WorldWideScience

Sample records for rat pelvic ganglion

  1. Modulation of release of [3H]acetylcholine in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, G T; de Groat, W C

    1993-06-01

    Cholinergic modulation of [3H]acetylcholine release evoked by electrical stimulation was studied in the rat major pelvic ganglion, which was prelabeled with [3H]choline. Acetylcholine (ACh) release was independent of the frequency of stimulation; 0.3 Hz produced the same volley output as 10 Hz. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or omission of Ca2+ from the medium abolished ACh release. The M1 receptor agonist (4-hydroxy-2-butynyl)-1-trimethylammonium m-chlorocarbanilate chloride (McN-A 343, 50 microM) increased release (by 136%), whereas the M2 muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (1 microM) decreased ACh release (by 22%). The muscarinic antagonists, atropine (1 microM) or pirenzepine (M1 selective, 1 microM), did not change ACh release. However, pirenzepine (1 microM) blocked the facilitatory effect of McN-A 343, and atropine (1 microM) blocked the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine. The cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (1-5 microM), the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 10 microM), and the nicotinic antagonist D-tubocurarine (50 microM) did not change ACh release. 4-Aminopyridine, a K+ channel blocker, significantly increased the release (by 146%). Seven days after decentralization of the major pelvic ganglion, the evoked release of ACh was abolished. It is concluded that release of ACh occurs from the preganglionic nerve terminals rather than from the cholinergic cell bodies and is not modulated by actions of endogenous ACh on either muscarinic or nicotinic autoreceptors. These data confirm and extend previous electrophysiological findings indicating that synapses in the major pelvic ganglion have primarily a relay function.

  2. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  3. Recruitment of Intracavernously Injected Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to the Major Pelvic Ganglion Improves Erectile Function in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandel, Thomas M.; Albersen, Maarten; Lin, Guiting; Qiu, Xuefeng; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2011-01-01

    Background Intracavernous (IC) injection of stem cells has been shown to ameliorate cavernous-nerve (CN) injury-induced erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the mechanisms of action of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) remain unclear. Objectives To investigate the mechanism of action and fate of IC injected ADSC in a rat model of CN crush injury. Design, setting, and participants Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 110) were randomly divided into five groups. Thirty-five rats underwent sham surgery and IC injection of ADSC (n = 25) or vehicle (n = 10). Another 75 rats underwent bilateral CN crush injury and were treated with vehicle or ADSC injected either IC or in the dorsal penile perineural space. At 1, 3, 7 (n = 5), and 28 d (n = 10) postsurgery, penile tissues and major pelvic ganglia (MPG) were harvested for histology. ADSC were labeled with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) before treatment. Rats in the 28-d groups were examined for erectile function prior to tissue harvest. Measurements IC pressure recording on CN electrostimulation, immunohistochemistry of the penis and the MPG, and number of EdU-positive (EdU+) cells in the injection site and the MPG. Results and limitations IC, but not perineural, injection of ADSC resulted in significantly improved erectile function. Significantly more EdU+ ADSC appeared in the MPG of animals with CN injury and IC injection of ADSC compared with those injected perineurally and those in the sham group. One day after crush injury, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was upregulated in the MPG, providing an incentive for ADSC recruitment toward the MPG. Neuroregeneration was observed in the group that underwent IC injection of ADSC, and IC ADSC treatment had beneficial effects on the smooth muscle/collagen ratio in the corpus cavernosum. Conclusions CN injury upregulates SDF-1 expression in the MPG and thereby attracts intracavernously injected ADSC. At the MPG, ADSC exert neuroregenerative effects on the cell bodies of injured nerves

  4. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  5. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... cells (SGC) and Schwann cells; the first two have before been studied in vitro separately. Culture of rat TG provides a method to induce inflammation and the possibility to evaluate the different cell types in the TG simultaneously. We investigated expression levels of various inflammatory cytokines...

  6. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  7. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  8. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  9. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2007-01-01

    Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2) with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia. PMID:17908330

  10. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  11. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  12. Intracochlear electrical stimulation suppresses apoptotic signaling in rat spiral ganglion neurons after deafening in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; Cagaanan, Alain P; Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Green, Steven H

    2013-11-01

    To establish the intracellular consequences of electrical stimulation to spiral ganglion neurons after deafferentation. Here we use a rat model to determine the effect of both low and high pulse rate acute electrical stimulation on activation of the proapoptotic transcription factor Jun in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons in vivo. Experimental animal study. Hearing research laboratories of the University of Iowa Departments of Biology and Otolaryngology. A single electrode was implanted through the round window of kanamycin-deafened rats at either postnatal day 32 (P32, n = 24) or P60 (n = 22) for 4 hours of stimulation (monopolar, biphasic pulses, amplitude twice electrically evoked auditory brainstem response [eABR] threshold) at either 100 or 5000 Hz. Jun phosphorylation was assayed by immunofluorescence to quantitatively assess the effect of electrical stimulation on proapoptotic signaling. Jun phosphorylation was reliably suppressed by 100 Hz stimuli in deafened cochleae of P32 but not P60 rats. This effect was not significant in the basal cochlear turns. Stimulation frequency may be consequential: 100 Hz was significantly more effective than was 5 kHz stimulation in suppressing phospho-Jun. Suppression of Jun phosphorylation occurs in deafferented spiral ganglion neurons after only 4 hours of electrical stimulation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that electrical stimulation can decrease spiral ganglion neuron death after deafferentation.

  13. Investigation of retinal ganglion cells and axons of normal rats using fluorogold retrograde labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaolei; Ye Jian; Chen Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by means of fluorogold retrograde labeling, RGCs were labeled by injecting the fluorogold bilaterally into the superficial superior colliculus and lateral genicutate nucleus in six adult SD rats. One and two weeks (3 rats in each group) after injecting the fluorogold, RGCs FG-labeled were observed and the number of them were counted. The results showed that after a week mean density of fluorogold-labeled RGCs was 2210 ± 128/mm 2 , and it was 2164 ± 117/mm 2 after two weeks. Our conclusion is fluorogold retrograde labeling could be very useful in the research of RGCs. (authors)

  14. Dural administration of inflammatory soup or Complete Freund's Adjuvant induces activation and inflammatory response in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukács, M; Haanes, K A; Majláth, Zs

    2015-01-01

    induces inflammatory activation in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: We performed topical administration of inflammatory soup (IS) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto an exposed area of the rat dura mater in vivo for 20 min. The window was closed and the rats were sacrificed after 4 h and up to 7...

  15. Endothelin B receptors contribute to retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Z Minton

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP characterized by optic nerve degeneration, cupping of the optic disc, and loss of retinal ganglion cells which could lead to loss of vision. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a 21-amino acid vasoactive peptide that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the receptors mediating these effects have not been defined. In the current study, endothelin B (ET(B receptor expression was assessed in vivo, in the Morrison's ocular hypertension model of glaucoma in rats. Elevation of IOP in Brown Norway rats produced increased expression of ET(B receptors in the retina, mainly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, nerve fiber layer (NFL, and also in the inner plexiform layer (IPL and inner nuclear layer (INL. To determine the role of ET(B receptors in neurodegeneration, Wistar-Kyoto wild type (WT and ET(B receptor-deficient (KO rats were subjected to retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold (FG, following which IOP was elevated in one eye while the contralateral eye served as control. IOP elevation for 4 weeks in WT rats caused an appreciable loss of RGCs, which was significantly attenuated in KO rats. In addition, degenerative changes in the optic nerve were greatly reduced in KO rats compared to those in WT rats. Taken together, elevated intraocular pressure mediated increase in ET(B receptor expression and its activation may contribute to a decrease in RGC survival as seen in glaucoma. These findings raise the possibility of using endothelin receptor antagonists as neuroprotective agents for the treatment of glaucoma.

  16. The effect of collagenase on nerve conduction velocity of dorsal root ganglion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Li Heping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui; Guo Wenbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the functional effects of collagenase on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats by evoked potential conduction velocity measurement. Methods: A total of 57 male healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 7 groups: normal group, acute collagenase group, subacute collagenase group, chronic collagenase group, acute pseudo-operation group, subacute pseudo-operation group, chronic pseudo-operation group. 1200 units of collagenase was reconstituted in 4 ml isotonic saline prior for the experimental application. The left fifth lumbar DRG was exposed in each rat and followed by 1 ml collagenase solution (300 units) dropping on the exposed DRG in collagenase groups; and similarly 1 ml isotonic saline was applied to each of the exposed DRG in pseudo-operation groups. the effects of collagenase on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) were analyzed 1 hour, 1 week or 1 month after the procedure. The statistical analysis was carried out by software SPSS11.0. Results: The differences of NCV measured by evoked potential method between all groups including the normal group, collagenase groups, and pseudo-operation groups were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The Neuroelectricity physiologic function of dorsal root ganglion and nerve would not be damaged by collagenase used in therapeutic concentration. (authors)

  17. Study on the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Dong Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group(CONand diabetes mellitus group(DM. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% STZ in 30 adult male SD rats. At 4, 8, 12wk,the rats were killed and eyeballs were enucleated for the HE staining, TUNEL staining, transmission electron microscopy detection respectively, and laser confocal microscope detection was used to detect the calcium ion concentration.RESULTS:At 8wk RGCs decreased gradually and appeared disordered arrangement and got worse at 12wk in DM group. In DM group, mitochondrial swelling was detected at 4wk., and became more obvious, more in number at 8wk with reduction in some cells' volume and the number of organelles decreased. In DM group, few TUNEL positive RGCs were seen at 4wk, and became more and more at 8 and 12wk. The apoptosis index was significantly higher in DM group compared with CON group in different time points(PPPCONCLUSION: The study suggested that RGCs apoptosis occurs in early stage of diabetes, the mechanism might be associated with increased intracellular calcium ion concentration.

  18. Adrenergic receptors inhibit TRPV1 activity in the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yumi; Manabe, Miki; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of noradrenaline on capsaicin-evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat by the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Noradrenaline at concentrations higher than 0.1 pM significantly reduced the amplitudes of the inward capsaicin currents recorded at -60 mV holding potential. This inhibitory action was reversed by either yohimbine (an α2 antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (a β antagonist, 10 nM). The α2 agonists, clonidine (1 pM) and dexmedetomidine (1 pM) inhibited capsaicin currents, and yohimbine (1 nM) reversed the effects of clonidine. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline was not seen in the neurons pretreated with pertussis toxin (100 μg/ml for 24 h) and the neurons dialyzed intracellularly with guanosine 5'- [β-thio] diphosphate (GDPβS, 200 μM), the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (250 U/ml) or okadaic acid (1 μM). These results suggest that noradrenaline directly acts on dorsal root ganglion neurons to inhibit the activity of TRPV1 depending on the activation of α2-adrenoceptors followed by the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway.

  19. The effects of capsaicin and acidity on currents generated by noxious heat in cultured neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlachová, Viktorie; Lyfenko, Alla; Orkand, R. K.; Vyklický st., Ladislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 533, č. 3 (2001), s. 717-728 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : capsaicin * dorsal root ganglion neurones * neonatal rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2001

  20. Bilirubin Modulates Acetylcholine Receptors In Rat Superior Cervical Ganglionic Neurons In a Bidirectional Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Dong, Jing; Pan, Ruirui; Qiu, Haibo; Zhang, Jinmin; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction as a partial contributing factor to cardiovascular instability in jaundiced patients is often associated with increased serum bilirubin levels. Whether increased serum bilirubin levels could directly inhibit sympathetic ganglion transmission by blocking neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) remains to be elucidated. Conventional patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effect of bilirubin on nAChRs currents from enzymatically dissociated rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons. The results showed that low concnetrations (0.5 and 2 μM) of bilirubin enhanced the peak ACh-evoked currents, while high concentrations (3 to 5.5 µM) of bilirubin suppressed the currents with an IC50 of 4 ± 0.5 μM. In addition, bilirubin decreased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of bilirubin on nAChRs channel currents was non-competitive and voltage independent. Bilirubin partly improved the inhibitory effect of forskolin on ACh-induced currents without affecting the action of H-89. These data suggest that the dual effects of enhancement and suppression of bilirubin on nAChR function may be ascribed to the action mechanism of positive allosteric modulation and direct blockade. Thus, suppression of sympathetic ganglionic transmission through postganglionic nAChRs inhibition may partially contribute to the adverse cardiovascular effects in jaundiced patients. PMID:25503810

  1. The role of NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathway in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis of early diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the function and mechanism of the NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathways which exists in the retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in diabetes mellitus(DMrats. METHODS: Some healthy SD rats were operated by means of single intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin based on the standard of 50mg/kg wight, after that the blood sugar value was greater than 16.7mmol/L as DM model, then randomly divided into 3 groups, each group was 10 rats. In addition to take 10 healthy SD rats as control group. Four groups of rats were bilaterally eyeball intravitreal injection in turn with NgR-siRNA virus 10μL(siRNA group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(DM group, NgR-siRNA virus-negative-control solution 10μL(siRNA blank group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(normal control group, and fed normally. During that time, some life indexes like blood glucose, body mass, etc. were measured and recorded. After 12wk, the expression of NgR and Rhoa, HE staining, and TUNNEL staining were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Western blot analysis: compared with normal control group, the expression of NgR and Rhoa in DM group and siRNA blank group increased significantly(PP>0.05; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the expression of those proteins significantly lowered in siRNA group. HE staining: compared with normal control group, some extent ganglion cells arranged disorder, irregular shape, spacing not consistent were all found in three groups of model rats; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, there was some improvement in siRNA group of ganglion cells about the order and shape size. TUNEL staining: compared with normal control group, there were retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in all of three groups of model rats. Compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the number of retinal ganglion cells apoptotic cells was less, and the shape of cells had improved significantly in siRNA group. CONCLUSION: In the DM phase, the expression of NgR and

  2. Presence of Functional Neurotrophin TrkB Receptors in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leija, Pablo; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Sánchez-Tafolla, Berardo M; Arias, Erwin; Elinos, Diana; Feria, Jessica; Zetina, María E; Morales, Miguel A; Cifuentes, Fredy

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons express the neurotrophin receptors TrkA, p75NTR, and a non-functional truncated TrkB isoform (TrkB-Tc), but are not thought to express a functional full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-Fl). We, and others, have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulate synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat. To clarify whether TrkB is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and contributes to the effects of BDNF upon sympathetic function, we characterized the presence and activity of the neurotrophin receptors expressed in the adult SCG compared with their presence in neonatal and cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we expand our previous study regarding the immunodetection of neurotrophin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 19% of adult ganglionic neurons expressed TrkB-Fl immunoreactivity (IR), 82% expressed TrkA-IR, and 51% expressed p75NTR-IR; TrkB-Tc would be expressed in 36% of neurons. In addition, using Western-blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses, we confirmed the expression of TrkB-Fl and TrkB-Tc protein and mRNA transcripts in adult SCG. Neonatal neurons expressed significantly more TrkA-IR and TrkB-Fl-IR than p75NTR-IR. Finally, the application of neurotrophin, and high frequency stimulation, induced the activation of Trk receptors and the downstream PI3-kinase (phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase) signaling pathway, thus evoking the phosphorylation of Trk and Akt. These results demonstrate that SCG neurons express functional TrkA and TrkB-Fl receptors, which may contribute to the differential modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity.

  3. Presence of Functional Neurotrophin TrkB Receptors in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valle-Leija

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons express the neurotrophin receptors TrkA, p75NTR, and a non-functional truncated TrkB isoform (TrkB-Tc, but are not thought to express a functional full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-Fl. We, and others, have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulate synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG of the rat. To clarify whether TrkB is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and contributes to the effects of BDNF upon sympathetic function, we characterized the presence and activity of the neurotrophin receptors expressed in the adult SCG compared with their presence in neonatal and cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we expand our previous study regarding the immunodetection of neurotrophin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 19% of adult ganglionic neurons expressed TrkB-Fl immunoreactivity (IR, 82% expressed TrkA-IR, and 51% expressed p75NTR-IR; TrkB-Tc would be expressed in 36% of neurons. In addition, using Western-blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analyses, we confirmed the expression of TrkB-Fl and TrkB-Tc protein and mRNA transcripts in adult SCG. Neonatal neurons expressed significantly more TrkA-IR and TrkB-Fl-IR than p75NTR-IR. Finally, the application of neurotrophin, and high frequency stimulation, induced the activation of Trk receptors and the downstream PI3-kinase (phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase signaling pathway, thus evoking the phosphorylation of Trk and Akt. These results demonstrate that SCG neurons express functional TrkA and TrkB-Fl receptors, which may contribute to the differential modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity.

  4. Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Min; Miao, Yanying; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2010-07-15

    In vertebrate retina, melatonin regulates various physiological functions. In this work we investigated the mechanisms underlying melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunofluorescence double labelling showed that rat RGCs were solely immunoreactive to melatonin MT(2) receptors. Melatonin potentiated glycine currents of RGCs, which was reversed by the MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. The melatonin effect was blocked by intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S. Either preincubation with pertussis toxin or application of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor D609, but not the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-PLC inhibitor U73122, blocked the melatonin effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA potentiated the glycine currents and in the presence of PMA melatonin failed to cause further potentiation of the currents, whereas application of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV abolished the melatonin-induced potentiation. The melatonin effect persisted when [Ca(2+)](i) was chelated by BAPTA, and melatonin induced no increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Neither cAMP-PKA nor cGMP-PKG signalling pathways seemed to be involved because 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP failed to cause potentiation of the glycine currents and both the PKA inhibitor H-89 and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not block the melatonin-induced potentiation. In consequence, a distinct PC-PLC/PKC signalling pathway, following the activation of G(i/o)-coupled MT(2) receptors, is most likely responsible for the melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of rat RGCs. Furthermore, in rat retinal slices melatonin potentiated light-evoked glycine receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RGCs. These results suggest that melatonin, being at higher levels at night, may help animals to detect positive or negative contrast in night vision by modulating inhibitory signals largely mediated by glycinergic amacrine cells in the inner

  5. Changes in intrinsic excitability of ganglion cells in degenerated retinas of RCS rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Ren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the intrinsic excitability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in degenerated retinas. METHODS: The intrinsic excitability of various morphologically defined RGC types using a combination of patch-clamp recording and the Lucifer yellow tracer in retinal whole-mount preparations harvested from Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rats, a common retinitis pigmentosa (RP model, in a relatively late stage of retinal degeneration (P90 were investigated. Several parameters of RGC morphologies and action potentials (APs were measured and compared to those of non-dystrophic control rats, including dendritic stratification, dendritic field diameter, peak amplitude, half width, resting membrane potential, AP threshold, depolarization to threshold, and firing rates. RESULTS: Compared with non-dystrophic control RGCs, more depolarizations were required to reach the AP threshold in RCS RGCs with low spontaneous spike rates and in RCS OFF cells (especially A2o cells, and RCS RGCs maintained their dendritic morphologies, resting membrane potentials and capabilities to generate APs. CONCLUSION: RGCs are relatively well preserved morphologically and functionally, and some cells are more susceptible to decreased excitability during retinal degeneration. These findings provide valuable considerations for optimizing RP therapeutic strategies.

  6. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, S.S.; Lyerly, D.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with (35S)methionine and (3H)fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure.

  8. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, S.S.; Lyerly, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with [35S]methionine and [3H]fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure

  9. Adult rat retinal ganglion cells and glia can be printed by piezoelectric inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, Barbara; Martin, Keith R; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Hutchings, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated whether inkjet printing technology can be extended to print cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia, and the effects on survival and growth of these cells in culture, which is an important step in the development of tissue grafts for regenerative medicine, and may aid in the cure of blindness. We observed that RGC and glia can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric printer. Whilst inkjet printing reduced the cell population due to sedimentation within the printing system, imaging of the printhead nozzle, which is the area where the cells experience the greatest shear stress and rate, confirmed that there was no evidence of destruction or even significant distortion of the cells during jet ejection and drop formation. Importantly, the viability of the cells was not affected by the printing process. When we cultured the same number of printed and non-printed RGC/glial cells, there was no significant difference in cell survival and RGC neurite outgrowth. In addition, use of a glial substrate significantly increased RGC neurite outgrowth, and this effect was retained when the cells had been printed. In conclusion, printing of RGC and glia using a piezoelectric printhead does not adversely affect viability and survival/growth of the cells in culture. Importantly, printed glial cells retain their growth-promoting properties when used as a substrate, opening new avenues for printed CNS grafts in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  10. Activation of Satellite Glial Cells in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion after Upper Molar Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjigake, Kaori K.; Goto, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    The neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which passively support the function of the neurons, but little is known about the interactions between SGCs and TG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. To examine the effect of nerve injury on SGCs, we investigated the activation of SGCs after neuronal damage due to the extraction of the upper molars in rats. Three, 7, and 10 days after extraction, animals were fixed and the TG was removed. Cryosections of the ganglia were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of activated SGCs, and ATF3, a marker of damaged neurons. After tooth extraction, the number of ATF3-immunoreactive (IR) neurons enclosed by GFAP-IR SGCs had increased in a time-dependent manner in the maxillary nerve region of the TG. Although ATF3-IR neurons were not detected in the mandibular nerve region, the number of GFAP-IR SGCs increased in both the maxillary and mandibular nerve regions. Our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury affects the activation of TG neurons and the SGCs around the injured neurons. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of a neuronal interaction between maxillary and mandibular neurons via SGC activation

  11. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  13. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  14. Protective effects of triptolide on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fan Yang, Dongmei Wang, Lingling Wu, Ying Li Ophthalmology Department, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To study the effects of triptolide, a Chinese herb extract, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in a rat model of chronic glaucoma.Methods: Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into triptolide group (n=40 and normal saline (NS group (n=40. Angle photocoagulation was used to establish the model of glaucoma, with right eye as laser treated eye and left eye as control eye. Triptolide group received triptolide intraperitoneally daily, while NS group received NS. Intraocular pressure (IOP, anti-CD11b immunofluorescent stain in retina and optic nerve, RGCs count with Nissel stain and microglia count with anti-CD11b immunofluorescence stain in retina flat mounts, retinal tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA detection by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and double immunofluorescent labeling with anti-TNF-α and anti-CD11b in retinal frozen section were performed.Results: Mean IOP of the laser treated eyes significantly increased 3 weeks after photocoagulation (P<0.05, with no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05. RGCs survival in the laser treated eyes was significantly improved in the triptolide group than the NS group (P<0.05. Microglia count in superficial retina of the laser treated eyes was significantly less in the triptolide group (30.40±4.90 than the NS group (35.06±7.59 (P<0.05. TNF-α mRNA expression in the retina of the laser treated eyes in the triptolide group decreased by 60% compared with that in the NS group (P<0.01. The double immunofluorescent labeling showed that TNF-α was mainly distributed around the microglia.Conclusion: Triptolide improved RGCs survival in this rat model of chronic glaucoma, which did not depend on IOP decrease but might be exerted by inhibiting microglia activities and reducing TNF-α secretion. Keywords: glaucoma, triptolide

  15. Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, K; Mata, D; Linn, D M; Linn, C L

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is thought to play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was analyzed using acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and the α7 specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonist, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987), in cultured adult rat retinal neurons. Adult Long Evans rat retinas were dissociated and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from all other retinal tissue using a two-step panning technique. Once isolated, RGCs were cultured under various pharmacological conditions to demonstrate excitotoxicity and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. After 3 days, RGCs were immunostained with antibodies against the glycoprotein, Thy 1.1, counted and cell survival was assessed relative to control untreated conditions. 500 μM glutamate induced excitotoxicity in large and small RGCs in an adult rat dissociated culture. After 3 days in culture with glutamate, the cell survival of large RGCs decreased by an average of 48.16% while the cell survival of small RGCs decreased by an average of 42.03%. Using specific glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that the excitotoxic response was mediated through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors through an apoptotic mechanism. However, the excitotoxic effect of glutamate on all RGCs was eliminated if cells were cultured for an hour with 10 μM ACh, 100 μM nicotine or 100 nM of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, before the glutamate insult. Inhibition studies using 10nM methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) supported the hypothesis that neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on rat RGCs was mediated through α7 nAChRs. In immunocytochemical studies, double

  16. Low-energy Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Erectile Dysfunction in a Pelvic Neurovascular Injuries Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixi; Matheu, Melanie P; Sun, Fionna; Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lee, Yung-Chin; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by pelvic injuries is a common complication of civil and battlefield trauma with multiple neurovascular factors involved, and no effective therapeutic approach is available. To test the effect and mechanisms of low-energy shock wave (LESW) therapy in a rat ED model induced by pelvic neurovascular injuries. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) at newborn were divided into 4 groups: sham surgery (Sham), pelvic neurovascular injury by bilateral cavernous nerve injury and internal pudendal bundle injury (PVNI), PVNI treated with LESW at low energy (Low), and PVNI treated with LESW at high energy (High). After LESW treatment, rats underwent erectile function measurement and the tissues were harvested for histologic and molecular study. To examine the effect of LESW on Schwann cells, in vitro studies were conducted. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurement, histological examination, and Western blot (WB) were conducted. Cell cycle, Schwann cell activation-related markers were examined in in vitro experiments. LESW treatment improves erectile function in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injury by leading to angiogenesis, tissue restoration, and nerve generation with more endogenous EdU(+) progenitor cells recruited to the damaged area and activation of Schwann cells. LESW facilitates more complete re-innervation of penile tissue with regeneration of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive nerves from the MPG to the penis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that LESW has a direct effect on Schwann cell proliferation. Schwann cell activation-related markers including p-Erk1/2 and p75 were upregulated after LESW treatment. LESW-induced endogenous progenitor cell recruitment and Schwann cell activation coincides with angiogenesis, tissue, and nerve generation in a rat model of pelvic neurovascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  17. Activation of the ζ receptor 1 suppresses NMDA responses in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Liu, L-L; Jiang, S-X; Zhong, Y-M; Yang, X-L

    2011-03-17

    The sigma receptor 1 (σR1) has been shown to modulate the activity of several voltage- and ligand-gated channels. Using patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we demonstrated that activation of σR1 by SKF10047 (SKF) or PRE-084 suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated current responses from both ON and OFF type ganglion cells (GCs), dose-dependently, and the effect could be blocked by the σR1 antagonist BD1047 or the σR antagonist haloperidol. The suppression by SKF of NMDA currents was abolished with pre-incubation of the G protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or the Gi/o activator mastoparan. We further explored the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for the SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses. Application of either cAMP/the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP or cGMP/the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not change the SKF-induced effect, suggesting the involvement of neither cAMP/PKA nor cGMP/PKG pathway. In contrast, suppression of NMDA responses by SKF was abolished by internal infusion of the phosphatidylinostiol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, but not by the phosphatidylcholine-PLC inhibitor D609. SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses was dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), as evidenced by the fact that the effect was abolished when [Ca2+]i was buffered with 10 mM BAPTA. The SKF effect was blocked by xestospongin-C/heparin, IP3 receptor antagonists, but unchanged by ryanodine/caffeine, ryanodine receptor modulators. Furthermore, application of protein kinase C inhibitors Bis IV and Gö6976 eliminated the SKF effect. These results suggest that the suppression of NMDA responses of rat retinal GCs caused by the activation of σR1 may be mediated by a distinct [Ca2+]i-dependent PLC-PKC pathway. This effect of SKF could help ameliorate malfunction of GCs caused by excessive stimulation of NMDA receptors under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Orexin-A potentiates L-type calcium/barium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Weng, S-J; Yang, X-L; Zhong, Y-M

    2015-10-01

    Two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (also called hypocretin-1 and -2), have been implicated in sleep/wake regulation, feeding behaviors via the activation of two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). While the expression of orexins and orexin receptors is immunohistochemically revealed in retinal neurons, the function of these peptides in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat retinal slices, we demonstrated that orexin-A increased L-type-like barium currents (IBa,L) in ganglion cells (GCs), and the effect was blocked by the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867, but not by the OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29. The orexin-A effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S/GPAnt-2A, a Gq protein inhibitor, suggesting the mediation of Gq. Additionally, during internal dialysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, orexin-A did not change the IBa,L of GCs, whereas the orexin-A effect persisted in the presence of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor D609. The orexin-A-induced potentiation was not seen with internal infusion of Ca(2+)-free solution or when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was blocked by heparin/xestospongins-C. Moreover, the orexin-A effect was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but was eliminated when PKC was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide IV (Bis-IV)/Gö6976. Neither adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) nor guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway was likely involved, as orexin-A persisted to potentiate the IBa,L of GCs no matter these two pathways were activated or inhibited. These results suggest that, by activating OX1R, orexin-A potentiates the IBa,L of rat GCs through a distinct Gq/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway. Copyright

  19. Gender difference in the neuroprotective effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Jian-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can reduce retinal ganglion cell death and effectively prevent vision loss. Previously, we found that during differentiation, female rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquire a higher neurogenic potential compared with male rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests that female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have a stronger neuroprotective effect than male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we first isolated and cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from female and male rats by density gradient centrifugation. Retinal tissue from newborn rats was prepared by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary retinal ganglion cells. Using the transwell system, retinal ganglion cells were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. We found a marked increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells after 24 hours of hypoxia compared with normoxia. Moreover, apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells significantly decreased with both female and male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell co-culture under hypoxia compared with culture alone, with more significant effects from female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exert a neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and also that female cells have greater neuroprotective ability compared with male cells.

  20. DNA repair synthesis in rat retinal ganglion cells treated with chemical carcinogens or ultraviolet light in vitro, with special reference to aging and repair level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.; Kitagawa, T.

    1978-01-01

    A system in which the retinal tissues of noninbred Wistar rats were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of DNA repair synthesis in ganglion cells of the central nervous system. Retinal tissues in short-term organ culture were treated with various carcinogens plus tritiated thymidine ([methyl -3 H]dThd) or were irradiated with uv light and then treated with [methyl -3 H]dThd. Preliminary study with retinal tissues from rats at various ages revealed no age-associated changes in the levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in ganglion cells

  1. The subacute damage of the dorsal root ganglion induced by collagenase in rats: a study on the ultrastructure of neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Zhuang Wenquan; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of collagenase on the ultrastructure of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. The safety of collagenase on nerve tissue was investigated. Additionally, the safety of percutaneous collagenase chemonucleolysis (PCCN) on nerve tissue was evaluated. Methods: In total 27 male, healthy SD rats were enrolled. All rats were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (9 rats), subacute damage of collagenase group (9 rats), subacute intervention-analogue group (9 rats). The left L5 DRG was exposed in each rat. One milliliter of the collagenase solution (300 units) was carefully applied to the exposed DRG in collagenase group, and one milliliter of the isotonic saline was applied to the exposed DRG in intervention-analogue group. The morphology of the DRG under electron microscope were analyzed 7-9 days after the procedures. Results: The types, number, and morphology of cells; the membrane of neutrons; the nerve fibers and blood vessels in DRG had not been changed in all groups observed under optic microscope. The difference of the ultrastructure of neutrons in DRG among the normal groups, intervention-analogue group and collagenase group was significant: 1) The eccentric nucleolus were revealed; 2) Swelling mitochondria and absence of mitochondria crests and vesicles. Cytoclasis and apoptosis of neutrons had not been observed under electron microscope. Conclusion: The collagenase used in PCCN dose have a certain damage to the neutreons in DRG. In the procedure of PCCN, the volume and dosage of collagenase should be carefully selected and the intervention should be precisely performed by experienced hands. (authors)

  2. Effect of Extracellular Zinc Chelator on Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Number, and Taurine and Zinc Transporters in These Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asarí Márquez García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans causes decreased antioxidants in the retina and is related with abnormal darkness adaptation, cataracts, blindness, and macular degeneration. There is little information about the effects of zinc on the taurine system in mammalian retinal cells. Therefore, we studied the effect of zinc on the taurine transporter (TAUT and zinc transporters (ZnT-1 and 3 using the extracellular zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA by fluorescence immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry in the ganglion cells (CG and cell layers of the retina of rats. Three days after administration of DTPA (10µM primary antibodies and secondary antibodies conjugated with rhodamine or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC were used as required. For immunocytochemical labeling approximately three hundred cells per condition were counted. For immunohistochemical labeling, the fluorescence intensity was measured as integrated optical density (DOI in four areas for each layer of tissue. DTPA produced a decrease of 32 % and 29 % in GC of the total cells labeled with antibody against glycoprotein Thy 1.1 and γ-synuclein, respectively. It also produced a significant decrease in TAUT localization in 27 and 28 % compared to controls. DTPA produced a decrease in the localization of ZnT-1 and ZnT-3 in the retina layers (ganglion cells, GCC and the outer and inner plexiform, CEP and CIP. The study of these molecules in the retina is relevant to understanding the interactions of taurine and zinc in this structure.

  3. Co-expression of two subtypes of melatonin receptor on rat M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Long Sheng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs. Immunoreactivity for both MT1 and MT2 receptors was clearly seen in the cytoplasm of all labeled ipRGCs, indicating that these two receptors were co-expressed in each of these neurons. Furthermore, labeling for both the receptors were found in neonatal M1 cells as early as the day of birth. It is therefore highly plausible that retinal melatonin may directly modulate the activity of ipRGCs, thus regulating non-image forming visual functions.

  4. Growth of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons on a novel self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Zhenwei; Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Wu Yongchao, E-mail: wuyongchao@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Song Yulin; Wu Bin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The potential benefits of self-assembly in synthesizing materials for the treatment of both peripheral and central nervous system disorders are tremendous. In this study, we synthesized peptide-amphiphile (PA) molecules containing IKVAV sequence and induced self-assembly of the PA solutions in vitro to form nanofiber gels. Then, we tested the characterization of gels by transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated the biocompatibility of this gel towards rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The nanofiber gel was formed by self-assembly of IKVAV PA molecules, which was triggered by metal ions. The fibers were 7-8 nm in diameter and with lengths of hundreds of nanometers. Gels were shown to be non-toxic to neurons and able to promote neurons adhesion and neurite sprouting. The results indicated that the self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence had excellent biocompatibility with adult sensory neurons and could be useful in nerve tissue engineering.

  5. Correlation between the Appearance of Neuropeptides in the Rat Trigeminal Ganglion and Reinnervation of the Healing Root Socket after Tooth Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjigake, Kaori K.; Goto, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kayoko; Konoo, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) modulates bone metabolism. This study examined the temporal appearance of the neuropeptides SP and brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and their receptors (neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R) and Trk B, respectively) in the rat trigeminal ganglion to investigate the role of neuropeptides in healing after tooth extraction. Rats were anesthetized and their upper right first molars were extracted; the rats were sacrificed 3 hours and 1–21 days after extraction. Their trigeminal ganglion and maxilla were removed, and cryosections were prepared and immunostained using specific antibodies against SP, BDNF, NK 1 -R, and Trk B. In the tooth sockets after extraction, new bone and a few SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were first seen at day 7, and bone completely filled the sockets at day 21. In the trigeminal ganglion, the proportions of NK 1 -R-, BDNF-, and Trk B-immunoreactive neurons changed similarly, i.e., they initially decreased, increased rapidly to maximum levels by day 3, and then decreased gradually to control levels until 21 days. These findings suggest that the appearance of neuropeptides in the trigeminal ganglion, the reinnervation of SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers, and bone repair in the tooth socket during healing after extraction were correlated

  6. Expression of Fos protein in the rat central nervous system in response to noxious stimulation: effects of chronic inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudanna A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interactions between the nociceptive system, the sympathetic system and the inflammatory process. Thus, the superior cervical ganglion of rats was submitted to chronic inflammation and Fos expression was used as a marker for neuronal activity throughout central neurons following painful peripheral stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of subcutaneously injected formalin applied to the supra-ocular region. Fos-positive neurons were identified by conventional immunohistochemical techniques, and analyzed from the obex through the cervical levels of the spinal cord. In the caudal sub-nucleus of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, the number of Fos-positive neurons was much higher in rats with inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion than in control rats, either sham-operated or with saline applied to the ganglion. There was a highly significant difference in the density of Fos-positive neurons between the inflamed and control groups. No significant difference was found between control groups. These results suggest that the inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion generated an increased responsiveness to painful stimuli, which may have been due to a diminished sympathetic influence upon the sensory peripheral innervation.

  7. Sustained Dorzolamide Release Prevents Axonal and Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in a Rat Model of IOP-Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitha, Ian; Kimball, Elizabeth C; Oglesby, Ericka N; Pease, Mary Ellen; Fu, Jie; Schaub, Julie; Kim, Yoo-Chun; Hu, Qi; Hanes, Justin; Quigley, Harry A

    2018-04-01

    To determine if one injection of a sustained release formulation of dorzolamide in biodegradable microparticles (DPP) reduces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in a rat model of glaucoma. We injected either DPP or control microparticles intravitreally in rats. Two days later, unilateral ocular hypertension was induced by translimbal, diode laser treatment by a surgeon masked to treatment group. IOP and clinical exams were performed until sacrifice 6 weeks after laser treatment. RGC loss was measured by masked observers in both optic nerve cross-sections and RGC layer counts from retinal whole mounts. Cumulative IOP exposure was significantly reduced by DPP injection (49 ± 48 mm Hg × days in treated versus 227 ± 191 mm Hg × days in control microparticle eyes; P = 0.012, t -test). While control-injected eyes increased in axial length by 2.4 ± 1.7%, DPP eyes did not significantly enlarge (0.3 ± 2.2%, difference from control, P = 0.03, t -test). RGC loss was significantly less in DPP eyes compared with control microparticle injection alone (RGC axon count reduction: 21% vs. 52%; RGC body reduction: 25% vs. 50% [beta tubulin labeling]; P = 0.02, t -test). A single injection of sustained release DPP protected against RGC loss and axial elongation in a rat model of IOP glaucoma. Sustained release IOP-lowering medications have the potential to stop glaucoma progression.

  8. Inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels by levo-tetrahydropalmatine in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Qiu, Fang; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Peng, Fang; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a main bioactive Chinese herbal constituent from the genera Stephania and Corydalis, has been in use in clinical practice for years in China as a traditional analgesic agent. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP is poorly understood. This study shows that l-THP can exert an inhibitory effect on the functional activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are believed to mediate pain caused by extracellular acidification. l-THP dose dependently decreased the amplitude of proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. l-THP shifted the proton concentration-response curve downward, with a decrease of 40.93% ± 8.45% in the maximum current response to protons, with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Moreover, l-THP can alter the membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons to acid stimuli. It significantly decreased the number of action potentials and the amplitude of the depolarization induced by an extracellular pH drop. Finally, peripherally administered l-THP inhibited the nociceptive response to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. These results indicate that l-THP can inhibit the functional activity of ASICs in dissociated primary sensory neurons and relieve acidosis-evoked pain in vivo, which for the first time provides a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.

  10. [Effects of small needle knife on the substance P in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Dong, Fu-Hui; Zhong, Hong-Gang; Wang, De-Long; Wang, Xuan

    2010-09-01

    To study the mechanism of synthesis of substance P (SP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the release of it in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of rats after compression of skeletal muscle, and to observe the influence of small needle knife. Sustained pressure of 70 kPa was applied to rats, muscular tissues for 2 hours. The rats were divided into three groups: normal, control and experiment group respectively. In all rats except the six normal ones, the lower legs were compressed once one day. The left leg was considered as the control group, the right left was experiment group, which were divided into the 1st day, the 2nd day and the 3rd day within the two groups. Experiment group was treated with small needle knife after the muscular tissue was compressed. After completing the stimulation, the DRG related to the muscle and part of spinal cord were removed for the qualification of SP-like immunoreactivity using immunohistochemistry. The dark brown stains on the DRG and on the REXed laminae I and II in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord were counted by Image-Pro Plus software. SP-like immunoreactivity in the side treated by the small needle knife was enhanced comparing with the counterpart in DRG in normal group (P DRG in the experiment group were significantly reduced compared with the control group (P DRG, and shows no effects on the release of SP from the spinal cord in short-term (3 days).

  11. [Effect of bee venom injection on TrkA and TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with collagen-induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying; Yang, Lu; Liu, Guo-Tao; Peng, Peng; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of acupoint injection of bee venom on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explore the mechanism of bee venom therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into bee venom treatment group (BV group), CIA model group, and control group. In the former two groups, CIA was induced by injections of collagen II+IFA (0.2 mL) via the tail vein, and in the control group, normal saline was injected instead. The rats in BV group received daily injection of 0.1 mL (3 mg/mL) bee venom for 7 consecutive days. All the rats were assessed for paw thickness and arthritis index from days 14 to 21, and the pain threshold was determined on day 21. The expressions of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion at the level of L4-6 were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The rats in CIA model group started to show paw swelling on day 10, and by day 14, all the rats in this group showed typical signs of CIA. In BV group, the rats receiving been venom therapy for 7 days showed a significantly smaller paw thickness and a low arthritis index than those in the model group. The pain threshold was the highest in the control group and the lowest in the model group. TRPV1-positive cells and TrkA expression in the dorsal root ganglion was significantly reduced in BV group as compared with that in the model group. s Injection of bee venom can decrease expression of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion to produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, suggesting the potential value of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis caused by pelvic congestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-ting CUI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP in rats and its possible mechanisms. Methods Thirty-two healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham-operated group (SO group, chronic prostatitis model group (CPM group, chronic prostatitis model + prostat treatment group (CPM-P group, and chronic prostatitis model + diosmin treatment group (CPM-D group. Rats in SO group underwent laparotomy only to expose the prostate, and those in other groups received prostatic vein ligation to reproduce pelvic congestion. HE staining was used for the examination of the prostate 35 days after the operation. 80mg/(kg.d of diosmin was given to the rats in CPM-D group, and 60mg/(kg.d of diosmin to the rats in CPM-P group twice a day by gavage for 7 days. Same volume of 5% acacia gum was given to rats in SO and CPM groups. All of the rats were sacrificed 1h after the last administration, and the serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO were determined by ELISA, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue were observed after HE staining and compared between the groups. Results The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were significantly lower in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, the serum level of IL-10 was significantly higher in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, and the serum MDA level was similar between the 3 groups. HE staining showed that chronic inflammatory changes in rats' prostate were reduced more significantly in CPM-P group and CPM-D group than in CPM group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of diosmin on pelvic-congestion-induced chronic prostatitis is similar to that of prostat tablets, and its mechanism may be related to the alleviation of local inflammatory response by reducing the IL-1β, IL-8 and NO levels and increasing the IL-10 content in serum. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.06.04

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upregulation of EMMPRIN (OX47 in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Contributes to the Development of Mechanical Allodynia after Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are widely implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and play an important role in nociception and allodynia. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. However, the role of EMMPRIN in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Western blotting, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence were performed to determine the changes of messenger RNA and protein of EMMPRIN/OX47 and their cellular localization in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG after nerve injury. Paw withdrawal threshold test was examined to evaluate the pain behavior in spinal nerve ligation (SNL model. The lentivirus containing OX47 shRNA was injected into the DRG one day before SNL. The expression level of both mRNA and protein of OX47 was markedly upregulated in ipsilateral DRG after SNL. OX47 was mainly expressed in the extracellular matrix of DRG. Administration of shRNA targeted against OX47 in vivo remarkably attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. In conclusion, peripheral nerve injury induced upregulation of OX47 in the extracellular matrix of DRG. RNA interference against OX47 significantly suppressed the expression of OX47 mRNA and the development of mechanical allodynia. The altered expression of OX47 may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury.

  15. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  16. Enrichment and proteomic analysis of plasma membrane from rat dorsal root ganglions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons are primary sensory neurons that conduct neuronal impulses related to pain, touch and temperature senses. Plasma membrane (PM of DRG cells plays important roles in their functions. PM proteins are main performers of the functions. However, mainly due to the very low amount of DRG that leads to the difficulties in PM sample collection, few proteomic analyses on the PM have been reported and it is a subject that demands further investigation. Results By using aqueous polymer two-phase partition in combination with high salt and high pH washing, PMs were efficiently enriched, demonstrated by western blot analysis. A total of 954 non-redundant proteins were identified from the plasma membrane-enriched preparation with CapLC-MS/MS analysis subsequent to protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or shotgun digestion. 205 (21.5% of the identified proteins were unambiguously assigned as PM proteins, including a large number of signal proteins, receptors, ion channel and transporters. Conclusion The aqueous polymer two-phase partition is a simple, rapid and relatively inexpensive method. It is well suitable for the purification of PMs from small amount of tissues. Therefore, it is reasonable for the DRG PM to be enriched by using aqueous two-phase partition as a preferred method. Proteomic analysis showed that DRG PM was rich in proteins involved in the fundamental biological processes including material exchange, energy transformation and information transmission, etc. These data would help to our further understanding of the fundamental DRG functions.

  17. Gene therapy with brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a protection: retinal ganglion cells in a rat glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Zack, Donald J; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Klein, Ronald L; Hauswirth, William W

    2003-10-01

    To develop a modified adenoassociated viral (AAV) vector capable of efficient transfection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to test the hypothesis that use of this vector to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be protective in experimental glaucoma. Ninety-three rats received one unilateral, intravitreal injection of either normal saline (n = 30), AAV-BDNF-woodchuck hepatitis posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE; n = 30), or AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-WPRE (n = 33). Two weeks later, experimental glaucoma was induced in the injected eye by laser application to the trabecular meshwork. Survival of RGCs was estimated by counting axons in optic nerve cross sections after 4 weeks of glaucoma. Transgene expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and direct visualization of GFP. The density of GFP-positive cells in retinal wholemounts was 1,828 +/- 299 cells/mm(2) (72,273 +/- 11,814 cells/retina). Exposure to elevated intraocular pressure was similar in all groups. Four weeks after initial laser treatment, axon loss was 52.3% +/- 27.1% in the saline-treated group (n = 25) and 52.3% +/- 24.2% in the AAV-GFP-WPRE group (n = 30), but only 32.3% +/- 23.0% in the AAV-BDNF-WPRE group (n = 27). Survival in AAV-BDNF-WPRE animals increased markedly and the difference was significant compared with those receiving either AAV-GFP-WPRE (P = 0.002, t-test) or saline (P = 0.006, t-test). Overexpression of the BDNF gene protects RGC as estimated by axon counts in a rat glaucoma model, further supporting the potential feasibility of neurotrophic therapy as a complement to the lowering of IOP in the treatment of glaucoma.

  18. Changes in cationic selectivity of the nicotinic channel at the rat ganglionic synapse: a role for chloride ions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Oscar; Rossi, Maria Lisa; Canella, Rita; Fesce, Riccardo

    2011-02-25

    The permeability of the nicotinic channel (nAChR) at the ganglionic synapse has been examined, in the intact rat superior cervical ganglion in vitro, by fitting the Goldman current equation to the synaptic current (EPSC) I-V relationship. Subsynaptic nAChRs, activated by neurally-released acetylcholine (ACh), were thus analyzed in an intact environment as natively expressed by the mature sympathetic neuron. Postsynaptic neuron hyperpolarization (from -40 to -90 mV) resulted in a change of the synaptic potassium/sodium permeability ratio (P(K)/P(Na)) from 1.40 to 0.92, corresponding to a reversible shift of the apparent acetylcholine equilibrium potential, E(ACh), by about +10 mV. The effect was accompanied by a decrease of the peak synaptic conductance (g(syn)) and of the EPSC decay time constant. Reduction of [Cl(-)](o) to 18 mM resulted in a change of P(K)/P(Na) from 1.57 (control) to 2.26, associated with a reversible shift of E(ACh) by about -10 mV. Application of 200 nM αBgTx evoked P(K)/P(Na) and g(syn) modifications similar to those observed in reduced [Cl(-)](o). The two treatments were overlapping and complementary, as if the same site/mechanism were involved. The difference current before and after chloride reduction or toxin application exhibited a strongly positive equilibrium potential, which could not be explained by the block of a calcium component of the EPSC. Observations under current-clamp conditions suggest that the driving force modification of the EPSC due to P(K)/P(Na) changes represent an additional powerful integrative mechanism of neuron behavior. A possible role for chloride ions is suggested: the nAChR selectivity was actually reduced by increased chloride gradient (membrane hyperpolarization), while it was increased, moving towards a channel preferentially permeable for potassium, when the chloride gradient was reduced.

  19. Changes in cationic selectivity of the nicotinic channel at the rat ganglionic synapse: a role for chloride ions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Sacchi

    Full Text Available The permeability of the nicotinic channel (nAChR at the ganglionic synapse has been examined, in the intact rat superior cervical ganglion in vitro, by fitting the Goldman current equation to the synaptic current (EPSC I-V relationship. Subsynaptic nAChRs, activated by neurally-released acetylcholine (ACh, were thus analyzed in an intact environment as natively expressed by the mature sympathetic neuron. Postsynaptic neuron hyperpolarization (from -40 to -90 mV resulted in a change of the synaptic potassium/sodium permeability ratio (P(K/P(Na from 1.40 to 0.92, corresponding to a reversible shift of the apparent acetylcholine equilibrium potential, E(ACh, by about +10 mV. The effect was accompanied by a decrease of the peak synaptic conductance (g(syn and of the EPSC decay time constant. Reduction of [Cl(-](o to 18 mM resulted in a change of P(K/P(Na from 1.57 (control to 2.26, associated with a reversible shift of E(ACh by about -10 mV. Application of 200 nM αBgTx evoked P(K/P(Na and g(syn modifications similar to those observed in reduced [Cl(-](o. The two treatments were overlapping and complementary, as if the same site/mechanism were involved. The difference current before and after chloride reduction or toxin application exhibited a strongly positive equilibrium potential, which could not be explained by the block of a calcium component of the EPSC. Observations under current-clamp conditions suggest that the driving force modification of the EPSC due to P(K/P(Na changes represent an additional powerful integrative mechanism of neuron behavior. A possible role for chloride ions is suggested: the nAChR selectivity was actually reduced by increased chloride gradient (membrane hyperpolarization, while it was increased, moving towards a channel preferentially permeable for potassium, when the chloride gradient was reduced.

  20. Preservation of Retina Ganglion Cell Function by Morphine in a Chronic Ocular-Hypertensive Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid; Abdul, Yasir; Crosson, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    Morphine, a broad range opioid-receptors agonist, provides retina neuroprotection against glaucomatous injury in chronic experimental rat model. Morphine-induced retina neuroprotection in glaucoma model is mediated partly via inhibition of TNF-alpha production and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation.

  1. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  2. Periosteal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Zidkova, H.; Matejovsky, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Ganglionic cysts are a common myxomatous degenerative disorder in periarticular connective tissues particularly in the hand and foot as well as within the subchondral bone adjacent to osteoarthritic joints. Compared with them, periosteal ganglia are only rarely reported in the literature. Their radiologic features are quite typical as documented by the following observation. (orig.) [de

  3. Ganglion Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Ganglion Cysts Email to a friend * required fields ...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  5. Dynamic Regulation of Delta-Opioid Receptor in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons by Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lv, Yiheng; Fu, Yunjie; Ren, Lili; Wang, Pan; Liu, Baozhu; Huang, Keqiang; Bi, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and its endogenous ligands distribute in trigeminal system and play a very important role in modulating peripheral inflammatory pain. DOR activation can trigger p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways, which participate in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, our purpose was to determine the dynamic changes of DOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during the process of acute dental pulp inflammation and elucidate its possible mechanism. Forty rats were used to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulpitis animal models at 6, 12, and 24 hours and sham-operated groups. Acute pulpitis was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and TG neuron activation was determined by anti-c-Fos immunohistochemistry. DOR protein and gene expression in TG was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and DOR expression in trigeminal nerves and dental pulp was also determined by immunohistochemistry. To further investigate the mechanism of DOR modulating acute inflammation, the change of pErk1/2 and pAkt in TG was examined by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide could successfully induce acute pulpitis and activated TG neurons. Acute pulpitis could dynamically increase DOR protein and gene expression at 6, 12, and 24 hours in TG, and DOR dimerization was significantly increased at 12 and 24 hours. Acute pulpitis also induced the dynamic change of DOR protein in trigeminal nerve and dental pulp. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways were inhibited in TG after acute pulpitis. Increased DOR expression and dimerization may play important roles in peripheral acute inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient receptor potential channels encode volatile chemicals sensed by rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lübbert

    Full Text Available Primary sensory afferents of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia constantly transmit sensory information depicting the individual's physical and chemical environment to higher brain regions. Beyond the typical trigeminal stimuli (e.g. irritants, environmental stimuli comprise a plethora of volatile chemicals with olfactory components (odorants. In spite of a complete loss of their sense of smell, anosmic patients may retain the ability to roughly discriminate between different volatile compounds. While the detailed mechanisms remain elusive, sensory structures belonging to the trigeminal system seem to be responsible for this phenomenon. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activation of the trigeminal system by volatile chemicals, we investigated odorant-induced membrane potential changes in cultured rat trigeminal neurons induced by the odorants vanillin, heliotropyl acetone, helional, and geraniol. We observed the dose-dependent depolarization of trigeminal neurons upon application of these substances occurring in a stimulus-specific manner and could show that distinct neuronal populations respond to different odorants. Using specific antagonists, we found evidence that TRPA1, TRPM8, and/or TRPV1 contribute to the activation. In order to further test this hypothesis, we used recombinantly expressed rat and human variants of these channels to investigate whether they are indeed activated by the odorants tested. We additionally found that the odorants dose-dependently inhibit two-pore potassium channels TASK1 and TASK3 heterologously expressed In Xenopus laevis oocytes. We suggest that the capability of various odorants to activate different TRP channels and to inhibit potassium channels causes neuronal depolarization and activation of distinct subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons, forming the basis for a specific representation of volatile chemicals in the trigeminal ganglia.

  7. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve.

  8. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Anna Iversen; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    The retinal ganglion cell layer of the eye comprises a subtype of cells characterized by their intrinsic photosensitivity and expression of melanopsin (ipRGCs). These cells regulate a variety of non-image-forming (NIF) functions such as light entrainment of circadian rhythms, acute suppression......-localized in their projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the intergeniculate leaflet, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. We conclude that there is evidence to support the use of glutamate and PACAP as neurotransmitters in NIF photoperception by rat ipRGCs, and that these neurotransmitters are co-stored and probably...

  9. Pregnancy-induced adaptations in the intrinsic structure of rat pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Lawley, Danielle M; Esparza, Mary C; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-08-01

    Maternal birth trauma to the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is a major risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. Modeling and imaging studies suggest that demands placed on PFMs during childbirth exceed their physiologic limits; however many parous women do not sustain PFM injury. Here we determine whether pregnancy induces adaptations in PFM architecture, the strongest predictor of muscle function, and/or intramuscular extracellular matrix (ECM), responsible for load bearing. To establish if parallel changes occur in muscles outside of the PFM, we also examined a hind limb muscle. Coccygeus, iliocaudalis, pubocaudalis, and tibialis anterior of 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley virgin, mid-pregnant, and late-pregnant; 6-month-old virgin; and 4- and 12-week postpartum rats (N = 10/group) were fixed in situ and harvested. Major architectural parameters determining muscle's excursion and force-generating capacity were quantified, namely, normalized fiber length (Lfn), physiologic cross-sectional area, and sarcomere length. Hydroxyproline content was used as a surrogate for intramuscular ECM quantity. Analyses were performed by 2-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc testing at a significance level of .05. Pregnancy induced a significant increase in Lfn in all PFMs by the end of gestation relative to virgin controls. Fibers were elongated by 37% in coccygeus (P pregnancy. By 12 weeks' postpartum, Lfn of all PFMs returned to the prepregnancy values. Relative to virgin controls, ECM increased by 140% in coccygeus, 52% in iliocaudalis, and 75% in pubocaudalis in late-pregnant group, but remained unchanged across time in the tibialis anterior. Postpartum, ECM collagen content returned to prepregnancy levels in iliocaudalis and pubocaudalis, but continued to be significantly elevated in coccygeus (P pregnancy induces unique adaptations in the structure of the PFMs, which adjust their architectural design by adding sarcomeres in series to increase fiber length as well as mounting

  10. Interventional Management for Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ameet S; Moody, Erika L

    2017-08-01

    Interventional procedures can be applied for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the patient with pelvic pain, often once more conservative measures have failed to provide relief. This article reviews interventional management strategies for pelvic pain. We review superior and inferior hypogastric plexus blocks, ganglion impar blocks, transversus abdominis plane blocks, ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric and genitofemoral blocks, pudendal nerve blocks, and selective nerve root blocks. Additionally, we discuss trigger point injections, sacroiliac joint injections, and neuromodulation approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-J; Xia, L-L; Xu, T-Y; Zhang, X-H; Zhu, Z-W; Zhang, M-G; Liu, Y; Xu, C; Zhong, S; Shen, Z-J

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED); however, most of the reports are based on questionnaires which cannot distinguish between organic and functional ED. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact relationship between CP/CPPS and ED, and to investigate the changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of CP/CPPS. We established a rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), which is a valid model for CP/CPPS. Erectile function in EAP and normal rats was comparable after cavernous nerve electrostimulation. The serum testosterone and oestradiol levels, ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the two groups were similar; however, there was a decrease in smooth muscle-to-collagen ratio and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and an increase in transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression was observed in EAP rats. Thus, organic ED may not exist in EAP rats. We speculate that ED complained by patients with CP/CPPS may be psychological, which could be caused by impairment in the quality of life; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential mechanisms underlying the penile fibrosis in EAP rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The effect of leptin receptor deficiency and fasting on cannabinoid receptor 1 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus, brainstem and nodose ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Philip Just; Vrang, Niels

    2009-10-02

    Despite ample evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the control of appetite, food intake and energy balance, relatively little is known about the regulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)R) expression in respect to leptin signalling and fasting. In the present study, we examined CB(1)R mRNA levels in lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats under basal and food-restricted conditions. Using stereological sampling principles coupled with semi-quantitative radioactive in situ hybridization we provide semi-quantitative estimates of CB(1)R mRNA expression in key appetite regulatory hypothalamic and brainstem areas, as well as in the nodose ganglia. Whereas no effect of fasting were determined on CB(1)R mRNA levels in the paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus, in the brainstem dorsal vagal complex or nodose ganglion of lean Zucker rats, CB(1)R mRNA levels were consistently elevated in obese Zucker rats pointing to a direct influence of disrupted leptin signalling on CB(1)R mRNA regulation.

  13. Radiotherapy Suppresses Bone Cancer Pain through Inhibiting Activation of cAMP Signaling in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is one of the major clinical approaches for treatment of bone cancer pain. Activation of cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in bone cancer pain. Here, we examined the effects of radiotherapy on bone cancer pain and accompanying abnormal activation of cAMP-PKA signaling. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and received tumor cell implantation (TCI in rat tibia (TCI cancer pain model. Some of the rats that previously received TCI treatment were treated with X-ray radiation (radiotherapy. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured and used for evaluating level of pain caused by TCI treatment. PKA mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG was detected by RT-PCR. Concentrations of cAMP, IL-1β, and TNF-α as well as PKA activity in DRG and the spinal cord were measured by ELISA. The results showed that radiotherapy significantly suppressed TCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The level of PKA mRNA in DRG, cAMP concentration and PKA activity in DRG and in the spinal cord, and concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in the spinal cord were significantly reduced by radiotherapy. In addition, radiotherapy also reduced TCI-induced bone loss. These findings suggest that radiotherapy may suppress bone cancer pain through inhibition of activation of cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in DRG and the spinal cord.

  14. Modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by G protein-coupled receptors in celiac-mesenteric ganglion neurons of septic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Farrag

    Full Text Available Septic shock, the most severe complication associated with sepsis, is manifested by tissue hypoperfusion due, in part, to cardiovascular and autonomic dysfunction. In many cases, the splanchnic circulation becomes vasoplegic. The celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG sympathetic neurons provide the main autonomic input to these vessels. We used the cecal ligation puncture (CLP model, which closely mimics the hemodynamic and metabolic disturbances observed in septic patients, to examine the properties and modulation of Ca2+ channels by G protein-coupled receptors in acutely dissociated rat CSMG neurons. Voltage-clamp studies 48 hr post-sepsis revealed that the Ca2+ current density in CMSG neurons from septic rats was significantly lower than those isolated from sham control rats. This reduction coincided with a significant increase in membrane surface area and a negligible increase in Ca2+ current amplitude. Possible explanations for these findings include either cell swelling or neurite outgrowth enhancement of CSMG neurons from septic rats. Additionally, a significant rightward shift of the concentration-response relationship for the norepinephrine (NE-mediated Ca2+ current inhibition was observed in CSMG neurons from septic rats. Testing for the presence of opioid receptor subtypes in CSMG neurons, showed that mu opioid receptors were present in ~70% of CSMG, while NOP opioid receptors were found in all CSMG neurons tested. The pharmacological profile for both opioid receptor subtypes was not significantly affected by sepsis. Further, the Ca2+ current modulation by propionate, an agonist for the free fatty acid receptors GPR41 and GPR43, was not altered by sepsis. Overall, our findings suggest that CSMG function is affected by sepsis via changes in cell size and α2-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ channel modulation.

  15. Kynurenine aminotransferase in the supratentorial dura mater of the rat: effect of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth; Chadaide, Zoltán; Okuno, Etsuo; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Toldi, József; Varga, Csaba; Molnár, Andor; Csillik, Bert; Vécsei, László

    2004-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion has been widely used as a model of nociception, characterizing migraine. This treatment is known to evoke release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from nerve fibers of the dura mater. On the basis of immunocytochemical investigations, we found that under normal conditions, surface membranes of Schwann cells surrounding nerve fibers in the supratentorial dura mater display kynurenine aminotransferase-immunoreaction (KAT-IR); also KAT-IR are the granules of mast cells and the cytoplasms of macrophages (histiocytes). In consequence of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, Schwann cells in the dura mater became conspicuously swollen while their KAT-IR decreased considerably; also KAT-IR of mast cells and macrophages decreased significantly. At the same time, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-IR of nerve fibers in the dura mater increased, suggesting release of nitric oxide (NO), this is known to be involved in NMDA receptor activation leading to vasodilation followed by neurogenic inflammation. Because kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that KYNA and its synthesizing enzyme, KAT, may play a role in the prevention of migraine attacks.

  16. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve in rats is well tolerated and does not compromise afferent or efferent fibre functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J. J.; Brouillard, C. B. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Lovick, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting. Since nociceptor afferents are intermingled with similar-sized visceral autonomic fibres, stimulation may induce pain. In anaesthetised rats high frequency stimulation of the pelvic nerve can suppress urinary voiding but it is not known how conscious animals would react to this procedure. Our objective therefore was to determine how rats tolerated chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve, whether nerve stimulation would be aversive and whether nerve-bladder functionality would be compromised. Approach. We carried out a preliminary de-risking study to investigate how conscious rats tolerated chronic implantation of electrodes on the pelvic nerve, their responsiveness to intermittent high frequency stimulation and whether functionality of the nerve-bladder connection became compromised. Main results. Implantation of cuff electrodes was well-tolerated. The normal diurnal pattern of urinary voiding was not disrupted. Pelvic nerve stimulation (up to 4 mA, 3 kHz) for 30 min periods evoked mild alerting at stimulus onset but no signs of pain. Stimulation evoked a modest (nerve temperature but the functional integrity of the nerve-bladder connection, reflected by contraction of the detrusor muscle in response to 10 Hz nerve stimulation, was not compromised. Significance. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve was found to be a well-tolerated procedure in rats and high frequency

  17. Neuronal and glial expression of inward rectifier potassium channel subunits Kir2.x in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yuzo; Yasaka, Toshiharu; Takano, Makoto; Ishihara, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels of the Kir2.x subfamily play important roles in controlling the neuronal excitability. Although their cellular localization in the brain has been extensively studied, only a few studies have examined their expression in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses of Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 expression were performed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord using bright-field and confocal microscopy. In DRG, most ganglionic neurons expressed Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3, whereas satellite glial cells chiefly expressed Kir2.3. In the spinal cord, Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were all expressed highly in the gray matter of dorsal and ventral horns and moderately in the white matter also. Within the gray matter, the expression was especially high in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). Confocal images obtained using markers for neuronal cells, NeuN, and astrocytes, Sox9, showed expression of all three Kir2 subunits in both neuronal somata and astrocytes in lamina I-III of the dorsal horn and the lateral spinal nucleus of the dorsolateral funiculus. Immunoreactive signals other than those in neuronal and glial somata were abundant in lamina I and II, which probably located mainly in nerve fibers or nerve terminals. Colocalization of Kir2.1 and 2.3 and that of Kir2.2 and 2.3 were present in neuronal and glial somata. In the ventral horn, motor neurons and interneurons were also immunoreactive with the three Kir2 subunits. Our study suggests that Kir2 channels composed of Kir2.1-2.3 subunits are expressed in neuronal and glial cells in the DRG and spinal cord, contributing to sensory transduction and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate underlies agmatine-induced suppression of N-type Ca2+ channel in rat celiac ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2017-03-04

    Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by modulating Cav2.2 channels in peripheral sympathetic neurons. However, the detailed cellular signaling mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced Cav2.2 inhibition remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological mechanism for the agmatine-induced inhibition of Cav2.2 current (I Cav2.2 ) in rat celiac ganglion (CG) neurons. Consistent with previous reports, agmatine inhibited I Cav2.2 in a VI manner. The agmatine-induced inhibition of the I Cav2.2 current was also almost completely hindered by the blockade of the imidazoline I 2 receptor (IR 2 ), and an IR 2 agonist mimicked the inhibitory effect of agmatine on I Cav2.2 , implying involvement of IR 2 . The agmatine-induced I Cav2.2 inhibition was significantly hampered by the blockade of G protein or phospholipase C (PLC), but not by the pretreatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, diC8-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) dialysis nearly completely hampered agmatine-induced inhibition, which became irreversible when PIP 2 resynthesis was blocked. These results suggest that in rat peripheral sympathetic neurons, agmatine-induced IR 2 activation suppresses Cav2.2 channel voltage-independently, and that the PLC-dependent PIP 2 hydrolysis is responsible for the agmatine-induced suppression of the Cav2.2 channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [A study on toxic effects of sodium salicylate on rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons: dopamine receptors mediate expressions of NMDA and GABAA receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting-Jia; Chen, Hui-Ying; Huang, Xi; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Su, Ji-Ping

    2017-06-25

    The aim of the present study was to observe whether dopamine receptor (DR) was involved in the effects of sodium salicylate (SS) on the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Forty-eight hours after primary culture of rat SGNs, immunofluorescence technique was applied to detect expressions of DR1 and DR2, the two subtypes of dopamine receptors. Western blot was performed to assess NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and GABA A receptor subunit α2 (GABRα2) protein expressions in the SGNs after the treatments of SS alone or in combination with DR antagonists. The results demonstrated that: (1) The DR1 and DR2 were expressed in the bodies and axons of the SGN; (2) After the treatment with SS, the surface protein expressions of GABRα2 and NR1 were decreased by 44.69% and 21.57%, respectively, while the total protein expressions showed no significant changes; (3) Neither SS + SCH23390 (DR1 antagonist) group nor SS + Eticlopride (DR2 antagonist) group showed significant differences in GABRα2 and NR1 surface protein expressions compared with the control group. These results suggest that SS regulates the surface GABA A and NMDA receptors trafficking on SGN, and the mechanism may involve DR mediation.

  20. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri Ayano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R is involved in satellite glial cells (SGCs activation, indicating that P2Y12R expressed in SGCs may play functional roles in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms. However, the involvement of P2Y12R in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. We therefore studied the reflex to noxious mechanical or heat stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual neuropathic pain. Results The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN-IR cells (i.e. neurons in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in naïve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats

  1. Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs Haloperidol and Clozapine on Visual Responses of Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ralph J

    2016-12-01

    In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride appear to improve visual responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by increasing light sensitivity of RGCs and transforming abnormal, long-latency ON-center RGCs into OFF-center cells. Antipsychotic drugs are believed to mediate their therapeutic benefits by blocking D2 receptors. This investigation was conducted to test whether haloperidol (a typical antipsychotic drug) and clozapine (an atypical antipsychotic drug) could similarly alter the light responses of RGCs in the P23H rat retina. Extracellular recordings were made from RGCs in isolated P23H rat retinas. Responses of RGCs to flashes of light were evaluated before and during bath application of a drug. Both haloperidol and clozapine increased light sensitivity of RGCs on average by ∼0.3 log unit. For those ON-center RGCs that exhibit an abnormally long-latency response to the onset of a small spot of light, both haloperidol and clozapine brought out a short-latency OFF response and markedly reduced the long-latency ON response. The selective serotonin 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 100907 had similar effects on RGCs. The effects of haloperidol on light responses of RGCs can be explained by its D2 receptor antagonism. The effects of clozapine on light responses of RGCs on the other hand may largely be due to its 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. Overall, the results suggest that antipsychotic drugs may be useful in improving vision in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-07-30

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain.

  3. Increased Hyperalgesia and Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion After Surgery and/or Fentanyl Administration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lu; Ye, Fang; Luo, Quehua; Tao, Yuanxiang; Shu, Haihua

    2018-01-01

    Perioperative fentanyl has been reported to induce hyperalgesia and increase postoperative pain. In this study, we tried to investigate behavioral hyperalgesia, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the activation of microglia in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of surgical plantar incision with or without perioperative fentanyl. Four groups of rats (n = 32 for each group) were subcutaneously injected with fentanyl at 60 μg/kg or normal saline for 4 times with 15-minute intervals. Plantar incisions were made to rats in 2 groups after the second drug injection. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were assessed by the tail pressure test and paw withdrawal test on the day before, at 1, 2, 3, 4 hours, and on the days 1-7 after drug injection. The lumbar spinal cord, bilateral DRG, and cerebrospinal fluid of 4 rats in each group were collected to measure IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on the day before, at the fourth hour, and on the days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after drug injection. The lumbar spinal cord and bilateral DRG were removed to detect the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 on the day before and on the days 1 and 7 after drug injection. Rats injected with normal saline only demonstrated no significant mechanical or thermal hyperalgesia or any increases of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the spinal cord or DRG. However, injection of fentanyl induced analgesia within as early as 4 hours and a significant delayed tail mechanical and bilateral plantar thermal hyperalgesia after injections lasting for 2 days, while surgical plantar incision induced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia lasting for 1-4 days. The combination of fentanyl and incision further aggravated the hyperalgesia and prolonged the duration of hyperalgesia. The fentanyl or surgical incision upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the

  4. Effects of curcumin on TTX-R sodium currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in type 2 diabetic rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2015-09-25

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Replicate high-density rat genome oligonucleotide microarrays reveal hundreds of regulated genes in the dorsal root ganglion after peripheral nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannion James W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat oligonucleotide microarrays were used to detect changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG 3 days following sciatic nerve transection (axotomy. Two comparisons were made using two sets of triplicate microarrays, naïve versus naïve and naïve versus axotomy. Results Microarray variability was assessed using the naïve versus naïve comparison. These results support use of a P 1.5-fold expression change and P 1.5-fold and P in situ hybridization verified the expression of 24 transcripts. These data showed an 83% concordance rate with the arrays; most mismatches represent genes with low expression levels reflecting limits of array sensitivity. A significant correlation was found between actual mRNA differences and relative changes between microarrays (r2 = 0.8567. Temporal patterns of individual genes regulation varied. Conclusions We identify parameters for microarray analysis which reduce error while identifying many putatively regulated genes. Functional classification of these genes suggest reorganization of cell structural components, activation of genes expressed by immune and inflammatory cells and down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission.

  6. Involvement of GSK3 in the formation of the leading process and migration of neurons from the embryonic rat medial ganglionic eminence in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Yuri; Aminaka, Yuichi; Hayashi, Kensuke

    2015-03-04

    Migrating neurons have leading processes that direct cell movement in response to guidance cues. We investigated the involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in the formation of leading processes and migration of neurons in vitro. We used embryonic rat medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) neurons, which are precursors of inhibitory neurons that migrate into the cerebral cortex. When MGE neurons were placed on an astrocyte layer, they migrated freely with the highest speed among neurons from other parts of the embryonic forebrain. When they were cultured alone, they showed bipolar morphology and extended leading processes within 20 h. Their leading processes had large growth cones, but did not elongate during 3 days in culture, indicating that leading processes are distinct from short axons. Next, we examined the effect of GSK3 inhibitors on leading processes and the migratory behavior of MGE neurons. MGE neurons treated with GSK3 inhibitors showed multipolar morphology and altered process shapes. Moreover, migration of MGE neurons on the astrocyte layer was significantly decreased in the presence of GSK3 inhibitors. These data suggest that GSK3 is involved in the formation of leading processes and in the migration of MGE neurons.

  7. Effects of (−-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Min Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The (−-gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG concentration in some tea beverages can account for as much as 50% of the total catechins. It has been shown that catechins have analgesic properties. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant compared to other isoforms and functionally linked to nociception. In this study, the effects of GCG on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents were investigated in rat primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons via the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that 1 μM GCG reduced the amplitudes of peak current density of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents significantly. Furthermore, the inhibition was accompanied by a depolarizing shift of the activation voltage and a hyperpolarizing shift of steady-state inactivation voltage. The percentage block of GCG (1 μM on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. In addition, GCG did not produce frequency-dependent block of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents at stimulation frequencies of 1 Hz, 2 Hz and 5 Hz. On the basis of these findings, we propose that GCG may be a potential analgesic agent.

  8. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on retinal ganglion cells in rat optic nerve crush model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tao Lyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the mechanism of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on the protein molecular level in the optic nerve crush model rats. METHODS: Totally 36 participants 36 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups(6 in every group: normal control group, negative control group, Tianma Gouteng Decoction treatment groups(con-centrations were 0.6g/mL, 1.2g/mL, 2.4g/mL respictivelyand ginkgo biloba tablets positive control group(concentrations was 1.2mg/mL. Nothing was done in the normal control group. The optic nerve of right eye in the other groups was done with the optic nerve crush model. Normal control group and negative control group was treated only with water. The average grey scale values of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B(NMDA2Breceptor protein, beta - amyloid protein(Aβin the average grey scale values were detected. RESULTS: The average grey scale value of Tianma Gouteng Decoction in low, medium and high dose groups about NMDA2B receptor protein was significantly less than that of the negative control group(all PP=0.092, 0.411, 0.676, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PP=0.030, 0.001. The low dose group than the negative control group was not obviously(P=0.614. The high dose group was not significantly different from the positive control group(P=0.927, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PCONCLUSION: Tianma Gouteng Decoction can go through the decrease of the NMDA2B receptor protein expression and the control of beta-amyloid deposition to reduce the retinal ganglion cell injury and apoptosis.

  10. Study of the density of ganglion cells in the terminal bowel of rats with anorectal malformations Estudo da densidade das células ganglionares no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the ganglion cells (GC in the terminal bowel of rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU induced anorectal malformations (ARM. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A - normal fetuses from pregnant rats that were not administered ETU; Group B - fetuses without ARM born from pregnant rats that were administered ETU and Group C - fetuses with ARM born from pregnant rats that received ETU. ETU was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy at the dose of 125 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. The rats had cesarean section on the 21st day of gestation. The fetuses’ terminal bowel tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate ganglion cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups A, B and C regarding ganglion cell densities. Group A had the highest cell density, followed by Group B and the lowest density was found in Group C. CONCLUSION: Ganglion cell densities are decreased in the terminal bowel of rats with ARM.OBJETIVO: Estudar as células ganglionares (CG no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal (AAR induzida pela etilenotiouréia (ETU. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo A - fetos normais, obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais não foi administrada ETU; Grupo B - fetos não portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU e Grupo C - fetos portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU. A ETU foi administrada no décimo primeiro dia de gestação na dose de 125 mg/Kg, por gavagem. As ratas foram submetidas à laparotomia e histerotomia para retirada dos fetos no vigésimo primeiro dia de gestação. O intestino terminal dos fetos foi retirado e analisado por imunohistoquímica para pesquisa de CG. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos A, B e C quanto à densidade de CG. O grupo A apresentou a maior densidade

  11. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

  12. Acute anal stretch inhibits NMDA-dependent pelvic-urethra reflex potentiation via spinal GABAergic inhibition in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Lang; Huang, Yu-Hui; Kao, Yu-Lin; Chen, Gin-Den; Cheng, Chen-Li; Peng, Hsien-Yu; Liao, Jiuan-Miaw; Huang, Pei-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jei; Lin, Tzer-Bin

    2008-10-01

    The impact of acute anal stretch on the pelvic-urethra reflex potentiation was examined in urethane-anesthetized rats by recording the external urethra sphincter electromyogram activity evoked by the pelvic afferent stimulation. Test stimulation (1 stimulation/30 s) evoked a baseline reflex activity with a single action potential that was abolished by gallamine (5 mg/kg iv). On the other hand, the repetitive stimulation (1 stimulation/1 s) induced spinal reflex potentiation (SRP) that was attenuated by intrathecal 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,4-dione (a glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionat receptor antagonist, 100 microM, 10 microl) and d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate [a glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, 100 microM, 10 microl]. Acute anal stretch using a mosquito clamp with a distance of 4 mm exhibited no effect, whereas distances of 8 mm attenuated and 12 mm abolished the repetitive stimulation-induced SRP. Intrathecal NMDA (100 microM, 10 microl) reversed the abolition on SRP caused by anal stretch. On the other hand, pretreated bicuculline [gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor antagonist, 100 microM, 10 microl] but not hydroxysaclofen (GABAB receptor antagonist) counteracted the abolition on the repetitive stimulation-induced SRP caused by the anal stretch. All of the results suggested that anal stretch may be used as an adjunct to assist voiding dysfunction in patients with overactive urethra sphincter and that GABAergic neurotransmission is important in the neural mechanisms underlying external urethra sphincter activity inhibited by anal stretch.

  13. Establishment of a rat model of chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) induced by immunization with a novel peptide T2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Farhan Ullah; Nawaz, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Yang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    The exact etiological mechanism of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is still unclear however autoimmunity is the most valid theory. We developed a rat model of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome by using a novel peptide (T2) isolated from TRPM8. This model might be beneficial in elucidating mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS). 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 180-220g were equally distributed into five groups. The normal control group was injected with normal saline (.9% NACL), the CFA group with CFA, AL(OH)3 group was given AL(OH)3 injection, T2 group using a novel peptide T2 and T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group was injected with T2+AL(OH)3+CFA. Dosing to all rat groups were injected subcutaneously. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Immunohistochemistry were used to investigate inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-1β in the prostate tissue respectively. ELISA technique was used to measure the serum level of CRP and TNF-α. T-test was used to analyze the results. Maximum infiltration of inflammatory cells and the highest level of IL-1β in the prostate tissue was observed in T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group as revealed by histopathology and Immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group attained the peak value of serum TNF-α and CRP as determined by ELISA technique. Our results demonstrated that T2 in combination with AL(OH)3 and CFA induced severe Prostatitis in rats. We believe that our present model will be highly beneficial for investigation of the pathophysiology of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. KYNA analogue SZR72 modifies CFA-induced dural inflammation- regarding expression of pERK1/2 and IL-1β in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukács, M; Warfvinge, K; Kruse, L S

    2016-01-01

    modify the neurogenic inflammatory response in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: Inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion was induced by local dural application of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA). Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase pERK1/2 and IL-1β expression in V1 region of the trigeminal ganglion were...... investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. FINDINGS: Pretreatment with one dose of SZR72 abolished the CFA-induced pERK1/2 and IL-1β activation in the trigeminal ganglion. No significant change was noted in case of repeated treatment with SZR72 as compared to a single dose. CONCLUSIONS......: This is the first study that demonstrates that one dose of KYNA analog before application of CFA can give anti-inflammatory response in a model of trigeminal activation, opening a new line for further investigations regarding possible effects of KYNA derivates....

  15. Wnt1 from cochlear schwann cells enhances neuronal differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat spiral ganglion neuron degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya; Zhang, Peng-Zhi; Sun, Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Xing-Wang; Mao, Xiao-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Although neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is widely expected to become a therapy for nervous system degenerative diseases and injuries, the low neuronal differentiation rate of NSCs transplanted into the inner ear is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration. In this study, we validated whether the local microenvironment influences the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs in the inner ear. Using a rat SGN degeneration model, we demonstrated that transplanted NSCs were more likely to differentiate into microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive neurons in SGN-degenerated cochleae than in control cochleae. Using real-time quantitative PCR and an immunofluorescence assay, we also proved that the expression of Wnt1 (a ligand of Wnt signaling) increases significantly in Schwann cells in the SGN-degenerated cochlea. We further verified that NSC cultures express receptors and signaling components for Wnts. Based on these expression patterns, we hypothesized that Schwann cell-derived Wnt1 and Wnt signaling might be involved in the regulation of the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs. We verified our hypothesis in vitro using a coculture system. We transduced a lentiviral vector expressing Wnt1 into cochlear Schwann cell cultures and cocultured them with NSC cultures. The coculture with Wnt1-expressing Schwann cells resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of NSCs that differentiated into MAP2-positive neurons, whereas this differentiation-enhancing effect was prevented by Dkk1 (an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway). These results suggested that Wnt1 derived from cochlear Schwann cells enhanced the neuronal differentiation of transplanted NSCs through Wnt signaling pathway activation. Alterations of the microenvironment deserve detailed investigation because they may help us to conceive effective strategies to overcome the barrier of the low differentiation rate of transplanted

  16. Effects of electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz on rat type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia-related protein expression in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Jun-Jun; Shou, Sheng-Yun; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang

    To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, serum fasting insulin (FINS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured. The expressions of L4-L6 DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP were assessed by immunofluorescence. Type 2 DNP was successfully induced as shown by the increased body weight, FINS, and FBG, as well as the reduced ISI and PWL. Expressions of P2X3 receptors and CGRP in L4-L6 DRGs increased. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz relieved type 2 DNP, but the analgesic effect of EA was stronger at 2 Hz. P2X3 receptor expression decreased in L4-L6 DRGs following EA at 2 Hz and in L5 and L6 DRGs following EA at 100 Hz. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz down-regulated CGRP overexpression in L4-L6 DRGs. These findings indicate that EA at 2 Hz is a good option for the management of type 2 DNP. The EA effect may be related to its down-regulation of the overexpressions of the DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP in this condition.

  17. WenTong HuoXue Cream Can Inhibit the Reduction of the Pain-Related Molecule PLC-β3 in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of a Rat Model of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Xu, Lijuan; Guo, Shiyun; Chen, Qian; Shen, Yuguo; Zang, Deng; Ma, Li

    2018-01-01

    WenTong HuoXue Cream (WTHX-Cream) has been shown to effectively alleviate clinical symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). This study investigated the gene and protein expression of the pain-related molecule PLC- β 3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of DPN rats. 88 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into placebo (10 rats) and DPN model (78 rats) groups, and the 78 model rats were used to establish the DPN model by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and were then fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. These rats were randomly divided into the model group, the high-, medium-, and low-dose WTHX-Cream + metformin groups, the metformin group, the capsaicin cream group, and the capsaicin cream + metformin group. After 4 weeks of continuous drug administration, the blood glucose, body weight, behavioral indexes, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity were measured. The pathological structure of the DRG and the sciatic nerve were observed. PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein levels in the DRG of rats were measured. Compared with the model group, the high-dose WTHX-Cream group showed increased sciatic nerve conduction velocity, improved sciatic nerve morphological changes, and increased expression of PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein in the DRG. This study showed that WTHX-Cream improves hyperalgesia symptoms of DPN by inhibiting the reduction of PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein expression in the diabetic DRG of DPN rats.

  18. Expression profile of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, SLC17A9) in subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kentaro; Nomura, Yuka; Kawamori, Kanako; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-09-05

    ATP plays an important role in the signal transduction between sensory neurons and satellite cells in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In primary cultured DRG neurons, ATP is known to be stored in lysosomes via a vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), and to be released into the intercellular space through exocytosis. DRGs consist of large-, medium- and small-sized neurons, which play different roles in sensory transmission, but there is no information on the expression profiles of VNUT in DRG subpopulations. Here, we obtained detailed expression profiles of VNUT in isolated rat DRG tissues. On immunohistochemical analysis, VNUT was found in DRG neurons, and was predominantly expressed by the small- and medium-sized DRG ones, as judged upon visual inspection, and this was compatible with the finding that the number of VNUT-positive DRG neurons in IB4-positive cells was greater than that in NF200-positive ones. These results suggest that VNUT play a role in ATP accumulation in DRG neurons, especially in small- and medium-sized ones, and might be involved in ATP-mediated nociceptive signaling in DRGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organization of the motoneurons innervating the pelvic muscles of the male rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1980-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the motoneuron pool of the male rat was studied at the lumbo-sacral transition area, particularly in L6. In the latter segment a dorso-medial (DM), ventral (V), dorso-lateral (DL), and retrodorso-lateral group (RDL) could be defined. The DL group was associated...

  20. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cold temperatures on the excitability of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that are not for cold-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hirosato; Gu, Jianguo G.

    2016-01-01

    Except a small population of primary afferent neurons for sensing cold to generate the sensations of innocuous and noxious cold, it is generally believed that cold temperatures suppress the excitability of other primary afferent neurons that are not for cold-sensing. These not-for-cold-sensing neurons include the majority of non-nociceptive and nociceptive afferent neurons. In the present study we have found that not-for-cold-sensing neurons of rat trigeminal ganglia (TG) change their excitability in several ways at cooling temperatures. In nearly 70% of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons, the cooling temperature of 15°C increases their membrane excitability. We regard these neurons as cold-active neurons. For the remaining 30% of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons, the cooling temperature of 15°C either has no effect (regarded as cold-ineffective neurons) or suppress (regarded as cold-suppressive neurons) their membrane excitability. For cold-active neurons, the cold temperature of 15°C increases their excitability as is evidenced by the increases in action potential (AP) firing numbers and/or reduction of AP rheobase when these neurons are depolarized electrically. The cold temperature of 15°C significantly inhibits M-currents and increases membrane input resistance of cold-active neurons. Retigabine, an M-current activator, abolishes the effect of cold temperatures on AP firing but not the effect of cold temperature on AP rheobase levels. The inhibition of M-currents and the increases of membrane input resistance are likely two mechanisms by which cooling temperatures increase the excitability of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons. PMID:26709732

  2. KYNA analogue SZR72 modifies CFA-induced dural inflammation- regarding expression of pERK1/2 and IL-1β in the rat trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, M; Warfvinge, K; Kruse, L S; Tajti, J; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J; Vécsei, L; Edvinsson, L

    2016-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation has for decades been considered an important part of migraine pathophysiology. In the present study, we asked the question if administration of a novel kynurenic acid analogue (SZR72), precursor of an excitotoxin antagonist and anti-inflammatory substance, can modify the neurogenic inflammatory response in the trigeminal ganglion. Inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion was induced by local dural application of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA). Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase pERK1/2 and IL-1β expression in V1 region of the trigeminal ganglion were investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Pretreatment with one dose of SZR72 abolished the CFA-induced pERK1/2 and IL-1β activation in the trigeminal ganglion. No significant change was noted in case of repeated treatment with SZR72 as compared to a single dose. This is the first study that demonstrates that one dose of KYNA analog before application of CFA can give anti-inflammatory response in a model of trigeminal activation, opening a new line for further investigations regarding possible effects of KYNA derivates.

  3. WenTong HuoXue Cream Can Inhibit the Reduction of the Pain-Related Molecule PLC-β3 in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of a Rat Model of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available WenTong HuoXue Cream (WTHX-Cream has been shown to effectively alleviate clinical symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. This study investigated the gene and protein expression of the pain-related molecule PLC-β3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG of DPN rats. 88 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into placebo (10 rats and DPN model (78 rats groups, and the 78 model rats were used to establish the DPN model by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and were then fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. These rats were randomly divided into the model group, the high-, medium-, and low-dose WTHX-Cream + metformin groups, the metformin group, the capsaicin cream group, and the capsaicin cream + metformin group. After 4 weeks of continuous drug administration, the blood glucose, body weight, behavioral indexes, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity were measured. The pathological structure of the DRG and the sciatic nerve were observed. PLC-β3 mRNA and protein levels in the DRG of rats were measured. Compared with the model group, the high-dose WTHX-Cream group showed increased sciatic nerve conduction velocity, improved sciatic nerve morphological changes, and increased expression of PLC-β3 mRNA and protein in the DRG. This study showed that WTHX-Cream improves hyperalgesia symptoms of DPN by inhibiting the reduction of PLC-β3 mRNA and protein expression in the diabetic DRG of DPN rats.

  4. The meniscus ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Normal dimensions of the meniscus quoted in the literature vary somewhat; measurements were therefore carried out on the height and width on standardised arthrograms. This made it possible to evaluate changes in the height of the meniscus objectively and to diagnose degeneration with a ganglion at an earlier stage. Taking into account other, secondary, signs, 261 meniscus ganglia were diagnosed amongst 3133 meniscus lesions (8.3%) in the course of 5650 knee arthrograms. These were confirmed at operation and histologically. For the first time it has been possible to provide an estimate of the frequency of meniscus ganglion in the radiological literature. (orig.) [de

  5. Localization of cholecystokininlike immunoreactivity in the rat spinal cord, with particular reference to the autonomic innervation of the pelvic organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1983-01-01

    tracing and immunocytochemistry revealed that the two cholecystokinin terminal fields characteristic for L1-L2 and that surrounding the intermediolateral nucleus in L6-S1 were situated corresponding to preganglionic neurons innervating pelvic organs through the hypogastric nerve or the pelvic nerves...... from the more cranial part with respect to type of afferent connections. The origin of the spinal cholecystokinin was investigated and it was found that neither complete transection of the spinal cord nor ipsilateral sectioning of three or four dorsal roots induced visible changes...

  6. Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... treat my pain? Can pelvic pain affect my emotional well-being? How can I cope with long- ...

  7. Pelvic Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each step so that nothing comes as a surprise to you. After the pelvic exam After the ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  8. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang AL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ailiang Zhang, Kun Wang, Lianghua Ding, Xinnan Bao, Xuan Wang, Xubin Qiu, Jinbo Liu Spine Surgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC, caspase-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Keywords: pain, NLRP3, NF-κB, dorsal root ganglion, nucleus pulposus

  9. Pelvic Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. No epidemiological studies have been conducted to determine prevalence or incidence of such infections. Objective. To analyse the clinical cases of pelvic actinomycosis reported worldwide, to update the information about the disease. Methods. A systematic review of worldwide pelvic actinomycosis cases between 1980 and 2014 was performed, utilising the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The following information was analysed: year, country, type of study, number of cases, use of intrauterine device (IUD, final and initial diagnosis, and method of diagnosis. Results. 63 articles met the search criteria, of which 55 reported clinical cases and 8 reported cross-sectional studies. Conclusions. Pelvic actinomycosis is confusing to diagnose and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic chronic inflammatory lesions. It is commonly diagnosed through a histological report, obtained after a surgery subsequent to an erroneous initial diagnosis. A bacterial culture in anaerobic medium could be useful for the diagnosis but requires a controlled technique and should be performed using specialised equipment.

  10. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 and protein kinase C-epsilon increase in dorsal root ganglion neurons and spinal glial activation in an adolescent rat model of painful neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Christine L; Dong, Ling; Bowman, Alex S; Perez, Federico M; Guarino, Benjamin B; Sweitzer, Sarah M; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that neck pain is common in adolescence and is a risk factor for the development of chronic neck pain in adulthood. The cervical facet joint and its capsular ligament is a common source of pain in the neck in adults, but its role in adolescent pain remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define the biomechanics, behavioral sensitivity, and indicators of neuronal and glial activation in an adolescent model of mechanical facet joint injury. A bilateral C6-C7 facet joint distraction was imposed in an adolescent rat and biomechanical metrics were measured during injury. Following injury, forepaw mechanical hyperalgesia was measured, and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCɛ) and metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) expression in the dorsal root ganglion and markers of spinal glial activation were assessed. Joint distraction induced significant mechanical hyperalgesia during the 7 days post-injury (p capsule during injury were 32.8 ± 12.9%, which were consistent with the strains associated with comparable degrees of hypersensitivity in the adult rat. These results suggest that adolescents may have a lower tissue tolerance to induce pain and associated nociceptive response than do adults.

  11. The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees on pelvic inflammatory disease in rats through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wen, Xiaoke; Luo, Jieying; Chen, Shuqiong; Cheng, Zeneng; Xiang, Daxiong; Hu, Jian; He, Jingyu

    2016-11-25

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (APN), a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. Thirty-six female specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into control group, PID group, APN1 group, APN2 group, APN3 group and prednisone group. Pathogen-induced PID rats were constructed. The APN1, APN2 and APN3 group rats were orally administrated with APN extract at different levels. The prednisone group rats were administrated with prednisone. Eight days after the first infection, the histological examination of upper genital tract was carried out, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out using homogenate of the uterus and fallopian tube. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluations of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α in uterus was conducted. APN obviously suppressed the infiltrations of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and it could significantly reduce the excessive production of cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, APN could block the pathogen-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. APN showed potent anti-inflammatory effect on pathogen-induced PID in rats, with a potential mechanism of inhibiting the NF-κB signal pathway.

  12. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs erectile function through increased endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and corporal fibrosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Niu, X; Wang, G; Huang, J; Liu, M; Peng, B

    2016-11-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). But the molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between CP/CPPS and ED are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CP/CPPS on erectile function in a rat model and the possible mechanisms. A rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was established to mimic human CP⁄CPPS. Then twenty 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into EAP group and control group. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during cavernous nerve electrostimulation, the ratio of max ICP/MAP was calculated. Blood was collected to measure the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and testosterone, respectively. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in corpus cavernosum were detected. We also evaluated the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and apoptotic index (AI). The ratio of max ICP/MAP in EAP group were significantly lower than that in control group. The levels of serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in EAP group were all significantly higher than these in control group. The expression of eNOS and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, decreased SOD activity and smooth muscle/collagen ratio, increased MDA levels and AI were found in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats. In conclusion, CP/CPPS impaired penile erectile function in a rat model. The declines of eNOS expression and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum may be an important mechanism of CP/CPPS-induced ED. CP/CPPS also increased oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio in corpus cavernosum of rats, which were

  13. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC, even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  14. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A; De Nicolò, Sara; Rosso, Pamela; De Vitis, Luigi A; Castoldi, Valerio; Leocani, Letizia; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F; Tirassa, Paola; Rama, Paolo; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC), even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75 NTR , TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac) by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75 NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75 NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  15. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4, 7 and co-receptors in neurochemical sub-populations of rat trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, M P; Abate, W; Jackson, S K; Bennett, J H; Thompson, S W N

    2015-12-03

    The recent discovery that mammalian nociceptors express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has raised the possibility that these cells directly detect and respond to pathogens with implications for either direct nociceptor activation or sensitization. A range of neuronal TLRs have been identified, however a detailed description regarding the distribution of expression of these receptors within sub-populations of sensory neurons is lacking. There is also some debate as to the composition of the TLR4 receptor complex on sensory neurons. Here we use a range of techniques to quantify the expression of TLR4, TLR7 and some associated molecules within neurochemically-identified sub-populations of trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root (DRG) ganglion sensory neurons. We also detail the pattern of expression and co-expression of two isoforms of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), a phospholipid remodeling enzyme previously shown to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide-dependent TLR4 response in monocytes, within sensory ganglia. Immunohistochemistry shows that both TLR4 and TLR7 preferentially co-localize with transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3), markers of nociceptor populations, within both TG and DRG. A gene expression profile shows that TG sensory neurons express a range of TLR-associated molecules. LPCAT1 is expressed by a proportion of both nociceptors and non-nociceptive neurons. LPCAT2 immunostaining is absent from neuronal profiles within both TG and DRG and is confined to non-neuronal cell types under naïve conditions. Together, our results show that nociceptors express the molecular machinery required to directly respond to pathogenic challenge independently from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreased microRNA-125a-3p contributes to upregulation of p38 MAPK in rat trigeminal ganglions with orofacial inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingchun; Li, Pengfei; Ni, Yanhong; Zhao, Junjie; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial inflammatory pain is a difficult clinical problem, and the specific molecular mechanisms for this pain remain largely unexplained. The present study aimed to determine the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and disclose the underlying role of miR-125a-3p in orofacial inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Thirty-two differentially expressed miRNAs were first screened using a microarray chip in ipsilateral trigeminal ganglions (TGs) following CFA injection into the orofacial skin innervated by trigeminal nerve, and a portion of them, including miR-23a*, -24-2*, -26a, -92a, -125a-3p, -183 and -299 were subsequently selected and validated by qPCR. The target genes were predicted based on the miRWalk website and were further analyzed by gene ontology (GO). Further studies revealed miR-125a-3p expression was down-regulated, whereas both the expression of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) alpha and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) were up-regulated in ipsilateral TGs at different time points after CFA injection compared with control. Furthermore, mechanistic study revealed that miR-125a-3p negatively regulates p38 alpha gene expression and is positively correlated with the head withdrawal threshold reflecting pain. Luciferase assay showed that binding of miR-125a-3p to the 3'UTR of p38 alpha gene suppressed the transcriptional activity, and overexpression of miR-125a-3p significantly inhibited the p38 alpha mRNA level in ND8/34 cells. Taken together, our results show that miR-125a-3p is negatively correlated with the development and maintenance of orofacial inflammatory pain via regulating p38 MAPK.

  17. Decreased microRNA-125a-3p contributes to upregulation of p38 MAPK in rat trigeminal ganglions with orofacial inflammatory pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Dong

    Full Text Available Orofacial inflammatory pain is a difficult clinical problem, and the specific molecular mechanisms for this pain remain largely unexplained. The present study aimed to determine the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs and disclose the underlying role of miR-125a-3p in orofacial inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA. Thirty-two differentially expressed miRNAs were first screened using a microarray chip in ipsilateral trigeminal ganglions (TGs following CFA injection into the orofacial skin innervated by trigeminal nerve, and a portion of them, including miR-23a*, -24-2*, -26a, -92a, -125a-3p, -183 and -299 were subsequently selected and validated by qPCR. The target genes were predicted based on the miRWalk website and were further analyzed by gene ontology (GO. Further studies revealed miR-125a-3p expression was down-regulated, whereas both the expression of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase alpha and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide were up-regulated in ipsilateral TGs at different time points after CFA injection compared with control. Furthermore, mechanistic study revealed that miR-125a-3p negatively regulates p38 alpha gene expression and is positively correlated with the head withdrawal threshold reflecting pain. Luciferase assay showed that binding of miR-125a-3p to the 3'UTR of p38 alpha gene suppressed the transcriptional activity, and overexpression of miR-125a-3p significantly inhibited the p38 alpha mRNA level in ND8/34 cells. Taken together, our results show that miR-125a-3p is negatively correlated with the development and maintenance of orofacial inflammatory pain via regulating p38 MAPK.

  18. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde on protecting high glucose-induced damage in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Shi, Yue; Sun, Qing; Liu, Di; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative damage and apoptosis in high glucose (HG)-induced dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. HG-treated DRG neurons were developed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The neurons were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the HG group and the HG groups treated with 25, 50 and 100 nmol/L cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cell viability was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis rate was evaluated by the in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with flow cytometry. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor of κB (IκB), phosphorylated IκB (p-IκB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and caspase-3 were determined by western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also measured by western blotting. Cinnamaldehyde reduced HG-induced loss of viability, apoptosis and intracellular generation of ROS in the DRG neurons via inhibiting NF-κB activity. The western blot assay results showed that the HG-induced elevated expressions of NF-κB, IκB and p-IκB were remarkably reduced by cinnamaldehyde treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P neurons, but also lowered the elevated IL-6, TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, indicating a reduction in inflammatory damage. Cinnamaldehyde protected DRG neurons from the deleterious effects of HG through inactivation of NF-κB pathway but not through activation of Nrf2/HO-1. And thus cinnamaldehyde may have potential application as a treatment for DPN.

  19. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS IN THE NEUROTROPHIN-3-DEPENDENT SUBPOPULATION OF RAT EMBRYONIC DORSAL-ROOT GANGLION-CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COPRAY, JCVM; MANTINGHOTTER, IJ; BROUWER, N

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have examined the calcium-binding protein expression in rat embryonic (E16) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro in the presence of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). A comparison was made with the expression of calcium-binding proteins in DRG subpopulations that depended in vitro on

  20. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the prospect of treating migraine with sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurostimulation. BACKGROUND: Fuelled by preliminary studies showing a beneficial effect in cluster headache patients, the potential of treating migraine with neurostimulation...

  1. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu

    2017-01-25

    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  2. Pelvic Chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Rojas, Alfredo Ernesto; Restrepo Escobar, Ligia Ines; Melo Uribe, Mario Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the case of a 24-year old woman with a pelvic chondroblastoma localized at the top of the right iliac crest, with six months of evolution and progressive growth. X-rays revealed an osteolytic lesion with heterogeneous density, extending toward soft tissue; the histopathologic study provided evidence of chondroblastoma. Chondroblastomas are benign bone tumors producers of cartilage which appears in the long bone epiphysis of young people. Nearly 75% of such tumors affect the long bones, principally the femur, the tibia, and the humerus; exceptions include those in the flat craniofacial bones and the pelvis bones. Chondroblastomas have distinct radiological and histopathologic characteristics, and despite their benign biological behavior, can cause elevated morbidity among patients due to their localization and being treated exclusively with surgery.

  3. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A

    2012-01-01

    was carried out to reveal the co-localization of neurotransmitters. VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons as well as fibers were frequently found in human SPG. Many, homogenously stained NOS-ir cells were found, but no positive fibers. In addition, PACAP-ir was observed in some of the neurons and in fibers. Co......-localization was found between VIP and NOS. In rat VIP-, NOS-, and PACAP-ir were found in many neurons and fibers. Co-localization of PACAP and NOS was observed in neurons. PACAP and GS double staining revealed that the PACAP-ir was localized in/close to the cell membrane, but not in the satellite glial cells. PAC1...

  4. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation. PMID:28515597

  6. Comparative study of the distribution of the alpha-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels in normal and axotomized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Obata, Koichi; Dai, Yi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2008-09-10

    We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially expressed by TrkC neurons, suggesting that proprioceptive neurons possess these channels. Nav1.7, -1.8, and -1.9 mRNAs were more abundant in C-fiber neurons compared with A-fiber ones. Nax was evenly expressed in both populations. Although Nav1.8 and -1.9 were preferentially expressed by TrkA neurons, other alpha-subunits were expressed independently of TrkA expression. Actually, all IB4(+) neurons expressed both Nav1.8 and -1.9, and relatively limited subpopulations of IB4(+) neurons (3% and 12%, respectively) expressed Nav1.1 and/or Nav1.6. These findings provide useful information in interpreting the electrophysiological characteristics of some neuronal subpopulations of naïve DRG. After L5 spinal nerve ligation, Nav1.3 mRNA was up-regulated mainly in A-fiber neurons in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Although previous studies demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reversed this up-regulation, the Nav1.3 induction was independent of either TrkA or GFRalpha1 expression, suggesting that the induction of Nav1.3 may be one of the common responses of axotomized DRG neurons without a direct relationship to NGF/GDNF supply. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of cold temperatures on the excitability of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that are not for cold sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hirosato; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    Aside from a small population of primary afferent neurons for sensing cold, which generate sensations of innocuous and noxious cold, it is generally believed that cold temperatures suppress the excitability of primary afferent neurons not responsible for cold sensing. These not-for-cold-sensing neurons include the majority of non-nociceptive and nociceptive afferent neurons. In this study we have found that the not-for-cold-sensing neurons of rat trigeminal ganglia (TG) change their excitability in several ways at cooling temperatures. In nearly 70% of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons, a cooling temperature of 15°C increases their membrane excitability. We regard these neurons as cold-active neurons. For the remaining 30% of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons, the cooling temperature of 15°C either has no effect (cold-ineffective neurons) or suppress their membrane excitability (cold-suppressive neurons). For cold-active neurons, the cold temperature of 15°C increases their excitability as is evidenced by increases in action potential (AP) firing numbers and/or the reduction in AP rheobase when these neurons are depolarized electrically. The cold temperature of 15°C significantly inhibits M-currents and increases membrane input resistance of cold-active neurons. Retigabine, an M-current activator, abolishes the effect of cold temperatures on AP firing, but not the effect of cold temperature on AP rheobase levels. The inhibition of M-currents and the increases of membrane input resistance are likely two mechanisms by which cooling temperatures increase the excitability of not-for-cold-sensing TG neurons. This article is part of the special article series "Pain". © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. MR-guided perineural injection of the ganglion impar: technical considerations and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, David R.; Carrino, John A.; Fritz, Jan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U-Thainual, Paweena [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor [Queen' s University, School of Computing, Kingston, ON (Canada); Flammang, Aaron J. [Siemens Corporate Research, Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, Iulian I. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Perineural ganglion impar injections are used in the management of pelvic pain syndromes; however, there is no consensus regarding the optimal image guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high soft tissue contrast and the potential to directly visualize and target the ganglion. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of MR-guided percutaneous perineural ganglion impar injections. Six MR-guided ganglion impar injections were performed in six human cadavers. Procedures were performed with a clinical 1.5-Tesla MRI system through a far lateral transgluteus approach. Ganglion impar visibility, distance from the sacrococcygeal joint, number of intermittent MRI control steps required to place the needle, target error between the intended and final needle tip location, inadvertent punctures of non-targeted vulnerable structures, injectant distribution, and procedure time were determined. The ganglion impar was seen on MRI in 4/6 (66 %) of cases and located 0.8 mm cephalad to 16.3 mm caudad (average 1.2 mm caudad) to the midpoint of the sacrococcygeal joint. Needle placement required an average of three MRI control steps (range, 2-6). The average target error was 2.2 ± 2.1 mm. In 6/6 cases (100 %), there was appropriate periganglionic distribution and filling of the presacrococcygeal space. No punctures of non-targeted structures occurred. The median procedure time was 20 min (range, 12-29 min). Interventional MRI can visualize and directly target the ganglion impar for accurate needle placement and successful periganglionic injection with the additional benefit of no ionizing radiation exposure to patient and staff. Our results support clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CT-guided injection for ganglion impar blockade: a radiological approach to the management of coccydynia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datir, A.; Connell, D.

    2010-01-01

    -guided injection over those performed under fluoroscopy may include accurate and confident needle placement in the sacro-coccygeal region, ease of wide area coverage, lesser risk of complications due to inadvertent injections into the major pelvic structures, and increased likelihood of reaching the ganglion impar, especially in cases with anatomical variation in the ganglion impar location. These factors may have implications in the overall success rate of ganglion impar blockade.

  11. CT-guided injection for ganglion impar blockade: a radiological approach to the management of coccydynia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datir, A., E-mail: apdatir@gmail.co [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Connell, D. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    -guided injection over those performed under fluoroscopy may include accurate and confident needle placement in the sacro-coccygeal region, ease of wide area coverage, lesser risk of complications due to inadvertent injections into the major pelvic structures, and increased likelihood of reaching the ganglion impar, especially in cases with anatomical variation in the ganglion impar location. These factors may have implications in the overall success rate of ganglion impar blockade.

  12. Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Cheol; Sharma, Seema; Tuttle, Jeremy B; Steers, William D

    2010-10-01

    Autonomic innervation of urethral smooth muscle may influence urinary continence after prostatectomy. It is unclear whether the cavernous nerves carry fibers that influence continence. Using a retrograde axonal tracer combined with real-time in vivo imaging and ex vivo immunohistochemistry we determined the course and type of neurons supplying urethral smooth muscle distal to the prostate in the rat. We injected the retrograde axonal tracers cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488 and Fast Blue in the distal urethral smooth muscle in 10 rats each. Five days later the cavernous nerves and pelvic ganglion were imaged using fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy (cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488) or harvested for immunohistochemistry (Fast Blue). Dual immunofluorescence of Fast Blue neurons with tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase was done to characterize neurons as noradrenergic or nitrergic. To ascertain whether the cavernous nerves contain fibers to the urethra that originate in the pelvic ganglia we cut the cavernous nerves with their ancillary branches in 3 rats and imaged them for Fast Blue. Fluorescent neurons and axons were detected in cavernous nerves and the pelvic ganglion. Few neurons were seen in rats with cavernous nerve section. Of urethral neurons 53.1% showed neuronal nitric oxide synthase positivity while 40.6% were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase. About 6.2% of urethral neurons failed to show tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Most of the autonomic innervation to the urethra beyond the prostatic apex travels in the cavernous nerves. Many nerves may be parasympathetic based on neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Nerves supplying the urethra outside the cavernous nerves may course posterior to the prostate. Along with afferent fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity expressing neuron fibers, ie noradrenergic nerves, traveling in the cavernous nerves may

  13. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  14. Pelvic and acetabular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair

  15. Tx2-6 toxin of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider potentiates rat erectile function☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K.P.; Costa-Gonçalves, A.; Lanza, L.F.; Cortes, S.F.; Cordeiro, M.N.; Richardson, M.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Webb, R.C.; Leite, R.; De Lima, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer contains several toxins that have bioactivity in mammals and insects. Accidents involving humans are characterized by various symptoms including penile erection. Here we investigated the action of Tx2-6, a toxin purified from the P. nigriventer spider venom that causes priapism in rats and mice. Erectile function was evaluated through changes in intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio (ICP/MAP) during electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) of normotensive and deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Nitric oxide (NO) release was detected in cavernosum slices with fluorescent dye (DAF-FM) and confocal microscopy. The effect of Tx2-6 was also characterized after intracavernosal injection of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME. Subcutaneous or intravenous injection of Tx2-6 potentiated the elevation of ICP/MAP induced by ganglionic stimulation. L-NAME inhibited penile erection and treatment with Tx2-6 was unable to reverse this inhibition. Tx2-6 treatment induced a significant increase of NO release in cavernosum tissue. Attenuated erectile function of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats was fully restored after toxin injection. Tx2-6 enhanced erectile function in normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, via the NO pathway. Our studies suggest that Tx2-6 could be important for development of new pharmacological agents for treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:18397797

  16. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  17. Electrospun biodegradable microfibers induce new collagen formation in a rat abdominal wall defect model - a possible treatment for pelvic floor repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpø, Cecilie Lærke Glindtvad; Chen, Menglin; Nygaard, Jens Vinge

    2017-01-01

    Half of the female population over age 50 years will experience pelvic organ prolapse. We suggest a new approach based on tissue engineering principles to functionally reconstruct the anatomical structures of the pelvic floor. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical performance......, and tested for mechanical properties and the composition of connective tissue. The study showed an increase in mRNA expression for collagen-I (p = 0.0060) and collagen-III (p = 0.0086) in the 4 weeks group with bFGF. The difference was equalized at 8 and 24 weeks. No difference was found at any time...... for protein amount for collagen-I, collagen-III, and fibronectin. The amount of collagen decreased from 4 to 24 weeks but the fraction of collagen increased. The maximal load of the newly formed tissue showed no effect of bFGF at any time. Exclusively, histology showed a limited ingrowth of collagen fibers...

  18. Chronic female pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is defined as nonmalignant pain perceived in the structures related to the pelvis that has been present for more than 6 months or a non acute pain mechanism of shorter duration. Pain in the pelvic region can arise from musculoskeletal, gynaecological, urologic, gastrointestinal and or neurologic conditions. Key gynaecological conditions that contribute to CPP include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, endometriosis, adnexa pathologies (ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, uterine pathologies (leiomyoma, adenomyosis and pelvic girdle pain associated with pregnancy. Several major and minor sexually transmitted diseases (STD can cause pelvic and vulvar pain. A common painful condition of the urinary system is Interstitial cystitis(IC. A second urologic condition that can lead to development of CPP is urethral syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with dysmenorrhoea in 60% of cases. Other bowel conditions contributing to pelvic pain include diverticular disease,Crohn′s disease ulcerative colitis and chronic appendicitis. Musculoskeletal pathologies that can cause pelvic pain include sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction, symphysis pubis and sacro-coccygeal joint dysfunction, coccyx injury or malposition and neuropathic structures in the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral plexus. Prolonged pelvic girdle pain, lasting more than 6 months postpartum is estimated in 3% to 30% of women. Nerve irritation or entrapment as a cause of pelvic pain can be related to injury of the upper lumbar segments giving rise to irritation of the sensory nerves to the ventral trunk or from direct trauma from abdominal incisions or retractors used during abdominal surgical procedures. Afflictions of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, pudendal and obturator nerves are of greatest concern in patients with pelvic pain. Patient education about the disease and treatment involved is paramount. A knowledge of the differential

  19. Aspectos morfológicos da uretra de ratas após eletroestimulação do assoalho pélvico Morphological aspects of the urethra in female rats after electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luciana Moreno Camargo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da eletroestimulação (ES do assoalho pélvico na uretra de ratas. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratas adultas foram distribuídas, randomicamente, em quatro grupos com dez animais cada: Ctrl - sem intervenção; Sham - não foi submetido a ES, recebeu um eletrodo dentro da vagina; Exp6 - submetido a seis sessões de ES do assoalho pélvico; e Exp12 - submetido a 12 sessões de ES do assoalho pélvico. Ao final do experimento, todos os animais foram anestesiados, e o terço médio da uretra foi retirado, fixado em líquido de Bouin e processado para estudo histomorfométrico. Alguns cortes foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina, para descrição morfológica e morfométrica, e outros, pelo picrosirius red, para avaliação do colágeno total. As espessuras da camada muscular e do epitélio foram obtidas, nos 4 quadrantes da uretra, pela realização de 20 medições em cada animal. O número de vasos sanguíneos presentes na lâmina própria foi obtido nos quatro quadrantes, em uma área de 10³ mm² por quadrante, sendo as imagens obtidas pelo programa de análise de imagens AxioVision® REL 4.3 (Carl Zeiss. A proporção de colágeno e de fibras musculares foi obtida de duas imagens por quadrante, de cada lâmina da uretra corada pelo picrosirius red, com auxílio do programa Imagelab®. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e ao teste de comparações múltiplas de Tukey-Kramer (pExp6==Ctrl==Sham; *pPURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES of the pelvic floor on the urethra of female rats. METHODS: Forty adult rats were divided at random into four groups of ten animals each: Ctrl - without intervention; Sham - not submitted to ES, but with an electrode inserted into the vagina; Exp6 - submitted to six sessions of ES of the pelvic floor, and Exp12 - submitted to 12 sessions of ES of the pelvic floor. At the end of the experiment, all animals were anesthetized and the middle third

  20. CT and fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects and usefulness of fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan. Celiac ganglion block with 100% ethyl alcohol was performed in 50 cancer patients who were inoperable and had intractable abdominal pain. Duration and degree of pain relief after the procedure and its complication were analyzed. Early pain relief was observed in 98% and long term relief in 68% without serious complication. Fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan was a safe and valuable procedure in relieving intractable pain in terminal cancer patients and reduced the time in the CT room

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  2. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSAIDs) are helpful in relieving pelvic pain, especially dysmenorrhea . Physical therapy—Acupuncture, acupressure, and nerve stimulation therapies may be useful in treating pain caused by dysmenorrhea. Physical therapy that eases trigger points may give ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... test used to help detect diseases of the small bowel, colon and other internal organs and is ... pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as ...

  4. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? After obtaining a detailed medical history and completing a thorough ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  5. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infections. Bacterial Vaginosis: A type of vaginal infection caused by the overgrowth of a number of ... of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Chlamydia: A sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria that can lead to pelvic ...

  7. Extraperitoneal pelvic leiomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamarina, Mario G.; Baltazar, Alberto D.; Arce, Patricia; Dettano, Veronica; Lopez, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Extraperitoneal pelvic leiomyosarcoma is a very uncommon neoplasic process. It is a highly aggressive tumor with unfavorable prognosis. Clinical findings are nonspecific; diagnosis is generally made in an advanced stage of the disease. We present a case of a 34 years old female patient with pelvic leiomyosarcoma located at the recto vaginal septum who referred vulvar tumor and disability of the left lower limb. This case report describes the results obtained by ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and pathology. (author)

  8. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacological, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should be avoided, and surgical treatment has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [de

  10. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM...

  11. Retroperitoneal and pelvic fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez de Lacalle, J. M.; Garmendia, G.; Laso, C.; Galardi, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of retroperitoneal and pelvic fibromatosis in a 17-year-old boy who came to the emergency room with sudden onset acute abdominal pain. The initial radiological examination (plain X-ray and ultrasound) disclosed only minimal right hydronephrosis. Subsequent computed tomography revealed the presence of a solid retroperitoneal and pelvic mass involving right ureter and secondary right hydronephrosis. We stress its presentation in the form of acute abdominal pain with initial radiological signs suggestive of a primarily urological disorder. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Protective effect of oestradiol in the coeliac ganglion against ovarian apoptotic mechanism on dioestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia, Bronzi; Cristina, Daneri Becerra; Adriana, Vega Orozco; Belén, Delsouc María; María, Rastrilla Ana; Marilina, Casais; Zulema, Sosa

    2013-05-01

    The aims of this work were to investigate if oestradiol 10(-8)M in the incubation media of either the ovary alone (OV) or the ganglion compartment of an ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system (a) modifies the release of ovarian progesterone (P4) and oestradiol (E2) on dioestrus II, and (b) modifies the ovarian gene expression of 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD enzymes and markers of apoptosis. The concentration of ovarian P4 release was measured in both experimental schemes, and ovarian P4 and E2 in the ex vivo system by RIA at different times. The expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and antiapoptotic bcl-2 and proapoptotic bax by RT-PCR were determined. E2 added in the coeliac ganglion caused an increase in the ovarian release of the P4, E2 and 3β-HSD, while in the ovary incubation alone it decreased P4 and 3β-HSD but increased and 20α-HSD and bax/bcl-2 ratio. It is concluded that through a direct effect on the ovary, E2 promotes luteal regression in DII rats, but the addition of E2 in the coeliac ganglion does not have the same effect. The peripheral nervous system, through the superior ovarian nerve, has a protective effect against the apoptotic mechanism on DII. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Haemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    through the pubic symphysis, and posteriorlywith the sacrum forming the sacroiliac (SI) joints (Fig. 1). The SI joints are the strongest in the body...Gardner MJ, Kendoff D, Ostermeier S, et al. Sacroiliac joint compression using an anterior pelvic compressor: a mechanical study in synthetic bone. J

  14. Chronic pelvic pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    misdiagnoses, inappropriate or inadequate treatment strategies, and poor patient compliance .... excitation tenderness implies an active pelvic inflammatory process. Pain localising to ... neoplastic process, particularly cervical cancer, must be excluded. .... The dosage should be started at 10 mg at night, and increased by 5 ...

  15. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you know how to protect yourself. What is PID? Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is a complication often caused ...

  16. Effect of electroacupuncture on thermal pain threshold and expression of calcitonin-gene related peptide, substance P and γ-aminobutyric acid in the cervical dorsal root ganglion of rats with incisional neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li-Na; Liu, Jun-Ling; Tan, Lian-Hong; Yang, Hai-Long; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Acupuncture therapy effectively reduces post-surgical pain, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the primary sensory neurons of cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced analgesia in a rat model of incisional neck pain. The pain model was established by making a longitudinal midline neck incision in 60 rats. Another 15 rats underwent sham surgery (normal group). Post-incision, 15 rats remained untreated (model group) and 45 rats underwent EA (frequency 2/100 Hz, intensity 1 mA) at bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6 or ST36-GB34 (n=15 each) for 30 min at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-surgery, followed by thermal pain threshold (PT) measurement. 30 min later, the rats were euthanased and cervical (C3-6) DRGs removed for measurement of immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of SP/CGRP and the GABAergic neuronal marker glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Thermal PT was significantly lower in the model group versus the normal group and increased in the LI18 and LI4-PC6 groups but not the ST36-GB34 group compared with the model group. Additionally, EA at LI18 and LI4-PC6 markedly suppressed neck incision-induced upregulation of mRNA/protein expression of SP/CGRP, and upregulated mRNA/protein expression of GAD67 in the DRGs of C3-6 segments. EA at LI18/LI4-PC6 increases PT in rats with incisional neck pain, which is likely related to downregulation of pronociceptive mediators SP/CGRP and upregulation of the inhibitory transmitter GABA in the primary sensory neurons of cervical DRGs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Piriformis ganglion: An uncommon cause of sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jeong, H J; Shin, H K; Park, S J; Lee, J H; Kim, E

    2016-04-01

    Sciatica can occur due to a spinal lesion, intrapelvic tumor, diabetic neuropathy, and rarely piriformis syndrome. The causes of piriformis syndrome vary by a space-occupying lesion. A ganglionic cyst can occur in various lesions in the body but seldom around the hip joint. In addition, sciatica due to a ganglionic cyst around the hip joint has been reported in one patient in Korea who underwent surgical treatment. We experienced two cases of sciatica from a piriformis ganglionic cyst and we report the clinical characterics and progress after non-operative treatment by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. The two cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and were treated by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. We followed the patients for more than 6months. The symptoms of piriformis syndrome from the ganglion improved following aspiration and this conservative treatment is a treatment method that can be used without extensive incision or cyst excision. Level IV historical case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  19. Management of pelvic chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Groșeanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The partial or complete excision of the hemipelvis with sparing of the lower limb is an option of the treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma and a therapeutic alternative of the interilio-abdominal disarticulation. The operation has in principle the same indications as the interilio-abdominal disarticulation and offers a good solution for avoiding a mutilating operation. The 149 cases include: 120 biopsies, 29 excisional biopsies, 6 interilioabdominal disarticulations and 14 resections – reconstruction’s, one of with prosthetic reconstruction. The prognostic score was established by assessing: the surgical stage, the site of the tumor, the surgical margins of the tumor, the functional mobility and the postoperative activity. The wide excision of the tumor, a stable reconstruction and an efficient recovery are essential for a successful treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma. The limb sparing resection-reconstruction represents a highly surgical demanding procedure, followed up by complications in 60% of the cases, so that should be performed only by high skilled surgeons. Hemipelvectomy still remains a well-established life-saving surgery method for patients suffering from vast oncological extensions, where a pelvic resection is not an option.

  20. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  1. Pharmacological treatment and regional anesthesia techniques for pain management after completion of both conservative and surgical treatment of endometriosis and pelvic adhesions in women with chronic pelvic pain as a mandated treatment strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Malec-Milewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome occurs in 4–14% of women. Pain pathomechanism in this syndrome is complex, as it is common to observe the features of nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic and psychogenic pain. The common findings in women with pelvic pain are endometriosis and pelvic adhesions. Objective. Aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and regional anesthesia techniques for pain control as the next step of treatment after the lack of clinical results of surgical and pharmacological methods normally used in the management of endometriosis and pelvic adhesions. Materials and method. 18 women were treated between January 2010 – October 2013 in the Pain Clinic of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Centre for Postgraduate Education in Warsaw due to chronic pelvic pain syndrome related to either endometriosis or pelvic adhesions. During the previous step of management, both conservative and surgical treatments were completed without achieving satisfactory results. Initial constant pain severity was 3–9 points on the Numeric Rating Scale, while the reported paroxysmal pain level was 7–10. The pharmacological treatment implemented was based on oral gabapentinoids and antidepressants, aided by neurolytic block of ganglion of Walther, pudendal nerve blocks and topical treatment (5% lidocaine, 10% amitriptyline, 10% gabapentin. Results. In 17 women, a significant reduction of both constant and paroxysmal pain was achieved, of which complete and permanent cessation of pain occurred in 6 cases. One patient experienced no improvement in the severity of her symptoms. Conclusions. The combination of pain management with pharmacological treatment, pudendal nerve blocks, neurolysis of ganglion impar (Walther and topical preparations in cases of chronic pelvic pain syndrome seems to be adequate medical conduct after failed or otherwise ineffective causative therapy.

  2. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  3. Neuronavigated percutaneous approach to the sphenopalatine ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Nicola; Perrini, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has been assumed to be involved in the genesis of several types of facial pain, including Sluder's neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, persistent idiopathic facial pain, cluster headache, and atypical facial pain. The gold standard treatments for SPG-related pain are percutaneous procedures performed with the aid of fluoroscopy or CT. In this technical note the authors present, for the first time, an SPG approach using the aid of a neuronavigator.

  4. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... time-points graft location could not be further verified. Measures for graft size and ventricle size obtained from MR images highly correlated with measures obtained from histologically processed sections (R = 0.8, P fetal rat lateral ganglionic...

  5. Pelvic floor physical therapy in urogynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda K

    2003-08-01

    Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to treat pelvic floor dysfunction with conservative management techniques. Techniques associated with incontinence and support functions of the pelvic floor include bladder training and pelvic floor rehabilitation: pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback therapy, and pelvic floor electrical stimulation. Pain associated with mechanical pelvic floor dysfunction can be treated by physical therapists utilizing various manual techniques and modalities. Research documents that conservative management is effective in treating many conditions associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Research should be conducted to determine if addressing diastasis recti and contracture of the pelvic floor musculature should be a component of the standard physical therapy protocol.

  6. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  7. Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation: A Standardized Protocol for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pedraza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes present with voiding, sexual, and anorectal disturbances, which may be associated with one another, resulting in complex presentation. Thus, an integrated diagnosis and management approach may be required. Pelvic muscle rehabilitation (PMR is a noninvasive modality involving cognitive reeducation, modification, and retraining of the pelvic floor and associated musculature. We describe our standardized PMR protocol for the management of pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes. Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation Program. The diagnostic assessment includes electromyography and manometry analyzed in 4 phases: (1 initial baseline phase; (2 rapid contraction phase; (3 tonic contraction and endurance phase; and (4 late baseline phase. This evaluation is performed at the onset of every session. PMR management consists of 6 possible therapeutic modalities, employed depending on the diagnostic evaluation: (1 down-training; (2 accessory muscle isolation; (3 discrimination training; (4 muscle strengthening; (5 endurance training; and (6 electrical stimulation. Eight to ten sessions are performed at one-week intervals with integration of home exercises and lifestyle modifications. Conclusions. The PMR protocol offers a standardized approach to diagnose and manage pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes with potential advantages over traditional biofeedback, involving additional interventions and a continuous pelvic floor assessment with management modifications over the clinical course.

  8. Subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, L.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve cases of subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion) have been seen and their clinical features, radiological findings and differential diagnosis are described. The lesion is a benign cystic tumour-like mass in the subchondral portion of a synovial joint. Our findings in respect of age, sex and localisation are compared with those of other authors. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the lesion is not completely understood. There is an increased incidence in middle life and joints with high dynamic and static stress are favoured, particularly in the lower extremities. Chronic stress or microtrauma, causing damage to the involved joint, therefore appears to be a plausible explanation. (orig.) [de

  9. Pelvic denervation procedures for dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Christina; Donnellan, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea are common conditions affecting reproductive-age women. Surgical pelvic denervation procedures may be a treatment option for women with midline dysmenorrhea, in which medical management is declined by the patient, ineffective at managing symptoms, or medically contraindicated. This review describes the surgical techniques and complications associated with pelvic denervation procedures as well as the current evidence for these procedures in women with primary dysmenorrhea and dysmenorrhea secondary to endometriosis. Presacral neurectomy is the preferred pelvic denervation procedure in patients with primary dysmenorrhea and midline chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. In patients with endometriosis presacral neurectomy is a useful adjunct to excision or ablation of all endometrial lesions to improve postoperative pain relief. There is no additional patient benefit of performing combined presacral neurectomy and uterine nerve ablation procedures. Pelvic denervation procedures can be performed safely and quickly with a low risk of complication if the surgeon is knowledgeable and skilled in operating in the presacral space. Patients should be adequately counseled on expected success rates and potential complications associated with pelvic denervation procedures.

  10. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  11. Radiographically ossified ganglion cyst of finger in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Anavim, A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Orange (United States); Lin, F. [Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    Ganglion cysts are fibrous-walled cystic lesions closely associated with joint or tendon sheaths and contain gelatinous mucinous fluid. The radiographic appearance is usually normal. Calcification or ossification in these cysts is extremely unusual. We report on an unusual appearing ganglion cyst of the little finger in a swimmer with ossification resembling myositis ossificans. (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Ganglion Cell Complex Parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr femi Oderinlo

    in the eyes, the optic nerve head, nerve fibre layer and retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells encompass three layers ... of the macula in eyes with mild diabetic retinopathy. 8. *Correspondence: O Oderinlo, Eye Foundation ... most sensitive detection of GCC thinning. FLV provides a. 10 quantitative measure of the ...

  13. Radiographic assessment of pelvic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Assessment of pelvic fractures requires an understanding of the bony and soft-tissue anatomy of the pelvis. Pelvic injuries may be classified into major and minor groups. Minor fractures usually result from athletic trauma in the young or falls in the elderly and can generally be adequately evaluated with routine radiography. Major fractures are most often caused by motor vehicle accidents, falls from a height or industrial accidents and require more sophisticated examination. However, the investigation of injuries in either category should be directed by a knowledge of the history and physical findings. The classification of pelvic injuries used at Sunnbrook Medical Centre is based on mechanisms of injury

  14. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A ganglion is a cystic formation close to joints or tendinous sheaths, frequently found in the wrist, foot or knee. Intra-articular ganglia of the knee are rare, and most of them are located in the anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical picture for these ganglia comprises pain and movement restrictions in the knee, causing significant impairment to the patient. Symptoms are non-specific, and anterior cruciate ligament ganglia are usually diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopy. Not all ganglia diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging need to undergo surgical treatment: only those that cause clinical signs and symptoms do. Surgical results are considered good or excellent in the vast majority of cases. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old male presented with pain in the left knee during a marathon race. Physical examination revealed limitation in the maximum range of knee extension and pain in the posterior aspect of the left knee. Radiographs of the left knee were normal, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-lobed cystic structure adjacent to the anterior cruciate ligament, which resembled a ganglion cyst. The mass was removed through arthroscopy, and pathological examination revealed a synovial cyst. Patient recovery was excellent, and he resumed his usual training routine five months later.

  16. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Genital Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic ... last 12 months that they had chlamydia or gonorrhea or have ever been told they have herpes, ...

  17. How Is Pelvic Pain Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... button to look inside the pelvis 4 Pelvic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan, an imaging test that ...

  18. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  19. MR appearance of pelvic hemangiopericytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Gouliamos, A.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    A case of pelvic hemangiopericytoma in a 59-year-old woman is reported. The MR imaging features are presented. The tumor was unresectable and the patient received postoperative irradiation of 4200 cGy on the pelvis. One year after diagnosis, metastasis to a lumbar vertebra was discovered and additional irradiation of 3900 cGy was applied. One year later, CT showed control of the pelvic tumor and its metastasis. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. MR appearance of pelvic hemangiopericytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Gouliamos, A.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-02-01

    A case of pelvic hemangiopericytoma in a 59-year-old woman is reported. The MR imaging features are presented. The tumor was unresectable and the patient received postoperative irradiation of 4200 cGy on the pelvis. One year after diagnosis, metastasis to a lumbar vertebra was discovered and additional irradiation of 3900 cGy was applied. One year later, CT showed control of the pelvic tumor and its metastasis. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  1. The Treatment of Chronic Coccydynia and Postcoccygectomy Pain With Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kelly M; Fisher, Lauren W; Bernstein, Ira H; Bradley, Michelle H

    2017-04-01

    Coccydynia is a challenging disorder that often is refractory to treatments such as medications and injections. Physical therapy for coccydynia rarely has been studied. To evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor physical therapy for reducing pain levels in patients with coccydynia. Retrospective chart review. The pelvic floor rehabilitation clinic of a major university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients over age 18 with a chief complaint of coccydynia between 2009 and 2012. A subgroup of 17 of the 124 patients had previously undergone coccygectomy with continued pain postoperatively. The primary treatment intervention was pelvic floor physical therapy aimed at pelvic floor muscle relaxation. Secondary treatment interventions included the prescription of baclofen for muscle relaxation (19% of patients), ganglion impar blocks (8%), or coccygeus trigger point injections (17%). Primary outcome measures included final minimum, average, and maximum pain numeric rating scales. A secondary outcome measure was the patient's subjective percent global improvement assessment. Baseline demographics were used to determine which pretreatment characteristics were correlated with treatment outcomes. Of the 124 patients, 93 participated in pelvic floor physical therapy and were included in statistical analysis. For the 79 patients who completed treatment (with a mean of 9 physical therapy sessions), the mean average pain ratings decreased from 5.08 to 1.91 (P physical therapy. Pain duration and history of trauma did not affect treatment outcomes. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a safe and effective method of treating coccydynia. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic imaging of tibial periosteal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, R.; Melloni, P.; Darnell, A.; Munoz, J.; Canalies, J.

    1997-01-01

    A case of a soft tissue tumor situated in the anterior surface of the proximal end of the tibia in an adult patient is demonstrated by conventional radiographs, CT, and MRI. The lesion was well defined with respect to the adjacent soft tissue. The CT exam showed a soft tissue mass with external cortical erosion and thick spicules by periosteal reaction. On T1-weighted images the mass was homogeneous and of low signal intensity, whereas on T2-weighted images it showed a high signal intensity, with some septa in the mass. The differential considerations include a periosteal chondroma, a lipoma, a subperiosteal hematoma, an inflammatory process, a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and a parosteal osteosarcoma. The CT and MR features of these entities are reviewed as an aid in differential diagnosis of the periosteal ganglion. (orig.). With 4 figs

  3. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  4. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Colafrancesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL and diabetic retinopathy (DR. GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye and diabetes (DT was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  5. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  6. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  7. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  8. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bachy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  9. Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harsha; Tal, Reshef; Clark, Natalie A.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tract microbiota play a crucial role in maintaining health. Disequilibrium of the microbiota has been associated with increased risk of pelvic infections. In recent years, culture-independent molecular techniques have expanded understanding of the composition of genital microbiota and the dynamic nature of the microbiota. There is evidence that upper genital tract may not be sterile and may harbor microflora in the physiologic state. The isolation of bacterial vaginosis-associated organisms in women with genital infections establishes a link between pelvic infections and abnormal vaginal flora. With the understanding of the composition of the microbiota in healthy and diseased states, the next logical step is to identify the function of the newly identified microbes. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of the causation of pelvic infections, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24390920

  10. Computed tomography of pelvic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, Makoto; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1984-12-01

    Plain x-ray and computed tomographic (CT) findings were compared in 7 patients with pelvic fractures (2 males and 5 females) aged between 35 and 50 year. Plain x-rays had a higher sensitivity than CT in detecting fractures of the ischiatic and pubic ramuses, and deviation of bone fragments. CT was superior to plain x-rays near the acetabulum and in detecting deviation of bone fragments. Although there were no differences between the two modalities in detecting fractures of the wing of ilium, CT was more useful than plain x-rays in visualizing deviation of bone fragments. CT clearly visualized not only fractures but also injuries of the soft tissues, such as pelvic viscera and muscles, and the presence of hematoma. CT seems to be a useful method for observing the condition and process of pelvic injuries and for deciding treatment protocols.

  11. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with [ 3 H]thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development

  12. Antonius Balthazar Raymundus Hirsch and the peregrination of "gasserian ganglion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonig, Ashish; Thakur, Jai; Grass, Monica; Khan, Imad Saeed; Gandhi, Viraj; Nanda, Anil

    2013-09-01

    The anatomical description of the fifth cranial nerve ganglion lacked detail before the work of Antonius Balthazar Raymundus Hirsch (1744-1778). Hirsch used new dissection techniques that resulted in the most meticulous report of the trigeminal ganglion (the gasserian ganglion) to have been reported. In 1765, the 21-year-old published these findings in a thesis, Paris Quinti Nervorum Encephali Disquisitio Anatomica In Quantum Ad Ganglion Sibi Proprium, Semilunare, Et Ad Originem Nervi Intercostalis Pertinet [An anatomical inquiry of the fifth pair of the nerves of the brain, so far as it relates to the ganglion unto itself, the semilunar, and to the source of the intercostal nerve]. Hirsch wrote his thesis as a paean to his ailing teacher, Johann Lorenz Gasser, but Gasser died before Hirsch was able to defend his thesis. Thereafter, Hirsch applied to teach anatomy at his alma mater, the University of Vienna, but the university did not consider his application, deeming him too young for the position. Oddly, Hirsch died at the young age of 35. For the present paper, the library at the University of Vienna (Universität Wien), Austria, was contacted, and Anton Hirsch's thesis was digitized and subsequently translated from Latin into English. The authors here attempt to place the recognition of the fifth cranial nerve ganglion within a historical perspective and trace the trajectory of its anatomical descriptions.

  13. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  14. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a

  15. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  16. Patterns of lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic nerve cells of superior cervical ganglion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Considering available literature lipofuscin is a classical age pigment of postmitotic cells, and a consistently recognized phenomenon in humans and animals. Lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic for nerve cells that are postmitotic. This research was focused on lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic cells (GC (postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies of superior cervical ganglion in humans during ageing. Methods. We analysed 30 ganglions from cadavers ranging from 20 to over 80 years of age. As material the tissue samples were used from the middle portion of the ganglion, which was separated from the surrounding tissue by the method of macrodissection. The tissue samples were routinely fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin for classical histological analysis, then three consecutive (successive sections 5 μm thick were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin method (HE, silver impregnation technique by Masson Fontana and trichrome stain by Florantin. Results. Immersion microscopy was used to analyse patterns of lipofuscin accumulation during ageing making possible to distinguish diffuse type (lipofuscin granules were irregularly distributed and non-confluent, unipolar type (lipofuscin granules were grouped at the end of the cell, bipolar type (lipofuscin granules were concentrated at the two opposite ends of a cell with the nucleus in between at the center of a cell, annular type (lipofuscin granules were in the shape of a complete or incomplete ring around the nucleus and a cell completely filled with lipofuscin (two subtypes distinguishing, one with visible a nucleus, and the other with invisible one. Even at the age of 20 there were cells with lipofuscin granules accumulated in diffuse way, but in smaller numbers; the GC without lipofuscin were dominant. Growing older, especially above 60 years, all of the above mentioned patterns of lipofuscin accumulation were present with the evident increase in cells

  17. Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor rolipram improves survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kranz

    Full Text Available Sensorineural deafness is caused by damage of hair cells followed by degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons and can be moderated by cochlear implants. However, the benefit of the cochlear implant depends on the excitability of the spiral ganglion neurons. Therefore, current research focuses on the identification of agents that will preserve their degeneration. In this project we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Rolipram as a promising agent to improve the viability of the auditory neurons. It is a pharmaceutical agent that acts by selective inhibition of the phosphodiesterase 4 leading to an increase in cyclic AMP. Different studies reported a neuroprotective effect of Rolipram. However, its significance for the survival of SGN has not been reported so far. Thus, we isolated spiral ganglion cells of neonatal rats for cultivation with different Rolipram concentrations and determined the neuronal survival rate. Furthermore, we examined immunocytologically distinct proteins that might be involved in the neuroprotective signalling pathway of Rolipram and determined endogenous BDNF by ELISA. When applied at a concentration of 0.1 nM, Rolipram improved the survival of SGN in vitro. According to previous studies, our immunocytological data showed that Rolipram application induces the phosphorylation and thereby activation of the transcription factor CREB. This activation can be mediated by the cAMP-PKA-signalling pathway as well as via ERK as a part of the MAP-kinase pathway. However, only in cultures pre-treated with BDNF, an endogenous increase of BDNF was detected. We conclude that Rolipram has the potential to improve the vitality of neonatal auditory nerve cells in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to prove the effect of Rolipram in vivo in the adult organism after lesion of the hair cells and insertion of cochlear implants.

  18. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity and pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, U.J.; Kerkhof, M.H.; Leijsen, S.A. van; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review the data on the relationship of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This review is timely and relevant as the prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and it is an important risk factor to consider in counseling women on

  20. MR imaging in female pelvic organs prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    Pelvic floor weakness and consequent organ prolapse may result in a variety of symptoms, including pain, urinary or fecal incontinence and constipation. Diagnosis is made primary on the basis of findings at physical pelvic examination. Imaging is useful in patients in whom findings at physical examination are equivocal. Different imaging techniques (fluoroscopy, ultrasonography), can be useful in evaluating pelvic organs prolapse. MR imaging is a new noninvasive technique that provides a multiplanar global evaluation of the pelvic contents and demonstrates pelvic organs prolapse. Reference points are the pubococcygeal line and puborectalis muscle sling. This pictorial assay illustrates different grades of cystourethrocele, recto-sigmoidocele and hysteroptosis (uterine prolapse) on MR imaging. (author)

  1. [Functional aspects of pelvic floor surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Gunnemann, A; Liedl, B; Weidner, W

    2009-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunctions are frequently seen in females. The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and heavily stressed throughout female life. Recent findings in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor have led to a much better understand-ing, on the basis of which enormous improvements in the therapeutic options have arisen. The pelvic floor activity is regulated by three main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor -organs, bladder and rectum. For different reasons laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue can distort this functional anatomy. A variety of symptoms can derive from these pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, faecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in the case of pelvic floor symptoms restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve the patients' symptoms. The exact surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is there-fore almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. An exact identification of the anatomic lesions preoperatively is eminently necessary, to allow for an exact anatomic reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart * New York.

  2. Mode of delivery and Pelvic floor disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, R.; Neelam, H.; Bashir, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare pelvic floor dysfunction in non pregnant women who had delivered vaginally versus those with cesarean delivery. Methodology: The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders among non pregnant women was assesses by using a standardized tool pelvic floor distress inventory short form (PFDI-20). Data was collected from Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Total numbers of participants were 278. 47.12% subjects had moderate, 36.69% miner and 16.19% had severe pelvic floor dysfunction. The symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse were more prevalent (mean value is 59.1876) than Urinary Distress (mean value is 40.5426), while the Colorectal-Anal Distress (mean value is 35.9150) were least prevalent. Conclusion: Pelvic floor disorders are very common among females and are strongly associated with mode of delivery. Although spontaneous vaginal birth was extensively associated with pelvic floor disorders the instrumental delivery affects most. (author)

  3. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  4. Validation of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 in Danish women with pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse....

  5. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  6. [Ultrasonography in acute pelvic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupesić, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vucić, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim

    2002-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more

  7. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p ... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  8. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Stubbs, Allston J.

    2015-01-01

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  9. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  10. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  11. Ganglion Cyst Associated with Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear That Caused Ulnar Nerve Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Anil Bingol, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyonʼs canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.

  12. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Histone Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 DNase-seq Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 DNase-seq Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 TFs and others Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Histone Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 All antigens Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084,SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Unclassified Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 All antigens Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084,SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 All antigens Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084,SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Unclassified Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 All antigens Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084,SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 TFs and others Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 TFs and others Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 DNase-seq Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 TFs and others Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Unclassified Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  11. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  12. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2005-04-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  13. Gynecological pelvic pain as emergency pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Domínguez, A; Mora Jurado, A; García de la Oliva, A; de Araujo Martins-Romeo, D; Cueto Álvarez, L

    Acute pelvic pain is a common condition in emergency. The sources of acute pelvic pain are multifactorial, so it is important to be familiar with this type of pathologies. The purpose of this article is review the main causes of gynecological acute pelvic pain and their radiologic appearances to be able to make an accurate diagnosis and provide objective criteria for patient management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Neeraj; Moshiri, Mariam; Lee, Jean H; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is largely a complex problem of multiparous and postmenopausal women and is associated with pelvic floor or organ descent. Physical examination can underestimate the extent of the dysfunction and misdiagnose the disorders. Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is emerging as a promising tool to evaluate the dynamics of the pelvic floor and use for surgical triage and operative planning. This article reviews the anatomy and pathology of pelvic floor dysfunction, typical imaging findings, and the current role of functional MR imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of pelvic floor muscles to stiffness of the pelvic ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Hoek van Dijke, G; van Gurp, M; Mulder, P; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A biomechanical study in embalmed specimens, on the relation between applied tension in the pelvic floor muscles, stiffness of the pelvic ring and generation of movement in the sacroiliac joints. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the effect of tension in the pelvic floor muscles on

  16. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  17. Retrospective review of pelvic malignancies undergoing total pelvic exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhrt Maureen P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies, total pelvic exenteration (TPE may be necessary for curative treatment. Despite improvements in mortality rates since TPE was first described, morbidity rates remain high due to the extensive resection and the aggressiveness of these tumors. We have studied the outcomes of TPE surgery performed at our institution. Methods Fifty-three patients with various pelvic pathologies underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010. Patients were divided into two groups based on pathology: colorectal (n = 36 versus non-colorectal (n = 17 malignancies. Demographics, operative reports, pathology reports, periprocedural events, and outcomes were analyzed. Comparison of the two groups was performed using student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log rank test. Results The colorectal and non-colorectal groups were similar in demographics, operative times, length of stay, estimated blood loss, and rates of preoperative and intraoperative radiation use. Chemotherapy use was increased in the colorectal group compared with the non-colorectal group (55.6% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.04. Complication rates were similar: 86% in the colorectal group and 76% in the non-colorectal group. In the colorectal group, 27.8% of patients developed perineal abscesses, whereas no patients developed these complications in the non-colorectal group (P = 0.02. No survival difference was seen in primary versus recurrent colorectal tumors; however, within the colorectal group there was a survival advantage when comparing R0 resection to R1 and R2 resection combined. Median survival rates were 27.3 months for R0 resection and 10.7 months for R1 and R2 resection combined. The median survival was 21.4 months for the colorectal group and 6.9 months for the non-colorectal group (P = 0.002. Conclusions

  18. Curcumin Attenuates Staurosporine-Mediated Death of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burugula, Balabharathi; Ganesh, Bhagyalaxmi S.; Chintala, Shravan K.

    2011-01-01

    The functional effect of curcumin, a free radical scavenger and an herbal medicine from Indian yellow curry spice, Curcuma longa, on protease-mediated retinal ganglion cell death was investigated. These results show, for the first time, that curcumin indeed prevents the protease-mediated death of RGCs, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Ganglion Plexus Ablation in Advanced Atrial Fibrillation: The AFACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Antoine H. G.; Berger, Wouter R.; Krul, Sébastien P. J.; van den Berg, Nicoline W. E.; Neefs, Jolien; Piersma, Femke R.; Chan Pin Yin, Dean R. P. P.; de Jong, Jonas S. S. G.; van Boven, WimJan P.; de Groot, Joris R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long duration of atrial fibrillation (AF), enlarged atria, or failed catheter ablation have advanced AF and may require more extensive treatment than pulmonary vein isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of additional ganglion plexus (GP) ablation

  20. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  1. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  2. Petrosal Ganglion: a more complex role than originally imagined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Antonio Retamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The petrosal ganglion is a peripheral sensory ganglion, composed of pseudomonopolar sensory neurons that innervate the posterior third of the tongue and the carotid sinus and body. According to their electrical properties petrosal ganglion neurons can be ascribed to one of two categories: i neurons with action potentials presenting an inflection (hump on its repolarizing phase and ii neurons with fast and brisk action potentials. Although there is some correlation between the electrophysiological properties and the sensory modality of the neurons in some species, no general pattern can be easily recognized. On the other hand, petrosal neurons projecting to the carotid body are activated by several transmitters, with acetylcholine and ATP being the most conspicuous in most species. Petrosal neurons are completely surrounded by a multi-cellular sheet of glial (satellite cells that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neurons. Thus, petrosal ganglion neurons are regarded as mere wires that communicate the periphery (i.e., carotid body and the central nervous system. However, it has been shown that in other sensory ganglia satellite glial cells and their neighboring neurons can interact, partly by the release of chemical neuro-glio transmitters. This intercellular communication can potentially modulate the excitatory status of sensory neurons and thus the afferent discharge. In this mini review, we will briefly summarize the general properties of petrosal ganglion neurons and the current knowledge about the glial-neuron communication in sensory neurons and how this phenomenon could be important in the chemical sensory processing generated in the carotid body.

  3. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  4. Assessment of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, S; Lai-Yuen, S; Bao, P; Weitzenfeld, A; Greene, K; Kedar, R; Hart, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement algorithmic model on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images compared with manual pelvic floor measurements for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluation. We examined 15 MRIs along the midsagittal view. Five reference points used for pelvic floor measurements were identified both manually and using our semiautomated measurement model. The two processes were compared in terms of accuracy and precision. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model provided highly consistent and accurate locations for all reference points on MRI. Results also showed that the model can identify the reference points faster than the manual-point identification process. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model can be used to facilitate and improve the process of pelvic floor measurements on MRI. This will enable high throughput analysis of MRI data to improve the correlation analysis with clinical outcomes and potentially improve POP assessment.

  5. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  6. 38 CFR 4.67 - Pelvic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pelvic bones. 4.67 Section 4.67 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.67 Pelvic bones. The variability of residuals...

  7. Biomimetic matrices for pelvic floor repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vashaghian, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapsed (POP) is a dysfunctional disease in female pelvic floor that affects a lot of women worldwide, and reduces their quality of life. Currently, trans-vaginal knitted polypropylene meshes are used as secondary treatment, for anatomical correction of the dysfunctional tissues.

  8. The screening pelvic radiograph in pediatric trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.; Aickin, R.; Kolbe, A.; Teele, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pelvic radiographs are routinely obtained in adult trauma to optimise early management. In adults, pelvic fractures are associated with high early transfusion requirement, high injury severity scores and an increased incidence of other abdominal and thoracic injuries. It is unclear whether this holds true in children. Objective. To determine whether the screening pelvic radiograph is necessary in paediatric trauma. Materials and methods. The notes of all patients who presented after trauma to the Starship Children's Hospital and were triaged to the resuscitation room during 1997 were reviewed. Results of initial radiography were obtained and correlated with later imaging. Results. Our review of 444 injured children seen over a period of 1 year revealed that of 347 children who had screening pelvic radiographs, only 1 had a pelvic fracture. The fracture in this child was clinically apparent and required no specific treatment. Conclusions. The presence of a pelvic fracture is rare in injured children. By omitting screening pelvic radiographs there are potential benefits, including reduced radiation exposure to children and cost savings. Uninterpretable or abnormal clinical examination or haematuria requires further investigation, but routine screening for pelvic fracture is unnecessary. (orig.)

  9. MANAGEMENT OF PELVIC FRACTURES IN DOG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

    Dept. of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry,. Birsa Agricultural ... dogs, most of the pelvic fractures recover without surgery. .... management in the dog and cat,. New York: Thieme, pp. 161-199. FOSSUM, T.W. (2007) Pelvic fractures. In: Fossum, T.W., 3rd edn.Small. Animal Surgery.

  10. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Taylor, Stuart A.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2008-01-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  12. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting...... (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg...

  13. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Specialist X-Ray; DeLancey, John O.L. (eds.) [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). L4000 Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  14. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-04-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains a subset of closely-apposed neuronal somata (NS) separated solely by a thin satellite glial cell (SGC) membrane septum to form an NS-glial cell-NS trimer. We recently reported that stimulation of one NS with an impulse train triggers a delayed, noisy and long-lasting response in its NS pair via a transglial signaling pathway that we term a 'sandwich synapse' (SS). Transmission could be unidirectional or bidirectional and facilitated in response to a second stimulus train. We have shown that in chick or rat SS the NS-to-SGC leg of the two-synapse pathway is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors but the second SGC-to-NS synapse mechanism remained unknown. A noisy evoked current in the target neuron, a reversal potential close to 0 mV, and insensitivity to calcium scavengers or G protein block favored an ionotropic postsynaptic receptor. Selective block by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) implicated glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This agent also blocked NS responses evoked by puff of UTP, a P2Y2 agonist, directly onto the SGC cell, confirming its action at the second synapse of the SS transmission pathway. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit was implicated by block of transmission with ifenprodil and by its immunocytochemical localization to the NS membrane, abutting the glial septum P2Y2 receptor. Isolated DRG cell clusters exhibited daisy-chain and branching NS-glial cell-NS contacts, suggestive of a network organization within the ganglion. The identification of the glial-to-neuron transmitter and receptor combination provides further support for transglial transmission and completes the DRG SS molecular transmission pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  17. The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzalez, Joshua; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm. Contemporary data on pelvic floor anatomy and function as they relate to the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions were reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between the male pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory/orgasmic dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, respectively. Evidence suggests a close relationship between the pelvic floor and male sexual dysfunction and a potential therapeutic benefit from pelvic floor therapy for men who suffer from these conditions. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a necessary tool in a more comprehensive bio-neuromusculoskeletal-psychosocial approach to the treatment of male sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  19. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Reconstruction of Complex Post-Traumatic Perineal/Pelvic Defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the pelvic diaphragm). A composite pedicled. ALT flap was considered adequate for the initial reconstruction and stabilization, with the option of using a free fibular flap later, should the pelvic ring remain unstable. The fascia was used to complete the pelvic ring. It also provided anterior support to the pelvic diaphragm.

  1. Neuroprotection of a novel cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* from the cyclization of PACAP (1-5 in cellular and rodent models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Cheng

    Full Text Available To investigate the protective effects of a novel cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* (CHC from the cyclization of Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP (1-5 in cellular and rodent models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis.Double-labeling immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Thy-1 and PACAP receptor type 1 in a retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. The apoptosis of RGC-5 cells was induced by 0.02 J/cm(2 Ultraviolet B irradiation. MTT assay, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate the viability, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis of RGC-5 cells respectively. CHC attenuated apoptotic cell death induced by Ultraviolet B irradiation and inhibited the excessive generation of ROS. Moreover, CHC treatment resulted in decreased expression of Bax and concomitant increase of Bcl-2, as was revealed by western-blot analysis. The in vivo apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells was induced by injecting 50 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA (100 nmol in a 2 µL saline solution intravitreally, and different dosages of CHC were administered. At day 7, rats in CHC+ NMDA-treated groups showed obvious aversion to light when compared to NMDA rats. Electroretinogram recordings revealed a marked decrease in the amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave, and photopic negative response due to NMDA damage. In retina receiving intravitreal NMDA and CHC co-treatment, these values were significantly increased. CHC treatment also resulted in less NMDA-induced cell loss and a decrease in the proportion of dUTP end-labeling-positive cells in ganglion cell line.C*HSDGIC*, a novel cyclopeptide from PACAP (1-5 attenuates apoptosis in RGC-5 cells and inhibits NMDA-induced retinal neuronal death. The beneficial effects may occur via the mitochondria pathway. PACAP derivatives like CHC may serve as a promising candidate for neuroprotection in glaucoma.

  2. Ganglion impar block in patients with chronic coccydynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Gonnade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coccydynia refers to pain in the terminal segment of the spinecaused by abnormal sitting and standing posture. Coccydynia is usually managed conservatively, however in nonresponsive patients, ganglion impar block is used as a good alternate modality for pain relief. This article studies the effect of ganglion impar block in coccydynia patients who were not relieved by conservative management. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at the pain clinic in the departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Radiology in a tertiary centre in India.It was a prospective hospital-based study, in which 35 patients with coccydynia were considered for fluoroscopy-guided trans-sacro-coccygeal ganglion impar block. The outcome assessment was done using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores for a follow-up period of 6 months. Of the 35 patients, 4 were lost to follow-up. Analysis was done usingthe data from the remaining 31 patients. Results: The mean age of the patients suffering from chronic coccydynia was 42.9 ± 8.39 years, and patients' age range was 28–57 years. The mean score of NRS and ODI before the procedure was 7.90 ± 0.16 and 48.97 ± 1.05, respectively. The interquartile range (IQR of NRS score remained almost unchanged during pre and postprocedure, however, IQR of ODI varied during the pre and post procedural events. The NRS and ODI scores immediately after the procedure decreased drastically showing significant pain relief in patients, and the difference of scores till the end of study was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study recommends the trans-sacro-coccygeal “needle inside needle” technique for local anesthetic block of the ganglion impar for pain relief in patients with coccydynia. This should be integrated with rehabilitative measures including ergonomical modification for prolonging pain free period.

  3. Arthroscopic Resection of Wrist Ganglion Arising from the Lunotriquetral Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Michael C. K.; Ho, Pak-cheong; Tse, W. L.; Wong, Clara W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal wrist ganglion is the most common wrist mass, and previous studies have shown that it arises from the scapholunate interval in the vast majority of cases. Treatment has traditionally been open excision, and more recently arthroscopic resection has been established as an effective and less invasive treatment method. However, application of this technique to ganglia in atypical locations has not been reported, where open excision is the usual practice. This report describes two cases...

  4. Ganglionic cysts related to the scapula: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ae Kyeong; Kim, Sung Moon; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Myung Jin; Chun, Jae Myeung; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of ganglionic cysts related to the scapula. We retrospectively reviewed 15 ganglionic cysts diagnosed by MR imaging in 14 patients who subsequently underwent surgical excision (n=8) or needle aspiration (n=1). Five other patients whose lesion-related symptoms were not too severe to manage underwent conservative treatment. We analyzed MR findings with regard to the size, shape and presence of internal septa, the location and signal intensity of the lesion, and associated findings such as change of rotator cuff muscle, labral tear and bone erosion. We also evaluated the presence of tear of rotator cuff tendon, tendinosis, and subacromial enthesophyte. The diameter of ganglionic cysts was 0.5-5.5 (mean, 2.8)cm, and they were round (n=2), ovoid (n=6), or elongated (n=7). Where internal septa were present (n=13), cysts were lobulated. Lesions were located in both scapular and spinoglenoid notches (n=9), only in the scapular notch (n=2), only in the spinoglenoid notch (n=2) or within the bone (n=2). In eleven cases they were very close to the superoposterior aspect of the glenoid labrum (n=11). On T1-weighted images, all lesions were seen to be iso- or hypointense to muscle, while on T2-weighted images, they were hyperintense, resembling joint fluid (n=14), except in one patient with hemorrhage. Associated findings were edema of the infraspinatus muscle (n=4), pressure erosion of the scapular neck (n=1), and labral tear (n=1). A torn supraspinatus tendon (n=2), supraspinatus tendinosis (n=3), and subacromial enthesophyte (n=2) were also present. MR imaging was helpful in diagnosing ganglionic cysts and detecting associated lesions

  5. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  6. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  7. Stellate ganglion block for persistent idiopathic facial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a facial pain disorder without any identifiable cause. A patient has persistent facial pain without any objective sign on clinical examination or investigations. There are associated psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. This condition is poorly responsive to therapy with anticonvulsants or analgesics. Stellate ganglion block interrupts the sympathetic supply to head, neck, and upper extremities. This block can be used to alleviate pain of sympathetic origin in head and neck region as well as upper extremities. We report a case of a middle-aged female with persistent idiopathic facial pain on the right side of face with no response to analgesics and anticonvulsants. Her pain was provoked by exposure to cold weather or wind. Assuming a sympathetic component to her pain, we did a right-sided stellate ganglion block for her with local anesthetic and steroid. The patient had significant pain relief (>80% after the block. This indicates that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in initiation and perpetuation of this pain condition. Stellate ganglion block can be done early in such patients both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

  8. X-ray and CT diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xiangyang; Zhang Weimin; Yan Shigui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, imaging features, and differential diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion. Methods: Clinical and imaging features of 15 cases (5 men, 10 women; mean age 39.7 years) with intraosseous ganglia were retrospectively analyzed. There were 17 lesions, including 6 acetabular, 4 lunate, 3 proximal ends of tibia, 1 major tuberculum of humeral, 1 femoral head, 1 scaphoid, and 1 phalange. Results: ( 1 ) Common radiological features included a unilocular or multilocular cyst surrounded by a full and thin rim of sclerotic: bone in the subchondral epiphysis without any signs of degenerative joint disease. (2) Lesions were displayed as well-defined round radiolucent defect or multi-cystic changes with surrounding bony sclerosis or cystic and expansile change with irregular shape on CT scans. (3) CT showed an intraosseous ganglion communicating with adjacent joint in 1 patient. (4) CT values of the lesions were between 15 - 80 HU. (5) Gas in the cyst could be seen in 3 cases. Conclusion: Combined with patient's age, lesion distribution, clinical manifestations, and imaging features, it is possible to make a correct diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

  9. Pelvic Mass Due to Transmigrated IUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadereh Behtash

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine device (IUD, a conventional method of contraception is rarely associated with uterine perforation and extra uterine dislocation. A 29 years old woman complaining of vaginal bleeding was referred for pelvic mass identified in ultrasound. The mass was confirmed with CT scan. In laparatomy we found an IUD in cul-de-sac and pelvic mass was apparently an organized hematoma. Transmigrated IUD can induce organized hematomas presenting as a pelvic mass."n© 2010 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiology of sport injuries of pelvic apophyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F

    1983-09-01

    Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed.

  11. Radiology of sport injuries of pelvic apophyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and ...

  13. A Case Report of an Acromioclavicular Joint Ganglion Associated with a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Suguru; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-04-13

    We report a case of subcutaneous ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint with massive rotator cuff tear [1-7]. An 81-year-old woman presented with a ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint that had first been identified 9 months earlier. The ganglion had recurred after having been aspirated by her local physician, so she was referred to our hospital. The puncture fluid was yellowish, clear and viscous. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a massive rotator cuff tear with multi- lobular cystic lesions continuous to the acromioclavicular joint, presenting the "geyser sign". During arthroscopy, distal clavicular resection and excision of the ganglion were performed together with joint debridement. At present, the ganglion has not recurred and the patient has returned to normal daily activity. In this case, the ganglion may have developed subsequent to the concomitant massive cuff tear, due to subcutaneous fluid flow through the damaged acromioclavicular joint.

  14. Pelvic exenteration for locally advanced primary and recurrent pelvic neoplasm: a series of 54 resectable cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on a series of 54 patients with pelvic neoplasms submitted to curative pelvic exenteration at a tertiary hospital and describe the results (morbidity, mortality, and long-term survival. Methods: The complete data of 54 patients submitted to pelvic exenteration between 1999 and 2007 were evaluated. Sixteen men and 38 women with a mean age of 65 years and median age of 66 years (36 to 77 were studied. Surgical procedures included total pelvic exenteration (n = 26, anterior pelvic exenteration(n = 5, and posterior pelvic exenteration (n = 23. Rresults: The mean operative time was 402 minutes (280 to 585. The average volume of intraoperative bleeding was 2,013 ml (300 to 5,800. Postoperative mortality was 5% (n = 3. The overall morbidity rate was 46%(n = 25. Histological evaluation demonstrated that 47 resections were R0 (87% while seven were R1 (13%. The overall survival rate in five years was 23.5% (n = 12. Cconclusions: Despite its aggressive nature and high morbidity, pelvic exenteration is still justified in locally advanced pelvic neoplasms or even in isolated pelvic recurrence, since it affords a greater long-term control of the neoplasm.

  15. Ganglion of the Flexor Tendon Sheath at the A2 Pulley - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gunaseelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reported cases of flexor tendon sheath ganglion arising from the A2 pulley. We report a case of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion in a 17-year old female who presented with pain, triggering and a swelling at the base of her right ring finger. During the excision biopsy, a ganglion measuring 0.5×0.8×0.4 cm in size was removed from the A2 pulley area.

  16. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G.; Stoffel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Dynamic pelvic floor MRI provides detailed pictures ... with you. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  18. CT in the evaluation of pelvic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Pelvic fractures from motor vehicle accidents are a cause of substantial morbidity and permanent disability, and are the third leading cause of death following blunt trauma. Associated extremity fractures are common, and injury to abdominal and pelvic viscera may occur. Difficulty in establishing the source of hemorrhage may be encountered, especially since pelvic fractures with extraperitoneal bleeding may result in intraperitoneal bleeding through torn fascial planes. The difficulty in properly diagnosing and managing complex fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum is well documented. Prognosis is influenced by the type and extent of pelvic fracture and associated soft tissue injuries. Computed tomography (CT) has proved to be a valuable tool in evaluation of these complex and life-threatening injuries

  19. Pelvic floor electrophysiology patterns associated with faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... pelvic floor electrophysiological abnormalities associated with. FI were illustrated in ... detection of a localized anal sphincter defect clinically and ..... Woods R, Voyvodic F, Schloithe A, Sage M, Wattchow D. Anal sphincter ...

  20. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Genital Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic ... often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea . Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can ...

  1. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Stoffel, F. [Inst. of Urology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  2. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Lachiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  3. Neuroprotection of the rat’s retinal ganglion cells against glutamate-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariman M.A El-Gohari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Taurine protects the retina against glutamate excitotoxicity and could have clinical implications in protecting the ganglion cells from several ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Preoperative evaluation of locally spreaded pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baramia, M.; Todua, F.; Gotsadze, D.; Khutulashvili, N.; Lashkhi, K.; Nadareishvili, A.

    1998-01-01

    Am of the study: preoperative evaluation of patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors subjected to pelvic exenteration. Determine operability to avoid explorative laparatomies, which cause serious complications in these patients. Evaluate condition of urinary system in case of this pathology. Materials and methods: 34 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors where pelvic exenteration was attempted were studied. Along with other methods of diagnostic CT and MRI were performed. Results: In all patients secondary involvement of the urinary bladder was noted. In 30 patients CT and MR findings were confirmed (88,2%) intraoperatively and different types of pelvic organs exenteration were performed. In 1 case spread of tomoruos infiltrate to the pelvic wall and common iliac vessels was detected intraoperatively (patient had history of radiation therapy). In 2 cases carcinomatosis of the peritoneum was found. In 1 case involvement of urinary bladder was simulated by close attachment of enlarged uterus. Conclusion: Obtained results show, that CT and MR are highly informative methods of disease spread evaluation and thus determining operability. Radiotherapy performed prior to operation sets difficulties in differentiation for tumourous infiltrate and post-radiotherapy changes in pelvis. (Full text)

  5. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pischedda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito- urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  6. Effect of pelvic floor rehabilitation technique in preventing the postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Qiong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of pelvic floor rehabilitation technique in preventing the postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and on the sexual life quality. Methods: A total of 286 puerpera with pelvic floor dysfunction who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2014 to May, 2015 42 d after delivery were included in the study, and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 143 cases in each group. After guidance, the puerpera in the control group were given pelvic floor muscle training by themselves at home. On this basis, the puerpera in the treatment group were treated by the pelvic floor rehabilitation apparatus. The puerpera in the two groups were treated for 4 weeks. The pelvic floor function before treatment, 6 months and 1 year after delivery was detected. The color Doppler ultrasound apparatus was used to detect BSD, PUVA, UVJ-M, and BND 3 months after delivery. Results: BND, PUVA-R, PUVA-S, and UVJ-M 3 months after delivery in the treatment groups were significantly lower than those in the control group, while BSD-S was significantly higher than that in the control group. The improvement of type I and II muscle fiber fatigue (%, POP-Q degree, AP indication point (cm, and vaginal dynamic pressure (cmH2O was significantly superior to that in the control group. The comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength classification before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, the pelvic floor muscle in the two groups was significantly strengthened, and the proportion of V grade patients was significantly increased when compared with before treatment. Conclusions: The postpartum early pelvic floor rehabilitation technique can effectively enhance the pelvic floor function, and prevent the postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction, with an accurate efficacy; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  7. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  8. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  9. Triple pelvic ring fixation in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwienen, C.M. van; Bosch, E.W. van den; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Single-group prospective follow-up study. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional outcome of internal fixation of the pelvic ring in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) in whom all other treatments failed. BACKGROUND DATA: More than half of all pregnant

  10. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized...

  11. [Imaging of pelvic organ prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapray, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Colpocystodefecography (CCD) and dynamic MRI with defecography (MRId) allow an alternation between filling and emptying the hollow organs and the maximum abdominal strain offered by the defecation. When applied in imaging these two principles reveal the masked or underestimated prolapses at the time of the physical examination. A rigorous application of the technique guarantees almost equivalent results from the two examinations. The CCD provides voiding views and improved analysis of the anorectal pathology (intussusception, anismus) but involves radiation and a more invasive examination. MRId has the advantage of providing continuous visibility of the peritoneal compartment, and a multiplanar representation, enabling an examination of the morphology of the pelvic organs and of the supporting structures, with the disadvantage of still necessitating a supine examination, resulting sometimes in an incomplete or impossible evacuation. The normal and abnormal results (cystoptosis, vaginal vault prolapse, enterocele, anorectal intussuception, rectocele, descending perineum, urinary and fecal incontinence) and the respective advantages and limits of the various imaging methods are detailed. Dynamic perineal and introital ultrasound remains more limited in the appreciation of posterior colpoceles and especially in anorectal disorders, than CCD or MRId. Endoanal ultrasound is the first line morphological evaluation of the anal sphincter. Transvaginal and introital ultrasound can detect some complications of suburethral tapes and meshes. Morphological and dynamic imaging are essential complementary tools to the physical examination, especially when a precise anatomic assessment is required to understand the functional complaint or when a reintervention is needed.

  12. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion in intractable cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Tim P; Schoenen, Jean; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , but only very few randomized controlled studies exist in the field of neuromodulation for the treatment of drug-refractory headaches. Based on the prominent role of the cranial parasympathetic system in acute cluster headache attacks, high-frequency sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) stimulation has been shown...... patients and the first commercially available CE-marked SPG neurostimulator system has been introduced for cluster headache, patient selection and care should be standardized to ensure maximal efficacy and safety. As only limited data have been published on SPG stimulation, standards of care based...

  13. The Sphenopalatine Ganglion: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Targeting in Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  14. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells: implications for human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, there was the seminal discovery of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) as a new class of photoreceptors that subserve the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and other non-image forming functions of the eye. Since then, there has been a growing research...... interest on these cells, mainly focused on animal models. Only recently, a few studies have started to address the relevance of the mRGC system in humans and related diseases. We recently discovered that mRGCs resist neurodegeneration in two inherited mitochondrial disorders that cause blindness, i...

  15. Novel Neurostimulation of Autonomic Pelvic Nerves Overcomes Bladder-Sphincter Dyssynergia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Wendy Yen Xian; Mogan, Roshini; Thow, Xin Yuan; Chua, Soo Min; Rusly, Astrid; Thakor, Nitish V.; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of coordination between smooth muscle contraction in the bladder and the relaxation of the external urethral sphincter (EUS) striated muscle is a common issue in dysfunctional bladders. It is a significant challenge to overcome for neuromodulation approaches to restore bladder control. Bladder-sphincter dyssynergia leads to undesirably high bladder pressures, and poor voiding outcomes, which can pose life-threatening secondary complications. Mixed pelvic nerves are potential peripheral targets for stimulation to treat dysfunctional bladders, but typical electrical stimulation of pelvic nerves activates both the parasympathetic efferent pathway to excite the bladder, as well as the sensory afferent pathway that causes unwanted sphincter contractions. Thus, a novel pelvic nerve stimulation paradigm is required. In anesthetized female rats, we combined a low frequency (10 Hz) stimulation to evoke bladder contraction, and a more proximal 20 kHz stimulation of the pelvic nerve to block afferent activation, in order to produce micturition with reduced bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Increasing the phase width of low frequency stimulation from 150 to 300 μs alone was able to improve voiding outcome significantly. However, low frequency stimulation of pelvic nerves alone evoked short latency (19.9–20.5 ms) dyssynergic EUS responses, which were abolished with a non-reversible proximal central pelvic nerve cut. We demonstrated that a proximal 20 kHz stimulation of pelvic nerves generated brief onset effects at lower current amplitudes, and was able to either partially or fully block the short latency EUS responses depending on the ratio of the blocking to stimulation current. Our results indicate that ratios >10 increased the efficacy of blocking EUS contractions. Importantly, we also demonstrated for the first time that this combined low and high frequency stimulation approach produced graded control of the bladder, while reversibly blocking afferent

  16. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lazcano-Pérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7, voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, the A-type transient outward (IA and delayed rectifier (IDR currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  17. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-05

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  18. Estradiol upregulates voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 in trigeminal ganglion contributing to hyperalgesia of inflamed TMJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Yun Bi

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs have the highest prevalence in women of reproductive age. The role of estrogen in TMDs and especially in TMDs related pain is not fully elucidated. Voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7 plays a prominent role in pain perception and Nav1.7 in trigeminal ganglion (TG is involved in the hyperalgesia of inflamed Temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Whether estrogen could upregulate trigeminal ganglionic Nav1.7 expression to enhance hyperalgesia of inflamed TMJ remains to be explored.Estrous cycle and plasma levels of 17β-estradiol in female rats were evaluated with vaginal smear and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Female rats were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol at 0 μg, 20 μg and 80 μg, respectively, for 10 days. TMJ inflammation was induced using complete Freund's adjuvant. Head withdrawal thresholds and food intake were measured to evaluate the TMJ nociceptive responses. The expression of Nav1.7 in TG was examined using real-time PCR and western blot. The activity of Nav1.7 promoter was examined using luciferase reporter assay. The locations of estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ, the G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30, and Nav1.7 in TG were examined using immunohistofluorescence.Upregulation of Nav1.7 in TG and decrease in head withdrawal threshold were observed with the highest plasma 17β-estradiol in the proestrus of female rats. Ovariectomized rats treated with 80 μg 17β-estradiol showed upregulation of Nav1.7 in TG and decrease in head withdrawal threshold as compared with that of the control or ovariectomized rats treated with 0 μg or 20 μg. Moreover, 17β-estradiol dose-dependently potentiated TMJ inflammation-induced upregulation of Nav1.7 in TG and also enhanced TMJ inflammation-induced decrease of head withdrawal threshold in ovariectomized rats. In addition, the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, partially blocked the 17β-estradiol effect on Nav1

  19. Target recognition and synapse formation by ciliary-ganglion neurons in tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, W.F.; Slaaf, D.W.; Hooisma, J.; Magchielse, T.; Meeter, E.

    1978-01-01

    A less complicated source of neurons suitable for this type of studies is the parasympathetic ciliary ganglion. In the pigeon and in the chick this ganglion is known to contain only two classes of neurons, both of which are cholinoceptive and cholinergic and that innervate the muscle fibres of the

  20. Intramuscular dissection of a large ganglion cyst into the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Freedman, Harold L

    2012-07-01

    Ganglion cysts are lesions resulting from the myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue associated with joint capsules and tendon sheaths. Most common around the wrist joint, ganglion cysts may be found elsewhere in the body, including in and around the knee joint. Uncommonly, ganglion cysts can present intramuscularly. Previous reports document the existence of intramuscular ganglia, often without histologic confirmation. This article describes a case of an intramuscular ganglion cyst in the medial gastrocnemius muscle of a 53-year-old woman. The patient initially presented for discomfort associated with the lesion. Examination was consistent with intramuscular cystic lesion of unknown etiology. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the origin of the mass at the semimembranosus-gastrocnemius bursa. Because of its location, the mass was initially suspected to be a dissecting Baker's cyst, an uncommon but previously reported diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical excision, and examination of the intact specimen revealed a thin, fibrous, walled cyst with no lining epithelium, which was consistent with a ganglion cyst. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in the orthopedic literature of a ganglion cyst dissecting into the gastrocnemius muscle. Because ganglion cysts commonly require excision for definitive treatment and do not respond well to treatment measures implemented for Baker's cysts, including resection of underlying meniscal tears, the authors believe it is important for orthopedic surgeons to be able to distinguish between Baker's and other cysts associated with the knee joint, including ganglion cysts, which may require more definitive treatment. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Stanniocalcin-1 protects retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Optic neuropathy including glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss, and there are currently no effective therapies. The hallmark of pathophysiology of optic neuropathy is oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, a population of neurons in the central nervous system with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. We here tested that an anti-apoptotic protein stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1 can prevent loss of RGCs in the rat retina with optic nerve transection (ONT and in cultures of RGC-5 cells with CoCl2 injury. We found that intravitreal injection of STC-1 increased the number of RGCs in the retina at days 7 and 14 after ONT, and decreased apoptosis and oxidative damage. In cultures, treatment with STC-1 dose-dependently increased cell viability, and decreased apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species in RGC-5 cells that were exposed to CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1α that was up-regulated by injury was significantly suppressed in the retina and in RGC-5 cells by STC-1 treatment. The results suggested that intravitreal injection of STC-1 might be a useful therapy for optic nerve diseases in which RGCs undergo apoptosis through oxidative stress.

  2. Comprehensive Method for Culturing Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Miranda; Zeng, Yan; Knight, Andrew; Windebank, Anthony; Trushina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15) rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  3. Comprehensive method for culturing embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L. Lange

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15 rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  4. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  5. Effects of water avoidance stress on peripheral and central responses during bladder filling in the rat: A multidisciplinary approach to the study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (MAPP research network study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    Full Text Available Stress plays a role in the exacerbation and possibly the development of functional lower urinary tract disorders. Chronic water avoidance stress (WAS in rodents is a model with high construct and face validity to bladder hypersensitive syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS, characterized by urinary frequency and bladder hyperalgesia and heightened stress responsiveness. Given the overlap of the brain circuits involved in stress, anxiety, and micturition, we evaluated the effects chronic stress has on bladder function, as well as its effects on regional brain activation during bladder filling. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to WAS (10 days or sham paradigms. One day thereafter, cystometrograms were obtained during titrated bladder dilation, with visceromotor responses (VMR recorded simultaneously. Cerebral perfusion was assessed during passive bladder distension (20-cmH2O following intravenous administration of [14C]-iodoantipyrine. Regional cerebral blood flow was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains with statistical parametric mapping. WAS animals compared to controls demonstrated a decreased pressure threshold and visceromotor threshold triggering the voiding phase. At 20-cmH2O, VMR was significantly greater in WAS animals compared to controls. WAS animals showed greater activation in cortical regions of the central micturition circuit, including the posterior cingulate, anterior retrosplenial, somatosensory, posterior insula, orbital, and anterior secondary ("supplementary" motor cortices, as well as in the thalamus, anterior hypothalamus, parabrachial and Barrington nuclei, and striatum. Seed analysis showed increased functional connectivity of WAS compared to control animals of the posterior cingulate cortex to the pontine parabrachial nucleus; of the Barrington nucleus to the anterior dorsal midline and ventrobasilar thalamus and somatosensory and

  6. Progranulin deficiency causes the retinal ganglion cell loss during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-05-10

    Astrocytes are glial cells that support and protect neurons in the central nervous systems including the retina. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are in contact with the astrocytes and our earlier findings showed the reduction of the number of cells in the ganglion cell layer in adult progranulin deficient mice. In the present study, we focused on the time of activation of the astrocytes and the alterations in the number of RGCs in the retina and optic nerve in progranulin deficient mice. Our findings showed that the number of Brn3a-positive cells was reduced and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was increased in progranulin deficient mice. The progranulin deficient mice had a high expression of GFAP on postnatal day 9 (P9) but not on postnatal day 1. These mice also had a decrease in the number of the Brn3a-positive cells on P9. Taken together, these findings indicate that the absence of progranulin can affect the survival of RGCs subsequent the activation of astrocytes during retinal development.

  7. Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Monasterio, F.M.; Gouras, P.

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 487 colour-opponent ganglion cells recorded in the central retina of the rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, 9% of these neurones were found to have responses with the same sign at both ends of the visible spectrum mediated by red-sensitive cones and mid-spectral responses of opposite sign mediated by green-sensitive cones. Selective chromatic adaptation showed that the responses to far violet lights (400 to 420 nm) were due to input from red- and not blue-sensitive cones. These responses were enhanced by backgrounds depressing the sensitivity of blue- and green-sensitive cones and they were depressed by backgrounds depressing the sensitivity of red-sensitive cones; the sensitivity of these responses was yoked to that of responses to far red lights. The relative incidence of these ganglion cells was maximal at the foveal region and decreased towards the peripheral retina. The properties of these cells are consistent with some psychophysical observations of human vision at the short wave-lengths. (author)

  8. Omitting histopathology in wrist ganglions. A risky proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Akbar J.; Kumar, Santosh; Mohib, Yasir; Rashid, Rizwan H.; Noordin, Shahryar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify incidence and utility of histopathology in wrist ganglions. Methods: A retrospective study of 112 patients operated for wrist swellings between January 2009 and March 2014 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, was conducted. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, history, location and associated symptoms, provisional diagnosis and operative details. Histopathology reports were reviewed to confirm the final diagnosis. Results: One hundred and twelve patients were included in the study (34 males and 78 females) with a mean age of 28 ± 12 years. Ninety-five percent of ganglia were dorsally located and 85% were solitary in nature. Histopathology reports confirmed 107 as ganglion cysts, whereas 3 had giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and 2 were reported to be tuberculous tenosynovitis. Conclusion: Although most of the time, the clinical diagnosis conforms to the final diagnosis, the possibility of an alternate diagnosis cannot be ignored (4% in this study). We suggest routine histopathological analysis so that such diagnoses are not missed. PMID:27464871

  9. Real-Time Imaging of Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. Yap

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring real-time apoptosis in-vivo is an unmet need of neurodegeneration science, both in clinical and research settings. For patients, earlier diagnosis before the onset of symptoms provides a window of time in which to instigate treatment. For researchers, being able to objectively monitor the rates of underlying degenerative processes at a cellular level provides a biomarker with which to test novel therapeutics. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma. Numerous animal studies have used DARC to show efficacy of novel, pressure-independent treatment strategies in models of glaucoma and other conditions where retinal apoptosis is reported, including Alzheimer’s disease. This may forge exciting new links in the clinical science of treating both cognitive and visual decline. Human trials are now underway, successfully demonstrating the safety and efficacy of the technique to differentiate patients with progressive neurodegeneration from healthy individuals. We review the current perspectives on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, the way in which this can be imaged, and the exciting advantages that these future methods hold in store.

  10. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zele

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central or intrinsic (retinal network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC and outer retina (cone photoreceptors was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux. Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

  11. An exploration of the control of micturition using a novel in situ arterially perfused rat preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajni eSadananda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to develop and refine a decerebrate arterially perfused rat preparation (DAPR that allows the complete bladder filling and voiding cycle to be investigated without some of the restrictions inherent with in vivo experimentation (e.g. ease and speed of set up (30mins, control over the extracellular milieu and free of anaesthetic agents. Both spontaneous (naturalistic bladder filling from ureters and evoked (in response to intravesical infusion voids were routinely and reproducibly observed which had similar pressure characteristics. The DAPR allows the simultaneous measurement of bladder intra-luminal pressure, external urinary sphincter electromyogram (EUS–EMG, pelvic afferent nerve activity, pudendal motor activity and permits excellent visualisation of the entire lower urinary tract, during typical rat filling and voiding responses. The voiding responses were modulated or eliminated by interventions at a number of levels including at the afferent terminal fields (intravesical capsaicin sensitisation-desensitisation, autonomic (ganglion blockade with hexamethonium and somatic motor (vecuronium block of the EUS outflow and required intact brainstem/hindbrain-spinal coordination (as demonstrated by sequential hindbrain transections. Both innocuous (eg perineal stimulation and noxious (tail/paw pinch somatic stimuli elicited an increase in EUS-EMG indicating intact sensory feedback loops. Spontaneous non-micturition contractions were observed between fluid infusions at a frequency and amplitude of 1.4±0.9 per minute and 1.4±0.3mmHg, respectively, and their amplitude increased when autonomic control was compromised. In conclusion, the DAPR is a tractable and useful model for the study of neural bladder control showing intact afferent signaling, spinal and hindbrain co-ordination and efferent control over the lower urinary tract end organs and can be extended to study bladder pathologies and trial novel treatments.

  12. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 No description Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 No description Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Input control Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 No description Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Input control Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 No description Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Input control Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Input control Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  20. Downregulation of selective microRNAs in trigeminal ganglion neurons following inflammatory muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active regulation of gene expression in the nervous system plays an important role in the development and/or maintenance of inflammatory pain. MicroRNA (miRNA negatively regulates gene expression via posttranscriptional or transcriptional inhibition of specific genes. To explore the possible involvement of miRNA in gene regulation during inflammatory pain, we injected complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA unilaterally into the rat masseter muscle and quantified changes in neuron-specific mature miRNAs in the trigeminal ganglion (TG. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant, but differential, downregulation of mature miR-10a, -29a, -98, -99a, -124a, -134, and -183 in the ipsilateral mandibular division (V3 of the TG within 4 hr after CFA. In contrast, levels of tested miRNAs did not change significantly in the contralateral V3 or the ipsilateral ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the TG from inflamed rats, nor in the ipsilateral V3 of saline-injected animals. The downregulated miRNAs recovered differentially to a level equal to or higher than that in naive animals. Full recovery time varied with miRNA species but was at least 4 days. Expression and downregulation of some miRNAs were further confirmed by in situ hybridization of TG neurons that innervate the inflamed muscle. Although neurons of all sizes expressed these miRNAs, their signals varied between neurons. Our results indicate that miRNA species specific to neurons are quickly regulated following inflammatory muscle pain.

  1. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  2. Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee: clinical and MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.G.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, B.H.; Choi, J.A.; Lee, N.J.; Chung, K.B.; Choi, Y.S.; Cho, S.B.; Lim, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present clinical and MR imaging features of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Retrospective review of 1685 consecutive medical records and MR examinations of the knee performed at three imaging centers allowed identification of 20 patients (13 men and 7 women; mean age 35 years), in whom evidence of intra-articular ganglion cyst was seen. Of the 20 ganglion cysts, 5 were found in the infrapatellar fat pad, 10 arose from the posterior cruciate ligament, and 5 from the anterior cruciate ligament. Three of five patients with ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad had a palpable mass. In 7 of 15 patients with ganglion cyst in the intercondylar notch, exacerbation of pain occurred in a squatting position. On four MR arthrographies, ganglion cysts were an intra-articular round, lobulated, low signal intensity lesion. Five cases of fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images demonstrated peripheral thin rim enhancement. The clinical presentation of intra-articular ganglion cyst is varied according to its intra-articular location. The MR appearance of intra-articular ganglion cyst is characteristic and usually associated with the cruciate ligament or the infrapatellar fat pad. Magnetic resonance arthrography has no definite advantage over conventional MR in the evaluation of the lesion. For intra-articular ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad, fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MR imaging could be useful, because a thin, rim-enhancing feature of intra-articular ganglion cyst allows it to be distinguished from synovial hemangioma and synovial sarcoma. (orig.)

  3. Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Pelvic Abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Corsi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the utility of a less invasive approach to the care of women with a pelvic abscess, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of women with pelvic abscesses managed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration.

  4. Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Jimma University Specialized Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. ... and there was a significant association between prolapse and residence area. ... Awareness creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of ...

  5. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse: Experience at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information was recorded after a detailed history, physical examination and completion of a self-administered symptom questionnaire. ... due to anatomical restoration of prolapse in ..... of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic.

  6. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  7. Postirradiation changes in the pelvic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soevik, E.; Lien, H.H.; Tveit, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    MR images of 45 patients who had received radiation therapy for carcinoma of the anus or recurrent carcinoma of the rectum were reviewed with regard to postirradiation changes of the pelvic wall. High signal intensity in bone marrow on T1-weighted images due to fatty replacement was almost always observed. Presacral edema occurred in 7 of 36 patients who were examined 4 to 6 weeks after the end of irradiation and was more frequent at later studies. The pelvic wall muscles showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images compatible with edema. This finding was most frequent on studies performed more than 6 weeks after the end of irradiation. The changes subsided more than a year after radiation therapy. To avoid an erroneous diagnosis of tumor infiltration into the pelvic wall, it is important to be familiar with the normal postirradiation changes of the presacral space and the muscles. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  9. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Clavijo, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Sotelo, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena.. PMID:22557719

  10. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanchez-Salas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon′s ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena..

  11. Functional imaging of the pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, Andreas E-mail: andreaslienemann@web.de; Fischer, Tanja

    2003-08-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction and associated pelvic organ prolapse represent a major problem in our present-day society, mostly afflicting parous women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is assuming an increasingly important role in the more accurate delineation of the extent of the problem. This article briefly reviews one of the main radiological methods for the dynamic evaluation of the pelvic floor: functional cine MRI. Methods and Material: Out of the literature the smallest common denominator for functional cine MRI can be defined as follows: high field system; patient either in supine or sitting position; fast gradient echo sequence; midsagittal slice orientation; either a stack of slices or repeated measurements at the same slice position with the patient at rest or straining; image analysis using the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: All except two publications stress the usefulness of functional cine MRI in the evaluation of patients with organ descent and prolapse. This well accepted method allows for the visualization of all relevant structures in the anterior, middle and posterior compartment. It is especially useful in the detection of enteroceles, and provides a reliable postoperative follow-up tool. Isolated urinary or stool incontinence are not an indication for functional cine MRI, as is the case in patients with equivocal clinical findings. To date it does not allow for real 3D imaging of the pelvic floor or sufficient determination of fascial defects. Discussion: Functional cine MRI of the pelvic floor is a promising new imaging method for the detection of organ descent and prolapse in patients with equivocal clinical findings. The combination of function and morphology allows for an innovative view of the pelvic floor, and thus adds to our understanding of the various interactions of the structures.

  12. [Quality of life after extensive pelvic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levý, M; Lipská, L; Visokai, V; Šimša, J

    Multiorgan resections in the small pelvis are standard procedures in oncosurgery and some indications have no alternative. In advanced pelvic cancer, pelvic exenteration with en bloc resection of the involved organs and structures, including portions of the bony pelvis, is indicated. The 5-year survival rate is fairly good, around 50%, but little is known about the long-term quality of life. The aim was to describe the quality of life of long-term total pelvic exenteration survivors. In total, 63 pelvic exenterations were performed between 2000 to 2015 at the Department of Surgery, Thomayer Hospital, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, mostly for primary or relapsed rectal cancer. In this retrospective cohort study, the quality of life was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) and the EORTC QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. The completed questionnaires were scored according to EORTC instructions. At the time of this survey, 24 patients after TPE were surviving longer than one year after the surgery. The five-year survival of all patients was 49%, median survival 4.6 years, and median follow-up 15 months. Most of our patients reported a good level of their physical, emotional, cognitive and social functions. Some patients reported a worse body image, and of course a worsening in their sexual life. Regarding symptom-oriented questions, some patients evaluated the necessity of more frequent care of the stomia as slightly problematic; most patients reported impotence (men) or painful sexual intercourse (women). Long-term quality of life in survivors of pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer is comparable with reported results following primary rectal cancer resection with the exception of the sexual function. The quality of life gradually improves in the course of weeks to months from the surgery. pelvic exenteration quality of life.

  13. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi; Slovis, Thomas; Thomas, Ronald; Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  14. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dys...

  15. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi [Memorial Hermann Medical Center, Emergency Medicine Department, Houston, TX (United States); Slovis, Thomas [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Ronald [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt [Wayne State University of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  16. Tissue - engineering as an adjunct to pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangö, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    This PhD-thesis is based on animal studies and comprises three original papers and unpublished data. The studies were con-ducted during my employment as a research fellow at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark. New strategies for surgical reconstruction of pelvic organ pro-lapse (POP) are warranted. Traditional native tissue repair may be associated with poor long-term outcome and augmentation with permanent polypropylene meshes is associated with frequent and severe adverse effects. Tissue-engineering is a regenerative strategy that aims at creating functional tissue using stem cells, scaffolds and trophic factors. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential adjunctive use of a tissue-engineering technique for pelvic reconstructive surgery using two synthetic biodegradable materials; methoxypolyethyleneglycol-poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA) and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) - with or without seeded muscle stem cells in the form of autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments (MFFs). To simulate different POP repair scenarios different animal models were used. In Study 1 and 2, MPEG-PLGA was evaluated in a native tissue re-pair model and a partial defect model of the rat abdominal wall. We found that the scaffold was fully degraded after eight weeks. Cells from added MFFs could be traced and had resulted in the formation of new striated muscle fibers. Also, biomechanical changes were found in the groups with added MFFs. In Study 3, the long-term degradable electrospun PCL scaffold was evaluated in three rat abdominal wall models representing different loads on the scaffold. Surprisingly, cells from the MFFs did not survive. After eight weeks, a marked inflammatory foreign-body response was observed with numerous giant cells located between and around the PCL fibers which appeared not to be degraded. This response caused a considerable increase in the thickness of the mesh, resulting in a neotissue

  17. Primary Pelvic Involvement of Hydatid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by larval stage of a parasite named as Echinococcus. To diagnose this condition may be challenging without surgery and postoperative pathological examination due to limited value of serological studies but imaging techniques may give a clue when hydatid disease is suspected and hydatid disease shall be considered for differential diagnosis in pelvic mass. In the present case, we present a 75-year-old postmenopausal woman with pelvic hydatosis.

  18. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  19. US and MR imaging of pelvic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.; Mattison, D.R.; Williamson, M.R.; Sanders, M.M.; Bard, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    US and MR imaging were compared in benign and malignant pelvic masses to determine where MR imaging may replace US. With regard to benign masses, MR imaging showed a significant advantage only in the imaging of teratomas. In malignancy, US was better than MR imaging in delineating internal architecture. MR imaging was superior in suggesting the origin and extent of masses, especially in large neoplasms. US remains a reliable tool in the initial evaluation of pelvic masses. When US studies are suboptimal, MR imaging should be performed as complementary study. MR imaging may replace US in the initial examination of large masses where US cannot depict the origin and extent

  20. Correction of Pelvic Tilt and Pelvic Rotation in Cup Measurement after THA - An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Timo Julian; Weber, Markus; Dornia, Christian; Worlicek, Michael; Renkawitz, Tobias; Grifka, Joachim; Craiovan, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Purpose  Accurate assessment of cup orientation on postoperative pelvic radiographs is essential for evaluating outcome after THA. Here, we present a novel method for correcting measurement inaccuracies due to pelvic tilt and rotation. Method  In an experimental setting, a cup was implanted into a dummy pelvis, and its final position was verified via CT. To show the effect of pelvic tilt and rotation on cup position, the dummy was fixed to a rack to achieve a tilt between + 15° anterior and -15° posterior and 0° to 20° rotation to the contralateral side. According to Murray's definitions of anteversion and inclination, we created a novel corrective procedure to measure cup position in the pelvic reference frame (anterior pelvic plane) to compensate measurement errors due to pelvic tilt and rotation. Results  The cup anteversion measured on CT was 23.3°; on AP pelvic radiographs, however, variations in pelvic tilt (± 15°) resulted in anteversion angles between 11.0° and 36.2° (mean error 8.3°± 3.9°). The cup inclination was 34.1° on CT and ranged between 31.0° and 38.7° (m. e. 2.3°± 1.5°) on radiographs. Pelvic rotation between 0° and 20° showed high variation in radiographic anteversion (21.2°-31.2°, m. e. 6.0°± 3.1°) and inclination (34.1°-27.2°, m. e. 3.4°± 2.5°). Our novel correction algorithm for pelvic tilt reduced the mean error in anteversion measurements to 0.6°± 0.2° and in inclination measurements to 0.7° (SD± 0.2). Similarly, the mean error due to pelvic rotation was reduced to 0.4°± 0.4° for anteversion and to 1.3°± 0.8 for inclination. Conclusion  Pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation may lead to misinterpretation of cup position on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. Mathematical correction concepts have the potential to significantly reduce these errors, and could be implemented in future radiological software tools. Key Points   · Pelvic tilt and rotation influence cup

  1. Pelvic floor function during and after first pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummen, H.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects the first pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor. Pregnancy and vaginal delivery can negatively affect pelvic floor function. Micturition symptoms, defecation symptoms and sexual dysfunction are all signs of an impaired pelvic floor function. These symptoms are

  2. Expression of interleukin-1 beta in rat dorsal root ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, JCVM; Mantingh, [No Value; Brouwer, N; Biber, K; Kust, BM; Liem, RSB; Huitinga, [No Value; Tilders, FJH; Van Dam, AM; Boddeke, HWGM

    2001-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-lp was examined in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult rats using non-radioactive in Situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. At all spinal levels, approximately 70% of the DRG neurons appeared to express IL-1 beta mRNA: about 80% of these DRG neurons

  3. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi; Slovis, Thomas; Thomas, Ronald; Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt

    2012-07-01

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients.

  4. Radiographic cup anteversion measurement corrected from pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liao; Thoreson, Andrew R; Trousdale, Robert T; Morrey, Bernard F; Dai, Kerong; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel technique to improve the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement by correcting the influence of pelvic tilt. Ninety virtual total hip arthroplasties were simulated from computed tomography data of 6 patients with 15 predetermined cup orientations. For each simulated implantation, anteroposterior (AP) virtual pelvic radiographs were generated for 11 predetermined pelvic tilts. A linear regression model was created to capture the relationship between radiographic cup anteversion angle error measured on AP pelvic radiographs and pelvic tilt. Overall, nine hundred and ninety virtual AP pelvic radiographs were measured, and 90 linear regression models were created. Pearson's correlation analyses confirmed a strong correlation between the errors of conventional radiographic cup anteversion angle measured on AP pelvic radiographs and the magnitude of pelvic tilt (P cup anteversion angle from the influence of pelvic tilt. The current method proposes to measure the pelvic tilt on a lateral radiograph, and to use it as a correction for the radiographic cup anteversion measurement on an AP pelvic radiograph. Thus, both AP and lateral pelvic radiographs are required for the measurement of pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion. Compared with conventional radiographic cup anteversion, the errors of pelvic posture-integrated radiographic cup anteversion were reduced from 10.03 (SD = 5.13) degrees to 2.53 (SD = 1.33) degrees. Pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion measurement improves the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement, which shows the potential of further clarifying the etiology of postoperative instability based on planar radiographs. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  6. Ganglion cysts at the gastrocnemius origin: a series of ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.J.; Connell, D.A.; Saifuddin, A.; Bell, J.

    2007-01-01

    To describe ganglion cysts arising close to the origin of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius as identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present a series of ten cases of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin from the medial and lateral femoral condyles. These were collected over a 6-year period from our imaging database. All patients attended for routine MR imaging of the knee with a variety of clinical presentations. Data collected included patient demographics, ganglion size, ganglion site, clinical presentation and ancillary MR imaging findings. The ten patients in this series consisted of seven males and three females, five right and five left knees, age range 27-68 years, mean age 40.6 years. The mean maximal dimension of the ganglion cysts was 26 mm, range 15-40 mm. The medial gastrocnemius origin was involved in eight patients and the lateral origin in two patients. The MR imaging findings consisted of both uni- and multi-loculated cysts, often containing numerous septations with fluid signal characteristics. The cysts were extra-capsular with no clear communication with the joint. One patient presented with a popliteal soft tissue mass and none of the cases required surgical intervention for cyst removal. MR imaging may identify ganglion cysts arising in an intra- or extra-articular site around the knee. This series documents the MR imaging characteristics of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin and discusses the relevance of this imaging finding. (orig.)

  7. Macrostructure of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe autonomic nervous system consists of a vast range of nerves and ganglions. Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the sympathetic innervations of the head and neck are affected by the neurons that ramify from the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG. The CCG is the end of the sympathetic cervical trunk, which runs with the vagal nerve during its cervical course. In this study sixteen adult (2 - 5 year river buffalo of both sexes (eight male, eight female weighing around 250 - 450 kg were dissected to investigate the weight, situation and arrangement of nerve branches of the cranial cervical ganglion bilaterally. The ganglions showed a fusiform shape and reddish in color. The cranial cervical ganglion covered by the digastricus muscle. It lies in dorsal region of the base of epiglottic cartilage, ventromedial to tympanic bulla and ventrally to atlantic fossa, and medial of the occipital artery. This study showed that the cranial cervical ganglions in river buffalo were well-developed structure. The main branches of cranial cervical ganglion included the internal carotid, external carotid and jugular nerves.

  8. Imaging of compound palmar ganglion with pathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compound palmar ganglion, or chronic flexor tenosynovitis, most commonly of tuberculousorigin, is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (TB. The flexor synovialsheath is not a common site for TB but, once involved, causes rapid involvement of all flexortendons. We discuss the case of a 70-year-old farmer who presented to us with pain and progressive swelling of the palmar aspect of the wrist. On clinical examination, swelling both above and below the proximal wrist crease was found, with positive cross-fluctuation. Onultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, features suggestive of compound palmarganglion were present. The patient underwent surgical resection (extensive tenosynovectomyand chemotherapy. Post-operative histopatholgical findings correlated with the radiological features.

  9. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chloe N; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Blanch, Richard J; Ahmed, Zubair

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) are terminally differentiated CNS neurons that possess limited endogenous regenerative capacity after injury and thus RGC death causes permanent visual loss. RGC die by caspase-dependent mechanisms, including apoptosis, during development, after ocular injury and in progressive degenerative diseases of the eye and optic nerve, such as glaucoma, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of caspases through genetic or pharmacological approaches can arrest the apoptotic cascade and protect a proportion of RGC. Novel findings have also highlighted a pyroptotic role of inflammatory caspases in RGC death. In this review, we discuss the molecular signalling mechanisms of apoptotic and inflammatory caspase responses in RGC specifically, their involvement in RGC degeneration and explore their potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:29675270

  10. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, J. P.; Otárola-Castillo, E.; Ralph, P.; Alas, J.; Daley, T.; Smith, A. D.; Dean, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis which seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: 1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) have evolved relatively large penises and pelvic bones compared to their body size, and 2) pelvic bone shape diverges more quickly in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  11. Biomimetic implants for pelvic floor repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vashaghian, Mahshid; Zaat, Sebastianus A. J.; Smit, Theodoor H.; Roovers, Jan-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Polypropylene implants are used for the reconstructive surgery of urogynaecological disorders like pelvic organ prolapse, but severe complications associated with their use have been reported. There is evidence that surface properties and a difference in mechanical stiffness between the implant and

  12. Hypoxia-ischemia and retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanjit Kaur

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Charanjit Kaur1, Wallace S Foulds2, Eng-Ang Ling11Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeAbstract: Retinal hypoxia is the potentially blinding mechanism underlying a number of sight-threatening disorders including central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic central retinal vein thrombosis, complications of diabetic eye disease and some types of glaucoma. Hypoxia is implicated in loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs occurring in such conditions. RGC death occurs by apoptosis or necrosis. Hypoxia-ischemia induces the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Increased production of VEGF results in disruption of the blood retinal barrier leading to retinal edema. Enhanced expression of NOS results in increased production of nitric oxide which may be toxic to the cells resulting in their death. Excess glutamate release in hypoxic-ischemic conditions causes excitotoxic damage to the RGCs through activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Activation of glutamate receptors is thought to initiate damage in the retina by a cascade of biochemical effects such as neuronal NOS activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ which has been described as a major contributing factor to RGC loss. Excess production of proinflammatory cytokines also mediates cell damage. Besides the above, free-radicals generated in hypoxic-ischemic conditions result in RGC loss because of an imbalance between antioxidant- and oxidant-generating systems. Although many advances have been made in understanding the mediators and mechanisms of injury, strategies to improve the damage are lacking. Measures to prevent neuronal injury have to be developed.Keywords: retinal hypoxia, retinal ganglion cells, glutamate receptors, neuronal injury, retina

  13. Sphenopalatine ganglion block for postdural puncture headache in ambulatory setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Cardoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH is a common complication following subarachnoid blockade and its incidence varies with the size of the needle used and the needle design. Suportive therapy is the usual initial approach. Epidural blood patch (EBP is the gold-standard when supportive therapy fails but has significant risks associated. Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB may be a safer alternative. Case report: We observed a 41 year-old female patient presenting with PDPH after a subarachnoid blockade a week before. We administrated 1 l of crystalloids, Dexamethasone 4 mg, parecoxib 40 mg, acetaminophen 1 g and caffeine 500 mg without significant relief after 2 hours. We performed a bilateral SPGB with a cotton-tipped applicator saturated with 0.5% Levobupivacaine under standard ASA monitoring. Symptoms relief was reported 5 minutes after the block. The patient was monitored for an hour after which she was discharged and prescribed acetaminophen 1 g and ibuprofen 400 mg every 8 hours for the following 2 days. She was contacted on the next day and again after a week reporting no pain in both situation. Conclusions: SPGB may attenuate cerebral vasodilation induced by parasympathetic stimulation transmitted through neurons that have synapses in the sphenopalatine ganglion. This would be in agreement with the Monro-Kellie concept and would explain why caffeine and sumatriptan can have some effect in the treatment of PDPH. Apparently, SPGB has a faster onset than EBP with better safety profile. We suggest that patients presenting with PDPH should be considered primarily for SPGB. Patients may have a rescue EBP if needed.

  14. Recovery of cat retinal ganglion cell sensitivity following pigment bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The threshold illuminance for small spot stimulation of on-centre cat retinal ganglion cells was plotted vs. time after exposure to adapting light sufficiently strong to bleach significant amounts of rhodopsin. 2. When the entire receptive field of an X- or Y-type ganglion cell is bleached by at most 40%, recovery of the cell's rod-system proceeds in two phases: an early relatively fast one during which the response appears transient, and a late, slower one during which responses become more sustained. Log threshold during the later phase is well fit by an exponential in time (tau = 11.5-38 min). 3. After bleaches of 90% of the underlying pigment, threshold is cone-determined for as long as 40 min. Rod threshold continues to decrease for at least 85 min after the bleach. 4. The rate of recovery is slower after strong than after weak bleaches; 10 and 90% bleaches yield time constants for the later phase of 11.5 and 38 min, respectively. This contrasts with an approximate time constant of 11 min for rhodopsin regeneration following any bleach. 5. The relationship between the initial elevation of log rod threshold extrapolated from the fitted exponential curves and the initial amount of pigment bleached is monotonic, but nonlinear. 6. After a bleaching exposure, the maintained discharge is initially very regular. The firing rate first rises, then falls to the pre-bleach level, with more extended time courses of change in firing rate after stronger exposures. The discharge rate is restored before threshold has recovered fully. 7. The change in the response vs. log stimulus relationship after bleaching is described as a shift of the curve to the right, paired with a decrease in slope of the linear segment of the curve. PMID:521963

  15. Activity patterns of cochlear ganglion neurones in the starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, G A; Gleich, O; Leppelsack, H J; Oeckinghaus, H

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous activity and responses to simple tonal stimuli were studied in cochlear ganglion neurones of the starling. Both regular and irregular spontaneous activity were recorded. Non-auditory cells have their origin in the macula lagenae. Mean spontaneous rate for auditory cells (all irregularly spiking) was 45 spikes s-1. In half the units having characteristic frequencies (CFs) less than 1.5 kHz, time-interval histograms (TIHs) of spontaneous activity showed regularly-spaced peaks or 'preferred' intervals. The spacing of the peak intervals was, on average, 15% greater than the CF-period interval of the respective units. In TIH of lower-frequency cells without preferred intervals, the modal interval was also on average about 15% longer than the CF-period interval. Apparently, the resting oscillation frequency of these cells lies below their CF. Tuning curves (TCs) of neurones to short tone bursts show no systematic asymmetry as in mammals. Below CF 1 kHz, the low-frequency flanks of the TCs are, on average, steeper than the high-frequency flanks. Above CF 1 kHz, the reverse is true. The cochlear ganglion and nerve are tonotopically organized. Low-frequency fibres arise apically in the papilla basilaris and are found near non-auditory (lagenar) fibres. Discharge rates to short tones were monotonically related to sound pressure level. Saturation rates often exceeded 300 spikes s-1. 'On-off' responses and primary suppression of spontaneous activity were observed. A direct comparison of spontaneous activity and tuning-curve symmetry revealed that, apart from quantitative differences, fundamental qualitative differences exist between starling and guinea-pig primary afferents.

  16. A Suspected Pelvic Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit rare, the majority of identified bone lesions in pregnancy spare the pelvis. Once encountered with a pelvic bone lesion in pregnancy, the obstetrician may face a challenging situation as it is difficult to determine and predict the effects that labor and parturition impart on the pelvic bones. Bone changes and pelvic bone fractures have been well documented during childbirth. The data regarding clinical outcomes and management of pregnancies complicated by pelvic ABCs is scant. Highly suspected to represent an aneurysmal bone cyst, the clinical evaluation of a pelvic lesion in the ilium of a pregnant individual is presented, and modes of delivery in such a scenario are discussed.

  17. [Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segedi, Ljiljana Mladenović; Ilić, Katarina Parezanović; Curcić, Aleksandar; Visnjevac, Nemanja

    2011-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfaction in adult women with pelvic organ prolapse presenting to tertiary care clinic for surgical treatment. This prospective case-control study included 50 patients who presented to tertiary care gynecology clinic for surgical treatment and 50 controls with normal pelvic floor support and without urinary incontinence who presented tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, patients and controls, completed two quastionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms (Pelvic floor distress inventory - short forms) and quality of life impact (Pelvic floor impact questionnaire - short form) of pelvic organ prolapse, and Body Image Scale. The patients scored significantly worse on the prolapse, urinary, colorectal scales and overall score of Pelvic floor distress inventory--20 than controls subjects (134.91 vs 78.08; p self-conscious (78% vs 42%; p body. There was a positive correlation between decreased quality of life and body image in women with pelvic dysfunction. Women with pelvic floor dysfunction have decreased quality of life and body image.

  18. Surgical reconstruction of pelvic floor descent: anatomic and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Bschleipfer, T; Liedl, B; Gunnemann, A; Petros, P; Weidner, W

    2010-01-01

    The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and pelvic floor dysfunction is seen frequently in females. This review focuses on the surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor employing recent findings on functional anatomy. A selective literature research was performed by the authors. Pelvic floor activity is regulated by 3 main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor organs, bladder and rectum. A variety of symptoms can derive from pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, fecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. These symptoms mainly derive, for different reasons, from laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in case of pelvic floor symptoms, restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve patients' symptoms. The surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. Exact preoperative identification of the anatomical lesions is necessary to allow for exact anatomical reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Modern aspects of surgical treatment of locally advanced pelvic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, I A; Vasilchenko, M V; Lychev, A B; Ambartsumyan, S V; Alekseev, V V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of investigation is to improve surgical treatment of patients with locally advanced pelvic cancer. The basis of investigation is 186 patients with locally advanced pelvic cancer. The average age of patients is 65.2 ± 5.2 years (from 43.7 to 88.4 years). Among them are 112 women and 74 men. In the period from 2007 to 2015 they were carried out combined (101 patients) and expanded (85 patients) surgical intervention in the department of naval surgery of the Military medical academy after S.M.Kirov. Pelvic evisceration was performed in 63 cases. Both patients were performed isolated vascular hyperthermic chemical pelvic perfusion. Indications for plastic surgery of peritoneum pelvic were: total infralitoral pelvic evisceration (9 patients), dorsal infralitoral pelvic evisceration (11 cases) and expanded abdominoperineal rectum extirpation (34 patients). Plastic surgery with autogenouse tissues was performed to 43 patients, with reticulate explants--to 11 patients. The rate of postoperative complications was 40.2%. The rate of postoperative lethality was 8%. Expanded and combined operations of pelvic at patients with locally advanced cancer without absolute contra-indications can be performed irrespective of age. Plastic surgery of peritoneum pelvic after total and dorsal infralitoral pelvic evisceration and expanded abdominoperineal rectum extirpation indicated in all cases. The easiest method is plastic surgery with greater omentum or peritoneum pelvic. Plastic surgery with reticulate explants is performed when autoplastic is impossible.

  20. Hormonal treatment for endometriosis associated pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shun Felix Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Endometriosis is a common gynecological problem associated with chronic pelvic pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of current hormonal treatments of endometriosis associated pain.Materials and Methods: Randomized Controlled studies identified from databases of Medline and Cochrane Systemic Review groups were pooled. 7 RCTs were recruited for evaluation in this review. Data from these studies were pooled and meta-analysis was performed in three comparison groups: 1 Progestogen versus GnRHa; 2 Implanon versus Progestogen (injection; 3 Combined oral contraceptive pills versus placebo and progestogen. Response to treatment was measured as a reduction in pain score. Pain improvement was defined as improvement ≥1 at the end of treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between treatment groups of progestogen and GnRHa (RR: 0.036; CI:-0.030-0.102 for relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. Long acting progestogen (Implanon and Mirena are not inferior to GnRHa and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA (RR: 0.006; CI:-0.142-0.162. Combined oral contraceptive pills demonstrated effective treatment of relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain when compared with placebo groups (RR:0.321CI-0.066-0.707. Progestogen was more effective than combined oral contraceptive pills in controlling dysmenorrhea (RR:-0.160; CI:-0.386-0.066, however, progestogen is associated with more side effects like spotting and bloating than the combined contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP, GnRHa and progestogens are equally effective in relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. COCP and progestogens are relatively cheap and more suitable for long-term use as compared to GnRHa. Long-term RCT of medicated contraceptive devices like Mirena and Implanon are required to evaluate their long-term effects on relieving the endometriosis associated pelvic pain

  1. Pelvic floor dyssynergia: efficacy of biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel Hak, Nabil; El-Hemaly, Mohamed; Hamdy, Emad; El-Raouf, Ahmed Abd; Atef, Ehab; Salah, Tarek; El-Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad; Haleem, Magdy; Hamed, Hala

    2011-03-01

    Paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor during attempts to defaecate is described as pelvic floor dyssynergia (anismus). It is a behavioural disorder (no associated morphological or neurological abnormalities); consequently, biofeedback training has been recommended as a behavioural therapy for such a disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term satisfaction of patients diagnosed with pelvic floor dyssynergia after biofeedback. Sixty patients (35 females and 25 males) with a mean age of 30±12years and a 4year duration of constipation were included. Forty-five patients had normal colonic transit and 15 patients had slow colonic transit. History, physical examination and barium enema were done to exclude constipation secondary to organic causes. Colonic and pelvic floor functions (colon-transit time, anorectal manometry, EMG and defaecography) were performed before and after biofeedback treatments. Patients were treated on a weekly basis with an average of (6±2) sessions. At the end of sessions, 55 out of 60 patients (91.6%) reported a subjectively overall improvement. Symptoms of dyschezia were reported less frequently after biofeedback. Age and gender were not predictive factors of outcome. No symptoms at initial assessment were predictive for patient's satisfaction but the only factor of predictive value was the diagnosis of anismus and the motivated patient who wanted to continue the sessions. Biofeedback remains a morbidity free, low-cost and effective outpatient therapy for well-motivated patients complaining of functional constipation and diagnosed as pelvic floor dyssynergia. Copyright © 2011 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra-pelvic pressure changes after pelvic fracture: A cadaveric study quantifying the effect of a pelvic binder and limb bandaging over a bolster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rhys; Loftus, Andrew; Friedmann, Yasmin; Parker, Paul; Pallister, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Unstable pelvic fractures can be life-threatening due to catastrophic haemorrhage. Non-invasive methods of reducing and stabilising these injuries include pelvic binder application and also lower limb bandaging over a knee-flexion bolster. Both of these methods help close the pelvic ring and should tamponade bleeding. This study aimed to quantify the intra-pelvic pressure changes that occurred with 3 different manoeuvres: lower limb bandaging over a bolster; a Trauma Pelvic Orthotic Device (T-POD) pelvic binder, and a combination of both. Following a pilot study with 2 soft embalmed cadavers, a formal study with 6 unembalmed cadavers was performed. For each specimen an unstable pelvic injury was created (OA/OTA 61-C1) by dividing the pelvic ring anteriorly and posteriorly. A 3-4cm manometric water-filled balloon was placed in the retropubic space and connected to a 50ml syringe and water manometer via a 3-way tap. A baseline pressure of 8cmH 2 O (equating to the average central venous pressure) was used for each cadaver. Steady intra-pelvic pressures (more reliably reflecting the pressures achieved following an intervention) were used in the subsequent statistical analysis, using R statistical language and Rstudio. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test were used (depending on the normality of the dataset) to determine the impact of each intervention on the intra-pelvic pressure. The mean steady intra-pelvic pressures were significantly greater than the baseline pressure for each intervention. The binder and limb bandaging over a bolster alone increased the mean steady pelvic pressures significantly to 24 (SE=5) (plower limb bandaging over a bolster and pelvic binder application significantly increased intra-pelvic pressure above the baseline pressure. This was further increased through combining these interventions, which could be useful clinically to augment haemorrhage control in these fractures. Lower-limb bandaging over a bolster, and pelvic binder

  3. Recent Advances in Understanding Pelvic-Floor Tissue of Women With and Without Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Considerations for Physical Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a fairly common condition that imposes significant symptoms, diminished quality of life, social burden, financial expense, and surgical risk on women. As evidence supporting the benefit of pelvic-floor muscle training in nonsurgical management of pelvic organ prolapse grows, physical therapists are becoming a provider of choice interacting with women affected by pelvic organ prolapse. This perspective article will review recent research on tissue characteristics of 3 key components of pelvic organ support: skeletal muscle, ligament, and vaginal wall. This information will be summarized as implications for physical therapists. An improved understanding of pelvic-floor tissue in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse will provide a more comprehensive appreciation of the interaction of multiple systems in the disorder. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. Cocoa Enriched Diets Enhance Expression of Phosphatases and Decrease Expression of Inflammatory Molecules in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Ryan J.; Durham, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of trigeminal nerves and release of neuropeptides that promote inflammation are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The overall response of trigeminal nerves to peripheral inflammatory stimuli involves a balance between enzymes that promote inflammation, kinases, and those that restore homeostasis, phosphatases. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions. Rats were fed a control diet or an isocaloric diet enriched in cocoa for 14 days prior to an injection of noxious stimuli to cause acute or chronic excitation of trigeminal neurons. In animals fed a cocoa-enriched diet, basal levels of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAP) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 were elevated in neurons. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of acute or chronic peripheral inflammation on neuronal expression of the MAPK p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were significantly repressed in response to cocoa. Similarly, dietary cocoa significantly suppressed basal neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as stimulated levels of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proteins implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and TMJ disorders. To our knowledge, this is first evidence that a dietary supplement can cause upregulation of MKP, and that cocoa can prevent inflammatory responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that cocoa contains biologically active compounds that would be beneficial in the treatment of migraine and TMJ disorders. PMID:20138852

  5. Acid-sensing ion channels in trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the orofacial region contribute to orofacial inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Fang, Peng; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zheng, Jie-Yan; Jin, You; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang; Hu, Zhuang-Li

    2016-02-01

    Orofacial pain is a common clinical symptom that is accompanied by tooth pain, migraine and gingivitis. Accumulating evidence suggests that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), especially ASIC3, can profoundly affect the physiological properties of nociception in peripheral sensory neurons. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of ASICs in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons to orofacial inflammatory pain. A Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence assay of labelled trigeminal ganglion neurons, orofacial formalin test, cell preparation and electrophysiological experiments are performed. This study demonstrated that ASIC1, ASIC2a and ASIC3 are highly expressed in TG neurons innervating the orofacial region of rats. The amplitude of ASIC currents in these neurons increased 119.72% (for ASIC1-like current) and 230.59% (for ASIC3-like current) in the formalin-induced orofacial inflammatory pain model. In addition, WB and immunofluorescence assay demonstrated a significantly augmented expression of ASICs in orofacial TG neurons during orofacial inflammation compared with the control group. The relative protein density of ASIC1, ASIC2a and ASIC3 also increased 58.82 ± 8.92%, 45.30 ± 11.42% and 55.32 ± 14.71%, respectively, compared with the control group. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of ASICs and genetic deletion of ASIC1 attenuated the inflammation response. These findings indicate that peripheral inflammation can induce the upregulation of ASICs in TG neurons, causing orofacial inflammatory pain. Additionally, the specific inhibitor of ASICs may have a significant analgesic effect on orofacial inflammatory pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Minimally invasive anterior pelvic internal fixation: An anatomic study comparing Pelvic Bridge to INFIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Lee M; MacCormick, Lauren M; Dugarte, Anthony J; Rizkala, Amir R; Graves, Sara C; Cole, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Anterior external fixation for pelvic ring fractures has shown to effectively improve stability and reduce mortality. However, these fixators can be associated with substantial morbidity such as pin tract infection, premature loss of fixation, and decreased quality of life in patients. Recently, two new methods of subcutaneous anterior pelvic internal fixation have been developed; the INFIX and the Pelvic Bridge. These methods have the purported advantages of lower wound complications, less surgical site pain, and improved quality of life. We sought to investigate the measured distances to critical anatomic structures, as well as the qualitative and topographic differences notable during implantation of both devices in the same cadaveric specimen. The Pelvic Bridge and INFIX were implanted in eleven fresh cadavers. Distances were then measured to: the superficial inguinal ring, round ligament, spermatic cord, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein. Observations regarding implantation and topography were also recorded. The INFIX had greater measured distances from all structures except for the LFCN, in which its proximity placed this structure at risk. Neither device appears to put other critical structures at risk in the supine position. Significant implantation and topographic differences exist between the devices. The INFIX application lacked "safety margins" concerning the LFCN in 10/11 (90.9%) specimens, while Pelvic Bridge placement lacked "safety margins" with regard to the right superficial ring (1/11, 9%) and the right spermatic cord (1/11, 9%). Both the Pelvic Bridge and INFIX lie at safe distances from most critical pelvic structures in the supine position, though INFIX application places the LFCN at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae; Nam, Heerim; Park, Won; Han, Youngyih; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Je Ho

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight

  8. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  9. The nervus terminalis ganglion in Anguilla rostrata: an immunocytochemical and HRP histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, M S; Bass, A H; Burd, G; Marchaterre, M A; Segil, N; Scholz, K; Hodgson, T

    1987-12-08

    Immunocytochemistry and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport were used to study the ganglion of the nervus terminalis in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) like immunoreactivity was found in large, ganglion-like cells located ventromedially at the junction of the telencephalon and olfactory bulb and in fibers within the retina and olfactory epithelium. HRP transport from the retina demonstrated direct connections with both the ipsi- and contralateral populations of these ganglion-like cells. Given the well-documented role of both olfaction and vision during migratory and reproductive phases of the life cycle of eels, the robust nature of a nervus terminalis system in these fish may present a unique opportunity to study the behavioral correlates of structure-function organization in a discrete population of ganglion-like cells.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  11. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  12. TOPOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION AND SPECIALIZED AREAS IN THE RETINA OF Callopistes palluma: GANGLION CELL LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    Inzunza, Oscar; Barros B., Zitta; Bravo, Hermes

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the topographic distribution and cell body size of neurons (ganglion and displaced amacrine) of layer 8 of the retina in the chilean reptile Callopistes palluma; using whole mount retinaswith nissl stain. Callopistes palluma retina has an area centralis without fovea in which the ganglion cell density amounts 20.000 cells / µm2 while the displaced amacrine neurons is about 7.000 cells / µm2. This neural density decreased gradually towards the peripheral retina. A hor...

  13. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Stotz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate, consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  14. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  15. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Stephanie C; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2008-05-07

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  16. [Clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of pelvic pain in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselmann, U

    2002-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common and debilitating problem that can significantly impair the quality of life of a woman. Patients with chronic pelvic pain are usually evaluated and treated by gynecologists, gastroenterologists, urologists, and internists. Although these patients seek medical care because they are looking for help to alleviate their pelvic discomfort and pain, in many cases the only focus is on finding and possibly treating the underlying pelvic disease.However, often the examination and work-up remain unrevealing and no specific cause of the pain can be identified. At this point patients are frequently told, that no etiology for their chronic pain syndrome can be found and that nothing can be done. In these cases it is important to recognize that pain is not only a symptom of pelvic disease, but that the patient is suffering from a chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Knowledge of the clinical characteristics of visceral pain will guide the health care provider in making a diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain and in sorting it out from the lump diagnosis of idiopathic pain. Once the diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain is made, treatment should be directed towards symptomatic pain management.This conceptualization of chronic pelvic pain is very important, because chronic pelvic pain is a treatable condition! Effective treatment modalities are available to lessen the impact of pain and offer reasonable expectations of an improved functional status.

  17. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  18. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing elastin alleviates pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minfei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yun; Mei, Yan; Liu, Wei; Pan, Chenhao; Hua, Xiaolin

    2016-04-05

    Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is a group of clinical conditions including stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The abnormality of collagen and elastin metabolism in pelvic connective tissues is implicated in SUI and POP. To reconstitute the connective tissues with normal distribution of collagen and elastin, we transduced elastin to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC). Elastin-expressing BMSCs were then differentiated to fibroblasts using bFGF, which produced collagen and elastin. To achieve the sustained release of bFGF, we formulated bFGF in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP). In an in vitro cell culture system of 7 days, when no additional bFGF was administrated, the initial PLGA-loaded bFGF NP induced prolonged production of collagen and elastin from elastin-expressing BMSCs. In vivo, co-injection of PLGA-loaded bFGF NP and elastin-expressing BMSCs into the PFD rats significantly improved the outcome of urodynamic tests. Together, these results provided an efficient model of connective tissue engineering using BMSC and injectable PLGA-loaded growth factors. Our results provided the first instance of a multidisciplinary approach, combining both stem cell and nanoparticle technologies, for the treatment of PFD.

  19. Fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguayo, F.J.; Martinez Almagro, A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven cases are presented of postmenopausal women with a total of 37 fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle: 15 located in sacrum, ten in the pubic rami, four in ilium proximal to the sacroiliac joint, three in iliac fossa, two in iliac tuberosity and three in the public body. Eight of the patients were diagnosed over a period of six years when seeking medical attention for bone pain. The other three were diagnosed retrospectively among a group of 33 cancer patients (the majority having having breast cancer) who presented positive pelvic radionuclide bone scan. CT was superior to conventional radiology in detecting fractures of this type, especially those of sacrum and ilium. Radionuclide bone scan was highly sensitive but its specificity was low, requiring back-up radiology and above all CT to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to other types of lesions, especially metastases. (Author) 14 refs

  20. Pelvic schwannoma in the right parametrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machairiotis N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Machairiotis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,3 Aikaterini Stylianaki,1 Eleni Karatrasoglou,4 Georgia Sotiropoulou,4 Alvin Floreskou,4 Eleana Chatzi,4 Athanasia Karamani,4 Georgia Liapi,5 Eleni Papakonstantinou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,1 Nikolaos Courcoutsakis,2 Christodoulos Machairiotis4 1Surgery Department, 2Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Obstetric Gynecology Department, 5Pathology Department, Thriasio General Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Neurilemomas are benign usually encapsulated nerve sheath tumors derived from the Schwann cells. These tumors commonly arise from the cranial nerves as acoustic neurinomas but they are extremely rare in the pelvis and the retroperitoneal area (less than 0.5% of reported cases, unless they are combined with von Recklinghausen disease (type 1 neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old female with pelvic schwannoma, 6.5 × 5.5 cm in size, in the right parametrium. This is the first case reported in the literature. Based on the rarity of this tumor and in order to ensure optimum treatment and survival for our patient, we performed laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and en-block tumor excision. A frozen section was taken during the surgery before complete resection of the mass, which was ambiguous. Because of the possibility of malignancy, complete excision of the mass was performed, with pelvic blunt dissection. Histological examination showed a benign neoplasm, originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; diagnosis was a schwannoma. There were degenerative areas, including cystic degeneration, hemorrhagic infiltrations, ischemic foci with pycnotic cells, and collagen replacement. Pelvic schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe

  1. Pelvic fractures following irradiation for endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Sowers, Maryfran

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and etiologic factors of pelvic fractures following radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Tumor registry and radiation oncology records of patients treated for endometrial carcinoma at The Toledo Hospital between April 1989, and December 1992, were reviewed. Patients identified as having pelvic fractures without the presence of metastatic disease underwent total body mineral density measurement with dual x-ray densitometry. Results: Two of 75 patients (2.7%) were found to have pelvic fractures an average of 29 months from the completion of postoperative irradiation. One patient, who received preoperative irradiation, was also identified as having developed a fracture of the pelvis and was included in the analysis. All patients were treated prone with 10-15 MV photons in four fields daily. All three fracture patients received 45 Gy external beam radiation therapy. The two postoperative patients each received a single vaginal brachytherapy application delivering 20 Gy to 0.5 cm deep to the vaginal mucosa with a vaginal cylinder containing 30 mgRaeq 137 Cs. The preoperative patient received a single brachytherapy application with tandem and colpostats delivering 20 Gy to point A. Only one of the three fracture patients had the entire pubis included in the field of external beam treatment. One patient was taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, one patient thyroid hormone replacement, and one patient was taking both types of medication. Conclusion: The etiology of pelvic fractures after irradiation is multifactorial. A complete medication history should be obtained, and care should be exercised in positioning the radiation fields to avoid inclusion of the entire pubis prior to the initiation of the radiation treatment

  2. Failed pelvic pouch substituted by continent ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, H H; Tranø, G; Wibe, A; Endreseth, B H; Rydning, A; Myrvold, H E

    2010-07-01

    The long-term failure rate of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is 10-15%. When salvage surgery is unsuccessful, most surgeons prefer pouch excision with conventional ileostomy, thus sacrificing 40-50 cm of ileum. Conversion of a pelvic pouch to a continent ileostomy (CI, Kock pouch) is an alternative that preserves both the ileal surface and pouch properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical outcome after the construction of a CI following a failed IPAA. During 1984-2007, 317 patients were operated with IPAA at St Olavs Hospital and evaluated for failure, treatment and outcome. Seven patients with IPAA failure had CI. Four patients with IPAA failure referred from other hospitals underwent conversion to CI and are included in the final analysis. Seven patients had a CI constructed from the transposing pelvic pouch and four had the pelvic pouch removed and a new continent pouch constructed from the distal ileum. Median follow up after conversion to CI was 7 years (0-17 years). Two CI had to be removed due to fistulae. One patient needed a revision of the nipple valve due to pouch loosening. At the end of follow-up, 8 of the 11 patients were fully continent. One patient with Crohn's disease had minor leakage. In patients with pelvic pouch failure, the possibility of conversion to CI should be presented to the patient as an alternative to pouch excision and permanent ileostomy. The advantage is the continence and possibly a better body image. Construction of a CI on a new ileal segment may be considered, but the consequences of additional small bowel loss and risk of malnutrition if the Kock pouch fails should be appraised.

  3. Transvaginal mesh procedures for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jens-Erik

    2011-02-01

    To provide an update on transvaginal mesh procedures, newly available minimally invasive surgical techniques for pelvic floor repair. The discussion is limited to minimally invasive transvaginal mesh procedures. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles published in English, using the key words "pelvic organ prolapse," transvaginal mesh," and "minimally invasive surgery." Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis, and articles were incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). Counselling for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse should consider all benefits, harms, and costs of the surgical procedure, with particular emphasis on the use of mesh. 1. Patients should be counselled that transvaginal mesh procedures are considered novel techniques for pelvic floor repair that demonstrate high rates of anatomical cure in uncontrolled short-term case series. (II-2B) 2. Patients should be informed of the range of success rates until stronger evidence of superiority is published. (II-2B) 3. Training specific to transvaginal mesh procedures should be undertaken before procedures are performed. (III-C) 4. Patients should undergo thorough preoperative counselling regarding (a) the potential serious adverse sequelae of transvaginal mesh repairs, including mesh exposure, pain, and dyspareunia; and (b) the limited data available

  4. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  5. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  6. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  7. Prophylactic ibuprofed administration during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Demers, L.M.; Mortel, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to begin pelvic irradiation for malignant disease were randomized to receive ibuprofen 400 mg P.O. q.i.d. during their radiotherapy or standard therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. Seventeen of 19 patients in the ibuprofen group completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in the daily stool frequency between the ibuprofen and control patients during the 5 to 6 week course of pelvic irradiation; the incidence and severity of diarrhea was the same. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea reported by the patients but the severity of nausea was less in the ibuprofen group; none of the 17 patients in the ibuprofen group reported vomiting at any time, whereas, 27% of the patients in the control group reported vomiting. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic ibuprofen administration may be beneficial in reducing the severity of nausea and preventing radiation-induced vomiting in patients who receive pelvic irradiation

  8. Patients with Pelvic Floor Muscle Spasm Have a Superior Response to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy at Specialized Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, Alan Scott; Li, Jianbo; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common condition that often requires multimodal therapy. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome have a high incidence of pelvic floor spasm, which can be treated with pelvic floor physical therapy. However, this is a specialized skill. We compared outcomes of pelvic floor physical therapy as part of multimodal therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome between those treated at our institution and elsewhere. We identified patients from our chronic pelvic pain syndrome registry with pelvic floor spasm who were seen between 2010 and 2014 for more than 1 visit. Patient phenotype was assessed with the UPOINT system and symptom severity was determined by the National Institutes of Health CPSI. A 6-point decrease in CPSI was used to define patient improvement. A total of 82 patients fit the study criteria. Mean age was 41.6 years (range 19 to 75) and median symptom duration was 24 months (range 3 to 240). Mean CPSI was 26.8 (range 10 to 41), the median number of positive UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1 to 6) and 27 patients (32.9%) were treated locally. At followup 9 patients had refused pelvic floor physical therapy, and 24 and 48 had undergone pelvic floor physical therapy elsewhere and at CCF, respectively. The mean change in CPSI was 1.11 ± 4.1 in patients who refused, -3.46 ± 6.7 in those treated elsewhere and -11.3 ± 7.0 in those treated at CCF (p physical therapy at CCF (OR 4.23, p = 0.002) and symptom duration (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) predicted improvement. Pelvic floor physical therapy can be effective for chronic pelvic pain syndrome in patients with pelvic floor spasm. However, the outcome depends on specialty training and experience of therapists. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block for the Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Binfalah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block is emerging as is an attractive and effective treatment modality for acute migraine headaches, cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia, and several other conditions. We assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment using the Sphenocath® device. 55 patients with acute migraine headaches underwent this procedure, receiving 2 ml of 2% lidocaine in each nostril. Pain numeric rating scale (baseline, 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours and patient global impression of change (2 hours and 24 hours after treatment were recorded. The majority of patients became headache-free at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours after procedure (70.9%, 78.2%, and 70.4%, resp.. The rate of headache relief (50% or more reduction in headache intensity was 27.3% at 15 minutes, 20% at 2 hours, and 22.2% at 24 hours. The mean pain numeric rating scale decreased significantly at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours, respectively. Most patients rated the results as very good or good. The procedure was well-tolerated with few adverse events. This treatment is emerging as an effective and safe option for management of acute migraine attacks.

  10. Cytoarchitectonic study of the trigeminal ganglion in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRASTEV, DIMO STOYANOV; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER

    2013-01-01

    The trigeminal ganglion (TG), a cluster of pseudounipolar neurons, is located in the trigeminal impression of the temporal pyramid. It is covered by a sheath of the dura mater and arachnoid and is near the rear end of the cavernous sinus. The peripheral processes of the pseudounipolar cells are involved in the formation of the first and second branch and the sensory part of the third branch of the fifth cranial nerve, and the central ones form the sensory root of the nerve, which penetrates at the level of the middle cerebellar peduncle, aside from the pons, and terminate in the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal complex. We found that the primary sensory neurons involved in sensory innervation of the orofacial complex are a diverse group. Although they possess the general structure of pseudounipolar neurons, there are significant differences among them, seen in varying intensities of staining. Based on our investigations we classified the neurons into 7 groups, i.e. large, subdivided into light and dark, medium, also light and dark, and small light and dark, and, moreover, neurons with an irregular shape of their perikarya. Further research by applying various immunohistochemical methods will clarify whether differences in the morphological patterns of the neurons are associated with differences in the neurochemical composition of various neuronal types. PMID:26527926

  11. The molecular basis of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasieh, Mohammadali; Wilson, Ariel M; Morquette, Barbara; Cueva Vargas, Jorge Luis; Di Polo, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in visual field loss and irreversible blindness. A crucial element in the pathophysiology of all forms of glaucoma is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of CNS neurons with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. Strategies that delay or halt RGC loss have been recognized as potentially beneficial to preserve vision in glaucoma; however, the success of these approaches depends on an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to RGC dysfunction and death. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in valuable information regarding the molecular basis of RGC death stemming from animal models of acute and chronic optic nerve injury as well as experimental glaucoma. The emerging landscape is complex and points at a variety of molecular signals - acting alone or in cooperation - to promote RGC death. These include: axonal transport failure, neurotrophic factor deprivation, toxic pro-neurotrophins, activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxic damage, oxidative stress, misbehaving reactive glia and loss of synaptic connectivity. Collectively, this body of work has considerably updated and expanded our view of how RGCs might die in glaucoma and has revealed novel, potential targets for neuroprotection. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Spatial consequences of bleaching adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C

    1981-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of localized bleaching on the centre responses of rod-driven cat retinal ganglion cells. 2. Stimulation as far as 2 degrees from the bleaching site yielded responses which were reduced nearly as much as those generated at the bleaching site. Bleaching in the receptive field middle reduced responsiveness at a site 1 degrees peripheral more than bleaching at that peripheral site itself. 3. The effectiveness of a bleach in reducing centre responsiveness is related to the sensitivity of the region in which the bleach is applied. 4. Response reduction after a 0.2 degree bleach followed the same temporal pattern for concentric test spots of from 0.2 to 1.8 degrees in diameter, implying a substantially uniform spread of adaptation within these bounds. 5. A linear trade-off between fraction of rhodopsin and area bleached over a range of 8:1 yields the same pattern of response reduction, implying that the non-linear nature of bleaching adaptation is a property of the adaptation pool rather than independent photoreceptors. PMID:7320894

  13. THE NISSL SUBSTANCE OF LIVING AND FIXED SPINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Arline D.; Moses, Montrose J.

    1957-01-01

    Living chick spinal ganglion neurons grown for 19 to 25 days in vitro were photographed with a color-translating ultraviolet microscope (UV-91) at 265, 287, and 310 mµ. This instrument was unique in permitting rapid accumulation of ultraviolet information with minimal damage to the cell. In the photographs taken at 265 mµ of the living neurons, discrete ultraviolet-absorbing cytoplasmic masses were observed which were found to be virtually unchanged in appearance after formalin fixation. These were identical with the Nissl bodies of the same cells seen after staining with basic dyes. The correlation of ultraviolet absorption, ribonuclease extraction, and staining experiments with acid and basic dyes confirmed the ribonucleoprotein nature of these Nissl bodies in the living and fixed cells. No change in distribution or concentration of ultraviolet-absorbing substance was observed in the first 12 ultraviolet photographs of a neuron, and it is concluded that the cells had not been subjected to significant ultraviolet damage during the period of photography. On the basis of these observations, as well as previous findings with phase contrast microscopy, it is concluded that Nissl bodies preexist in the living neuron as discrete aggregates containing high concentrations of nucleoprotein. PMID:13438929

  14. [Biomechanical modeling of pelvic organ mobility: towards personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Michel; Rubod, Chrystèle; Vallet, Alexandra; Witz, Jean-François; Brieu, Mathias

    2011-11-01

    Female pelvic mobility is crucial for urinary, bowel and sexual function and for vaginal delivery. This mobility is ensured by a complex organ suspension system composed of ligaments, fascia and muscles. Impaired pelvic mobility affects one in three women of all ages and can be incapacitating. Surgical management has a high failure rate, largely owing to poor knowledge of the organ support system, including the barely discernible ligamentous system. We propose a 3D digital model of the pelvic cavity based on MRI images and quantitative tools, designed to locate the pelvic ligaments. We thus obtain a coherent anatomical and functional model which can be used to analyze pelvic pathophysiology. This work represents a first step towards creating a tool for localizing and characterizing the source of pelvic imbalance. We examine possible future applications of this model, in terms of personalized therapy and prevention.

  15. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nested...... case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). METHODS: This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16....... The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per...

  16. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters. These symptoms may adversely affect quality of life. Focus on the global symptom complex, rather than the individual symptoms, may help the clinician identify the condition. The primary care provider is in a position to intervene early, efficiently, and effectively by (1) recognizing the range of symptoms that might suggest nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction, (2) educating patients, (3) performing selective tests when needed to confirm the diagnosis, and (4) providing early referral for physical therapy. PMID:22305030

  17. Orofacial neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin: downregulation of KCNQ2 channels in V2 trigeminal ganglion neurons and treatment by the KCNQ2 channel potentiator retigabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jennifer; Erol, Ferhat; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav; Kanda, Hirosato; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain induced by chemotherapy drugs such as oxaliplatin is a dose-limiting side effect in cancer treatment. The mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain are not fully understood. KCNQ2 channels are low-threshold voltage-gated K+ channels that play a role in controlling neuronal excitability. Downregulation of KCNQ2 channels has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of sensory hypersensitivity that leads to neuropathic pain. However, it is currently unknown whether KCNQ channels may be downregulated by chemotherapy drugs in trigeminal ganglion neurons to contribute to the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced orofacial neuropathic pain. In the present study, mechanical sensitivity in orofacial regions is measured using the operant behavioral test in rats treated with oxaliplatin. Operant behaviors in these animals show the gradual development of orofacial neuropathic pain that manifests with orofacial mechanical allodynia. Immunostaining shows strong KCNQ2 immunoreactivity in small-sized V2 trigeminal ganglion neurons in controls, and the numbers of KCNQ2 immunoreactivity positive V2 trigeminal ganglion neurons are significantly reduced in oxaliplatin-treated animals. Immunostaining is also performed in brainstem and shows strong KCNQ2 immunoreactivity at the trigeminal afferent central terminals innervating the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc) in controls, but the KCNQ2 immunoreactivity intensity is significantly reduced in oxaliplatin-treated animals. We further show with the operant behavioral test that oxaliplatin-induced orofacial mechanical allodynia can be alleviated by the KCNQ2 potentiator retigabine. Taken together, these findings suggest that KCNQ2 downregulation may be a cause of oxaliplatin-induced orofacial neuropathic pain and KCNQ2 potentiators may be useful for alleviating the neuropathic pain.

  18. Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bozkurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD, although seems to be simple, is a complex process that develops secondary to multifactorial factors. The incidence of PFD is increasing with increasing life expectancy. PFD is a term that refers to a broad range of clinical scenarios, including lower urinary tract excretory and defecation disorders, such as urinary and anal incontinence, overactive bladder, and pelvic organ prolapse, as well as sexual disorders. It is a financial burden on the health care system and disrupts women's quality of life. Strategies applied to decrease PFD are focused on the course of pregnancy, mode and management of delivery, and pelvic exercise methods. Many studies in the literature define traumatic birth, usage of forceps, length of the second stage of delivery, and sphincter damage as modifiable risk factors for PFD. Maternal age, fetal position, and fetal head circumference are nonmodifiable risk factors. Although numerous studies show that vaginal delivery affects pelvic floor structures and their functions in a negative way, there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend elective cesarean delivery in order to prevent development of PFD. PFD is a heterogeneous pathological condition, and the effects of pregnancy, vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, and possible risk factors of PFD may be different from each other. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist; therefore, the isolated effects of these variables on the pelvic floor are difficult to study. The routine use of episiotomy for many years in order to prevent PFD is not recommended anymore; episiotomy should be used in selected cases, and the mediolateral procedures should be used if needed.

  19. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana; Parezanović-Ilić Katarina; Ćurčić Aleksandar; Višnjevac Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfac...

  20. Assessment of female pelvic pathology by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.; Sanchez, A.; Narvaez, J.A.; Valls, C.; Guma, A.; Andia, E.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging technique of choice for the detection and characterization of pelvic pathology. Its multiplanar capability, excellent soft tissue contrast, use of nonionizing radiations and noninvasive nature make MRI the ideal technique for assessing the female pelvis. The purpose of this study is to describe the normal pelvic anatomy as it appears in MRI and to asses the radiologic features of the different pelvic pathologies. (Author) 21 refs

  1. PELVIC CONGESTION SYNDROME. METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Verezgova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic pain syndrome is not rare clinical condition without specific symptoms and usually affects multiparous women. Numerous controversies in the management such patients are still present in current publications.Different diagnostic modalities were and are now used to delineate of anatomy and physiology of pelvic venous system. The well-known and recently developed approaches to treat patients with  pelvic congestion syndrome are discussed in present overview of the scientific literature.

  2. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  3. Pelvic pain in a young patient: Sclerosing stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriye Ayşe Parlakgümüş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sclerosing stromal tumors are rare, benign sex chord stromal tumors. They are usually unilateral and are seen in second or third decades. The complaint at admission may be menstrual irregularity, pelvic pain, palpable pelvic mass, precocious puberty and postmenopausal bleeding. Because the complaint at admission and radiological findings are not specific to SSTs preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Herein we present the sonographical, intraoperative and histopathological findings of a SST diagnosed during laparoscopy in a patient who admitted with chronic pelvic pain and received pelvic inflammatory disease and endometriosis treatment and differential diagnosis of SSTs with the other ovarian tumors. Case report: 24 years old nulliparous patient first admitted to the gynecology department with the complaint of foul smelling vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. The diagnosis was pelvic inflammatory disease and the patient received antibiotics. The pelvic examination was normal except the mass in the right ovary which had similar echogenity to the ovary. Because of the pelvic pain the mass was assumed to be an endometrioma and the patient was prescribed an oral contraceptive treatment for 3 months. Because of the persistent pelvic pain a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which revealed a 2 cm, pinkish- white, exophytic lesion originating from the right ovary. Pathological examination reported the mass to be a sclerosing stromal tumor. After the treatment the patient no longer complained of vaginal discharge but pelvic pain still persisted. After the operation the patient no longer complained of pelvic pain. Conclusion: Although SSTs are rare, they should be kept in mind when a young patient admits with menstrual irregularity, pelvic pain and hirsutism, particularly if the pain is refractory to treatment.

  4. Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy for Vulvodynia: A Clinician's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Stephanie A

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar pain affects up to 20% of women at some point in their lives, and most women with vulvar pain have associated pelvic floor impairments. Pelvic floor dysfunction is associated with significant functional limitations in women by causing painful intercourse and urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. A quick screening of the pelvic floor muscles can be performed in the gynecology office and should be used when patients report symptoms of pelvic pain. It is now known the vulvar pain syndromes are heterogeneous in origin; therefore, successful treatment plans are multimodal and include physical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pelvic incidence variation among individuals: functional influence versus genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Fang; Zhao, Chang-Qing

    2018-03-20

    Pelvic incidence has become one of the most important sagittal parameters in spinal surgery. Despite its great importance, pelvic incidence can vary from 33° to 85° in the normal population. The reasons for this great variability in pelvic incidence remain unexplored. The objective of this article is to present some possible interpretations for the great variability in pelvic incidence under both normal and pathological conditions and to further understand the determinants of pelvic incidence from the perspective of the functional requirements for bipedalism and genetic backgrounds via a literature review. We postulate that both pelvic incidence and pelvic morphology may be genetically predetermined, and a great variability in pelvic incidence may already exist even before birth. This great variability may also serve as a further reminder that the sagittal profile, bipedal locomotion mode, and genetic background of every individual are unique and specific, and clinicians should avoid making universally applying broad generalizations of pelvic incidence. Although PI is an important parameter and there are many theories behind its variability, we still do not have clear mechanistic answers.

  6. Pelvic congestion syndrome masquerading as osteoarthritis of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS is associated with pelvic vein reflux (PVR, occasionally secondary to venous compression. Its symptoms, usually intra-pelvic, are alleviated following the abolition of this reflux by pelvic vein embolisation (PVE. The objective of this report is to present two cases of left hip pain, erroneously diagnosed as osteoarthritis, which disappeared after successful PVE and abolition of PVR. Methods: Two females presented with lower limb varicose veins, and also had a history of left-sided hip pain. Both had previously been investigated for the hip pain and diagnosed as osteoarthritis despite minimal arthritic changes on pelvic X-rays. During investigation for lower limb varicose veins, both showed a pelvic origin for their leg veins and hence underwent transvaginal duplex ultrasound. This revealed PVR, and PVE was planned in both patients. Results: Both patients underwent PVE and reported ‘miraculous’ resolution of left hip pain and also PCS symptoms including pelvic pain, irritable bowel issues and the disappearance of pelvic dragging, with almost immediate disappearance of vulval and vaginal varicosities. One patient also noted reduced clitoral sensitivity. Conclusion: Manifestations of PCS may vary in terms of intra- or extra-pelvic signs. PCS and PVR should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with arthritic symptoms in the hip without evident radiographic evidence.

  7. Spatial distribution of excitatory synapses on the dendrites of ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Excitatory glutamatergic inputs from bipolar cells affect the physiological properties of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. The spatial distribution of these excitatory synapses on the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells thus may shape their distinct functions. To visualize the spatial pattern of excitatory glutamatergic input into the ganglion cells in the mouse retina, particle-mediated gene transfer of plasmids expressing postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent fusion protein (PSD95-GFP was used to label the excitatory synapses. Despite wide variation in the size and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells, the expression of PSD95 puncta was found to follow two general rules. Firstly, the PSD95 puncta are regularly spaced, at 1-2 µm intervals, along the dendrites, whereby the presence of an excitatory synapse creates an exclusion zone that rules out the presence of other glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Secondly, the spatial distribution of PSD95 puncta on the dendrites of diverse retinal ganglion cells are similar in that the number of excitatory synapses appears to be less on primary dendrites and to increase to a plateau on higher branch order dendrites. These observations suggest that synaptogenesis is spatially regulated along the dendritic segments and that the number of synaptic contacts is relatively constant beyond the primary dendrites. Interestingly, we also found that the linear puncta density is slightly higher in large cells than in small cells. This may suggest that retinal ganglion cells with a large dendritic field tend to show an increased connectivity of excitatory synapses that makes up for their reduced dendrite density. Mapping the spatial distribution pattern of the excitatory synapses on retinal ganglion cells thus provides explicit structural information that is essential for our understanding of how excitatory glutamatergic inputs shape neuronal responses.

  8. Retinal Ganglion Cell Distribution and Spatial Resolving Power in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae)

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we investigated the neural cell distribution in the ganglion cell layer of a range of lanternfish species belonging to 10 genera. Analyses were performed on wholemounted retinas using stereology. Topographic maps were constructed of the distribution of all neurons and both ganglion and amacrine cell populations in 5 different species from Nissl-stained retinas using cytological criteria. Amacrine cell distribution was also examined immunohistochemically in 2 of the 5 species using anti-parvalbumin antibody. The distributions of both the total neuron and the amacrine cell populations were aligned in all of the species examined, showing a general increase in cell density toward the retinal periphery. However, when the ganglion cell population was topographically isolated from the amacrine cell population, which comprised up to 80% of the total neurons within the ganglion cell layer, a different distribution was revealed. Topographic maps of the true ganglion cell distribution in 18 species of lanternfishes revealed well-defined specializations in different regions of the retina. Different species possessed distinct areas of high ganglion cell density with respect to both peak density and the location and/or shape of the specialized acute zone (i.e. elongated areae ventro-temporales, areae temporales and large areae centrales). The spatial resolving power was calculated to be relatively low (varying from 1.6 to 4.4 cycles per degree), indicating that myctophids may constitute one of the less visually acute groups of deep-sea teleosts. The diversity in retinal specializations and spatial resolving power within the family is assessed in terms of possible ecological functions and evolutionary history.

  9. Expression of EFR3A in the mouse cochlea during degeneration of spiral ganglion following hair cell loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nie

    Full Text Available Retrograde degeneration of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea following hair cell loss is similar to dying back in pathology. The EFR3A gene has recently been discovered to be involved in the pathogenesis of dying back. The relationship of EFR3A and spiral ganglion degeneration, however, was rarely investigated. In this study, we destroyed the hair cells of the mouse cochlea by co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide and then investigated the EFR3A expression during the induced spiral ganglion cell degeneration. Our results revealed that co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide quickly induced hair cell loss in the C57BL/6J mice and then resulted in progressive degeneration of the spiral ganglion beginning at day 5 following drug administration. The number of the spiral ganglion cells began to decrease at day 15. The expression of EFR3A increased remarkably in the spiral ganglion at day 5 and then decreased to near normal level within the next 10 days. Our study suggested that the change of EFR3A expression in the spiral ganglion was coincident with the time of the spiral ganglion degeneration, which implied that high expression of EFR3A may be important to prompt initiation of spiral ganglion degeneration following hair cell loss.

  10. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion induces reperfusion and blood-brain barrier protection in the photothrombotic stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviv Levi

    Full Text Available The treatment of stroke remains a challenge. Animal studies showing that electrical stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of stroke have led to the initiation of clinical studies. However, the detailed effects of SPG stimulation on the injured brain are not known.The effect of acute SPG stimulation was studied by direct vascular imaging, fluorescent angiography and laser Doppler flowmetry in the sensory motor cortex of the anaesthetized rat. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the rose bengal (RB photothrombosis method. In chronic experiments, SPG stimulation, starting 15 min or 24 h after photothrombosis, was given for 3 h per day on four consecutive days. Structural damage was assessed using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cortical functions were assessed by quantitative analysis of epidural electro-corticographic (ECoG activity continuously recorded in behaving animals.Stimulation induced intensity- and duration-dependent vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow in both healthy and photothrombotic brains. In SPG-stimulated rats both blood brain-barrier (BBB opening, pathological brain activity and lesion volume were attenuated compared to untreated stroke animals, with no apparent difference in the glial response surrounding the necrotic lesion.SPG-stimulation in rats induces vasodilation of cortical arterioles, partial reperfusion of the ischemic lesion, and normalization of brain functions with reduced BBB dysfunction and stroke volume. These findings support the potential therapeutic effect of SPG stimulation in focal cerebral ischemia even when applied 24 h after stroke onset and thus may extend the therapeutic window of currently administered stroke medications.

  11. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  12. Ganglion cell complex scan in the early prediction of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) with peripapillary retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map in glaucoma suspects and patients. Forty participants (20 glaucoma suspects and 20 glaucoma patients) were enrolled. Macular GCC and RNFL thickness maps were performed in both eyes of each participant in the same visit. The sensitivity and specificity of a color code less than 5% (red or yellow) for glaucoma diagnosis were calculated. Standard Automated Perimetry was performed with the Octopus 3.1.1 Dynamic 24-2 program. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 10.1 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, EUA). Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation and a p value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Provide absolute numbers of these findings with their units of measurement. There was a statistically significant difference in average RNFL thickness (p=0.004), superior RNFL thickness (p=0.006), inferior RNFL thickness (p=0.0005) and average GCC (p=0.03) between the suspects and glaucoma patients. There was no difference in optic disc area (p=0.35) and vertical cup/disc ratio (p=0.234) in both groups. While 38% eyes had an abnormal GCC and 13% had an abnormal RNFL thickness in the glaucoma suspect group, 98% had an abnormal GCC and 90% had an abnormal RNFL thickness in the glaucoma group. The ability to diagnose glaucoma with macular GCC thickness is comparable to that with peripapillary RNFL thickness . Macular GCC thickness measurements may be a good alternative or a complementary measurement to RNFL thickness assessment in the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. © NEPjOPH.

  13. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  14. Sphenopalatine ganglion: block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwo Wei David; Przkora, Rene; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-12-28

    Sphenopalatine ganglion is the largest collection of neurons in the calvarium outside of the brain. Over the past century, it has been a target for interventional treatment of head and facial pain due to its ease of access. Block, radiofrequency ablation, and neurostimulation have all been applied to treat a myriad of painful syndromes. Despite the routine use of these interventions, the literature supporting their use has not been systematically summarized. This systematic review aims to collect and summarize the level of evidence supporting the use of sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation. Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were reviewed for studies on sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation. Studies included in this review were compiled and analyzed for their treated medical conditions, study design, outcomes and procedural details. Studies were graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine for level of evidence. Based on the level of evidence, grades of recommendations are provided for each intervention and its associated medical conditions. Eighty-three publications were included in this review, of which 60 were studies on sphenopalatine ganglion block, 15 were on radiofrequency ablation, and 8 were on neurostimulation. Of all the studies, 23 have evidence level above case series. Of the 23 studies, 19 were on sphenopalatine ganglion block, 1 study on radiofrequency ablation, and 3 studies on neurostimulation. The rest of the available literature was case reports and case series. The strongest evidence lies in using sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation for cluster headache. Sphenopalatine ganglion block also has evidence in treating trigeminal neuralgia, migraines, reducing the needs of analgesics after endoscopic sinus surgery and reducing pain associated with nasal packing

  15. Morbidity and outcome of pelvic exenteration in locally advanced pelvic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Rajaraman; Duraipandian, Amudhan

    2012-09-01

    Pelvic exenteration is a technically demanding surgical procedure performed for locally advanced cancers in the pelvis. Aim of the present study was to analyze morbidity, failure pattern and survival after pelvic exenteration during a period of 15 years in a dedicated cancer centre in South India. Retrospective analysis of case records of 50 patients who underwent pelvic exenteration from 1996 to 2011 in the Department of Surgical Oncology, Government Royapettah Hospital Chennai. Forty-six patients were females and 4 were males with a mean age of 48.3 years (range 21-72). Twenty six patients had cervical cancer,14 had rectal cancer, 3 had bladder cancer,2 had endometrial cancer, 2 had vaginal cancer, 1 had uterine sarcoma, 1 had anal cancer and 1 had ovarian cancer. The postoperative morbidity was 50%. 7 patients (14%) developed recurrence of which 5 had local and 2 had distant recurrence. The estimated 5 year overall survival for all patients in our series was 53.5% and for the patients with Ca rectum and Ca cervix was 60.6% and 40.1% respectively. Adjacent organ invasion had a significant impact over survival. Pelvic exenteration provides a curative form of treatment for carefully selected locally advanced cancer in the pelvis and it can be done safely with acceptable complications in centers experienced in multivisceral resections.

  16. Laparoscopic pelvic sling placement facilitates optimum therapeutic radiotherapy delivery in the management of pelvic malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has a significant role in the management of pelvic malignancies. However, the small intestine represents the main dose limiting organ. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical methods have been described to displace bowel out of the radiation field. We herein report a case series of laparoscopic placement of an absorbable pelvic sling in patients requiring pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Six patients were referred to our minimally invasive unit. Four patients required radical radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer, one was scheduled for salvage localised radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy PSA progression and one patient required adjuvant radiotherapy post-cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. All patients had excessive small intestine within the radiation fields despite the use of non-invasive displacement methods. RESULTS: All patients underwent laparoscopic mesh placement, allowing for an elevation of small bowel from the pelvis. The presence of an ileal conduit or previous surgery did not prevent mesh placement. Post-operative planning radiotherapy CT scans confirmed displacement of the small intestine allowing all patients to receive safely the planned radiotherapy in terms of both volume and radiation schedule. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic mesh placement represents a safe and efficient procedure in patients requiring high-dose pelvic radiation, presenting with unacceptable small intestine volume in the radiation field. This procedure is also feasible in those that have undergone previous major abdominal surgery.

  17. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were ev...

  18. Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments: a series of 31 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yongtao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A case series for ganglion cyst of the cruciate ligament with MRI findings, clinical presentation, and management options along with review of literature is presented. Methods Of 8663 consecutive patients referred for knee MR imaging, 31 were diagnosed with ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments, including 21 men and 10 women of ages 12 to 73 years (mean: 37. A review of charts revealed that knee pain was the chief complaint in all cases. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst was performed in 11 patients. Results MRI proved to be a valuable tool in diagnosing and deciding management of these cases. All 11 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment were symptom-free on a minimum follow-of one year. Conclusion Cyst formation associated with cruciate ligament of the knee is an infrequent cause of knee pain. MR imaging was important in confirming the cyst lesions and provided useful information prior to arthroscopy. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst produced excellent outcome without recurrence. This study describes the pertinent MRI and intraoperative findings of ganglion cyst.

  19. Gasserian Ganglion and Retrobulbar Nerve Block in the Treatment of Ophthalmic Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Ni, Zhongge; Finch, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Varicella zoster virus reactivation can cause permanent histological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neural inflammatory changes or damage to the dorsal root ganglia sensory nerve fibers during reactivation can lead to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). For PHN of the first division of the fifth cranial nerve (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion), there is evidence of inflammatory change in the ganglion and adjacent ocular neural structures. First division trigeminal nerve PHN can prove to be difficult and sometimes even impossible to manage despite the use of a wide range of conservative measures, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant medication. Steroids have been shown to play an important role by suppressing neural inflammatory processes. We therefore chose the trigeminal ganglion as an interventional target for an 88-year-old woman with severe ophthalmic division PHN after she failed to respond to conservative treatment. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a trigeminal ganglion nerve block was performed with lidocaine combined with dexamethasone. A retrobulbar block with lidocaine and triamcinolone settled residual oculodynia. At 1-year follow-up, the patient remained pain free and did not require analgesic medication. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ophthalmic division PHN successfully treated with a combination of trigeminal ganglion and retrobulbar nerve block using a local anesthetic agent and steroid for central and peripheral neural inflammatory processes. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Effect of pelvic irradiation of lactose absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Mortel, R.; Hepner, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-four patients undergoing pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancies had 14 C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of their treatment. The 14 C-lactose breath test was performed by administering 2 μCi of 14 C-lactose by mouth along with 50 g of lactose. Breath samples were collected in ethanolic hyamine 1, 2, and 3 hr later; the radioactivity of the trapped 14 CO 2 was determined by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. In the first week of treatment the percentage of administered 14 C excreted as 14 CO 2 at 1, 2, and 3 hr was 1.7 +- 0.8% (mean +- SD), 4.5 +- 1.6%, and 5.8 +- 1.4%, respectively. In the fifth week of treatment the 1-hr, 2-hr, and 3-hr values were 1.2 +- 0.9%, 3.6 +- 2.0%, and 4.7 +- 1.9%, respectively. The difference between the first week and fifth week test results at 1, 2, and 3 hr was statistically significant (t = 2.64, p 14 C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week and the stool frequency at that time (r = -0.44, p 14 C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week were below normal (<1.2%) had nausea at that time. The data suggest that in some patients, lactose malabsorption as a result of the effect of radiation on small intestinal function may be etiologically related to the symptoms of nausea and diarrhea which occur commonly in patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation. In addition, the results suggest that lactose-containing foods should be restricted in some patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation to prevent symptoms resulting from radiation-induced lactose intolerance

  1. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning Pelvic Examination with Professional Patients

    OpenAIRE

    S Shrestha; B Wijma; K Swahnberg; K Siwe

    2010-01-01

    Performing pelvic examination is a vital skill to learn during gynecological and obstetrical training. It's a difficult maneuver to master as there is very little to see and more to feel and interpret. In addition, learning PE in usual clinical set-up has been found to induce lot of stress and anxiety among both the patients and the students. Students fear of hurting the patients and being judged inept, whereas patients feel embarrassed having to expose their most intimate body parts for lear...

  3. CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: A PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kryuchkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates. The etiology and pathogenesis of this problem remains poorly understood. No uniform solitary treatment is known for CPPS. As a result, a multimodal approach is most likely to demonstrate benefit for this disease. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT which includes psychosocial domain. Nevertheless, psychosocial and psychopathological influences on CPPS only recently became a research focus. This literature review investigated the association of personality traits, mental disorders with the baseline clinical characteristics of patients with CPPS. We aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics.

  4. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark 3Department of Physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 4Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Correspondence Anders Falk Brekke E-mail: afbrekke@health.sdu.dk Mob: +45 7248 2626 Add: Sdr. Boulevard 29......Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt: A systematic review Anders Falk Brekke1,2,3, Søren Overgaard1,2, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson4, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen1,2 1Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital 2Department...

  5. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), is a condition associated with ovarian vein (OV) incompetence among other causes. It is manifested by chronic pelvic pain with associated dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. The diagnosis of PCS is often overlooked and the management can be difficult. Traditional therapy for ...

  6. Role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in stage 1A endometrial carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer mostly affecting women in the postmenopausal age group. There is a debate regarding the need of pelvic lymphadenectomy in managing stage 1A diagnosed preoperatively, we try to evaluate this need. Objective: To evaluate the role of pelvic ...

  7. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography : Disadvantages prevail over benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, M.J.; Robben, S.; Postma, A.A.; Zoetelief, J.; Wildberger, J.E.; Kemerink, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To re-evaluate gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography in terms of attainable radiation risk reduction and associated loss of diagnostic information. Methods A study on patient dose and the quality of gonad shielding was performed retrospectively using 500 pelvic radiographs of

  8. Pelvic floor spasm as a cause of voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Ng, L G; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic floor disorders can present with lower urinary tract symptoms, bowel, sexual dysfunction, and/or pain. Symptoms of pelvic muscle spasm (nonrelaxing pelvic floor or hypertonicity) vary and can be difficult to recognize. This makes diagnosis and management of these disorders challenging. In this article, we review the current evidence on pelvic floor spasm and its association with voiding dysfunction. To distinguish between the different causes of voiding dysfunction, a video urodynamics study and/or electromyography is often required. Conservative measures include patient education, behavioral modifications, lifestyle changes, and pelvic floor rehabilitation/physical therapy. Disease-specific pelvic pain and pain from pelvic floor spasm needs to be differentiated and treated specifically. Trigger point massage and injections relieves pain in some patients. Botulinum toxin A, sacral neuromodulation, and acupuncture has been reported in the management of patients with refractory symptoms. Pelvic floor spasm and associated voiding problems are heterogeneous in their pathogenesis and are therefore often underrecognized and undertreated; it is therefore essential that a therapeutic strategy needs to be personalized to the individual patient's requirements. Therefore, careful evaluation and assessment of individuals using a multidisciplinary team approach including a trained physical therapist/nurse clinician is essential in the management of these patients.

  9. Labor Dystocia as First Presentation of Pelvic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis van Hamont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of labor dystocia can be various. Lack of expulsive forces or fetal malpresentation are amongst the most common ones. However, pelvic masses are described as well. Here we describe two cases of labor dystocia as first presentation of pelvic malignancy.

  10. Determinants and Management Outcomes of Pelvic Organ Prolapse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in this study was 6.5% and the leading determinants of pelvic organ prolapse were multiparity, menopause, chronic increase in IAP and advanced age. Most were lost to follow-up and a lesser proportion was offered conservative management. Early presentation of women ...

  11. Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain: a surgical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Zwienen

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMore than half of all pregnant women experience low back and/or pelvic pain of whom one-third has severe complaints. In most cases the pelvic pain disap­pears within a few months after delivery, either spontaneously or after con­servative treatment. In a minority of patients the pain

  12. Discrepancies in the female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Barber, Mathew D; Steinberg, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether the current distribution of surgeons practicing female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery in the United States is adequate to meet the needs of a growing and aging population. We assessed the geographic distribution of female pelvic surgeons as represented by members of the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS) throughout the United States at the county, state, and American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists district levels. County-level data from the AUGS, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the United States Census were analyzed in this observational study. State and national patterns of female pelvic surgeon density were mapped graphically using ArcGIS software and 2010 US Census demographic data. In 2013, the 1058 AUGS practicing physicians represented 0.13% of the total physician workforce. There were 6.7 AUGS members available for every 1 million women and 20 AUGS members for every 1 million postreproductive-aged women in the United States. The density of female pelvic surgeons was highest in metropolitan areas. Overall, 88% of the counties in the United States lacked female pelvic surgeons. Nationwide, there was a mean of 1 AUGS member for every 31 practicing general obstetrician-gynecologists. These findings have implications for training, recruiting, and retaining female pelvic surgeons. The uneven distribution of female pelvic surgeons throughout the United States is likely to worsen as graduating female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery fellows continue to cluster in urban areas.

  13. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  14. Acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammatory disease: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Youcai; Jin, Yuhao; Xu, Na; Guo, Taipin

    2018-03-01

    Chronic pelvic inflammation disease (PID) is a difficult-to-treat gynecological disorder with complex etiologies. Acupuncture has been applied widely for treating chronic pelvic inflammation or chronic pelvic pain symptoms in China. The aim of this review is to undertake a systematic review to estimate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on chronic PID. A literature search will be conducted electronically with date up to October 2018 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EBASE, and CNKI databases, using combination subject terms of chronic pelvic pain (or chronic pelvic inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain symptoms, etc.) and acupuncture related treatment. Also duplicates will be removed. The primary outcomes consisted of improvement rate and pain relief. Secondary outcomes include the recurrence rate and side effects, such as pneumothorax, bleeding, serious discomfort, subcutaneous nodules, and infection. Systematic reviews and databases will be searched for randomized controlled trials on acupuncture for chronic PID with acupuncture treatment will be included. Cochrane RevMan V5.3.5 risk of bias assessment tool will be implemented for risk of bias evaluation, data synthesis, meta-analyses, and subgroup analysis while condition is met. Mean difference (MD), standard mean difference (SMD), and dichotomous data will be used to present continuous outcomes. This study will generate a comprehensive review of current evidence of acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammation diseases. The study will provide updated evidence to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammation disease. CRD42018087950.

  15. PELVIC AREA ASSESSMENT IN BUNAJI AND RAHAJI COWS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Fostering calving ease, pelvic area assessment, Bunaji, Rahaji. Abstract. Pelvic area (P.A.) assessment may be used as management tool to reduce the risks associated with dystocia and foster calving ease. Relationship between cow's P.A. and age can aid pre- breeding culling decisions. This study used 100 ...

  16. Motor cortical representation of the pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, A; Wolff, S; van der Horst, C; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, J P

    2011-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training involves rhythmical voluntary contractions of the external urethral sphincter and ancillary pelvic floor muscles. The representation of these muscles in the motor cortex has not been located precisely and unambiguously. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine brain activity during slow and fast pelvic floor contractions. Cerebral responses were recorded in 17 healthy male volunteers, 21 to 47 years old, with normal bladder control. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during metronome paced slow (0.25 Hertz) and fast (0.7 Hertz) contractions of the pelvic floor that mimicked the interruption of voiding. To study the somatotopy of the cortical representations, flexion-extension movements of the right toes were performed as a control task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during pelvic floor contractions detected activity of the supplementary motor area in the medial wall and of the midcingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, putamen, thalamus, cerebellar vermis and upper ventral pons. There were no significant differences in activation between slow and fast contractions. Toe movements involved significantly stronger activity of the paracentral lobule (ie the medial primary motor cortex) than did the pelvic floor contractions. Otherwise the areas active during pelvic floor and leg muscle contractions overlapped considerably. The motor cortical representation of pelvic floor muscles is located mostly in the supplementary motor area. It extends further ventrally and anteriorly than the representation of distal leg muscles. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival trends and predictors of mortality in severe pelvic trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohlemann, Tim; Stengel, Dirk; Tosounidis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal trends in mortality, and the contribution of specific injury characteristics and treatment modalities to the risk of a fatal outcome after severe and complex pelvic trauma. METHODS: We studied 5048 patients with pelvic ring fractures enrolled in the German...... Pelvic Trauma Registry Initiative between 1991 and 1993, 1998 and 2000, and 2004 and 2006. Complete datasets were available for 5014 cases, including 508 complex injuries, defined as unstable fractures with severe peri-pelvic soft tissue and organ laceration. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic...... regression analysis was employed to evaluate the impact of demographic, injury- and treatment-associated variables on all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: All-cause in-hospital mortality declined from 8% (39/466) in 1991 to 5% (33/638) in 2006. Controlling for age, Injury Severity Score, pelvic vessel...

  18. Small bowel obstruction in percutaneous fixation of traumatic pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of external fixation for the initial treatment of unstable, complex pelvic injuries with hemodynamic instability remains an effective treatment for multiply injured patients. Bowel entrapment within a pelvic fracture is a rarely reported, potentially fatal complication. Here, we report a polytrauma patient with pelvic fractures who developed an intestinal obstruction after an external fixation. At an explorative laparotomy, we found an ileum segment trapped in the sacral fracture. Reported cases of bowel entrapment in pelvic fractures, especially in sacral fractures, are exceedingly rare. The diagnosis is often delayed due to difficulty distinguishing entrapment from the more common adynamic ileus. In conclusion, clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this potentially lethal complication of pelvic fractures treatment. To exclude bowel entrapment, patients with persistent ileus or sepsis should undergo early investigations.

  19. The role of spiral CT in pelvic trauma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, E.C.F.; Fung, K.K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of pelvic injury is critical for good patient management. Plain X-ray is often used as a preliminary evaluation of the injury but this may not give adequate diagnosis of the acetabulum fracture, subtle fracture of the pelvic bone and the associated soft tissue injuries. Nowadays, spiral CT has taken an increasing role in the evaluation of pelvic trauma. It gives a rapid assessment of the bone and soft tissue injuries as compared to conventional CT. Besides, 2-D (multiplanar imaging) and 3-D image reconstruction with multiple angle views, provide the maximum information which facilitates detailed pelvic trauma evaluation. Three cases were used to illustrate the role of spiral CT in pelvic trauma management. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of pelvic collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Anuj; Sundareyan, Ramaniwas; Kumar, Sheo; Arora, Divya

    2015-01-01

    The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain intra-abdominal collections not reached by the transabdominal approach. We discuss 6 patients with such pelvic collections treated with transrectal drainage using catheter placement via Seldinger technique. Transrectal drainage helped achieve clinical and radiological resolution of pelvic collections in 6 and 5 of 6 cases, respectively. It simultaneously helped avoid injury to intervening bowel loops and neurovascular structures using real-time visualization of armamentarium used for drainage. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopic/CT guidance was avoided. Morbidity and costs incurred in surgical exploration were reduced using this much less invasive ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of deep-seated pelvic collections.

  1. Pelvic reconstruction with allogeneic bone graft after tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bi, Wen Zhi; Yang, Jing; Han, Gang; Jia, Jin Peng

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : Pelvic reconstruction after tumor resection is challenging. METHODS: A retrospective study had been preformed to compare the outcomes among patients who received pelvic reconstructive surgery with allogeneic bone graft after en bloc resection of pelvic tumors and patients who received en bloc resection only. RESULTS: Patients without reconstruction had significantly lower functional scores at 3 months (10 vs. 15, P = 0.001) and 6 months after surgery (18.5 vs. 22, P = 0.0024), a shorter duration of hospitalization (16 day vs. 40 days, P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Pelvic reconstruction with allogeneic bone graft after surgical management of pelvic tumors is associated with satisfactory surgical and functional outcomes. Further clinical studies are required to explore how to select the best reconstruction method. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453659

  2. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expresse...

  3. Pseudotumoral ganglion cyst of a finger with unexpected remote origin: multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilleau, Loic; Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Barbier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The case of a ganglion cyst in the pulp of a fifth finger in an elderly woman initially mimicking a soft tissue tumor is described. Most typical sites of ganglion cysts are well documented at the wrist and in the vicinity of inter-phalangeal and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In this case, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a cystic lesion within the pulp of the fifth finger and indicated carpal osteoarthritis as the distant - and unexpected - origin of the lesion. The suggested diagnosis of ganglion cyst was confirmed by computed tomography arthrography (CT arthrography) of the wrist, which showed opacification of the cyst on delayed acquisitions after intra-articular injection into the mid-carpal joint, through the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath. The communications between the degenerative carpal joint, the radio-ulnar bursa, the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath and the pedicle of the cyst were well demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Judy H. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emery, Kathleen H.; Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sorger, Joel [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection. (orig.)

  5. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, C; Ross-Cisneros, F.N.; Sadun, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal...... ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. These cells give origin to the retinohypothalamic tract and support the non-image-forming visual functions of the eye, which include the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion and pupillary light reflex...... subjects as in controls, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is sufficiently preserved to drive light information detected by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. We then investigated the histology of post-mortem eyes from two patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and one case...

  6. Urethral sensation following reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, M G; Davis, C; Lowenstein, L; Mueller, E R; Brubaker, L; Kenton, K

    2014-11-01

    Most urethral neuromuscular function data focus on efferent rather than afferent innervation. We aimed to determine if changes exist in urethral afferent nerve function before and after reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS). Secondarily, we compared afferent urethral innervation in women with and without stress urinary incontinence undergoing RPS. Participants underwent current perception threshold (CPT) and urethral anal reflex (UAR) testing prior to surgery and again post-operatively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Spearman's correlations were used and all tests were two-sided. p = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Urethral CPT thresholds increased significantly after RPS, consistent with decreased urethral afferent function. Pre-operative urethral CPT thresholds at 5 and 250 Hz were lower in SUI women (10 [IQR 5-29], 40 [32-750]) compared with continent women (63 [14-99], 73 [51-109]; p = 0.45, p = 0.020), signifying increased urethral sensation or easier activation of urethral afferents in SUI women. Reconstructive pelvic surgery is associated with a short-term deleterious impact on urethral afferent function, as demonstrated by the higher levels of stimuli required to activate urethral afferent nerves (decreased urethral sensation) immediately after RPS. Women with SUI required lower levels of stimuli to activate urethral afferent nerves prior to RPS, although UAR latencies were similar regardless of concomitant SUI.

  7. Learning Pelvic Examination with Professional Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Performing pelvic examination is a vital skill to learn during gynecological and obstetrical training. It's a difficult maneuver to master as there is very little to see and more to feel and interpret. In addition, learning PE in usual clinical set-up has been found to induce lot of stress and anxiety among both the patients and the students. Students fear of hurting the patients and being judged inept, whereas patients feel embarrassed having to expose their most intimate body parts for learning purpose. This hampers effective learning. Learning PE on sedated women before surgery or on mannequins has been practiced as alternative learning models. But, they have been found to miss out on teaching the communication skills, which are as important as the palpation skills. However, there exists another model of learning PE--the professional patients, who are specially trained to act as patients and also guide the students on how to make a proper PE. They provide stress-free environment for the students to learn PE and at the same time, provide immediate feedback on each of their maneuvers. They form a complete learning model and help students to see patients as partner and not just a person seeking help. Keywords: learning model, pelvic examination, stress, students.

  8. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  9. Pelvic floor electrophysiology in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankisi, H; Pugdahl, K; Rasmussen, M M; Clemmensen, D; Rawashdeh, Y F; Christensen, P; Krogh, K; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate sacral peripheral nerve function and continuity of pudendal nerve in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) using pelvic floor electrophysiological tests. Twelve patients with low cervical or thoracic SCI were prospectively included. Quantitative external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle electromyography (EMG), pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) testing, bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) testing and pudendal short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurement were performed. In EAS muscle EMG, two patients had abnormal increased spontaneous activity and seven prolonged motor unit potential duration. PNTML was normal in 10 patients. BCR was present with normal latency in 11 patients and with prolonged latency in one. The second component of BCR could be recorded in four patients. SEPs showed absent cortical responses in 11 patients and normal latency in one. Pudendal nerve and sacral lower motor neuron involvement are significantly associated with chronic SCI, most prominently in EAS muscle EMG. The frequent finding of normal PNTML latencies supports earlier concerns on the utility of this test; however, BCR and pudendal SEPs may have clinical relevance. As intact peripheral nerves including pudendal nerve are essential for efficient supportive therapies, pelvic floor electrophysiological testing prior to these interventions is highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  11. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT...

  12. Pelvic floor muscle training as a persistent nursing intervention: Effect on delivery outcome and pelvic floor myodynamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistent nursing intervention for pregnant/postpartum women helped to shorten the second stage of labour and contributed to the recovery of postpartum pelvic floor myodynamia. The influence of this intervention on the delivery mode, and rates of episiotomy and perineal laceration remains unknown. Medical staff should strengthen health education programmes that involve pelvic floor functional rehabilitation.

  13. Dissection of the sentry ganglion by laparoscopic boarding in patients with cervix uterine cancer clinical stages IA2 at IIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez U, J.J.; Pichardo M, P.A.; Cortes M, G.; Escudero de los Rios, P.

    2005-01-01

    The obtained results in presently study demonstrate that the feasibility of the detection of the sentry ganglion in cervix uterine cancer using a boarding by laparoscopic via, being necessary the use of twice labelled as much with patent blue and radioisotope (colloid of labelled rhenium with 99m Tc, total dose of 3 MCi) to achieve the identification of the ganglion. (Author)

  14. Ganglion block. When and how?; Ganglienblockade. Wann und wie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Sektion fuer Mikroinvasive Therapie Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [German] Anatomische und physiologische Kenntnisse ueber die Funktion von Schmerzbahnen fuehrten zur Entwicklung chirurgischer und perkutaner destruktiver Verfahren, um einzelne Komponenten afferenter Schmerzbahnen anzusteuern bzw. auszuschalten. Neben anderen nervalen Strukturen gelten Hinterstrangganglien und insbesondere die Ganglien des autonomen Nervensystems als Ziele fuer radiologische Interventionen. Das vegetative Nervensystem ist fuer die Organfunktion durch Regulation des Gefaesstonus und fuer die Leitung

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Trigeminal Ganglion Contributes to Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Masseter Muscle During Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Reio; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Urata, Kentaro; Lee, Jun; Maruno, Mitsuru; Soma, Kumi; Okada, Shinji; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iwata, Koichi

    To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFα-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFα-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFα signaling in the TG.

  16. Multispecialty retrospective review of the clinical utility of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging in the setting of pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John R; Pathak, Ram A; Snowden, Caroline; Bolan, Candice W; Young, Paul R; Broderick, Gregory A

    2017-12-01

    Pelvic pain is a common complaint, and management of it is often difficult. We sought to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of male pelvic pain. Though MRIs are commonly ordered to evaluate pelvic pain, there are very few studies obtaining the efficacy of pelvic MRI in determining a definitive diagnosis. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of pelvic MRI for a diagnosis code that included pain. After receiving institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was performed of all pelvic MRIs completed at our institution from January 2, 2010 to December 31, 2014. These were further delineated into ordering providers by specialty and urology-specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code diagnoses (male pelvic pain, prostatitis, groin pain, scrotal pain, testicular pain, and penile pain). Clinical utility was defined as positive if MRI findings resulted in a change in management. Subanalysis was performed on patients with an ICD-9 co-diagnosis of previous oncologic concern. A total of 2,643 pelvic MRIs were ordered at our institution over a 5-year period. Of these, 597 pelvic MRIs (23%) were ordered for a diagnosis code that included pain (hip pain, rectal pain, joint pain, penile pain, scrotal pain, male pelvic pain and orchitis). Total utility for MRIs to find anatomic abnormalities potentially responsible for the present pain was 34% (205/597). When ordered by urologic providers, utility was 23%. Oncologists represented the highest positivity rate at 57%. Chronic pelvic pain is a multispecialty complaint that is difficult to treat. We were surprised to find the large number of both specialists and generalists invested in the management of pelvic pain. The increasing availability of MRI technology makes it a likely candidate to test for a clinically significant anatomic reason for pain. Though MRI is a test with minimal adverse effect and no increased risk

  17. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose; Conde, Cesareo

    2002-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain); Conde, Cesareo [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  19. Therapeutic potential of stellate ganglion block in orofacial pain: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-09-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.

  20. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation attenuates the BOLD signal response to noxious sensory input in specific brain regions: Insights into a possible mechanism for analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Christopher P; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2017-02-15

    Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala. These regions differentially demonstrated either positive or negative correlation to the acute noxious stimulation paradigm, in agreement with previous rat fMRI studies. Therapeutic-level GFS significantly attenuated the global BOLD response to noxious stimulation in these regions. This BOLD signal attenuation persisted for 20minutes after the GFS was discontinued. Control experiments in sham-operated animals showed that the attenuation was not due to the effect of repetitive noxious stimulation. Additional control experiments also revealed minimal BOLD fMRI response to GFS at therapeutic intensity when presented in a standard block-design paradigm. High intensity GFS produced a BOLD signal map similar to acute noxious stimulation when presented in a block-design. These findings are the first to identify the specific brain region responses to neuromodulation at the DRG level and suggest possible mechanisms for GFS-induced treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between preterm labour and pelvic floor muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Turhan; Pekgöz, Ipek; Bozkaya, Hasan; Osmanagaoglu, Mehmet A

    2018-03-23

    We hypothesised that the pressure on the cervix increases with advancing gestation and it may lead to a cervical shortening and cause preterm labour in women with weak pelvic floor muscles. The aim of this prospective study was to measure vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy and to investigate their effects on labour. A study was conducted on the pregnant women with a low risk for preterm birth. The pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure were assessed in 320 pregnant women at their first trimester with a vaginal pressure measurement device. Fifty-two pregnant women were hospitalised for tocolytic therapy because of spontaneous preterm labour. Thirty-two of them (10.2%) had a preterm delivery despite the tocolytic therapy. Both the vaginal resting pressure (p = .009, 95%CI: 0.8; 5.9) and the pelvic floor muscle strength (p = .01, 95%CI: 3.5; 13.1) were significantly lower in the women with a preterm labour. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The pelvic floor muscles have an essential role in continence and provide support to the pelvic organs. They also have an impact on labour. The pelvic floor muscles should distend to allow the passage of the foetus during labour. The rotation and flexion of the foetal head is due to the pelvic floor resistance. The effect of a vaginal birth on the pelvic floor's function is readily understood. On the other hand, the effect of the pelvic floor muscle function on labour is still controversial. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study showed that there is a negative association between the pelvic floor muscle strength and preterm labour. This is the first clinical study indicating that weak pelvic floor muscles may cause a preterm labour. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Pelvic floor physical therapy may be an alternative preventive strategy to reduce

  2. Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen P. Chelko; Chad W. Schmiedt; Tristan H. Lewis; Tom P. Robertson; Stephen J. Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated occipital arteries (OAs) from sham-operated (SHAM) and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery) and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion) and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, hea...

  3. α-Dendrotoxin inhibits the ASIC current in dorsal root ganglion neurons from rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Adriana; Salceda, Emilio; Fló, Martín; Graña, Martín; Fernández, Cecilia; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2015-10-08

    Dendrotoxins are a group of peptide toxins purified from the venom of several mamba snakes. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTx, from the Eastern green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps) is a well-known blocker of voltage-gated K(+) channels and specifically of K(v)1.1, K(v)1.2 and K(v)1.6. In this work we show that α-DTx inhibited the ASIC currents in DRG neurons (IC50=0.8 μM) when continuously perfused during 25 s (including a 5 s pulse to pH 6.1), but not when co-applied with the pH drop. Additionally, we show that α-DTx abolished a transient component of the outward current that, in some experiments, appeared immediately after the end of the acid pulse. Our data indicate that α-DTx inhibits ASICs in the high nM range while some Kv are inhibited in the low nM range. The α-DTx selectivity and its potential interaction with ASICs should be taken in consideration when DTx is used in the high nM range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of symptomatic pelvic varices by ovarian vein embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Patrizio; Simons, Christine; Trotteur, Genevieve; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Henroteaux, Denis; Gaspard, Ulysse

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. Pelvic congestion syndrome is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and its association with venous congestion has been described in the literature. We evaluated the potential benefits of lumboovarian vein embolization in the treatment of lower abdominal pain in patients presenting with pelvic varicosities. Methods. Nineteen patients were treated. There were 13 unilateral embolizations, 6 initial bilateral treatments and 5 treated recurrences (a total of 30 procedures). All embolizations were performed with either enbucrilate and/or macrocoils, and there was an average clinical and Doppler duplex follow-up of 15.4 months. Results. The initial technical success rate was 96.7%. There were no immediate or long-term complications. Variable symptomatic relief was observed in 73.7% of cases with complete responses in 57.9%. All 8 patients who had partial or no pain relief complained of dyspareunia. The direct relationship between varices and chronic pelvic pain was difficult to ascertain in a significant number of clinical failures. Conclusion. Transcatheter embolization of lumboovarian varices is a safe technique offering symptomatic relief of pelvic pain in the majority of cases. The presence of dyspareunia seemed to be a poor prognostic factor, indicating that other causes of pelvic pain may coexist with pelvic varicosities

  5. A new tilt on pelvic radiographs: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Pattison, J.M. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Department of Radiology, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom); Belcher, J. [Keele University, Department of Mathematics, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); DeCann, R.W. [IMECS, Department of Radiology, Market Drayton, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Anderson, Suzanne [University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Wynn-Jones, C. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pelvic tilt on commonly performed measurements on radiography in primary protrusio acetabuli and developmental dysplasia of the hip. A dry assembled pelvis and spine skeleton was positioned in an isocentric skull unit and films exposed with increasing degrees of angulation of pelvic tilt. The films were then read by two independent readers for seven different measurements used to evaluate the hips and acetabular: acetabular line to ilioischial line, teardrop appearance, intercristal/intertuberous ratio, co-ordinates of femoral head, centre edge angle, acetabular depth/width ratio and acetabular angle. There was so much variation in the protrusio results that no formal recommendation of any standard radiographic test can be given. Only the inter tuberous distance is not effected by pelvic tilt. The acetabular angles for developmental dysplasia of the hip showed the most potential with pelvic tilt below 15 . As pelvic tilt increases, measurements used in protusio become unreliable, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging are probably going to be more accurate as one can directly visualise pelvic intrusion. We recommend a lateral view to assess the degree of pelvic tilt in patients with protrusion to ensure these measurements are valid. (orig.)

  6. Straight leg elevation to rule out pelvic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Caroline; O'Keeffe, Francis; Finnegan, Pete; Dickson, Kristofer; Smit, De Villiers; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Mitra, Biswadev

    2018-02-01

    Pelvic x-ray is frequently used as a screening tool during initial assessment of injured patients. However routine use in the awake and alert blunt trauma patient may be questioned due to low yield. We propose a clinical tool that may avoid unnecessary imaging by examining whether the ability to straight leg raise, without pain, can rule out pelvic injury. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the exposure variables of ability to straight leg raise and presence of pain on doing so, and presence of pelvic fracture on x-ray as the primary outcome variable. Of the 328 participants, 35 had pelvic fractures, and of these 32 were either unable to straight leg raise, or had pain on doing so, with a sensitivity of 91.43% (95% CI: 76.94-98.2%) and a negative predictive value of 98.57% (95% CI: 95.88-99.70%). The 3 participants with a pelvic fracture who could straight leg raise with no pain, all had a GCS of less than 15, and therefore, among the sub-group of patients with GCS15, a 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value for straight leg raise with no pain to rule out pelvic fracture was demonstrated. Among awake, alert patients, painless straight leg raise can exclude pelvic fractures and be incorporated into initial examination during reception and resuscitation of injured patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  8. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  9. Barriers to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy Regarding Treatment of High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Dani; Higgins, Margaret; Swan, Kimberly; Cummings, Jennifer; Dominguez, Sarah; Carey, Erin

    Chronic pelvic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with a wide range of etiologies. An estimated 30% to 70% of chronic pelvic cases involve musculoskeletal component pain including high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD). Pelvic floor physical therapy has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for HTPFD, yet many patients do not have access to this treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers preventing patients from following through with the first-line management, physical therapy. Participants with a diagnosis of HTPFD (n = 154) were identified from the list of referrals sent from the obstetrics and gynecology department to an affiliated PFPT center. Participants were contacted and asked to complete a phone survey addressing demographics and perceived barriers to care. Responses were collected in REDCap. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using a statistical analysis software. Seventy surveys were completed. The top barriers identified by participants were financial constraints (51.4%), perceived lack of utility (37.1%), time constraints (30.0%), and travel issues (18.6%); 84.4% of participants had 1 or more comorbid pain condition. Whereas 51.4% expressed some level of anxiety regarding the PFPT option, only 9.6% of participants did not start treatment because of fear of treatment. The majority of treatment barriers identified were concrete restraints, with insurance noncoverage and time constraints being the top issues. A fair number of participants expressed anxiety about the treatment or felt they received unclear explanations of the treatment. These are areas in which providers can potentially alleviate some barriers to care.

  10. Role of laparoscopy in evaluation of chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebbar Shripad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a common medical problem affecting women. Too often the physical signs are not specific. This study aims at determining the accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical pelvic examination. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for CPP. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 86 women who underwent laparoscopic evaluation for CPP of at least 6-month duration were reviewed for presentation of symptoms, pelvic examination findings at the admission, operative findings and follow up when available. Statistical analysis used: McNemar Chi-square test for frequencies in a 2 x 2 table. Results: The most common presentation was acyclic lower abdominal pain (79.1%, followed by congestive dysmenorrhoea (26.7%. 61.6% of women did not reveal any significant signs on pelvic examination. Pelvic tenderness was elicited in 27.9%. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed significant pelvic pathology in 58% of those who essentially had normal pervaginal findings. The most common pelvic pathology by laparoscopy was pelvic adhesions (20.9%, followed by pelvic congestion (18.6%. Laparoscopic adhesiolyis achieved pain relief only in one-third of the women. Conclusion: The study revealed very low incidence of endometriosis (4.7%. Overall clinical examination could detect abnormality in only 38% of women, where as laparoscopy could detect significant pathology in 66% of women with CPP. This shows superiority of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical examination in detection of aetiology in women with CPP (P < 0.001. Adhesiolysis helps only small proportion of women in achieving pain control.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of cephem antibiotics in exudate of pelvic retroperitoneal space after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Hayasaki, M; Tamaya, T

    1990-01-01

    Many cephalosporin antibiotics have recently been invented and attempts have been made to use them clinically. The choice of which of these drugs should be used has been difficult in gynecology. The efficacies of these drugs depend on their antibacterial spectra, potencies, and concentrations in tissues. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of various cephem antibiotics in the exudate of the retroperitoneal space that is formed after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. These cephem antibiotics were cefoxitin, cefotiam, cefotetan, cefpiramide, cefminox, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cefoperazone, cefmenoxime, cefbuperazone, ceftazidime, cefpimizole, flomoxef, and cefuzonam. The maximum concentrations after administration of a 1-g dose in the exudate of the pelvic retroperitoneal space were 37.9 micrograms/ml with cefminox, 30.3 micrograms/ml with cefpimizole, 21.6 micrograms/ml with flomoxef, 21.5 micrograms/ml with ceftazidime, and 17.6 micrograms/ml with cefbuperazone, which were relatively high. When selecting antibiotics for prophylactic use against infections in the retroperitoneal space after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, on the basis of drug transfer, flomoxef, cefminox, cefbuperazone, ceftazidime, and cefpimizole were considered to be the drugs of first choice at a dose of 1 g. PMID:2393276

  12. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine; Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    focus on late effects and an increasing awareness that patient reported outcomes (PROs) i.e., patient assessment of physical, social, psychological, and sexual functioning provides the most valid information on the effects of cancer treatment. Following cure of cancer allow survivors focus on quality...... of life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. METHODS: An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological...... and gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. RESULTS...

  13. Sciatica due to pelvic hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sciatica is defined as pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. The most common reason of sciatica is radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia. Other causes can be congenital, acquired, infectious, neoplastic, or inflammatory. The piriformis syndrome is another cause. The pain starts in an insidious manner when the cause of sciatica is an extraspinal tumor. It is intermittent at first but a constant and progressive pain that does not decrease with position or rest gradually develops in all patients. The possibility of an intraabdominal or pelvic mass should always be considered and the relevant tests requested when the cause of the sciatica cannot be explained. We present an 83-year-old male who presented with non-traumatic and non-vascular lumbosacral plexopathy due to a large hematoma in the left adductor muscle following the use of warfarin sodium.

  14. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.; Sato, K.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year-old male Siberian Husky dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Osaka Prefecture University with a complaint of difficulty in expelling the stools. By rectal examination, a mass as big as a fist could be detected occupying the cavum pelvis. Radiographically the mass had a thin bony shell bulging from the pubic periosteum. In the shell, radiolucent trabeculation gave the area a ''soap bubble'' appearance. The cut surface of the removed mass showed a honeycomb-like pattern constituted of some small loculate bony cysts. These cysts were separated from each other by a fibrous or bony trabeculae with blood-filled vascular channels or sponge-like structures. From clinical and pathological findings, this mass was diagnosed as a pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst. After surgery, the patient completely recovered without tenesmus

  15. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent partirition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth in uries of the pelvic girdle

  16. [Sciatic hernia as a cause of chronic pelvic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Ríos, José F; Calle, Gustavo; Castañeda, Juan D; Serna, Eduardo A; Vásquez, Ricardo A; Arango, Adriana M; López, Claudia C

    2013-04-01

    Sciatic hernia constitutes the scarcest group of hernias of pelvic floor; however, they should be considered in the origin of chronic pelvic pain. The proper diagnosis of sciatic hernias has allowed to surgeons treating successfully patients with acute or chronic pelvic pain, with intestinal or ureteral obstruction and with urinary or gluteus sepsis. It has to be considered as differential diagnosis before the finding of a congenital or acquired gluteus mass. Laparoscopist gynecologist should know the existence of this defect, to be familiar with its aspect in laparoscopic view and to know the laparoscopic treatment of this disease.

  17. Primary pelvic hydatic cyst mimicking ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Abike

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatic cyst is an illness that appears in consequence of the cystic form of small strap-shaped worm Echinococcus granulosis. Frequently, cysts exist in the lungs and liver. Peritoneal involvement is rare, and generally occurs as a result of second inoculation from rupture of a liver-located hydatic cyst. Primary ovarian hydatic cyst is very rare. A 56-year-old female patient was admitted to Emergency Service with the complaint of stomachache and swollen abdomen. From ultrasonographic examination, a right ovarian 52 × 45-mm heterogeneous semi-solid cystic mass and right hydronephrosis were detected. As a result of the tomographic examination, the right ovarian growth was judged to be a 60 × 45-mm lobule contoured, septal, heterogeneously cystic mass (ovarian carcinoma. Depending on these indicators and with the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma, laparotomy was planned. During the observation, a mass that compressed on the right ureter and dilatation in the right ureter were determined. The mass was approximately 6 cm long and smoothly contoured, including widespread adhesions, and also obliteration of the pouch of Douglas. The mass was excised and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy performed. After a pathological examination, hydatid cyst was diagnosed. Although pointing at the issue of the distinctive diagnosis of pelvic and peritoneal mass, it should be realized that the existence of primary peritoneal and pelvic involvement of the hydatic cyst is generally a result of the second inoculation, and is also more common in regions in which Echinococcus granulosa is endemic and livestock production is prevalent.

  18. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  19. Expression of squid iridescence depends on environmental luminance and peripheral ganglion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bellido, P T; Wardill, T J; Buresch, K C; Ulmer, K M; Hanlon, R T

    2014-03-15

    Squid display impressive changes in body coloration that are afforded by two types of dynamic skin elements: structural iridophores (which produce iridescence) and pigmented chromatophores. Both color elements are neurally controlled, but nothing is known about the iridescence circuit, or the environmental cues, that elicit iridescence expression. To tackle this knowledge gap, we performed denervation, electrical stimulation and behavioral experiments using the long-fin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We show that while the pigmentary and iridescence circuits originate in the brain, they are wired differently in the periphery: (1) the iridescence signals are routed through a peripheral center called the stellate ganglion and (2) the iridescence motor neurons likely originate within this ganglion (as revealed by nerve fluorescence dye fills). Cutting the inputs to the stellate ganglion that descend from the brain shifts highly reflective iridophores into a transparent state. Taken together, these findings suggest that although brain commands are necessary for expression of iridescence, integration with peripheral information in the stellate ganglion could modulate the final output. We also demonstrate that squid change their iridescence brightness in response to environmental luminance; such changes are robust but slow (minutes to hours). The squid's ability to alter its iridescence levels may improve camouflage under different lighting intensities.

  20. Altered neurotransmitter expression profile in the ganglionic bowel in Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Gillick, John; Puri, Prem

    2016-05-01

    Despite having optimal pull-through (PT) surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), many patients experience persistent bowel symptoms with no mechanical/histopathological cause. Murine models of HSCR suggest that expression of key neurotransmitters is unbalanced proximal to the aganglionic colonic segment. We aimed to investigate expression of key enteric neurotransmitters in the colon of children with HSCR. Full-length PT specimens were collected fresh from children with HSCR (n=10). Control specimens were collected at colostomy closure from children with anorectal malformation (n=8). The distributions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were evaluated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Neurotransmitter quantification was with Western blot analysis. ChAT expression was high in aganglionic bowel and transition zone but reduced in ganglionic bowel in HSCR relative to controls. Conversely, nNOS expression was markedly reduced in aganglionic bowel but high in ganglionic bowel in HSCR relative to controls. VIP expression was similar in ganglionic HSCR and control colon. SP expression was similar in all tissue types. Imbalance of key excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the ganglionic bowel in HSCR may explain the basis of bowel dysmotility after an optimal pull-through operation in some patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Field Defects and Retinal Ganglion Cell Losses in Human Glaucoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, Ronald S.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The depth of visual field defects are correlated with retinal ganglion cell densities in experimental glaucoma. This study was to determine whether a similar structure-function relationship holds for human glaucoma. Methods The study was based on retinal ganglion cell densities and visual thresholds of patients with documented glaucoma (Kerrigan-Baumrind, et al.) The data were analyzed by a model that predicted ganglion cell densities from standard clinical perimetry, which were then compared to histologic cell counts. Results The model, without free parameters, produced accurate and relatively precise quantification of ganglion cell densities associated with visual field defects. For 437 sets of data, the unity correlation for predicted vs. measured cell densities had a coefficient of determination of 0.39. The mean absolute deviation of the predicted vs. measured values was 2.59 dB, the mean and SD of the distribution of residual errors of prediction was -0.26 ± 3.22 dB. Conclusions Visual field defects by standard clinical perimetry are proportional to neural losses caused by glaucoma. Clinical Relevance The evidence for quantitative structure-function relationships provides a scientific basis of interpreting glaucomatous neuropathy from visual thresholds and supports the application of standard perimetry to establish the stage of the disease. PMID:16769839

  2. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are resistant to cell injury, but not always

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Birgitte; Ghelli, Anna; Giordano, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs deputed to non-image forming functions of the eye such as synchronization of circadian rhythms to light-dark cycle. These cells are characterized by unique electrophysiological, anatomical and biochemical properties...

  3. Is FDG-PET a useful tool in clinical practice for diagnosing corticobasal ganglionic degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, IMF; de Vries, JJ; Leenders, KL

    2003-01-01

    Seven consecutive patients were suspected to suffer from corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) and were studied with F-[18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging of the brain. At the time of their FDG-PET scan, 4 of 7 patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of CBGD as proposed by Lang and

  4. Retinal Ganglion Cell Distribution and Spatial Resolving Power in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae)

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N. Justin; Collin, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we

  5. REDUCED GANGLION CELL VOLUME ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Nguyen, Brian; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Saunders, Luke J; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; You, Qisheng; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-07

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is the sequelae of macular degeneration. Automated inner retinal analysis using optical coherence tomography is flawed because segmentation software is calibrated for normal eyes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume is reduced in GA using manual analysis. Nineteen eyes with subfoveal GA and 22 controls were selected for morphometric analyses. Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope optical coherence tomography images of the optic nerve and macula were obtained, and the Viewing Module was used to manually calibrate retinal layer segmentation. Retinal layer volumes in the central 3-mm and surrounding 6-mm diameter were measured. Linear mixed models were used for statistics. The GCL volume in the central 3 mm of the macula is less (P = 0.003), and the retinal nerve fiber layer volume is more (P = 0.02) in patients with GA when compared with controls. Ganglion cell layer volume positively correlated with outer nuclear layer volume (P = 0.020). The patients with geographic atrophy have a small significant loss of the GCL. Ganglion cell death may precede axonal loss, and increased macular retinal nerve fiber layer volumes are not indicative of GCL volume. Residual ganglion cell stimulation by interneurons may enable vision in patients with GA.

  6. Quantifying Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Behavior on Micropatterned Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elise L; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-01-01

    The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell (Fell, Arch Exp Zellforsch 7(1):69-81, 1928). Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth have been utilized in recent years (Zhang et al., J Neurosci Methods 160(1):149-162, 2007; Tapias et al., Neurobiol Dis 54:158-168, 2013). Here, we describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment.

  7. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Elisabeth Anne; Hannibal, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Photo-entrainment of the circadian clock is mediated by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) located in the retina. Patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR) show impairment of light regulated circadian activity such as sleep disorders, altered blood pressure...

  8. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  9. MRI diagnosis of soft ganglion cyst in the foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Liang Manqiu; Li Zhuhao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical and MR imaging features of soft tissue ganglion cyst in the foot and ankle. Methods: Clinical and MR imaging data of 12 patients (male to female ratio 1:5, mean age 47 years) with soft tissue ganglion cysts in the feet and ankles were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 12 ganglion cysts were located near the first metatarsophalangeal joint (2), in the medial dorsum of foot (4), in the ankle (5) and in the heel (1). Compared with muscle, all lesions showed homogeneous slight T 1 hypointensity and T 2 hyperintensity with thin mural enhancement following the injection of Gd-DTPA. Ten cases were multilocular, and 5 showed mild pericystic edema. Conclusion: Soft tissue ganglion cyst of the foot and ankle are more common in middle aged women. They are frequently located in the ankle and medial dorsum of foot. On MRI they usually appear as multilocular cysts with homogeneous slightly low signal intensity relative to muscle on T 1 WI, high signal intensity on T 2 WI and contrast enhancement of the thin wall. (authors)

  10. An autoradiographic analysis of the development of the chick trigeminal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico-Martel, A.D; Noden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The avian trigeminal ganglion, which is embryonically derived from the neural crest and epidermal placodes, consists of two topographically segregated classes of immature neurons, large and small, during the second week of incubation, and two neuronal cell types, dark and light, interspersed throughout the mature ganglion. In order to establish the times of terminal mitosis of trigeminal sensory neurons, embryos were treated with [ 3 H]thymidine during the first week of incubation and their ganglia fixed on embryonic day 11. The embryonically large, distal, placodal-derived neurons were generated between days 2 and 5, while the small, proximal, neural crest-derived neurons were formed mostly between days 4 and 7. By comparing the locations of labelled cells in ganglia treated with isotope but fixed on day 18 on incubation with their 11-day counterparts, it was shown that there are no morpho-genetic rearrangements of neurons during the final week of incubation. Thus, no unique relationship exists between the two neuron types in the mature ganglion and the two cell classes in the immature trigeminal. Therefore, both the light and the dark neurons in the mature trigeminal ganglion arise from neural crest as well as placodal primordia. (author)

  11. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  12. [Continuous improvement of portable domestic pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the pelvic floor function of patients with urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijing; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jinghe; Wang, Wei; Shi, Honghui; Pang, Hongxia; Shi, Xinwen

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate continuous improvement of portable domestic pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the pelvic floor function of patients with stress urinary incontinence after short-term pelvic floor electrophysiological treatment in hospital. Totally 60 women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited for this randomized controlled trial. The control group including a total of 30 patients, only received 4 weeks pelvic floor electrophysiological treatment in the hospital. Family consolidation treatment group (experimental group) including 30 patients, after 4-week treatment in hospital, received 12-week of pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation using portable electrical stimulator at home under the guidance of doctors. In post-treatment 6 months and 9 months, 1-hour pad test was measured for urine leakage, pelvic floor electrical physiological parameters were assessed, and subjective improvement of symptoms of urinary incontinence were evaluated. All these data were analysed to compare the effect of the two groups. In 9 months after treatment, average change of urine leakage, the control group and experiment group were (75±24)% versus (99±3)%, the difference was statistically significant (Pcontinuous improvement of pelvic floor function.

  13. The clinico-anatomic explanation for tibial intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the superior tibiofibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Schiefer, Terry K. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Krishnan, Kartik G. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Department of Neurological Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Kliot, Michel [University of Washington, Department of Neurosurgery, Seattle, Washington (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2007-04-15

    To demonstrate that tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa are derived from the posterior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint, in a mechanism similar to that of peroneal intraneural ganglia, which have recently been shown to arise from the anterior portion of the same joint. Retrospective clinical study and prospective anatomic study. The clinical records and MRI findings of three patients with tibial intraneural ganglion cysts were analyzed and compared with those of one patient with a tibial extraneural ganglion cyst and one volunteer. Seven cadaveric limbs were dissected to define the articular anatomy of the posterior aspect of the superior tibiofibular joint. The condition of the three patients with intraneural ganglia recurred because their joint connections were not identified initially. In two patients there was no cyst recurrence when the joint connection was treated at revision surgery; the third patient did not wish to undergo additional surgery. The one patient with an extraneural ganglion had the joint connection identified at initial assessment and had successful surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection. Retrospective evaluation of the tibial intraneural ganglion cysts revealed stereotypic features, which allowed their accurate diagnosis and distinction from extraneural cases. The intraneural cysts had tubular (rather than globular) appearances. They derived from the postero-inferior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint and followed the expected course of the articular branch on the posterior surface of the popliteus muscle. The cysts then extended intra-epineurially into the parent tibial nerves, where they contained displaced nerve fascicles. The extraneural cyst extrinsically compressed the tibial nerve but did not directly involve it. All cadaveric specimens demonstrated a small single articular branch, which derived from the tibial nerve to the popliteus. The branch coursed obliquely across the posterior

  14. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-01-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by [ 3 H]dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced [ 3 H]dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing [ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry

  15. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex thickness and macular outer retinal thickness: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kita, Ritsuko; Takeyama, Asuka; Anraku, Ayako; Tomita, Goji; Goldberg, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thicknesses. Case-control study. Forty-two normal eyes and 91 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100) was used to measure the macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thickness. Ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was also calculated. The relationships between the ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses and between the ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses in the normal group and the glaucoma group (r = 0.53, P variation in the outer retinal thickness. Therefore, when determining the ganglion cell complex, it seems necessary to consider the outer retinal thickness as well. We propose the ratio as a suitable parameter to account for individual variations in outer retinal thickness. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. Awareness and timing of pelvic floor muscle contraction, pelvic exercises and rehabilitation of pelvic floor in lifelong premature ejaculation: 5 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Pera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the cure rate of patients with premature ejaculation who underwent a treatment involving: 1 awareness of the pelvic floor muscles 2 learning the timing of execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase 3 pelvic floor rehabilitation (bio feed back, pelvic exercises and electrostimulation. Materials and methods: We recruited 78 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation who completed the training. The patients were informed of the role of the pelvic floor. They were taught to carry out the execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase to control the ejaculatory reflex. In order to improve the awareness, the tone and the endurance of the pelvic floor muscles, patients were treated with the rehabilitation of pelvic floor (RPF consisting mainly in biofeedback, pelvic exercises and in some cases also in electro-stimulation (ES. The training was carried out for a period of about 2-6 months with an average of 2-5 visits per cycle. Results: 54% of patients who completed the training were cured of premature ejaculation and learned over time to be able to postpone the ejaculation reflex. In a subgroup of 26 patients was also measured the IELT which on the average increased from < 2 minutes to >10 minutes. The best results occurred mainly in patients aged less than 35 where the cure rate was 65%. There were no side effects. Conclusions: In this study, approximately half of patients with premature ejaculation were cured after applying the above treatment.This therapy, necessitates a fairly long period of time (2-6 months and a great commitment on the part of the patient, nevertheless it can be a valid and effective treatment for patients with premature ejaculation. This treatment makes the patient independent in that he is not bound to specific times for taking medication. Furthermore there are no

  17. Diagnosis of pelvic wall tumor on multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Keyun; Deng Lequn; Lei Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multi-slice CT (MSCT) in diagnosing pelvic wall tumors. Methods: MSCT of 21 cases of pelvic wall tumors including metastasis (10), neurogenic tumor (5), chondrosarcoma (2), chordoma (1), aneurysmal bone cyst (1), giant cell tumor (1), and osteochondroma (1) was retrospectively analyzed. Results: CT appearances of pelvic wall tumors include bony destruction and soft tissue masses. Common features were bone destruction in metastasis, expansion of the neuroforamen in neurogenic tumor, pleomorphic calcification in chondrosarcoma, lower sacral vertebral location of chordoma, iliac crest bone destruction in giant cell tumor, cauliflower-like nodules in osteochondroma. Conclusion: MSCT with three-dimensional volume rendering demonstrates well the tumor shape, size, extent, internal structure and relationship with the surrounding organs to aid diagnosis of pelvic wall tumors. (authors)

  18. Power to the Pelvis: Strengthening Your Pelvic Floor Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulging Hernia Keeping Your Gut in Check The Power of Your Pancreas Wise Choices Lower Your Risk of Pelvic Floor Issues Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid constipation and straining by getting enough ...

  19. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Holm, S.S.; Lund, B.

    2004-01-01

    on the measurements of radiographic indices of hip dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of varying pelvic orientation on radiographic measurements of acetabular dysplasia using a cadaver model. Results from the cadaver study were used to validate the radiographic assessments of acetabular...... radiograph was recorded at each 3 degrees increment. The most widely used radiographic parameters of hip dysplasia were assessed. 2) Critical limits of acceptable rotation and inclination/reclination of pelvises were determined on 4151 standing, standardised pelvic radiographs of the CCHS cohort. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation...

  20. the anatomy of pelvic corona mortis vessles in black africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moi University, P. O. Box ... This vascular anastomosis is also at risk during ilionguinal approach to the acetabulum (7). A medial approach for pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia ..... Gray's Anatomy 39th Edition , section 7 abdomen.