

    2012-07-01

    Identification of abnormal pathology in situ remains one of the challenges of medicine. The interpretation of tissue conditions relies mainly on optical assessment, which can be difficult due to inadequate visual differences or poor color delineation. We propose a methodology to identify regions of abnormal tissue in a targeted area based on red, green, blue (RGB) shift analysis employing a simple CCD color camera and light-emitting diode illumination in a whole-field-imaging scheme. The concept involves analysis of RGB components in an image with respect to a reference set of RGB values under different illumination wavelengths. The magnitude of the gray value shift is estimated by calculating the Euclidean distance between their normalized RGB coordinates. The shift values obtained using these concepts are thereafter used to construct pseudo-colored images with high contrast, enabling easy identification of abnormal areas in the tissue. Images processed from experiments conducted with excised Wistar rat colon sample (lightly doped with Alexafluor 488) and with simulated tumor (cancer cell pellet placed on colon) showed clear localization of tumor region. This proposed approach and methodology is expected to find potential applications for the in vivo diagnosis of disease.

  4. Program evaluation and its application to equipment based on super-efficiency DEA and gray relation projection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbing Tang; Dong Guo; Jie Wu; Qingmei Tan

    2014-01-01

    For the gray attributes of the equipment program and its difficulty to carry out the quantitative assessment of the equip-ment program information, the gray relation projection method is simply reviewed. Combining the super-data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and the gray system theory, a new super-DEA for measuring the weight is proposed, and a gray relation projection model is established to rank the equipment programs. Final y, this approach is used to evaluate the equipment program. The results are verified valid and can provide a new way for evaluating the equipment program.

  5. Analysis of Gas Radiative Transfer Using Box Model and Its Comparison with Gray Band Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuying Liu; Xinxin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of a wide range survey of various models or treatment methods for the calculation of radiative properties of gases, box model, which is similar to the gray band approximation of spectral band model, was applied to evaluate the gas properties in this paper. In order to compare the accuracy of box model with that of gray band approximation of spectral band models, a typical one-dimensional gas radiation problem was analyzed using discrete ordinate method. Comparing with the widely used gray band approximation of narrow band model or exponential wide band model, box model can well evaluate the radiation source term of the radiative problem.It also has the advantages of simplicity and easy to code, so it is practicable and useful for some complex engineering problems.

  6. A new colour constancy algorithm based on automatic determination of gray framework parameters using neural network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Mehdi Faghih; Zeynab Khosravinia; Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Colour constancy is defined as the ability to estimate the actual colours of objects in an acquired image disregarding the colour of scene illuminant. Despite large variety of existing methods, no colour constancy algorithm can be considered as universal. Among the methods, the gray framework is one of the best-known and most used approaches. This framework has some parameters that should be set with appropriate values to achieve the best performance for each image. In this article, we propose a neural network-based algorithm that aims to automatically determine the best value of gray framework parameters for each image. It is a multi-level approach that estimates the optimal values for the gray framework parameters based on relevant features extracted from the input image. Experimental results on two popular colour constancy datasets show an acceptable improvement over state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Numerical modeling of coupled heat transfer and phase transformation for solidification of the gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Azin

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the numerical model in 2D is used to study the solidification bahavior of the gray cast iron. The conventional heat transfer is coupled with the proposed micro-model to predict the amount of different phases, i.e. total austenite (c) phase, graphite (G) and cementite (C......), in gray cast iron based on the cooling rate (R). The results of phase amount are evaluated to find the proper correlation in respect to cooling rate. The semi-empirical formulas are proposed to find a good correlation between mechanical property (hardness Brinell) and different phase amounts...... and the cooling rate. Results show that the hardness of the gray cast iron decreases as the amount of graphite phase increases. It also increases by increased amount of the cementite and the cooling rate. These formulas were developed to correlate the phase fractions to hardness. Results are compared whit...

  8. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...... of the patients to the contralateral side revealed a difference in cortical thickness in the inferior frontal gyrus (mean difference 0.12 mm, p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: MA per se is associated with abnormal function but not with lateralized abnormalities of gray matter structure. Alteration of the inferior frontal...

  9. 3D Gray Radiative Properties of Accretion Shocks in Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibgui, L.; Orlando, S.; Stehlé, C.; Chièze, J.-P.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; de Sá, L.; Matsakos, T.; González, M.; Bonito, R.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of the contribution of radiation to the structure and dynamics of accretion shocks on Young Stellar Objects. Solving the 3D RTE (radiative transfer equation) under our "gray LTE approach", i.e., using appropriate mean opacities computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we post-process the 3D MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) structure of an accretion stream impacting the stellar chromosphere. We find a radiation flux of ten orders of magnitude larger than the accreting energy rate, which is due to a large overestimation of the radiative cooling. A gray LTE radiative transfer approximation is therefore not consistent with the given MHD structure of the shock. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of radiation, by relaxing both the gray and LTE approximations in RHD (radiation hydrodynamics) simulations. Post-processing the obtained structures through the resolution of the non-LTE monochromatic RTE will provide reference radiation quantities against which RHD approximate solutions will be compared.

  10. A Fault Diagnosis Method of Power Systems Based on Gray System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Darong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide some decision-making suggestions for fault diagnosis in power systems, a new model for identifying fault component is constructed by using Gray theory. Firstly, the basic concepts of Gray theory are introduced and explained in detail. And then the recognition algorithm of the power supply interrupted districts and the assignment principle of fault state vectors are depicted according to the working principle of protective relays (PRs and circuit breakers (CBs. Secondly, based on the concept of the Gray correlation degree, the fault information explanation degree model is constructed and the judging method of malfunction and rejection for PRs and CBs is established. Meanwhile, to achieve the goal of the fault diagnosis, the fault diagnosis procedure that determined which components malfunction is designed for power systems. Finally, some simple experiments have already verified that the proposed method and model are effective and reasonable and the trend of further research is analyzed and summarized.

  11. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography:Only a few shades of gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcio; José; da; Silva; Campos; Thainara; Salgueiro; de; Souza; Sergio; Luiz; Mota; Júnior; Marcelo; Reis; Fraga; Robert; Willer; Farinazzo; Vitral

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures be-cause these images show inconsistencies and arbitrari-ness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCTdevices, changes in the volume of the field of view(FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the ex-amination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, par-ticularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the re-gions of interest are the same.

  12. Decrease of antiandrogenic activity in gray water and domestic wastewater treated by the MBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Lui, Rui

    2013-03-01

    In order to figure out the variation of the androgens/antiandrogens in wastewater treatment, androgenic/antiandrogenic activities were investigated in two membrane bioreactors (MBR) treating gray water and domestic wastewater, respectively, in Beijing city, China. The androgens and antiandrogens were extracted from water and solid samples by a solid phase extraction (SPE) method and the androgenic/antiandrogenic activities were detected with a recombined androgen receptor (AR) yeast assay. The results showed that there were no androgenic induction activities either in water or in solid samples, but all samples exhibited obvious antiandrogenic activities. The antiandrogenic activities in the suspended solids contributed to 27.4% of the total antiandrogenic activities in gray water and 37.7% in domestic wastewater. Although the concentration of flutamide equivalent (FEQ) of the domestic wastewater (3.1 mg L(-1)) was about three times higher than that of the gray water (1.1 mg L-(1)) in the liquid phase, the effluent FEQ of the two processes was comparable, and the concentrations were 53.7 ± 2.4 μg L(-1) and 68.9 ± 6.0 μg L(-1), respectively. By mass balance analysis, a total of 1825.2 mg FEQ antiandrogens flowed into the gray water and 4914.1 mg flowed into the domestic wastewater treatment process every day. More than 95% of the influent antiandrogens in the liquid phase was removed in both systems. And only 64.5 mg and 69.0 mg FEQ antiandrogens flowed out of gray water and domestic wastewater treatment processes every day. Biodegradation was considered to be the crucial antiandrogen removal mechanism in MBR, which contributed to 98% of the antiandrogen removal in the gray water treatment plant, and 91% in the domestic wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Reduced Gray Matter Volume in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Previous studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM have found that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM exhibit gray matter alterations, but these findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of VBM studies of patients with T2DM.Materials and Methods: The seed-based d mapping method was applied to quantitatively estimate the regional gray matter abnormalities in T2DM patients. We also used meta-regression to explore the effects of some demographics and clinical characteristics.Results: Seven studies, with 8 datasets comprising 530 participants with T2DM and 549 non-T2DM controls, were included. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses found that T2DM patients showed robustly reduced gray matter in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, medial superior frontal gyrus, insula, median cingulate cortex, precuneus cortex and the left lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus. The meta-regression also found that the percentage of female patients with T2DM was negatively associated with gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus and illness duration was negatively associated with gray matter in the right middle temporal gyrus.Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that T2DM patients have significantly and robustly reduced gray matter mainly in the cortical-striatal-limbic networks, which are associated with human cognition. Thereby implicating this finding in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients.

  14. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  15. Deployment and post-deployment experiences in OEF/OIF veterans: relationship to gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Aupperle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combat-related PTSD has been associated with reduced gray matter volume in regions of the prefrontal and temporal cortex, hippocampus, insula, and amygdala. However, the relationship between gray matter volume and specific deployment and post-deployment experiences has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to delineate how such experiences may contribute to structural brain changes for combat veterans. METHODS: Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans (N = 32 completed magnetic resonance imaging, the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Clinical Administered PTSD Scale. Voxel-wise Huber robust multiple regressions were used to quantify the relationship between gray matter volume and deployment experiences (combat experiences, military social support and post-deployment symptoms (PTSD, alcohol use. RESULTS: There was an interaction between severity of combat experiences and military social support for orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume. Specifically, individuals with more orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume reported less combat experiences and higher unit support. Individuals with more severe PTSD symptoms showed reduced gray matter volume within a large temporal region (inferior temporal and parahippocampal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: The identified association between unit support and orbitofrontal gyrus volume supports two potential resilience mechanisms to be delineated with future longitudinal studies. First, individuals with larger orbitofrontal gyrus may engage in greater quality of social interactions and thus experience combat as less stressful. Second, individuals who experience greater unit support may preserve a larger orbitofrontal gyrus, serving to "protect" them from aversive consequences of combat.

  16. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  17. Joint source based morphometry identifies linked gray and white matter group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lai; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2009-02-01

    We present a multivariate approach called joint source based morphometry (jSBM), to identify linked gray and white matter regions which differ between groups. In jSBM, joint independent component analysis (jICA) is used to decompose preprocessed gray and white matter images into joint sources and statistical analysis is used to determine the significant joint sources showing group differences and their relationship to other variables of interest (e.g. age or sex). The identified joint sources are groupings of linked gray and white matter regions with common covariation among subjects. In this study, we first provide a simulation to validate the jSBM approach. To illustrate our method on real data, jSBM is then applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 120 chronic schizophrenia patients and 120 healthy controls to identify group differences. JSBM identified four joint sources as significantly associated with schizophrenia. Linked gray-white matter regions identified in each of the joint sources included: 1) temporal--corpus callosum, 2) occipital/frontal--inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, 3) frontal/parietal/occipital/temporal--superior longitudinal fasciculus and 4) parietal/frontal--thalamus. Age effects on all four joint sources were significant, but sex effects were significant only for the third joint source. Our findings demonstrate that jSBM can exploit the natural linkage between gray and white matter by incorporating them into a unified framework. This approach is applicable to a wide variety of problems to study linked gray and white matter group differences.

  18. Growth characteristics of pearl gray guinea fowl as predicted by the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the growth pattern of the pearl gray Guinea fowl. Using BW data from hatch to 22 wk, 3 nonlinear mathematical functions (Richards, Gompertz, and logistic) were used to estimate growth patterns of the pearl gray guinea fowl. The logistic and Gompertz models are a special case of the Richards model, which has a variable point of inflection defined by the shape or growth trajectory parameter, m. The shape parameter m was 1.08 and 0.98 in males and females, respectively, suggesting that the growth pattern of the pearl gray female guinea fowl is Gompertz. The pearl gray guinea fowl exhibited sexual dimorphism for their growth characteristics. From the Gompertz model, the asymptotic BW, growth rate, and age at maximum growth were 1.62 kg, 0.22 kg/wk, and 6.65 wk in males, respectively, and 1.70 kg, 0.19 kg/wk, and 6.70 wk in females, respectively. The ages at maximum growth were 6.65, 6.47, and 8.12 wk for the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models, respectively. The pearl gray guinea fowl females have a higher asymptotic BW compared with the males. The average asymptotic BW of about 1.57 kg for both sexes predicted by the logistic model was below the average predicted BW from the Richards (1.66 kg) and Gompertz (1.67 kg) models, respectively, at 22 wk of age. The inverse relationship between the asymptotic weight and both relative growth and age at maximum growth of the pearl gray guinea fowl is similar to that of chickens, quail, and ducks. Success in studying the growth characteristics of guinea fowl will contribute to the efforts of genetically improving this least-studied avian species.

  19. Ventral striatum gray matter density reduction in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic emotional dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stegmayer

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Decreased gray matter density in a large cluster including the right ventral striatum was associated with severe symptoms of emotional dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia. The ventral striatum is an important part of the limbic system, and was indicated to be involved in the generation of incentive salience and psychotic symptoms. Only patients with severe emotional dysregulation had decreased gray matter in several brain structures associated with emotion and reward processing compared to healthy controls. The results support the hypothesis that grouping patients according to specific clinical symptoms matched to the limbic system allows identifying patient subgroups with structural abnormalities in the limbic network.

  20. Refined weighted sum of gray gases model for air-fuel combustion and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in utility boiler furnaces. Models for radiative properties play a vital role in reliable simulations of utility boilers and simulation-based design and optimization. The weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is one of the most widely used models...... in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air-fuel combustion processes. It represents a reasonable compromise between an oversimplified gray gas model and a comprehensive approach addressing high-resolution dependency of radiative properties and intensity upon wavelength. The WSGGM coefficients...

  1. A Tentative Interpretation of the Picture of Dorian Gray with Psychoanalytical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇怡彬

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies Freudian psychoanalytical method to interpreting the characteristics of the three heroes in the Picture of Dorian Gray.Based on Freudg theory of psychoanalysis,the paper presents that the harmony of the tripartite personality is the underlying highlight of the novel and concludes that the concepts of the id,the ego,and the superego correspond with the images of Lord Henry,Dorian Gray and Basil Hauward respectively.And this paper claims that Dorian Grayg self-destruction is the most extreme development of the imbalance between the superego and the id.

  2. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to predict the difficulty degree of water injection.

  3. Application of Gray Metabolic Model in the Prediction of the Cotton Output in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to forecast the cotton output of China in the year 2011, Gray Metabolic Forecast Model is established based on both the Gray Forecast Model and the Metabolic Theory. According to the actual situation, forecast results of conventional GM (1, 1) Model and Metabolism GM (1, 1) Model are analyzed, showing that Metabolic Forecast Model has higher precision than the conventional forecast model. Therefore, Metabolism GM (1, 1) Model is used to forecast the cotton output of China in the year 2011, which is 614 968.3 thousand tons.

  4. The analysis of the dynamical system arising from Gray — Scott model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishchenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Gray — Scott system used as a model of three-component autocatalytic reaction X + 2Y → Y, Y → Z, demonstrates the complex behavior and was studied in a number of papers. In this work we refine the known results of the bifurcation analysis of the Gray — Scott system and show them by diagram in parameter space. In addition we construct localizing sets for compact invariant sets of the system, i.e. the sets in the phase space containing all compact invariant sets of the system.

  5. Mexican gray wolf courtship and mating : behavior & basic endocrinology during breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Ana Mafalda Lopes Sardica Velez de

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária The Mexican gray wolf is the rarest subspecies of gray wolf in North America. It is officially “endangered” and its survival relies on good captive management and breeding programs. The present study’s main purpose is behavior evaluation and hormonal profile assessment during proestrus and estrus, in this species. Behavioral data and feces were obtained during the breeding season at the Endangered Wolf Center, and analyzed at the Sa...

  6. Anti-aging : Una relectura contemporània de Dorian Gray

    OpenAIRE

    Braut Canes, Montse

    2013-01-01

    Partint de l'estudi del llibre El retrat de Dorian Gray d'Oscar Wilde s'analitzarà, des del punt de vista de la cultura actual, una societat que s'aferra a la joventut i utilitza tots els mètodes tecnològics per defugir de la vellesa. Partiendo del estudio del libro El retrato de Dorian Gray de Oscar Wilde se analizará, desde el punto de vista de la cultura actual, una sociedad que se aferra a la juventud y utiliza todos los métodos tecnológicos para huir de la vejez. Bachelor thesis fo...

  7. Non-gray combined conduction and radiation heat transfer by using FVM and SLW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujia; Zhang, Xiaobing; Howell, John R.

    2017-08-01

    To investigate non-gray combined conduction and radiation problems, this paper uses the FVM to solve the energy equation and radiative transfer equation and the SLW method to model the effect of gas spectral properties in a 2D geometry. Carbon dioxide, water vapor and carbon monoxide are considered as the participating media. The effects of gas species, gas mixture ratios and wall emissivities on the temperature and heat flux were investigated. The accuracy of the gray gas model is also analyzed compared to the SLW method.

  8. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)] e-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2006-02-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data.

  9. Human reactions to reward and punishment: a questionnaire examination of Gray's personality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G D; Barrett, P T; Gray, J A

    1989-11-01

    The development of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire is described; this is an instrument designed to measure human equivalents of six animal behaviour paradigms--Approach, Active Avoidance, Passive Avoidance, Extinction, Fight and Flight. Although these six scales showed satisfactory internal consistency they failed to link up into the three major systems suggested by Gray's personality theory. The strongest associations were between Fight and Approach and between Flight and Passive Avoidance. This raises questions as to how the neurological systems of activation, inhibition and fight/flight are related to human personality structure.

  10. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY OF GRAY CAST IRON GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY DISPERSION-FILLED CONSUMABLE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nebozhak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key criteria of the process of graphitizing modification of matrix melt silicon concentration and silicon assimilation evaluated were on samples of gray cast iron grade СЧ20 State Standard 1412-85. These criteria of evaluation on the structure and properties of casting ingots proved an efficiency of intra-mold modification of molten gray cast iron by dispersed ferrosilicon grade ФС75 State Standard 1415-93 (ISO 5445-80 using lost-foam casting (LFC-process.

  12. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-01-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate (R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling...... rate. More trials were carried out to find a good correlation between the hardness and phase composition. New proposed formulas show that the hardness of gray cast iron decreases as the amount of graphite phase increases, and increases as the amount of cementite increases. These formulas are developed...

  13. Transsynaptic tracing of CNS neural circuitry involved in the innervation of bladder function in the adult rat brainstem and spinal cord%大鼠脊髓及脑干内膀胱支配中枢的跨突触示踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛珺; 肖燎原; 张月雷; 林浩东; 侯春林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the CNS neural circuitry involved in the innervation of bladder function in the adult rat brainstem and spinal cord using pseudorabies virus,a transsynaptic tracer,so as to lay down the basis for further studying of brain functional reorganization after bladder function reconstruction.Methods GFP-PRV 4.5ul (1 × 108 PFU/ml)was injected into the bladder wall of 15 adult female SD rats at 3 different sites.The distribution of virus-infected neurons in the brainstem,spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion were observed under fluorescent microscope at various intervals (72h,84h,96h,108h,120h) following the PRV injection.Results Fluorescence positive neurons were mainly present in L6~S1,L1~L2 dorsal root ganglion;sacral parasympathetic nucleus,intermediolateral cell column and dorsal commissural in L6~S1 and L1~L2 spinal cord segments; Barrington's nucleus,nucleus raphe magnus,the gigantocelluar reticular nucleus,the parapyramidal reticular formation,noradrenergic cell groups A5 and A7,locus coeruleus,periaqueductal gray and the ventral region of red nucleus in brainstem.Conclusion The structures labeled in spinal cord and brainstern are synaptically connected with the bladder and presumably involved in the neural control of the bladder.%目的 跨突触示踪正常大鼠脊髓和脑干内膀胱支配相关中枢,为进一步阐明膀胱功能重建术后中枢重塑奠定研究基础. 方法 成年雌性SD大鼠l5只,膀胱壁内分三个点共注射GFP-PRV 4.5μl(1×108 PFU/ml).注射后不同时间(72、84、96、108、120h)分别取大脑、脊髓及背根神经节,荧光显微镜下观察标记结果. 结果 病毒注射后72~120 h,阳性神经元主要分布于L6~S1、L1~L2脊神经背根神经节;L6~S1、L1~L2脊髓节段骶副交感核、中间外侧核及后连合核;脑干的巴氏核、中缝巨细胞核、巨细胞网状核、锥旁网状结构、去甲肾上腺素能细胞群A5及A7、蓝斑、中脑导水管周

  14. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  15. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  16. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of... group hunters, normally living in packs of 7 or less, but sometimes attaining pack sizes of 20 or more...

  17. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  19. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  20. B-Cell Depletion Attenuates White and Gray Matter Pathology in Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Bauer, Jan; van Driel, Nikki; Bleeker, Wim K.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Laman, Jon D.; Craigen, Jenny L.; Blezer, Erwin; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CD20-positive B-cell depletion on central nervous system (CNS) white and gray matter pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets, a relevant preclinical model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was ind

  1. A combined gray neural network model of seasonal heating load forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOXiaozhuang; YANGChangzhi

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal heating load time sequence has the double trends of increasing and fluctuating, so it''s difficult to select a model to forecast it. In this paper, a combined model of gray model and artificial neural network model was presented to forecast seasonal heating load. A concrete model was established and was verified through actual examples.

  2. Application of gray correlation analysis and artificial neural network in rock mass blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; WU Liang

    2005-01-01

    Studied forecasting and controlling the blasting fragmentation by using artificial neural network for multi-ingredients. At the same time, according to the characteristic of multi-parameters input to network model, the gray correlation theory was employed to find out key factors, which can not only save time of computation and parameters input, but improve the stability of the model.

  3. Modified Dynamic Histogram Equalization For Image Enhancement in Gray-scale Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Meenal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of digital images captured in low light environment from consumer electronics devices like cell phone cameras, Modified Dynamic Histogram Equalization (MDHE is proposed. Initially, the proposed method divides the histogram into two sub-histograms based on median. Then 2nd subhistogram is further divided into two sub-histograms based on median of it. The resultant sub-histograms are clipped according to the mean of the intensity occurrence of the input image independently. The new dynamic range is allocated to each sub-histogram. The first sub-histogram is equalized independently using Global Histogram Equalization (GHE method. GHE is found the better enhancement for lower gray-levels and suffers over-enhancement problem in higher gray-level. The proposed method utilizes the advantages of both GHE and QDHE. This method utilizes GHE for enhancing lower gray-levels and QDHE for enhancing higher gray-levels. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields better quality images in terms of Discrete Entropy value compared with other conventional methods.

  4. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises wheth

  5. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Britta K; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the 8-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared with a waiting list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared with the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.

  6. Dynamic cortical gray matter volume changes after botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnooz, C.C.S.; Pasman, J.W.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2015-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological and functional imaging studies in focal dystonia have reported on cerebral reorganization after botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections. With the exception of microstructural changes, alterations in gray matter volume after BoNT have not been explored. In this study, we

  7. Single application prophylaxis against gray mold in pot rose and pelargonium with Ulocladium atrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohalem, D S; Paaske, K; Kristensen, K

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to clarify the optimal dose and timing of single applications of Ulocladium atrum for control of gray mold on pot rose and pelargonium under conditions similar to those found in commercial greenhouses. In general, application of the antagonist 1-d prior to infestation...

  8. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Service or its designated agents when livestock, stock animals, or dogs are killed by wolves. DATES: To... Fish and Wildlife Service Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky... Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  9. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies.

  10. GRay: A Massively Parallel GPU-based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal

    2013-11-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  11. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  12. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  13. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  14. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota with oral papillomatosis and sarcoptic mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan N.; Windels, Steve K.; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, USA found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  15. 3D Gray Radiative Properties of a Radiation Hydrodynamic Model of a YSO Accretion Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibgui, L.; de Sá, L.; Stehlé, C.; Chièze, J.-P.; Orlando, S.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; Matsakos, T.; González, M.; Bonito, R.

    2014-09-01

    We present preliminary results of radiative properties of a 1D gray radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) model of an accretion shock on a young stellar object (YSO). This model takes into account the transition between the collisional equilibrium regime (local thermodynamic equilibrium, LTE), and the coronal equilibrium regime. Based on the 1D planar structure, we built a 3D cylindrical one. Most notably, the post-shock region obtained in our case is far less extended (by a factor of 10 000) than the typical one obtained with models that assume gray optically thin radiative losses. Moreover, we find that the column is optically thin in its longitudinal dimension, and in the transverse dimension, except over an extremely narrow region (≲ 700 m). Consequently, still under the gray assumption, the photons emitted by the hot slab can propagate through the column and escape freely in all directions, including towards the chromosphere. The radiation flux has therefore components that are perpendicular to the accretion column, which demonstrates that a multidimensional (2D or 3D) radiative model is necessary for such a cylindrical structure. This study needs to be taken forward and expanded, by improving the radiative treatment of the RHD model, through relaxation of both the gray and the LTE approximations for the calculation of opacities, in order to clarify the structure of the post-shock region, which is a major source of emission probed by observations.

  16. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  17. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  18. Parallel implementation of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices and Haralick texture features on cell architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbahrami, A.; Pham, T.A.; Bertels, K.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Texture features extraction algorithms are key functions in various image processing applications such as medical images, remote sensing, and content-based image retrieval. The most common way to extract texture features is the use of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). The GLCM contains the

  19. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  20. Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Mehrdad; Kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2012-09-01

    We propose two approaches for optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging. These methods have the capability of encoding ghost images reconstructed from gray-scale images and colored objects. We experimentally demonstrate our approaches under eavesdropping in two different setups, thereby proving the robustness and simplicity thereof for encryption compared with previous algorithms.

  1. The Applicability of Deadline Models: Comment on Glickman, Gray, and Morales (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2005-01-01

    Glickman, Gray, and Morales (this issue) propose a statistical model for measuring the unobserved latency of stimulus-controlled processes. The model accounts for both speed and accuracy and does so by assuming that participants set an internal deadline. If a stimulus-controlled response is not produced by the deadline, the participant then…

  2. 76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: conservation, university education, charter...; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen for the conservation, university...

  3. Gray matter in the brain : Differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    Tinnitus, usually associated with hearing loss, is characterized by the perception of sound without an external sound source. The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood. In the present study, voxel-based morphometiy (VBM) was employed to identify gray matter differences related to hearing

  4. Gray box modeling of MSW degradation: Revealing its dominant (bio)chemical mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, A.G.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to describe organic degradation within immobile water regions of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills which is best described by the term “gray box” model. We use a simplified set of dominant (bio)chemical and physical reactions and realistic environmental condi

  5. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joé L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; Palen, van der Job; Dungen, van den Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Thi

  6. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Job; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Th

  7. An Analysis of Self-Destruction In The Picture of Dorian Gray and Heart of Darkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜

    2007-01-01

    This essay is intended to give an analysis of self-destruction in The Picture of Dorian Gray and Heart of Darkness based on Freud's theory of psychoanalysis. There is an exploration into the dark depth of man's psyche in both novels, which helps us gain profound self-knowledge.

  8. Sex and age composition of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa), winter 1995/1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Nero; Herbert W. R. Copland

    1997-01-01

    In winter 1995/1996, a nearly continent-wide movement of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) occurred. A sample of 126 owls examined during this period, mainly from northeast of Winnipeg, included a large number from the 1994 hatch-year. If our assumptions regarding molt are correct, 51 birds were from this age class. An inhibited molt condition found...

  9. Gray matter in the brain : Differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus, usually associated with hearing loss, is characterized by the perception of sound without an external sound source. The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood. In the present study, voxel-based morphometiy (VBM) was employed to identify gray matter differences related to hearing

  10. 76 FR 4893 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit... River in Greene County, Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by FFP Missouri 13, LLC,...

  11. Biological control of gray mold with ulocladium atrum in annual strawberry crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Köhl, J.; Jansen, M.L.E.; Horsten, P.J.F.M.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Gerlagh, de M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum to control gray mold in annual strawberry crops using waiting-bed transplants under field conditions was investigated. Seven field experiments were conducted with strawberry cv. Elsanta during the summer seasons of 1996-99 in the Netherlands. Tr

  12. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic cli

  13. Magnetic resonance morphometry of the loss of gray matter volume in Parkinson’s disease patients****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia; Lemin Tang; Juan Wang; Weizhong Tian; Hongbin Ding; Qilin Wei; Huanxin Huang; Jun Wang; Jinli Zhao; Hongmei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry can be used to quantitatively compare structural differences and func-tional changes of gray matter in subjects. In the present study, we compared gray matter images of 32 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 25 healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry based on 3.0 T high-field magnetic resonance T1-weighted imaging and clinical neurological scale scores. Results showed that the scores in Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were lower in patients compared with controls. In particular, the scores of visuospatial/executive function items in Montreal Cognitive Assessment were significantly reduced, but mean scores of non-motor symptoms significantly increased, in patients with Parkinson’s dis-ease. In addition, gray matter volume was significantly diminished in Parkinson’s disease patients compared with normal controls, including bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral insular lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral amygdale, right uncus, and right posterior lobe of the cerebel um. These findings indicate that voxel-based morphometry can accurately and quantitatively assess the loss of gray matter volume in patients with Parkinson's disease, and provide essential neuroimaging evidence for multisystem pathological mechanisms involved in Parkinson’s disease.

  14. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic

  15. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic cli

  16. Taxonomy and biogeography of African fruit bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). 4. The genus Rousettus Gray, 1821

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the genus Rousettus Gray, 1821 as established by Andersen (1912) is revised to accommodate R. madagascariensis Grandidier, 1929, R. obliviosus Kock, 1978 and R. spinalatus Bergmans & Hill, 1980, and to reflect the following mutations. Following Bergmans et al. (1988), the genus Boneia

  17. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  18. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Regional gray matter atrophy and neuropsychologcal problems in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyu Lin; Fuyong Chen; Fang Liu; Zhiwen Li; Ying Liu; Shifang Lin; Xiaoyi Wang; Jiting Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis, gray matter atrophy is extensive, and cognitive deficits and mood disorders are frequently encountered. It has been conjectured that focal atrophy is associated with emotional de-cline. However, conventional MRI has revealed that the pathological characteristics cannot ful y account for the mood disorders. Moreover, there is no correlation between cognitive disorders and MRI results in clinical y isolated syndromes or in cases of definite multiple sclerosis. In this case-control study, voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed on 11 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the results show that these patients exhibit gray matter atrophy. Moreover, the gray matter atrophy in the superior and middle gyri of the right frontal lobe in patients with multiple sclerosis was correlated with scores from the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The scores obtained with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were associated with gray matter atrophy in the middle gyrus of the left frontal lobe, the superior and middle gyrus of the right frontal lobe, the middle gyrus of the left cingulate, the superior and middle gyri of the left frontal lobe, and the triangular area of the left frontal lobe. However, there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that the cingulate and frontal cortices of the nant hemisphere are the most severely atrophic regions of the brain, and this atrophy is correlated with cognitive decline and emotional abnormalities.

  20. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises