Sample records for rat nasal mucosa

  1. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhicong; Dong, Weiyang; Deng, Congrui; Zhao, Renwu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Ruxin


    Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol. The results show that the PM2.5 exposure induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These changes were accompanied by decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase in rat nasal mucosa. PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa. These changes were accompanied by abnormal alterations of mitochondrial structures, including mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorder, and even fission resulting from higher doses of PM2.5. Our data shows that oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction may be the toxic mechanisms that cause nasal lesions after exposure to PM2.5. PMID:28146064

  2. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal


    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes.

  3. Metabolic activation of phenacetin in rat nasal mucosa: dose-dependent binding to the glands of Bowman

    Brittebo, E.B.


    The metabolism and binding of the analgetic drug (ring-/sup 3/H)phenacetin in the nasal mucosa were studied in vitro and in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. As shown by whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography there was an irreversible binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa after high but not after low doses of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. In the other tissues, the distribution of radioactivity was not changed when the dose was increased. Autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)-acetaminophen showed no preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. At incubation of nasal septa with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin in vitro, a binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman was observed indicating that the metabolism occurred in situ. In rats, glutathione (GSH) depleted by pretreatment with phorone, there was a binding to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa also after a trace dose of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. Addition of GSH decreased the irreversible binding of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin metabolites that occurred in 9000 X g nasal mucosa supernatants incubated with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. There was a moderate decrease in the level of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH, in the olfactory mucosa after administration of 100-300 mg/kg phenacetin. Collectively, these data suggest that phenacetin is metabolized and subsequent to GSH depletion, bound preferentially in the glands of Bowman. The data also suggest that in situ metabolic activation and binding of phenacetin in the rat nasal mucosa at high doses may play a role in the pathogenesis of the nasal tumors induced by high doses of phenacetin in the rat.

  4. Irrigação intranasal: avaliação dos efeitos do uso de soluções hidroeletrolíticas na mucosa de ratos Nasal irrigation: effects of hydroelectrolytic solutions on rats mucosa

    Erika Y. C. Viertler


    Full Text Available A irrrigação intranasal tem grande importância como terapia adjuvante de doenças nasossinusais. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem as alterações histológicas que as diferentes soluções utilizadas podem causar na mucosa do nariz. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos histológicos da mucosa nasal de ratos após irrigação local com diferentes soluções hidroeletrolíticas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 120 ratos Wistar foram divididos igualmente em 4 grupos. O grupo número 1 recebeu solução salina a 0,9%. Os grupos 2 e 3 receberam soluções contendo Cloreto de Sódio associado a Cloreto de Potássio e Glicose, em diferentes concentrações. O grupo 4 foi o grupo controle. Duas vezes ao dia, 0,1ml (2 gotas das soluções foram aplicados na narina esquerda dos ratos, através de uma seringa. Metade dos animais de cada grupo foi sacrificado após a primeira semana e a metade restante após a quarta semana de tratamento. Os fragmentos de mucosa obtidos foram processados e estudados em microscopia óptica, utilizando a hematoxilina e eosina. RESULTADOS: Pôde-se observar que a infiltração de células inflamatórias foi estatisticamente mais intensa no grupo 2, em 1 e 4 semanas de administração das soluções (pNasal irrigation is an important adjuvant therapy for nasosinusis diseases. Many hydroelectrolytic solutions have been used for it, but studies are lacking to analyze the histological reactions they may cause to the nasal mucosa. PURPOSE: to examine the histological patterns in nasal mucosa after application of three different hydroelectrolytic solutions. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 120 Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. Group number 1 received a 0.9% saline solution. Group's number 2 and 3 received solutions composed by Sodium Chloride, associated to Potassium Chloride and Glucose in different concentrations. Group 4 was the control group. Twice a day, 0.1ml (2 drops of

  5. Histological changes in the nasal mucosa in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust.

    Holmström, M; Wilhelmsson, B; Hellquist, H


    Wood dust is a well known nasal carcinogen in man, as formaldehyde is in rats. In certain occupational environments, combined exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde is common. Little is known about the effects of this combination. A pilot study was performed on four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: one exposed to wood dust (25 mg/m3), another to formaldehyde (12.4 ppm) and a third to both wood dust and formaldehyde; the fourth group served a control group. After 104 weeks of exposure the nose and lungs were examined histologically. One well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was found in the formaldehyde group. Squamous cell metaplasia was found significantly more often among the formaldehyde-exposed rats. Squamous cell metaplasia with dysplasia was most frequently observed, however, in the group exposed to both formaldehyde and wood dust. There were also significantly more rats with pulmonary emphysema in the groups exposed to wood dust than in the other groups.

  6. Rat Nasal Respiratory Mucosa-Derived Ectomesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into Schwann-Like Cells Promoting the Differentiation of PC12 Cells and Forming Myelin In Vitro

    Jian Zhang


    Full Text Available Schwann cell (SC transplantation as a cell-based therapy can enhance peripheral and central nerve repair experimentally, but it is limited by the donor site morbidity for clinical application. We investigated weather respiratory mucosa stem cells (REMSCs, a kind of ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs, isolated from rat nasal septum can differentiate into functional Schwann-like cells (SC-like cells. REMSCs proliferated quickly in vitro and expressed the neural crest markers (nestin, vimentin, SOX10, and CD44. Treated with a mixture of glial growth factors for 7 days, REMSCs differentiated into SC-like cells. The differentiated REMSCs (dREMSCs exhibited a spindle-like morphology similar to SC cells. Immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting indicated that SC-like cells expressed the glial markers (GFAP, S100β, Galc, and P75 and CNPase. When cocultured with dREMSCs for 5 days, PC12 cells differentiated into mature neuron-like cells with long neurites. More importantly, dREMSCs could form myelin structures with the neurites of PC12 cells at 21 days in vitro. Our data indicated that REMSCs, a kind of EMSCs, could differentiate into SC-like cells and have the ability to promote the differentiation of PC12 cells and form myelin in vitro.

  7. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K;


    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...

  8. [Funtcional and morphological changes in nasal mucosa in patients presenting with septal deformation].

    Piskunov, V S; Mezentseva, O Iu


    This study was designed to obtain morpho-functional characteristics of nasal mucosa associated with septal deformation. It has demonstrated disturbances in the mucociluary transport, compromised mucosal immunity, and morphological changes in the nasal cavity.

  9. Sulforaphane induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa

    Meyer, Megan; Kesic, Matthew J.; Clarke, John; Ho, Emily; Simmen, Rosalia C.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona


    Summary Cells lining the respiratory tract are equipped with mechanisms that dampen the effects of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a mediator involved in regulating oxidative stress. Recent data indicate Nrf2 also controls expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, enhances Nrf2 activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that SFN supplementation induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa in an Nrf2 dependent manner. Healthy nonsmoking adults ingested SFN-containing broccoli shake homogenate (BSH) for 3 consecutive days. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was collected before and after BSH ingestion and analyzed for SLPI protein levels. In follow up in vitro experiments, differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells were used to evaluate the relationship between SFN, Nrf2, and SLPI. Epithelial cells were transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA to examine the regulatory role of Nrf2 on SLPI expression. Supplementation with BSH significantly increased SLPI levels in NLF. SFN supplementation in vitro significantly enhanced SLPI secretion and these effects were significantly decreased in cells transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA. PMID:23195333

  10. The mitosis and immunocytochemistry of olfactory ensheathing cells from nasal olfactory mucosa

    LIU Jin-bo; TANG Tian-si; GONG Ai-hua; SHENG Wei-hua; YANG Ji-cheng


    Objective: To culture olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) of rats in vitro and to investigate its morphology, mitosis and immunocytochemistry, and to explore if the OECs could be a new donation for transplantation. Methods: OECs were harvested from olfactory mucosa of Sprague Dawleys rats based on the differing rates of attachment of the various cell types, followed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nerve growth factor (NGF), anti-low affinity receptor for NGF (NGFRp75), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and S-100 immunocytochemistry. The morphological changes and mitosis were observed under a phase contrast microscope at different culture time.Results: Three morphologically distinct types of cells, bipolar,multipolar and flat morphology were present in the primary culture of adult rat olfactory mucosa. Mitosis was characterized by a retraction of all processes, forming a sphere that divided into spherical daughter cells, the daughter cells sent out their processes. The OECs were immunoreactive for GFAP, NGFRp75, S-100, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. Conclusions: The OECs from nasal olfactory mucosa cultivated in the medium with fetal bovine serum could survive, divide, differentiate, and express the neurotrophin. It may become an accessible source for autologous grafting in spinal cord injury.

  11. In vitro tolerability of human nasal mucosa: histopathological and scanning electron-microscopic evaluation of nasal forms containing Sandostatin.

    de Fraissinette, A; Kolopp, M; Schiller, I; Fricker, G; Gammert, C; Pospischil, A; Vonderscher, J; Richter, F


    An in vitro human nasal model was developed as a tool to study the local tolerability of nasal powder forms using excised nasal mucosa in a diffusion chamber. The suitability of this model was tested using Sandostatin (SMS) an octapeptide analog of somatostatin, as a reference drug enhanced by Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose) or lactose (100 mesh). The standard nasal spray vehicle was taken as a harmless control and 1% chenodeoxycholate (CDC) as a harmful control in terms of local tolerability. The extent of peptide permeation was determined by measuring SMS concentration in the receiving chamber. The labeling of SMS was detected by immunoperoxidase staining on cross sections. The local tolerability for all tested forms was assessed by histopathological examination and scanning electron microscopy. The apparent permeation coefficient allowed us to rank the absorption of the tested drug forms as Avicel > spray = lactose > 1%CDC. For all formulations, SMS was detected in the epithelium. No changes of the nasal mucosa could be observed with Avicel, lactose or nasal spray vehicle in the presence or absence of SMS. 1%CDC with or without drug showed an immediate destruction of the nasal epithelium. The validation of this in vitro model using human nasal mucosa will be further discussed as a tool for assessing the local tolerability of intranasally applied test substances.

  12. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Elio Hitoshi Shinohara


    Full Text Available In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  13. Measuring local immunoglobulin E in the inferior turbinate nasal mucosa in patients with allergic rhinitis

    Yasushi Ota


    Conclusions: Our results evaluating the correlations between nasal mucosal and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE indicate that IgE produced in the nasal mucosa affects the IgE levels in the serum, especially the cedar pollen-specific IgE.


    E. Yu. Radtsig


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.


    E. Yu. Radtsig


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.

  16. The Fungi Flora of Healthy Nasal Mucosa in Kerman, Iran


    Introduction: Environmental fungi, molds and yeasts, can infest the nasal cavity through inhaled air. There is some evidence that they could be the main cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) but little is known about the normal fungal flora in the human nose. The objective of this study was to assess the normal fungal flora of the nasal mucus in adults in Kerman. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Nasal swabs were used to sample the nasal cavity of 100 a...

  17. Novel applications for a noninvasive sampling method of the nasal mucosa.

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Speen, Adam M; Clapp, Phillip W; Jaspers, Ilona


    Reliable methods for sampling the nasal mucosa provide clinical researchers with key information regarding respiratory biomarkers of exposure and disease. For quick and noninvasive sampling of the nasal mucosa, nasal lavage (NL) collection has been widely used as a clinical tool; however, limitations including volume variability, sample dilution, and storage prevent NL collection from being used in nonlaboratory settings and analysis of low abundance biomarkers. In this study, we optimize and validate a novel methodology using absorbent Leukosorb paper cut to fit the nasal passage to extract epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from the nasal mucosa. The ELF sampling method limits the dilution of soluble mediators, allowing quantification of both high- and low-abundance soluble biomarkers such as IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, we demonstrate that this method can successfully detect the presence of respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus and markers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the nasal mucosa. Efficacy of ELF collection by this method is not diminished in consecutive-day sampling, and percent recovery of both recombinant IL-8 and soluble mediators are not changed despite freezing or room temperature storage for 24 h. Our results indicate that ELF collection using Leukosorb paper sampling of ELF provides a sensitive, easy-to-use, and reproducible methodology to collect concentrated amounts of soluble biomarkers from the nasal mucosa. Moreover, the methodology described herein improves upon the standard NL collection method and provides researchers with a novel tool to assess changes in nasal mucosal host defense status. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Activation of histamine H3 receptors in human nasal mucosa inhibits sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Gustafson, Eric; Laverty, Maureen; Hey, John A


    The peripheral histamine H3 receptor is a presynaptic heterologous receptor located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating sympathetic effector systems such as blood vessels and the heart. An extensive body of evidence shows that activation of the histamine H3 receptor attenuates sympathetic tone by presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release. It is proposed that this sympathoinhibitory action, in vivo, leads to reduced vasoconstriction, thereby eliciting a vasodilatory effect. In humans, the peripheral histamine H3 receptor has also been shown to exert a sympathoinhibitory function on specific peripheral autonomic effector systems. For example, human saphenous vein and heart possess functional presynaptic histamine H3 receptors on the sympathetic nerve terminals that upon activation decrease the sympathetic tone to these respective organs. The present studies were conducted to define the role of histamine H3 receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in human nasal turbinate mucosa. Contractility studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of histamine H3 receptor activation on sympathetic vasoconstriction in surgically isolated human nasal turbinate mucosa. We found that the histamine H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (30 and 300 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced (neurogenic) sympathetic vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit (100 nM), blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine on the neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction. In addition, analysis of Taqman mRNA expression studies showed a specific, high level of distribution of the histamine H3 receptor localized in the human nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H3 receptors modulate vascular contractile responses in human nasal mucosa most likely by inhibiting noradrenaline release from

  19. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction in porcine nasal mucosa.

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Hey, John A


    Histamine release from mast cells is a primary mediator of rhinorrhea, nasal mucosal swelling, increased secretion, sneezing, pruritus and congestion that occur in allergic rhinitis. It is well known that histamine H(1) receptor antagonists inhibit the itch and rhinorhea, but do not block the allergic nasal congestion. A growing body of evidence shows that in addition to histamine H(1) receptors, activation of H(3) receptors may contribute to the procongestant nasal actions of histamine. Activation of the prejunctional histamine H(3) receptor modulates sympathetic control of nasal vascular tone and resistance. The present study was conducted to further characterize the role of histamine H(3) receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vascular contractile responses in isolated porcine nasal turbinate mucosa. We presently found that the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (10-1000 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic vasomotor contractions in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with either of the selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, thioperamide and clobenpropit, blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine in porcine turbinate mucosa. The effect of compound 48/80, an agent that elicits the release of endogenous histamine from mast cells on nasal sympathetic contractile responses, was also tested. The action of compound 48/80 to release mast cell-derived histamine in the nose mimics many of the nasal responses associated with allergic rhinitis, extravascular leakage and decreased nasal patency. We presently found that compound 48/80 also inhibited the electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic response. Pretreatment with the H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit blocked the sympathoinhibitory action of compound 48/80 on sympathetic contractile responses in nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H(3) receptors modulate vascular contractile


    M. A. Mokronosova


    Full Text Available Abstract. Eosinophils are regarded as major cell population directly involved into late phase of allergic inflammation of nasal mucosa. We performed a comparative study, measuring the amounts of eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in nasal secretions and serum samples of thirty-three patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR, and twenty-five persons with chronic infectious rhinitis (CIR, to determine diagnostic significance of these parameters. Eosinophil counts in nasal secret were carried out by exfoliative cytology analysis. Sampling of nasal secretions was performed by absorption method. The samples were standardized by concentration of urea in nasal secretions and sera. ЕСР levels in nasal secretions and serum were determined by chemiluminescence assays (UniCAP 100, Phadia, Sweden. Mean scores of eosinophils in nasal secret of PAR patients were 4.6 times higher, than in the patients with CIR. Median ECP values in serum and nasal secretions of PAR patients were, resp., 30.5±28.0 μg/l and 402.7±326.9 μg/l. In patients with CIR, ECP values were 12.4±11.5 μg/l in serum and 86.9±137.4 μg/l in nasal secretions. The appropriate differences have been significant (р < 0.05. No correlations were found between ECP levels in serum and nasal secretions, as well as between ECP levels and eosinophil counts in nasal secretions. The technique of ECP determination in nasal secretions was the most sensitive approach, whereas counting of eosinophils proved to be the most specific method. ECP levels in nasal secretions well characterize an active phase of allergic inflammation and may be used as quantitative parameter for estimation of PAR severity.

  1. The Fungi Flora of Healthy Nasal Mucosa in Kerman, Iran

    Narges Khanjani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental fungi, molds and yeasts, can infest the nasal cavity through inhaled air. There is some evidence that they could be the main cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS but little is known about the normal fungal flora in the human nose. The objective of this study was to assess the normal fungal flora of the nasal mucus in adults in Kerman. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Nasal swabs were used to sample the nasal cavity of 100 adults, 46 men and 54 women between 17 and 60 years old, currently living in Kerman, Iran. Results: Among 100 healthy people, one or more types of fungi were detected in 31 (31% persons; Candida in 12 persons, Aspergillus in 8 persons, Streptomyces in 8 persons, and Penicillium, Nocardia and Mucor in a few persons. In only 4 persons, more than one type of fungi was detected.  There was no significant relation between age, sex, education or smoking with the presence of fungi. Conclusion: Fungi have been considered one of the causative agents of CRS and differences in climatic conditions can influence the fungi flora.

  2. Nasal mucosa: a new site for tissue biopsy to diagnose hereditary TTR amyloidosis.

    Munar-Qués, Miguel; Solé, Manel; Martínez-Nadal, Jacinto; Murcia-Sáiz, Antonio; Mas-Degano, José Manuel


    We report 2 carriers of the TTRV30M mutation and its plasmatic biochemical marker with clinical symptoms compatible with hereditary TTR amyloidosis. Based on our previously reported casual finding of amyloid TTR in nasal mucosa (2008), we requested biopsy of this tissue to search for amyloid with Congo red staining and TTR immunohistochemical analysis. The histological diagnosis was achieved by retrospective analysis of surgical sinonasal biopsy in the first patient and prospective biopsy of inferior nasal concha in the second. Large interstitial deposits of ATTR were observed in both cases. We suggest nasal mucosa as a suitable site for tissue biopsy in patients with suspected hereditary TTR amyloidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva


    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  4. Sutura de la mucosa en la cirugía funcional del tabique nasal Suture of the mucosa in the functional surgery of the nasal septum

    René Esteban Moreno Rajadle


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo para evaluar la evolución posoperatoria de los pacientes intervenidos por desviación del tabique nasal, en los que se utilizó sutura de la mucosa como método hemostático. Se incluyeron los 502 pacientes intervenidos por desviación del tabique nasal, en los que se utilizó sutura de la mucosa y que fueron operados en el período comprendido entre julio de 1999 y julio del 2005, en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Universitario «Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima» de Cienfuegos. Las variables seleccionadas para el estudio fueron: edad, sexo, criterio para la intervención quirúrgica según localización de la deformidad del tabique nasal, comportamiento de las secreciones serohemáticas posquirúrgicas, síntomas posoperatorios y complicaciones. Predominó el sexo masculino (65,3 % y el mayor porcentaje de los operados se encontraba entre los 21 y 40 años de edad. Las desviaciones bajas del tabique nasal fueron el criterio quirúrgico más frecuentemente encontrado (88,4 %; fueron escasos los síntomas postoperatorios y sólo el 3,6 % de los pacientes intervenidos presentó complicaciones, entre las cuales el sangrado fue la más frecuente (2,0 %. Consideramos que este proceder es favorable por las múltiples ventajas que ofreció en el orden clinicoquirúrgico, de eficiencia hospitalaria y en términos de comodidad para el paciente

  5. Methods for Diagnosing Some Malignant Neoplasms of the Canine Nasal Mucosa

    Emilia Florica Balint


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to highlight the easiest method of investigation (nasal lavage or rhinoscopy depending on the animal condition. 18 dogs were investigated, which presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, with respiratory distress due to obstruction of the nasal cavities. The sampling for cytological diagnosis was done using the two techniques, the nasal lavage and rhinoscopy. It is most useful to try the lavage first, because it is less invasive, and only then, if case of poor cellularity after centrifugation, or in case of a inflammatory process with unfavourable post-treatment evolution, endoscopy will be used. Cytomorphological diagnosis using, after rhinoscopy or nasal lavage, have evidentiated the following forms of nasal cancer: 10 cases out of 18 were epithelial neoplasms of the olfactory mucosa; 6 cases out of 18 were nerve tumors (malignant melanoma, estesiocarcinoma; 2 cases out of 18 were mesenchymal tumors (osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma. The nasal lavage is a good sampling method but has the disadvantage of sometimes encountering an acute or chronic inflammatory process that can shield the tumor process.

  6. An ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization.

    Pawel Tulinski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×10(8 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue.

  7. Um caso particular de granuloma de sílica na mucosa nasal

    Bussoloti Filho Ivo


    Full Text Available A silicose é uma doença granulomatosa que acomete o pulmão de pessoas expostas a cristais de sílica, porém não encontramos na revisão de literatura outro caso acometendo a mucosa nasal. Trata-se de uma paciente de 46 anos que começou a apresentar queda de dorso nasal em área K e rinorréia sanguinolenta, tendo evoluindo para perfuração de septo; ao exame a mucosa apresentava aspecto granuloso de onde foi colhido material para exame anátomo-patológico que revelou cristais de sílica em meio a processo inflamatório linfoplasmocitário. Não foi encontrada a forma de exposição à sílica nessa paciente, que depois de um período de 3 anos sem sintomas, sem formação de crostas nasais ou alteração do aspecto externo da pirâmide nasal, foi submetida à rinoplastia para correção do afundamento em dorso nasal. Esse caso não deve ser considerado apenas como curiosidade, mas como uma doença cuja patogenia não está esclarecida.

  8. The ovine nasal mucosa: an alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization.

    Sedgmen, Bradley J; Lofthouse, Shari A; Meeusen, Els N T


    The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by aerosol spray with KLH with and without cholera toxin (CT). Sheep immunized by injection with KLH/alum and aerosol spray with KLH/CT induced strong anti-KLH IgG and IgA serum antibody responses as well as specific T cell memory. Anti-KLH IgG1 responses were significantly higher following immunization by injection and no significant differences in anti-KLH IgG2 responses were detected between groups. Sheep immunized with KLH by aerosol spray without CT did not produce serum antibody and T cell memory responses. Antibody-secreting cells were present in the parotid lymph nodes (draining lymph nodes) of sheep immunized with KLH/alum and KLH/CT, but secreted only Ag-specific IgG1, and not IgG2 or IgA. These results suggest that aerosolization of soluble antigen formulations with CT may provide an alternative method of delivering nasal vaccines to sheep and other large animal species, and that further improvements in antigen penetration of nasal tissues may dramatically improve the strength of the immune response.

  9. Characterization of isolates of Acanthamoeba from the nasal mucosa and cutaneous lesions of dogs.

    Carlesso, A M; Mentz, M B; da Machado, M L S; Carvalho, A; Nunes, T E T; Maschio, V J; Rott, M B


    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and can cause encephalomyelitis in animals and humans. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread, and host susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba from the nasal mucosa and cutaneous lesions of dogs in order to access the occurence and pathogenicity of these organisms in this animal group. We studied 13 isolates of Acanthamoeba confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. They were sequenced, the genotype was determined, and their potential of pathogenicity was evaluated.

  10. Localization and function of histamine H3 receptor in the nasal mucosa

    Suzuki, Shinya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi


    BACKGROUND: Histamine is an important chemical mediator of allergic rhinitis (AR). Histamine H3 receptors H3R are located on cholinergic and NANC neurons of the myenteric plexus, and activation of H3R regulates gastric acid secretion. However, little is known about the localization and function of H3R in the upper airway. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the localization and possible function of H3R in the nasal mucosa. METHODS: We extracted total RNA from the inferior tu...

  11. [Localization and distribution of human olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavities].

    Escada, Pedro


    Introdução: A distribuição da mucosa olfactiva humana só pode ser determinada em estudos que avaliem a totalidade da região olfactiva. O objectivo deste trabalho é determinar a distribuição da mucosa olfactiva humana a partir do estudo histológico, por microscopia óptica, de peças anatómicas da região olfactiva obtidas do cadáver.Material e Métodos: Utilizaram-se peças anatómicas da região olfactiva colhidas durante a autópsia de cadáveres recentes. Em cada uma das peças foi determinada a distância entre a lâmina crivosa e o limite inferior da região olfactiva em três localizações diferentes da parede septal e da parede lateral.Resultados: das 230 peças anatómicas disponíveis, 217 foram excluídas por razões clínicas ou técnicas. Realizaram-se estudosmorfométricos em 13 peças num total de 156 medições. O limite inferior da mucosa olfactiva no septo nasal estava a 15,9 ± 3,2 mm, a 15,3 ± 3 mm e a 16 ± 2,8 mm nas porções anterior, média e posterior da região olfactiva. O limite inferior da mucosa olfactiva na parede turbinal estava a 15,3 ± 2,4 mm, a 14,8 ± 2,3 mm e a 12,3 ± 1,9 mm nas mesmas localizações. O valor mínimo observado foi de 12 mm.Conclusões: A mucosa olfactiva estende-se pelo corneto superior e médio e pelo septo nasal confrontante numa distância que nunca é inferior a 12 mm e que pode ultrapassar os 16 mm. O conhecimento da distribuição exacta da mucosa olfactiva nas fossas nasais pode ser útil para orientar a colheita em seres humanos, com propósitos diagnósticos ou terapêuticos.

  12. Geno- and cytotoxicity of salinomycin in human nasal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Scherzad, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Schramm, Carolin; Froelich, Katrin; Ginzkey, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert


    Salinomycin is usually applied in stock breading but has also been described as a promising agent against cancer stem cells (CSC). However, knowledge about the toxicity of this ionophor substance is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate cyto- and genotoxic effects of salinomycin in human non-malignant cells. Primary human nasal mucosa cells (monolayer and mini organ cultures) and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 individuals were used to study the cytotoxic effects of salinomycin (0.1-175 μM) by annexin-propidiumiodide- and MTT-test. The comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Additionally, the secretion of interleukin-8 was analyzed by ELISA. Flow cytometry and MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxic effects in nasal mucosa cells and lymphocytes at low salinomycin concentrations of 10-20 μM. No genotoxic effects could be observed. IL-8 secretion was elevated at 5 μM. Salinomycin-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects were seen at concentrations relevant for anti-cancer treatment. Concurrent to the evaluation of salinomycin application in experimental oncology, adverse effects in non-malignant cells need to be monitored and reduced as much as possible. Further studies are also warranted to evaluate the toxic effects in a variety of human cell systems, e.g., liver, kidney and muscle cells.

  13. Effect of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray treatment on platelet activating factor and eicosanoid production by nasal mucosa in patients with a house dust mite allergy

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); T. De Graaf-In 't Veld (T.); A.P.H. Jansen (A. P H); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)


    textabstractThe relationship between the release of platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4/D4/EE (LTC4/D4/E4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) from nasal mucosa in vivo was examined in 24 rhinitis patients allergic to the house dust mite (HDM). During a double blind placebo controlled cross-ove

  14. Correlation of Local FOXP3-Expressing T Cells and Th1-Th2 Balance in Perennial Allergic Nasal Mucosa

    Hideaki Shirasaki


    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg play some important roles in allergic rhinitis. The most specific marker for Treg is FOXP3, a recently identified transcription factor that is essential for Treg development. In order to clarify the levels of Treg in allergic nasal mucosa, we studied the relationship between FOXP3-expressing cells and Th1-Th2 balance in nasal mucosa by means of immunohistochemistry. Human turbinates were obtained after turbinectomy from 26 patients (14 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and 12 patients with nonallergic rhinitis. To identify the cells expressing the FOXP3 protein, double immunostaining was performed by using anti-FOXP3 antibody and anti-CD3 antibody. There was no significant difference in the percentage of FOXP3+CD3+ cells among CD3+ cells in the nasal mucosa of two groups. The proportion of FOXP3+CD3+ cells tend to be correlated positively with GATA3+CD3+ cells/T-bet+CD3+ cells ratio (=0.56, =0.04. A positive correlation with GATA3+CD3+/T-bet+CD3+ ratio and FOXP3+CD3+/CD3+ ratio suggests the role of local regulatory T cells as a minimal control of the chronic allergen exposure in nasal mucosa.

  15. Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa.

    Hwang, Kun


    The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa.

  16. [Control of blood flow in nasal mucosa by electro-stimulation of sphenopalatine ganglion].

    Zheng, C; Wang, Z


    The effects of control of blood flow on cat nasal mucosa by stimulating sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) were studied using laser Doppler flowmetry in order to investigate the role of SPG. The study showed that the stimulation on one side of SPG could induce vasodilation, with increased blood flow, as well as protective reflexes on both sides. The reactivity depended on the stimulation intensity, frequency and duration. The stimulation on one side of postganglionic parasympathetic nerves, in which the stellate ganglion was resected, caused vasodilation only ipsilaterally. The results indicated that the vasodilation induced by stimulating SPG might be mediated via central reflex arc. The "reverse blood regulation" phenomenon was observed during stimulation of SPG as well. The mechanisms of "reverse blood regulation" induced by stimulating SPG need further investigation.

  17. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others


    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  18. Cambios en la mucosa nasal de los médicos por exposición al humo por electrocoagulación

    María C. Navarro


    Full Text Available Objective: to prove that exposure to smoke resulting from electrocoagulation causes changes in the nasal mucosa of physicians in training at a public hospital in Mexico. Methodology: a prospective fixed cohort study was conducted with a working universe consisting of 43 physicians distributed as follows: a group of 20 professionals with non-surgical specialties (thus unexposed to electrocautery smoke inhalation, and another group of 23 with surgical specialties (thus they were exposed to electrocautery smoke inhalation. They underwent two nasal biopsies: one at the beginning of the study and another after training as specialists for four years. The biopsies were reviewed by the hospital’s chief of Pathology and the incidence of changes in the nasal mucosa in both groups was calculated together with exposure index and the relative risk. Results: the biopsies performed at baseline showed that none of the specialists in training included in this study had damages in the nasal mucosa. The final biopsies, performed after the four-year medical training, had the following results: 70% of the medical residents, who were exposed, showed some histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa (hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia, whereas only 5% (1/20 of the unexposed individuals had them; the risk factor for nasal mucosa damage by exposure was estimated at 13.8. The most common lesions resulting from exposure to smoke from electrocoagulation were hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Conclusions: our results demonstrate that residents exposed to smoke produced by electrocoagulation have changes in the nasal mucosa.

  19. A unique method for the isolation of nasal olfactory stem cells in living rats.

    Stamegna, Jean-Claude; Girard, Stéphane D; Veron, Antoine; Sicard, Gilles; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Feron, François; Roman, François S


    Stem cells are attractive tools to develop new therapeutic strategies for a variety of disorders. While ethical and technical issues, associated with embryonic, fetal and neural stem cells, limit the translation to clinical applications, the nasal stem cells identified in the human olfactory mucosa stand as a promising candidate for stem cell-based therapies. Located in the back of the nose, this multipotent stem cell type is readily accessible in humans, a feature that makes these cells highly suitable for the development of autologous cell-based therapies. However, preclinical studies based on autologous transplantation of rodent olfactory stem cells are impeded because of the narrow opening of the nasal cavity. In this study, we report the development of a unique method permitting to quickly and safely biopsy olfactory mucosa in rats. Using this newly developed technique, rat stem cells expressing the stem cell marker Nestin were successfully isolated without requiring the sacrifice of the donor animal. As an evidence of the self-renewal capacity of the isolated cells, several millions of rat cells were amplified from a single biopsy within four weeks. Using an olfactory discrimination test, we additionally showed that this novel biopsy method does not affect the sense of smell and the learning and memory abilities of the operated animals. This study describes for the first time a methodology allowing the derivation of rat nasal cells in a way that is suitable for studying the effects of autologous transplantation of any cell type present in the olfactory mucosa in a wide variety of rat models.

  20. Cigarette smoke effects on innate immune mechanisms in the nasal mucosa. Potential effects on the microbiome.

    Jaspers, Ilona


    It is well established that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), through active smoking and through exposure to secondhand smoke, has immunosuppressive effects, yet how this might affect the microbiome is not known. In this manuscript we focus on the effects of CS on innate host defense response, with particular emphasis on the role of epithelial cells and mucosal immune responses in the nose and the potential effects on the microbiome. The studies described here briefly summarize the effects of CS on specific innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. A detailed description of how CS affects epithelial cells and why we consider this to be a central defect in the overall immunosuppressive effects of CS in the lung is provided. We summarize data on the role of the "epimmunome" in the context of CS exposure, including the effects on soluble mediator production, such as cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense mediators. Separate emphasis is put on the expression of ligands on epithelial cells, which directly interact with receptors on immune cells, and the effects of CS on these interactions. We introduce the nose and nasal mucosa as a model to study the effects of CS exposure on host defense responses and changes in the microbiome in humans in vivo. Understanding the dynamics of a healthy microbiome and how CS affects this balance is important to uncovering the mechanisms of CS-induced disease.

  1. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray reduces inflammatory cells in unchallenged allergic nasal mucosa : Effects of single allergen challenge

    Holm, A; Dijkstra, M; Kleinjan, A; Severijnen, LA; Boks, S; Mulder, P; Fokkens, W


    Background: Topical corticosteroid therapy reduces symptoms and nasal mucosal inflammatory cells in patients with allergic rhinitis. Usually patients are advised to start their medication (1 week) before the beginning of the pollen season. The effect of pretreatment with a topical corticosteroid on

  2. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray reduces inflammatory cells in unchallenged allergic nasal mucosa : Effects of single allergen challenge

    Holm, A; Dijkstra, M; Kleinjan, A; Severijnen, LA; Boks, S; Mulder, P; Fokkens, W

    Background: Topical corticosteroid therapy reduces symptoms and nasal mucosal inflammatory cells in patients with allergic rhinitis. Usually patients are advised to start their medication (1 week) before the beginning of the pollen season. The effect of pretreatment with a topical corticosteroid on

  3. Methods for Diagnosing Some Malignant Neoplasms of the Canine Nasal Mucosa

    Emilia Florica Balint; Florin Dumitrescu; Iuliana Mihai; Nicolae Manolescu


    Abstract The aim of this study is to highlight the easiest method of investigation (nasal lavage or rhinoscopy) depending on the animal condition. 18 dogs were investigated, which presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, with respiratory distress due to obstruction of the nasal cavities. The sampling for cytological diagnosis was done using the two techniques, the nasal lavage and rhinoscopy. It is most useful to try the lavage first, because it is less invasive, and onl...

  4. Simulation modeling of the tissue disposition of formaldehyde to predict nasal DNA-protein cross-links in Fischer 344 rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans.

    Conolly, R B; Lilly, P D; Kimbell, J S


    Formaldehyde inhalation causes formation of DNA-protein cross-links (DPX) in the nasal mucosa of Fischer 344 (F344) rats and rhesus monkeys. DPX are considered to be part of the mechanism by which cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde in laboratory animals are exerted, and DPX data have been used as a measure of tissue dose in cancer risk assessments for formaldehyde. Accurate prediction of DPX concentrations in humans is therefore desirable. The goal of this work was to increase confidence in the prediction of human DPX by refining earlier models of formaldehyde disposition and DPX kinetics in the nasal mucosa. Anatomically accurate, computational fluid dynamics models of the nasal airways of F344 rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans were used to predict the regional flux of formaldehyde to the respiratory and olfactory mucosa. A previously developed model of the tissue disposition of formaldehyde and of DPX kinetics was implemented in the graphical simulation tool SIMULINK and linked to the regional flux predictions. Statistical optimization was used to identify parameter values, and good simulations of the data were obtained. The parameter estimates for rats and monkeys were used to guide allometric scale-up to the human case. The relative levels of nasal mucosal DPX in rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans for a given inhaled concentration of formaldehyde were predicted by the model to vary with concentration. This modeling approach reduces uncertainty in the prediction of human nasal mucosal DPX resulting from formaldehyde inhalation.

  5. Effect of a single dosis of 96% ethanol on rat gastric mucosa. Part II. Histoenzymological studies.

    Kotz, J; Knapik, Z; Lubczyńska-Kowalska, W; Houszka, M; Lapińska, J; Rybak, M


    The histoenzymological studies of ATPase and SDH enzymes in rats' gastric mucosa after a single 90 s administration of 96% ethanol proved considerable changes in the enzymes activity in course of injury and subsequent regeneration of mucosa.

  6. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Gustavo A. Sosa


    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  7. Influence of astragaloside on gastric mucosa of stress ulcer rats

    LI Yan-wu


    Objective To investigate the effect of astragaloside (AST) on the gastric mucosal injury of water immersion restraint stress ulcer rat. Methods The stress ulcer model was made by water immersion and restraint. The gastric mucosal injury index was observed. The SOD activity, the MDA contents and the gene expression of melatonin receptor 1 and 2 were detected in gastric mucosa. Results Compared with the normal group, the model group showed mucous edema, hyperemia and even ulcer damage. The injury index and the MDA content of gastric mucosa in model group were significantly increased (P<0.05), the SOD activity of gastric obviously depressed(P<0.01), and the melatonin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expressions of damaged gastric mucosa were also lower. After administration of AST, the gastric mucosal ulcer index and MDA contents relieved obviously (P<0.01, P<0.05), the SOD activity and the expressions of melatonin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA raised up (P<0.01, P<0.05).Conclusions AST could prevent the gastric mucosal damage of rat in stress ulcer. And the mechanism of the gastric mucosal protection should be concerned with regulating the melatonin receptor and lessening the injury of oxygen free radical.

  8. Distribution, chemical coding and origin of nitric oxide synthase-containing nerve fibres in the guinea pig nasal mucosa.

    Kondo, T; Inokuchi, T; Ohta, K; Annoh, H; Chang, J


    The distribution, chemical coding and origin of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing nerve fibres in the respiratory mucosa of the nasal septum of the guinea pig were examined using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. A rich supply of NADPH-d-positive nerve fibres was observed around blood vessels and in nasal glands where nerve fibres frequently penetrated into the epithelia of acini and intralobular ducts. NADPH-d reactivity was also found in the nerve fibres located under or within the respiratory epithelium. Combined immunofluorescence and histochemical staining of the same preparation demonstrated virtually complete overlapping of NOS immunoreactivity and NADPH-d reactivity in nerve fibres, indicating that NADPH-d can be used as a marker for NOS-containing neurons. Double-labelling using antibodies to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) revealed that NADPH-d-positive nerve fibres frequently contained VIP or NPY, but not CGRP. Pterygopalatine ganglionectomy significantly reduced the number of NADPH-d-positive nerve fibres innervating the respiratory epithelium as well as blood vessels and nasal glands. Neither superior cervical ganglionectomy nor sensory denervation by capsaicin treatment affected the distribution of NADPH-d-positive fibres. These results indicate that NOS-containing nerve fibres innervating the respiratory epithelium as well as blood vessels and nasal glands in the guinea pig originate mainly from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and suggest that NO may play a significant role as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the control of the respiratory epithelium as well as vasculature and nasal glands.

  9. A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects

    Deutschle, Tom; Reiter, Rudolf; Butte, Werner; Heinzow, Birger; Keck, Tilman; Riechelmann, Herbert


    Background Few studies have yet addressed the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in house dust on human nasal mucosa. Objectives We investigated the effects of house dust containing DEHP on nasal mucosa of healthy and house dust mite (HDM)–allergic subjects in a short-term exposure setting. Methods We challenged 16 healthy and 16 HDM-allergic subjects for 3 hr with house dust at a concentration of 300 μg/m3 containing either low (0.41 mg/g) or high (2.09 mg/g) levels of DEHP. Exposu...

  10. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica


    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell.

  11. Differential expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines between nasal and small intestinal mucosae: implications for T- and sIgA+ B-lymphocyte recruitment.

    Bourges, Dorothée; Chevaleyre, Claire; Wang, CaiHong; Berri, Mustapha; Zhang, XiaoMei; Nicaise, Laetitia; Meurens, François; Salmon, Henri


    Nasal and small intestinal mucosae are the first sites of contact with infectious agents and the sites of T-cell-mediated and secreted immunoglobulin A (IgA)-mediated defences against pathogens. We investigated the factors controlling the infiltration of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and surface IgA(+) (sIgA(+)) B lymphocytes into swine epithelium and lamina propria (LP) within and between these two mucosal effector sites. Vascular addressins, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 were reciprocally expressed in both mucosae. Strong expression of alpha(4)beta(1) relative to alpha(4)beta(7) was characteristic of CD3(+) T cells in nasal mucosa LP and epithelium and of sIgA(+) cells in nasal mucosa epithelium. The same profile was observed on corresponding blood cells. Conversely, higher levels of integrins beta(7) and alpha(4)beta(7) than alpha(4)beta(1) were characteristic of CD3(+) T cells and sIgA(+) cells in the small intestine. However, about 40% of the LP-activated sIgA(+) cells displayed sIgA(high), integrin alpha(4) and integrin alpha(4) expression. Whereas CCL19, CXCL12, CCL21 and CCL28 messenger RNAs were similarly expressed in both mucosae, CCL25 messenger RNA was only expressed in the small intestine. Thus, the nasal and small intestine mucosae represent separate compartments for infiltration by CD3(+) T cells and sIgA(+) effector cells, with the exception of a population of small intestine activated sIgA(+) cells, which may gain access to both mucosae.

  12. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on glucocorticoid receptor function in control nasal mucosa fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma.

    Laura Fernández-Bertolín

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways frequently associated with asthma. Bacterial infection is a feature of CRSwNP that can aggravate the disease and the response to glucocorticoid treatment.We examined whether the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS reduces glucocorticoid receptor (GR function in control nasal mucosa (NM fibroblasts and in nasal polyp (NP fibroblasts from patients with CRSwNP and asthma.NP (n = 12 and NM fibroblasts (n = 10 were in vitro pre-incubated with LPS (24 hours prior to the addition of dexamethasone. Cytokine/chemokine secretion was measured by ELISA and Cytometric Bead Array. GRα, GRβ, mitogen-activated protein-kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ expression was measured by RT-PCR and immunoblotting, GRα nuclear translocation by immunocytochemistry, and GRβ localization by immunoblotting. The role of MKP-1 and GILZ on dexamethasone-mediated cytokine inhibition was analyzed by small interfering RNA silencing.Pre-incubation of nasal fibroblasts with LPS enhanced the secretion of IL-6, CXCL8, RANTES, and GM-CSF induced by FBS. FBS-induced CXCL8 secretion was higher in NP than in NM fibroblasts. LPS effects on IL-6 and CXCL8 were mediated via activation of p38α/β MAPK and IKK/NF-κB pathways. Additionally, LPS pre-incubation: 1 reduced dexamethasone's capacity to inhibit FBS-induced IL-6, CXCL8 and RANTES, 2 reduced dexamethasone-induced GRα nuclear translocation (only in NM fibroblasts, 3 did not alter GRα/GRβ expression, 4 decreased GILZ expression, and 5 did not affect dexamethasone's capacity to induce MKP-1 and GILZ expression. MKP-1 knockdown reduced dexamethasone's capacity to suppress FBS-induced CXCL8 release.The bacterial product LPS negatively affects GR function in control NM and NP fibroblasts by interfering with the capacity of the activated receptor to inhibit the production of pro

  13. Refinement of velopharyngoplasty in patients with cleft palate by covering the pharyngeal flap with nasal mucosa from the velum.

    Stoll, C; Hochmuth, M; Meister, P; Soost, F


    The velopharyngoplasty performed using the popular Sanvenero-Rosselli method improves the speech quality of patients with cleft palate suffering from persistent velopharyngeal insufficiency despite successful closure of the hard and soft palates. However, often a relatively narrow pharyngeal bridge results due to healing not only by granulation and scar contraction, but also due to the insertion of the inferior tip of the flap into a narrow bed. Elevation of two velar flaps with nasal mucosa to cover the exposed muscular undersurface of the pharyngeal flap produces a broader recipient bed into which the pharyngeal flap can be spread. The speech quality of 27 patients treated with this modified method (group B) was compared with that of 27 patients without this modification (group A). Eight weeks after velopharyngoplasty (followed by uneventful wound healing) the speech quality of group B was significantly better than that of group A (pvelum is an important modification of velopharyngoplasty for the improvement of speech quality.

  14. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia


    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.). In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen

  15. Microbiological and molecular identification of bacterial species isolated from nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Riyadh,

    Suaad S. AlWakeel


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.

  16. 长期经鼻给药对鼻粘膜结构的影响%Influence of intranasal medication on the structure of the nasal mucosa

    王静清; 卜国铉


    Objective To study the influence of intranasal medication on the structure, pathology and reversibility of the nasal mucosa to provide a basis for the feasibility of intranasal route of drug administration. Methods Nasal drops of gentamicin were placed in the nasal cavity of rabbits for 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days. After that, the drops were stopped and drugs protecting the nasomucosa were used for one and three weeks. After being sacrificed over time, the nasomucosa of the rabbit was observed under optical and electron microscopes.Results Damage to the nasal mucosa appeared to different extents with prolonged use of nasal drops. Within 3-7 days of applying the drug, damages to the nasal mucosa gradually appeared, and after two and four weeks, were most serious. After stopping the drug, the nasal mucosa was gradually restored.Conclusion Damages of drugs to the nasal mucosa could be restored. The intranasal route of drug administration would be feasible and clinically applicable.%目的研究长期经鼻吸收药物对鼻粘膜结构的影响及可逆性,为鼻粘膜给药途径长期应用的可行性提供依据.方法使用硫酸庆大霉素给家兔滴鼻,在用药后3,5,7,14,21及28天,并在停药后的同时使用保护鼻粘膜的药物一至三周,取鼻粘膜进行光镜和透射电镜观察.结果用药后3-7天出现渐进性鼻粘膜损伤的改变,二至四周鼻粘膜损伤越来越严重,可出现部分区域上皮的脱落,但基底膜完整.停药后1-3周内上皮细胞及纤毛迅速修复.结论药物对鼻粘膜虽可产生损伤作用,但可以再生修复,鼻内给药途径是有可行性的.

  17. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome is not associated with local production of specific IgE in nasal mucosa.

    Becker, Sven; Rasp, Julia; Eder, Katharina; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F; Gröger, Moritz


    Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is an eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa without evidence of an allergy or other nasal pathologies. Patients complain about perennial symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchiness and sneezing of the nose sometimes accompanied by hyposmia. The aim of the study was to better characterize NARES patients using immunoassay-biochip technology to examine serum and nasal secretion. Sera and nasal secretion of patients with NARES (perennial nasal symptoms, no evidence of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, negative SX1-Screening test and/or negative skin prick test, eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal secretion >200 ng/ml) were tested by immunoassay-biochip technology (ImmunoCAP(®) ISAC, Phadia). 112 different allergen components from 51 allergen sources were tested on the chip. Furthermore, serum and nasal secretion were tested for specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1 by fluorescence-enzyme-immunoassay (UniCAP(®), Phadia). Unrecognized systemic sensitization could be ruled out by negative ISAC results in sera of all patients. Testing of nasal secretion for allergen-specific IgE by ISAC chip technology was negative as well in all cases. In one patient, a systemic sensitization to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen TSST-1 was detectable but no allergen-specific IgE to TSST-1 was measurable in nasal secretion of any patient. The results demonstrate that NARES is not associated with local allergy (entopy) nor with a local inflammation driven by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1. Further studies are necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms of NARES.

  18. Clinical analysis of nasal mucosa contact headache%鼻黏膜接触性头痛的临床观察

    古庆家; 温蓓; 李静娴; 樊建刚; 何刚


    目的:探讨鼻黏膜接触性头痛的诊断及鼻内镜手术的疗效.方法:我科2008-01-2011-01期间对75例鼻腔黏膜接触性头痛患者,并在鼻内镜下施行手术治疗.结果:所有患者随访6个月以上,均取得明显疗效,无并发症发生.结论:鼻黏膜接触性头痛与原发性头痛有不同的临床特点及治疗方法,在临床工作中若不仔细分析鉴别极易造成误诊.因此,必须要加强对该病的认识.鼻腔解剖结构异常是引起鼻黏膜接触性头痛的主要原因,通过鼻内镜手术,根据患者具体病情实行个体化手术治疗可获得良好的临床效果.%Objective:To investigate the efficacy of nasal mucosa contact point headache with the treatment of endoscopic sinus surgery.Method:Clinical data of 75 cases with nasal mucosa contact point headache treated in our department from Jan 2008 to Nov 2011 were retrospectively analyzed.These patients were performed with endoscopic sinus surgery.Result:All patients were followed up for more than six months.They all achieved significant efficacy and no complications occurred.Conclusion:Nasal mucosa contact point headache and primary headache had different clinical features and different treatment.Misdiagnosis were easily made if not being carefully analyzed.Three lines tension relaxing septorhinoplasty combined with nasal bone fracture correction can achieve satisfactory curative effect and can effectively prevent the occurrence of complications.Therefore,it is necessary to strengthen the awareness of this disease.Nasal structure abnormality is the main reason of nasal mucosa contact point headache.The implementation of individualized nasal endoscopic sinus surgery can achieve satisfactory curative effect.

  19. Analysis of epidermal growth factor signaling in nasal mucosa epithelial cell proliferation involved in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Li Yunchuan; Li Lijuan; Wang Tong; Zang Hongrui; An Yunsong; Li Lifeng; Zhang Junyi


    Background Aberrant epithelial repair has been observed in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; however,the mechanism of epithelial cell repair regulation is unclear.Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in regulating epithelial cell repair in lower airway and may be a critical factor in the remodeling processes of CRS.The objective of our research is to evaluate the differences between CRS and normal subjects and between chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polys (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polys (CRSwNP) in the regulation of EGF pathways and the regulating proliferative position of classic Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways.Methods We evaluated the proliferation rates of ethmoidal mucosal cells before and after stimulation with EGF,epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor AG1478,and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 using MTT assays.We also analyzed the sinonasal epithelial cells collected from control subjects and patients with CRS subtypes CRSsNP and CRSwNP for the expression of ERK1/2,phosphorylated ERK1/2,P21,P15,and P27 using western blotting analyses.Results The proliferation rates of sinonasal epithelial cells before and after EGF stimulation were lower in CRS patients than in the controls.AG1478 or PD98059 inhibitor treatment of control epithelial cells did not result in a significant difference in proliferation.Although,AG1478 and PD98059 inhibited the proliferation of CRS cells,the degree of proliferation inhibition was markedly different in CRSsNP.AG 1478 suppressed the proliferation of CRSwNP epithelial cells,whereas PD98059 had no effect.The ratio of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CRS cells was lower than that of the control cells.Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors were highly expressed in CRS cells compared with that of control cells.ERK1/2 and P27 showed differential expression in CRSsNP and CRSwNP.Conclusions Differences existed in EGF pathways in CRS patients and normal

  20. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa of patients with atypical allergic rhinitis

    Shuqi Qiu


    Full Text Available Background : The prevalence of chronic rhinitis is increasing rapidly; its pathogenesis is to be further understood; immune inflammation is one of the possible causative factors. Antigen specific CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the induction of chronic inflammation. Aims : This study aimed to investigate the role of antigen specific CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of chronic atypical allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods : Nasal mucosal epithelial surface scratching samples were obtained from patients with chronic obstruction atypical allergic rhinitis. Exosomes were purified from the scratching samples and examined by immune gold electron microscopy. The effect of exosomes on modulating dendritic cell′s properties, the effect of exosome-pulsed dendritic cells on naïve T cell differentiation and the antigen specific CD8+ T cell activation were observed by cell culture models. Results : Exosomes purified from patients with chronic atypical allergic rhinitis carried microbial products, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, and airborne antigen, Derp1. Dendritic cells pulsed by SEB/Derp1-carrying exosomes showed high levels of CD80, CD86 and the major histocompatibility class I (MHCI. Exosome-pulsed dendritic cells could induce the naïve CD3+ T cells to differentiate into CD8+ T cells. Upon the exposure to a specific antigen, the CD8+ T cells released granzyme B and perforin; more than 30% antigen specific CD8+ T cells proliferated. Conclusions : Antigen specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstruction atypical allergic rhinitis.

  1. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit

    Yoshiaki Kitamura


    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  2. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit.

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakoda, Takema; Enomoto, Tadao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki


    In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  3. Oral delivery of a probiotic induced changes at the nasal mucosa of seasonal allergic rhinitis subjects after local allergen challenge: a randomised clinical trial.

    Kamal Ivory

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of probiotic consumption on clinical and immunological parameters of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR in an out-of-season single nasal allergen challenge. METHODS: In a study registered at ClinicalTrials.Gov (NCT01123252, a 16-week dietary intervention was undertaken in 60 patients with allergic rhinitis (>16 years old. Using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled anonymised design, the patients were divided equally into two groups. One group was given a dairy drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota to ingest daily while the other consumed a similar drink without bacteria. Participants attended the clinic on two consecutive days before the intervention and then again at the end of the study period. On the first day of each 2-day visit, following clinical examination, assessments were made of total nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. Nasal scrapings, nasal lavage and blood were collected for laboratory analyses of cellular phenotypes, soluble mediator release and in vitro responses to pollen allergen. These procedures were repeated 24 hours following nasal allergen challenge. RESULTS: Prior to and following intervention there were no detectable differences between study groups in measured clinical outcome. After intervention, there were differences between groups in their percentages of CD86+ epithelial cells (p = 0.0148, CD86+CD252+ non-epithelial cells (p = 0.0347, sIL-1RII release (p = 0.0289 and IL-1β (p = 0.0224 levels at the nasal mucosa. Delivery of probiotic also suppressed production of sCD23 (p = 0.0081, TGF-β (p = 0.0283 and induced increased production of IFN-γ (p = 0.0351 in supernatants of cultured peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study did not show significant probiotic-associated changes with respect to the primary clinical endpoint. An absence of overt clinical benefit may be due to an inability of single nasal challenges

  4. Preparation of baicalin nasal gel and its permeation through nasal mucosa%黄芩苷鼻用凝胶的制备及其经鼻扩散研究

    国大亮; 何新; 刘玉璇; 张艳军


    目的 制备黄芩苷鼻用凝胶剂,并对其进行体外扩散评价.方法 以卡波姆-936为凝胶基质,以丙三醇为助溶剂,用三乙醇胺调节pH值和黏度,采用正交设计对处方进行优化,并以离体猪鼻黏膜透皮扩散法测定黄芩苷在鼻用凝胶中的释放速率.结果 黄芩苷鼻用凝胶最佳处方为卡波姆-936用量0.5%,丙三醇用量30%,载药量2%; pH值为6.85~7.00,平均黏度1 850~2 350 Pa.s;黄芩苷经猪鼻黏膜扩散符合一级动力学过程,回归方程为Y=0.280 6X+0.564 3,r=0.997,扩散速率约为0.280 6 μg/(mm2.h).结论 黄芩苷鼻用凝胶制备工艺简便,黄芩苷主要以简单扩散方式透过鼻黏膜.%Objective To prepare the nasal gel of baicalin and to evaluate its permeation in vitro.Methods The orthogonal design was carried out using Cabopol-936 as gel matrix,glycerine as solubilizer,and triethanolamine as pH value and viscosity adjuster.The permeating rate of baicalin from nasal gel was determined through pig nasal mucosa in vitro by transdermal diffusion method.Results The optimum nasal gel was made by 0.5% Carbomer-936,30% glycerine,and 2% baicalin,with pH value 6.85-7.00,and the average viscosity was 1 850-2 350 Pa·s.The permeation of baicalin through nasal mucosa was fitted with first-order kinetics,the regression equation was Y=0.280 6 X+0.564 3,r=0.997,and the permeating rate was 0.280 6 μg/(mm2·h).Conclusion The preparation of baicalin nasal gel is simple.Baicalin is almost permeated through nasal mucosa by simple diffusion.

  5. Imunofluorescência para neuropeptídeos na mucosa nasal humana: avaliação de técnica para peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP Neuropeptide immunofluorescence in human nasal mucosa: assessment of the technique for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP

    Jeferson Cedaro de Mendonça


    Full Text Available Os neuropeptídeos são neurotransmissores relevantes na fisiologia nasal e o conhecimento crescente acerca de seu papel na fisiopatologia de doenças nasais abre novas perspectivas. A sua investigação na mucosa nasal humana baseia-se em grande parte em marcação imunológica, método complexo e sujeito a inúmeros fatores de erro. Com o intuito de viabilizar este tipo de pesquisa em nosso meio, um método de imunofluorescência para peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP na mucosa nasal humana é proposto e avaliado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Oito pacientes submetidos a cirurgia funcional do nariz têm um fragmento de mucosa coletado da concha inferior. O tecido foi fixado em solução de Zamboni (paraformaldeído 4% tamponado e ácido pícrico 0,4%, congelado em nitrogênio líquido e armazenado. Cortes de 14 µm foram realizados e submetidos à reação de imunofluorescência para VIP (Península Laboratories. As imagens microscópicas foram documentadas em fotografia convencional. A especificidade, sensibilidade e reprodutibilidade de execução foram avaliadas. A reprodutibilidade de interpretação de resultados foi avaliada através da comparação de graus de marcação (0 a 4 atribuídos às fotos por seis observadores. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ser o método suficientemente específico, sensível, além de reprodutível em sua execução. A interpretação de resultados mostrou depender do perfeito esclarecimento do observador no julgamento das imagens de imunofluorescência, mas mostrou uniformidade. CONCLUSÃO: O método proposto foi considerado útil na pesquisa de neuropeptídeos na mucosa nasal humana.Neuropeptides are important neurotransmitters in nasal physiology and the increasing knowledge of their role in nasal diseases brings new therapeutic perspectives. The investigation of human nasal mucosa neuropeptides is based mostly on immunocytochemistry, a complex approach whose resulting

  6. Relationship between atrial natriuretic peptide-immunoreactive cells and microvessels in rat gastric mucosa

    Chun-hui LI; Zong-wei YANG; Zheng-ri YIN; Zheng JIN; De-gang XING; Lian-hua PIAO; Yong-chul KIM; Wen-xie XU


    Aim: To investigate the ultrastructural localization of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)-synthesizing cells and the relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessels in rat gastric mucosa. Methods: Immunohistochemistry techniques and postembedding immunoelectron microscopy techniques were used to validate the findings regarding the expression of ANP-synthesizing cells and the ultrastructural localization of ANP-synthesizing cells in the gastric mucosa. Histochemistry techniques and the tannic acid-ferric chloride method (TA-Fe staining method) were used to reveal microvessel density and the distribution of ANPsynthesizing cells in different regions of the stomach. Results: Cells expressing ANP were localized and ANP-synthesizing cells were identified as enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the gastric mucosa. ANP-synthesizing cells existed in different regions of the stomach. The percentage ANP-synthesizing cells in the mucosa was greatest in the fundus (46.7%±5.3%), intermediate in the antrum (40.1%±4.5%), and least in the body (21.6%±3.6%). There was a positive relationship between the percentage of ANP-synthesizing cells and the density of microvessels in the antral mucosa, but not in the fundus or body mucosa. Conclusion: ANP is synthesized by EC cells in rat gastric mucosa, and ANP-synthesizing cells are most dense in the gastric fundus. ANP may act not only as a regional autocrine and/or paracrine regulator, but also as an endocrine regulatory peptide in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Protective Action of Acupuncture and Moxibustion on Gastric Mucosa in Model Rats with Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    高希言; 饶红; 王燕; 孟丹; 魏玉龙


    Objective: To probe the mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion in atrophic gastritis so as to provide a basis for clinical treatment. Method: Observe the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion at the points of Zusanli, Zhongwan and Tianshu on gastric mucosa in model rats with chronic atrophic gastritis. Results:Acupuncture and moxibustion can increase the contents of PGE2α, PGF2α and cAMP, and decrease the content of cGMP in the tissue of gastric mucosa. Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion shows cytoprotection on gastric mucosa, so it is an effective method for treating chronic atrophic gastritis.

  8. Effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin,somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa

    Feng-Peng Sun; Yu-Gang Song


    AIM: To study the effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa.METHODS: Forty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into six groups, according to the room temperature (high and normal) and the treatment (acetic acid, normal saline and no treatment). Levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa were measured with a radioimmunoassay method.RESULTS: The average temperature and humidity were 32.5 ℃ and 66.7% for the high temperature group, and 21.1 ℃ and 49.3% for the normal temperature group,respectively. Gastric ulcer model was successfully induced in rat injected with 0.05 mL acetic acid into the antrum. In rats with gastric ulcers, the levels of gastrin and motilin increased, whereas the somatostatin level declined in antral mucosa, compared with those in rats treated with normal saline and the controls. However, the change extent in the levels of gastrin, motilin and somatostatin in antral mucosa was less in the high temperature group than in the normal temperature group.CONCLUSION: The levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosal tissue remain relatively stable in a high temperature environment, which may relate to the equilibration of the dynamic system.

  9. Metaplastic changes of nasal respiratory epithelium in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) by inhalation.

    Lee, K. P.; Trochimowicz, H. J.


    Rats exposed by inhalation to hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb) for 6-24 months revealed nasal tumors and squamous metaplasia with inflammation in the nasal epithelium, but no changes were observed at 10 ppb. The ciliated cells were most susceptible to HMPA, showing degenerative changes, with abnormal cilia and extensive deciliation. The desquamated nasal epithelium was repaired initially by undifferentiated mucus or microvillou...

  10. Sleep deprivation increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in rat gastric mucosa

    Xi-Zhong Shen1; Marcel W.L. Koo; Chi-Hin Cho


    AIM To .investigate if sleep deprivation is able to increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa and its possible role in mucosal defense. METHODS Rats for sleep disruption were placed inside a computerized rotating drum, gastric mucosa was taken from rats with 1, 3 and 7 d sleep deprivation. RT-PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of heat shock protein 70.Ethanol (500 mL@ L 1, I.g.) was used to induce gastric muceea damage. RESULTS RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining confirmed that the sleep deprivation as a stress resulted in significantly greater expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats. After the 500mL@ L-1 ethanol challenge, the ulcer area found in the rats with 7 d sleep deprivation (19.15 ± 4.2) mm2 was significantly lower (P<0.01) than the corresponding control (53.7 ± 8.1) mm2. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation as a stress, in addition to lowering the gastric mucosal barrier, is able to stimulate the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats, the heat shock protein 70 may play an important role in gastric mucosal protection.

  11. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.


    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  12. The nasal mucosa contains a large spectrum of human papillomavirus types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera

    Forslund, Ola; Johansson, Hanna; Madsen, Klaus Gregaard;


     Human papillomavirus (HPV) types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera are common at cutaneous sites. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of these HPV types in oral and nasal samples....

  13. The influence of gellan gum on the transfer of fluorescein dextran across rat nasal epithelium in vivo.

    Jansson, Björn; Hägerström, Helene; Fransén, Nelly; Edsman, Katarina; Björk, Erik


    The nasal uptake of a 3000 Da fluorescein dextran (FD3) was investigated in rats, using fluorescence microscopy. The uptake from a formulation containing deacetylated gellan gum, an in situ gelling agent, was compared to that from a mannitol solution. Additionally, the rheological behavior of the gellan gum in water and saline was studied. It was shown that the gellan gum solution was easily administered owing to its low viscosity, and upon contact with the mucosa, a gel was formed. The epithelial uptake and transfer of FD3 appeared to be increased and prolonged using the gellan gum formulation. This increase was not accompanied by qualitative changes of the epithelial FD3 distribution or any visible harmful effects.

  14. Puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer – an in vitro model of nasal mucosa permeability and the influence of paeoniflorin and menthol

    Zhang L


    Full Text Available Lin Zhang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Chang Liu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Chang Yang, Hui-Chao Wu, Zhen Wang School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nasal administration is a high-potential delivery system, particularly because it can provide a pathway from the nose to the brain. The objective of this research is to characterize puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer used as a model of the nasal mucosa and to evaluate the influence of puerarin in combination with paeoniflorin and menthol to explore the enhanced mechanism of the permeability at the cell level. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp of puerarin bidirectional transport were both <1.5×10-6 cm/s, and the efflux ratio was <1.5, indicating that puerarin alone exhibited poor absorption and that its transport primarily occurred by passive diffusion through the cell monolayer. When puerarin was coad­ministered with paeoniflorin, the Papp was not changed (P>0.05. However, the addition of menthol significantly (P<0.05 improved the Papp of puerarin in both directions. Moreover, based on immunofluorescence experiments and transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, the data indicated that the drug compatibility opened tight junctions and weakened the barrier capabilities of epithelial cells, thereby promoting the permeability of puerarin. Keywords: puerarin, paeoniflorin, menthol, nasal administration, transport, tight junction

  15. Immune responses induced by Pelargonium sidoides extract in serum and nasal mucosa of athletes after exhaustive exercise: modulation of secretory IgA, IL-6 and IL-15.

    Luna, L A; Bachi, A L L; Novaes e Brito, R R; Eid, R G; Suguri, V M; Oliveira, P W; Gregorio, L C; Vaisberg, M


    The evidence that exhaustive exercise may compromise the immune response is mainly confirmed by upper respiratory tract infections which are probably related to the decrease in secretory immunoglobulin A in the upper airway mucosa and/or profile changes of systemic cytokines as well as local cytokines of the upper respiratory tract. An extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots is currently used to treat infections in the upper airways. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the action of this herbal medicine on the immune response of athletes submitted to an intense running session by analyzing the production of immunoglobulin A in their saliva and of cytokines both locally and systemically, using a placebo as control. The results show that Pelargonium sidoides extract modulates the production of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva, both interleukin-15 and interleukin-6 in serum, and interleukin-15 in the nasal mucosa. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels were increased, while levels of IL-15 and IL-6 were decreased. Based on this evidence, we suggest that this herbal medicine can exert a strong modulating influence on the immune response associated with the upper airway mucosa in athletes submitted to intense physical activity.

  16. The protective effects of rutaecarpine on gastric mucosa injury in rats

    LiWANG; Pan-yueDENG; Hui-qingZHU; Shen-siSHEN; Jin-songDING; Gui-shanTAN; Chang-pingHU; Yuan-jianLI


    AIM: To examine the protective effects of rutaecarpine on gastric mucosa injury, and explore whether the protective effects of rutaecarpine are related to stimulation of endogenous CGRP release via activating vanilloid receptors in rats. METHODS: In rats models of the aspirin-induced ulceration and stress-induced ulceration, gastric mucosal ulcer index, pH value of gastric juice, and plasma concentrations of CGRP were determined. RESULTS:

  17. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  18. Stimulant effect of nitric oxide generator and roxatidine on mucin biosynthesis of rat gastric oxyntic mucosa.

    Ichikawa, T; Ishihara, K; Kusakabe, T; Kawakami, T; Hotta, K


    Although the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in an increasing gastric mucus metabolism has been reported, information on whether or not its activation is limited to the specific mucus-producing cells is lacking. In this paper, we report the effect of the exogenous NO-donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and second-generation histamine H2 receptor antagonist roxatidine (2-acetoxy-N-(3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl)acetamide hydrochloride) which is demonstrated to accelerate the mucin metabolism mediated by endogenous NO, on the mucin biosynthesis in distinct sites and layers of the rat gastric mucosa using an organ culture technique. Radiolabeled mucin was obtained from the tissue of full-thickness and the deep corpus layer, and the antrum of the rat stomach incubated for 5 hr with [3H]glucosamine(GlcN) in vitro. With the addition of ISDN to the culture medium, 3H-labeled mucin in the full-thickness corpus mucosa increased to 124-145% of the control (proxatidine stimulated the mucin biosynthesis in the full-thickness corpus mucosa, but not in the gland mucous cell layer. These results suggest that the stimulation of the mucin biosynthesis mediated by NO is restricted to the surface mucous cells of the rat gastric oxyntic mucosa.

  19. Change of intestinal mucosa barrier function in the progress of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats

    Sheng Li; Wan-Chun Wu; Chi-Yi He; Zhen Han; Dao-You Jin; Lin Wang


    AIM:To explore the change of intestinal mucosa barrier function in the progress of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats.METHODS:Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group and model group.Rats in the control group were given normal diet,and rats in the model group were given fat-rich diet.Eight rats in each group were killed at end of the 8th and 12th wk,respectively.The levels of endotoxin,D-xylose,TG,TC,ALl" and AST,intestinal tissue SOD and MDA as well as intestinal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA) were measured.The pathology of liver was observed by HE staining.RESULTS:At end of the 8th wk,there was no marked difference in the levels of endotoxin,D-xylose and sTgA between the two groups.At end of the 12th wk,rats in the model group developed steatohepatitis and had a higher serum level of endotoxin (P = 0.01) and D-xylose (P = 0.00) and a lower serum level of sIgA (P = 0.007).CONCLUSION:Intestinal mucosa barrier malfunction may exist in NASH rats and may be an important promoter of NASH in rats.

  20. Indigestible material attenuated changes in apoptosis in the fasted rat jejunal mucosa.

    Kakimoto, Takashi; Fujise, Takehiro; Shiraishi, Ryosuke; Kuroki, Tsukasa; Park, Jae Myung; Ootani, Akifumi; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsunada, Seiji; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma


    We have previously demonstrated that fasting induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the rat intestinal mucosa. The aim was to investigate the effect of expanded polystyrene as indigestible material on apoptosis and cell proliferation in rat small intestinal mucosa during fasting. Male SD rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group was fed with chow and water ad libitum. The second group fasted for 72 hrs. The third group was fasted for 24 hrs and was fed expanded polystyrene. Intestinal apoptosis was evaluated by percent fragmented DNA assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, and caspase-3 assay. Cell proliferation was analyzed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (5-BrdU) uptake. Truncal vagotomy was performed to evaluate a role of the central nervous system. In the 72-hr fasted rat, mucosal height of the rat jejunum was decreased to 73% of that in rats fed ad libitum, and this decrease was partly restored to 90% in rats fed expanded polystyrene. The fragmented DNA was increased in fasted rats (28.0%) when compared with that in rats fed ad libitum (2.6%). The increase in fragmented DNA in fasted rats was recovered by feeding them expanded polystyrene (8.3%). TUNEL staining confirmed this result. The effect of polystyrene on apoptosis was decreased by truncal vagotomy. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in fasted rats, which was then decreased by feeding of expanded polystyrene. In contrast to apoptosis, feeding of expanded polystyrene had no reconstructive effect on 5-BrdU uptake in the intestinal epithelium, which was decreased by fasting to 60% of that in rats fed ad libitum. In conclusion, feeding of indigestible material partly restored the decrease in intestinal mucosal length in the fasted rats through the apoptotic pathway without any influence on BrdU uptake. Further exploration focused on the mechanism of this effect of indigestible material is required.

  1. Glutamine supplementation does not improve protein synthesis rate by the jejunal mucosa of the malnourished rat.

    Tannus, Andrea Ferreira S; Darmaun, Dominique; Ribas, Durval F; Oliveira, José Eduardo D; Marchini, Julio Sergio


    It has been demonstrated that glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid, improves nitrogen balance, acts as a stimulant of protein synthesis, and decreases proteolysis in myopathic children. In contrast, other studies have shown no beneficial effect of glutamine supplementation on burn victims or critically ill patients. Nonetheless, we hypothesized that glutamine supplementation would increase the fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR) in the jejunal mucosa of malnourished male Wistar rats. Thus, the objective of the present study was to test the effect of daily oral glutamine supplementation (0.42 g kg(-1) d(-1) for 14 days) on the FSR of the jejunal mucosa of healthy and malnourished rats. A 4-hour kinetic study with l-[1-(13)C]leucine was subsequently performed, and jejunal biopsies were obtained 1.5 cm from the Treitz angle and analyzed. Malnourished rats showed a 25% weight loss and increased urinary nitrogen excretion. Plasma amino acid concentration did not differ between groups. (13)C enrichment in plasma and jejunal cells was higher in the malnourished groups than in the healthy group. The FSR (percent per hour) was similar for the control and experimental groups (P > .05), with a mean range of 22%/h to 27%/h. Oral glutamine supplementation alone did not induce higher protein incorporation by the jejunal mucosa in malnourished rats, regardless of total food intake or the presence or absence of glutamine supplementation.

  2. Estudo da mucosa nasal de contatos de hanseníase, com positividade para o antígeno glicolipídio fenólico 1 Nasal mucosa study of leprosy contacts with positive serology for the phenolic glycolipid 1 antigen

    Ana Cristina da Costa Martins


    Full Text Available A hanseníase é uma doença infecciosa de evolução crônica causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae que acomete com maior frequência a mucosa nasal. Esse acometimento independe da forma clínica da doença e pode ocorrer mesmo antes do aparecimento de lesões na pele ou em outras partes do corpo. Faz-se necessário a vigilância epidemiológica dos contatos de casos novos de hanseníase para o diagnóstico precoce da doença. OBJETIVOS: Identificar lesões específicas e precoces de hanseníase por meio de exame endoscópico, baciloscópico, histopatológico e da reação em cadeia da polimerase em Tempo Real da mucosa das cavidades nasais dos contatos domiciliares e peridomiciliares com sorologia positiva para o antígeno glicolipídio fenólico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo transversal em 31 contatos de pacientes de hanseníase com sorologia positiva (PGL-1, 05 controles negativos e 01 positivo no período de 2003 a 2006. RESULTADOS: Entre os contatos soropositivos a PCR-RT foi positiva para a presença de DNA de M. leprae em 06 (19,35% destes e o maior número de cópias do genoma do bacilo foi encontrado no contato que adoeceu. CONCLUSÃO: Isoladamente os exames da mucosa nasal não permitiram o diagnóstico precoce da hanseníase, mas com a combinação de vários métodos, o exame dos contatos pôde ajudar na identificação da infecção subclínica e monitoramento daqueles que poderiam ter papel importante na transmissão da doença.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The disease more frequently affects the nasal mucosa and can occur independently of its clinical form or even before lesions on the skin or on other parts of the body. It is necessary to employ epidemiological surveillance of household contacts with new leprosy cases for early disease diagnosis. AIM: identify specific and early leprosy lesions through endoscopic, baciloscopy, histopathology exams, and real time polymerase chain

  3. Noxious chemical stimulation of rat facial mucosa increases intracranial blood flow through a trigemino-parasympathetic reflex--an experimental model for vascular dysfunctions in cluster headache.

    Gottselig, R; Messlinger, K


    Cluster headache is characterized by typical autonomic dysfunctions including facial and intracranial vascular disturbances. Both the trigeminal and the cranial parasympathetic systems may be involved in mediating these dysfunctions. An experimental model was developed in the rat to measure changes in lacrimation and intracranial blood flow following noxious chemical stimulation of facial mucosa. Blood flow was monitored in arteries of the exposed cranial dura mater and the parietal cortex using laser Doppler flowmetry. Capsaicin (0.01-1 mm) applied to oral or nasal mucosa induced increases in dural and cortical blood flow and provoked lacrimation. These responses were blocked by systemic pre-administration of hexamethonium chloride (20 mg/kg). The evoked increases in dural blood flow were also abolished by topical pre-administration of atropine (1 mm) and [Lys1, Pro2,5, Arg3,4, Tyr6]-VIP (0.1 mm), a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonist, onto the exposed dura mater. We conclude that noxious stimulation of facial mucosa increases intracranial blood flow and lacrimation via a trigemino-parasympathetic reflex. The blood flow responses seem to be mediated by the release of acetylcholine and VIP within the meninges. Similar mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache.

  4. [The x-ray microanalysis of the mucosa of the rat small intestine].

    Pogorelov, A G; Matys, Iu V


    A rat small intestine mucosa is shown to accumulate significant amount of potassium and chloride. There was found a correlation between the content of these chemical elements and glycoprotein compartmentalization in goblet cell secret, brush border of enterocytes and a mucus layer. In this connection a role of mucus glycoproteins in membrane digestion is discussed. For preparation of samples the cryotechniques of electron microscopy are used.

  5. Unilateral Nasal Obstruction during Later Growth Periods Affects Craniofacial Muscles in Rats

    Uchima Koecklin, Karin H.; Hiranuma, Maya; Kato, Chiho; Funaki, Yukiha; Kataguchi, Taku; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi


    Nasal obstruction can occur at different life stages. In early stages of life the respiratory system is still under development, maturing during the growth period. Previous studies have shown that nasal obstruction in neonatal rats alters craniofacial function. However, little is known about the effects of nasal obstruction that develops during later growth periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nasal obstruction during later periods of growth on the functional characteristics of the jaw-opening reflex (JOR) and tongue-protruding muscles. In total, 102 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into either a control or experimental group (both n = 51). In order to determine the appropriate timing of nasal obstruction, the saturation of arterial oxygen (SpO2) was monitored at 8 days, and at 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the control group. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction at the age of 5 weeks. The SpO2 was monitored at 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the experimental group. The electromyographic responses of JOR and the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles were recorded at 7, 9, and 11 weeks. In the control group, SpO2 decreased until 5 weeks of age, and remained relatively stable until 11 weeks of age. The SpO2 was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control. In the experimental group, JOR changes included a longer latency and smaller peak-to-peak amplitude, while changes in the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles included larger twitch and tetanic forces, and a longer half-decay time. These results suggest that nasal obstruction during later growth periods may affect craniofacial function.

  6. In vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells accelerates repair of injured gastric mucosa in rats

    CHANG Qing; YAN Li; WANG Chang-zheng; ZHANG Wen-hui; HU Ya-zhuo; WU Ben-yan


    Background Adult stem cells provide a promising alternative for the treatment of injured tissues.We aimed to investigate the effect of in vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on injured gastric mucosa in rats.Methods The gastric ulcer in rats was induced by indomethacin.BMMSCs from male rats,labeled with the fluorescent cell linker 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA SE),were transplanted into the female rats via tail vein injection.The healing process of gastric ulcers was monitored by HE staining.The protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the injured gastric mucosa were determined by immunohistochemistry.Results At 48 and 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the CFDA SE labeled cells were found scattered in the injured gastric mucosa,but not in the gastric mucosa of control rats.At 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the mean ulcer index was 12.67±2.16 in the BMMSCs transplanted group and 17.33±1.97 in vehicle-treated controls (P <0.01).Both VEGF and EGFR protein expression levels were significantly higher in the gastric section from the rats that received BMMSCs transplantation as compared to rats without BMMSCs transplantation.Conclusion Autologous BMMSCs transplantation can accelerate gastric ulcer healing in injured gastric mucosa in a rodent model.

  7. Fibronectin-related substance located in the chief cells of human and rat gastric mucosa.

    Maeda, S; Yabana, T; Ichiyanagi, S; Chen, J; Yachi, A


    A novel substance located in the chief cells of human and rat gastric mucosa, which was detected immunologically by either polyclonal or monoclonal antihuman fibronectin (FN) antibodies, is reported. All three polyclonal antihuman FN antibodies used in this study reacted immunohistologically exclusively with the chief cells. Monoclonal antibody against C-terminal peptide or cell binding peptide reacted clearly with the human chief cells, but monoclonal antibodies against FN N-terminal and midmolecule failed to react with the cells. Western blot analysis of the rat gastric mucosal extract with polyclonal antihuman FN antibody showed that this substance has a molecular weight of about 70,000 Da. Therefore, this substance appears to be a fragment containing the C-terminal peptide of whole molecule FN and thus in the present study is named FN-related substance (FNRS). In a further study with ethanol-induced ulcer model of the rat, the physiological significance of FNRS was examined. The FNRS decreased remarkably, in a dose-dependent manner, in the fundic mucosa of the rats that ingested ethanol. The FNRS appeared to be associated with development of mucosal damage and repair, subsequently playing, in part, an important role in the gastric mucosal protection mechanism.

  8. Functional and histologic assessment of rat gastric mucosa after chronic treatment with sulphurous thermal water.

    Coruzzi, Gabriella; Adami, Maristella; Pozzoli, Cristina; Solenghi, Elvira; Grandi, Daniela


    The effect of a chronic (4 weeks) administration of sulphurous thermal water on gastric acid secretion and mucosal defense was investigated in rats. Animals were randomized to receive daily intake of tap water or of thermal water obtained from a local spa center (Tabiano, Parma, Italy). Rats were followed for one month as for water and food consumption, body weight and general conditions. At the end of the watering period, the following study protocols were carried out: (a) study of basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion under general anesthesia, and (b) study of the gastric mucosal resistance against the damage induced by ethanol and indomethacin in conscious rats. Basal acid secretion and the acid response to pentagastrin or to histamine were similar in rats assuming ordinary drinking water or thermal water. As for resistance to gastric damage, histological, but not macroscopic, evaluation revealed that rats which assumed thermal water were slightly more resistant to the gastrolesive effect of ethanol (either absolute or diluted). Again, when indomethacin was used as a noxious stimulus, no difference was noted between the two groups as for macroscopic damage; only a nonsignificant reduction of damage was observed histologically in stomachs of rats assuming thermal water. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic treatment of rats with thermal water, rich in sulphur compounds, may have only minimal effects on the rat gastric mucosa and did not significantly affect mucosal defense mechanisms. The observed tendency to gastroprotection would possibly need further investigation with longer periods of administration. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Sequence of changes in rat buccal mucosa induced by zinc deficiency.

    Hsu, D; Meyer, J; Gerson, S; Daniel, J


    In weanling rats, after receiving a zinc-deficient diet (less than 1 ppm) for 4 wk, the buccal mucosa appears hyperplastic. This study determines changes at earlier stages of the lesion. After 9 days of deficiency, the keratin layer had partially converted to parakeratosis and thickened, and the size of the capillary bed was increased. After 18 days, the keratin layer was fully parakeratotic and thickened further. The cellular layer was thickened. The mitotic rate was doubled and rete ridges were convoluted. After 27 days, the keratin and cellular layers were further thickened, and the mitotic rate remained elevated. The rete ridges were further convoluted. The number of mast cells was doubled and the size of the vascular bed had increased further. These findings suggest early and late interactions between the epithelium and lamina propria. After four days on a control diet following 27 days of zinc deficiency, the mucosa returned normal.

  10. Intracellular distribution, geno- and cytotoxic effects of nanosized titanium dioxide particles in the anatase crystal phase on human nasal mucosa cells.

    Hackenberg, Stephan; Friehs, Gudrun; Froelich, Katrin; Ginzkey, Christian; Koehler, Christian; Scherzed, Agmal; Burghartz, Marc; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert


    Nanomaterials are defined as substances with at least one dimension smaller than 100nm in size and are used for a multitude of purposes. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) are an important material used as an additive in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Due to their high surface-to-mass index, TiO(2) nanoparticles show different physical and chemical characteristics compared to the bulk substance. The knowledge about geno- or cytotoxic effects of TiO(2)-NPs is incomplete since existing studies show contrary results. Human nasal mucosa cells were obtained from 10 donors and exposed to TiO(2)-NPs in increasing concentrations of 10, 25, 50 und 100mug/ml. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to document particle morphology and size distribution, the degree of particle aggregation and the distribution of particles in inter- and intracellular spaces. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity caused by TiO(2)-NPs were evaluated. DNA strand breakage was detected by single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Cytotoxic effects were analyzed by trypan blue exclusion test and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. TiO(2) particles used in this study were mainly nanosized but also showed a strong tendency to aggregate in spite of sonication of the suspension. Particles entered the cytoplasm in 11% and the cell nucleus in 4%. The trypan blue exclusion test and the FDA assay did not show any loss of cell viability. In the comet assay, there was no evidence of increased DNA damage for TiO(2)-NPs. In this pilot project, no cyto- or genotoxic effects could be shown for TiO(2)-NPs on human nasal epithelial cells. Further investigations will focus on a variety of metal oxide nanoparticles to describe the biocompatibility in the human organism.

  11. Early Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa infections induce similar gene expression profiles in rat jejunal mucosa.

    Airas, Niina; Näreaho, Anu; Lindén, Jere; Valo, Erkka; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Sukura, Antti


    Trichinella spiralis causes a significantly higher parasite burden in rat muscle than Trichinella nativa. To assess whether the difference in infectivity is due to the early intestinal response, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat jejunum during Trichinella infection with a whole-genome microarray. The rats were euthanized on day five of infection, and their jejunal mucosa was sampled for microarray analysis. In addition, intestinal histology and hematology were examined. Against our expectations, the gene expression changes were similar in both T.nativa- and T. spiralis-infected groups. The two groups were hence pooled, and in the combined Trichinella-infected group, 551 genes were overexpressed and 427 underexpressed when compared to controls (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and fold change at least 2 in either direction). Pathway analysis identified seven pathways significantly associated with Trichinella infection (p Trichinella infection caused complex gene expression changes that indicate a host response to tissue damage in the mucosa of the jejunum, but the changes were not notably dependent on the studied species of Trichinella.

  12. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul


    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species.

  13. Binding of TH-iloprost to rat gastric mucosa: a pitfall in performing radioligand binding assays

    Beinborn, M.; Kromer, W.; Staar, U.; Sewing, K.F.


    Binding of TH-iloprost was studied in a 20,000 x g sediment of the rat gastric mucosa. When pH in both test tubes for total and non-specific binding was kept identical, no displaceable binding of iloprost could be detected. When no care was taken to keep the pH identical in corresponding test tubes of the binding assay, changes in pH simulated specific and displaceable binding of iloprost. Therefore it is concluded that - in contrast to earlier reports - it is not possible to demonstrate specific iloprost binding using the given method.

  14. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Julia Negroni

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  15. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Negroni, Julia; Meunier, Nicolas; Monnerie, Régine; Salesse, Roland; Baly, Christine; Caillol, Monique; Congar, Patrice


    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  16. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in the nasal washes and mucosae of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Cho, Gye Song; Moon, Byung-Jae; Lee, Bong-Jae; Gong, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, You-Sun; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju


    Respiratory viral infections are often implicated as triggers of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) flare-ups. However, there is a paucity of respiratory viral surveillance studies in CRS patients, and such studies could elucidate the potential role of viruses in promoting symptoms and aggravating mucosal inflammation. Therefore, a prospective case-control study was conducted to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses in CRS patients and non-CRS controls. Nasal lavage fluids and turbinate epithelial cells were collected prospectively from 111 CRS patients and 50 controls. Multiplex PCR was used to identify common respiratory viruses in both sample types and the infection rate was compared between groups. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50.5% of lavage samples and in 64.0% of scraping samples from CRS patients. The overall infection rate was significantly different in CRS patients and controls (odds ratio, 2.9 in lavage and 4.1 in scraping samples). Multiple viral infections were detected more frequently in lavage samples from CRS patients than those from controls (P virus and the only virus with a significantly different infection rate in CRS patients and controls in both samples (odds ratio, 3.2 in lavage and 3.4 in scraping samples). This study detected a higher prevalence of respiratory viruses in CRS patients than controls, suggesting that there may be significant associations between inflammation of CRS and respiratory viruses, particularly rhinovirus. Further studies should investigate the exact role of highly prevalent respiratory viruses in CRS patients during symptomatic aggravation and ongoing mucosal inflammation.

  17. Protective Effect and Mechanism of TGF - β1 on Intestinal Mucosa against IR Injury in Rats

    SUN Peichun; WU Wanqing; WU Gang


    Objective To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of TGF - 1 on intestinal mucosa against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, so as to provide new methods of clinical prevention from and dealing with intestine I/R injury and gut - derived multiple organ dysfunction syndrome(MODS). Methods 30 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n = 10 each), A: namely sham - operation group ( group A) : superior mesenteric artery ( SMA ) was only isolated but not blocked; B: control group (group B), ischemia for 60 minutes, then reperfusion for 120 minutes, and administered with normal saline solution (NS) 0. 5ml through SMA 10 minutes before SMA blockage; C: experimental group (group C) : animals underwent the same procedure with group B except for taking TGF-β1 instead of NS. The contents of intestinal mucosa Chiu's sore, bacteria translocation, intestinal mucosa cellular apoptosis index, expression of bax mRNA and bcl - 2 mRNA and protein were measured. Results Compared with group A, the results from group B are as follows, the Chiu's score significantly increased, bacteria translocation increased, intestinal mucosa cellular apeptosis rate significantly increased, level of bax mRNA and Bax protein significantly increased, while level of intestinal mucosal bcl -2 mRNA and Bcl -2 protein significantly decreased. All the changes in group B were reversed significantly in group C. Conclusion TGF - 1 exerts a protective effect on the gut barrier against intestine I/R injury, perhaps via reversing injury - induced downregulation in bcl2 transcription and upregulation in bax transcription, with the result in modulating bcl -2 and bax protein expression and downregulation of the susceptibility to apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

  18. Effects of moxibustion on heat-shock protein 70 expression in the spinal cord and colonic mucosa in a rat model of ulcerative colitis

    Li Qi; Yin Shi; Luyi Wu; Jingping Mu; Linying Tan; Xiaopeng Ma; Huirong Liu; Shifen Xu; Huangan Wu


    Pathological changes in the colon are closely associated with the spinal cord, and innervation of spinal cord can regulate cellular functions. Our previous studies verified that moxibustion protects and restores the colonic mucosa, but the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The present study observed the effects of moxibustion and salicylazosulfapyridine on expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and its mRNA in the spinal cord and colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis rats. Results demonstrated that moxibustion and salicylazosulfapyridine increased HSP70 mRNA expression in the spinal cord and colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis rats. The decreased transcriptional activity of HSP70 in the spinal cord and colonic mucosa might participate in damage to the colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis rats. Moxibustion exerted protective effects on colonic mucosa by up-regulating HSP70 transcriptional activity in the spinal cord and colonic mucosa.

  19. Amphiphilic γ-PGA nanoparticles administered on rat middle ear mucosa produce adjuvant-like immunostimulation in vivo

    Nilsson, Johan; Broos, Sissela; Akagi, Takami;


    CONCLUSION: Amphiphilic biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with L-phenylalanine ethylester (γ-PGA-Phe NPs) applied on the rat middle ear mucosa produce an inflammatory type 1 response. The observation is of relevance for the use of γ-PGA-Phe NPs...... as a concomitant antigen delivery system and adjuvant measure in the context of vaccinations. OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of topical mucosal administration of γ-PGA-Phe NPs as a potentially combined antigen delivery system and adjuvant. METHODS: γ-PGA-Phe NPs were administered on rat middle ear mucosa in a sham...

  20. 灯盏乙素淀粉微球经离体鼻黏膜的渗透性评价%Scutellarin starch microspheres' permeability through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro

    叶赏和; 宋晓玲; 李昌煜; 葛卫红; 石森林


    Objective: To study scutellarin starch microspheres' permeability through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro. Method: The Franz diffusion cell method was used to experiment the permeability test (n = 4 ) , taking fresh nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro as permeation barrier separately, with scutellarin starch microspheres (scutellarin 0. 25 mg) above them, and blank Ph6. 8 PBS as absorption liquid to detemine the scutellarin by HPLC. Result: The permeability coefficient of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro were (5.295 ± 0.637) × 10 -3, (4.065 ±1. 140) × 10-3,( 1.855 ±0. 150) × 10-3 cm ? Ml-1 separately. The permeability coefficient order of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro is dog > swine > domestica, and there are significant differences between the permeability coefficient of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of dog, swine in vitro, and that through nasal mucosa of swine and domestica in vitro. Conclusion: Drugs in scutellarin starch microspheres could permeate through the above-mentioned nasal mucosa in vitro. There might be different permeability coefficient among different species.%目的:研究灯盏乙素淀粉微球经动物离体鼻黏膜的渗透性.方法:采用立式扩散池,分别以新鲜的离体犬、小型猪、家猪鼻黏膜为渗透屏障,灯盏乙素淀粉微球(以灯盏乙素计0.25 mg)置于鼻黏膜上方,以空白pH 6.8 PBS为接收液,进行渗透试验(n=4),HPLC测定灯盏乙素.结果:灯盏乙素淀粉微球经离体犬、小型猪、家猪鼻黏膜渗透系数分别为(5.295±0.637)×10-2,(4.065±1.140)×10-2,(1.855±0.150)×10-2m·L-1;灯盏乙素淀粉微球不同动物离体鼻黏膜渗透系数大小顺序为犬>小型猪>家猪;灯盏乙素淀粉微球经犬与家猪离体鼻黏膜的渗透系数、经小型猪与家猪离体鼻黏膜的渗透系数之间存在显著性

  1. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats



    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  2. Penetration effect of prostaglandin E2 gel on oral mucosa of rats

    Rafinus Arifin


    Full Text Available Background: Several researches reported that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 injection on buccal mucosa combined with orthodontic pressure can faster tooth movement but has disadvantages such as high alveolar bone and root resorption furthermore pain from injection needle. PGE2 gel was made to better replace the lacks of injectable PGE2. Purpose: This research was aimed to prove that PGE 2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa effecting the appearance of PMN cells. Methods: This research was an in vivo laboratory experiment using 36 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 3 groups: normal group, topical PGE2 gel group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups, and topical gel without PGE2 group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups. Each group consists of 4 rats, therefore the total sample for all research groups were 36 rats. Gel with 25 µg/mL of PGE2 and gel without PGE2 were applied on oral mucosa for 2 minutes. Then, the rats were sacrificed after 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours application. After that, the samples were prepared for histological examination with Hematoxyllin and Eosin. The picture were taken with OptiLab View and PMN cells amount were counted with light microscope, set 400 times of magnification. Results: Penetration effect of PGE2 gel on rat’s oral mucosa result in PMN inflammation cells distribution. One-way ANOVA showed no significant difference on PMN cells count in rats’ lower jaws between groups of normal and gel without PGE2. There was significant difference between groups of PGE2 gel and gel without PGE2 (p=0,001. PGE2 gel application showed PGE2 as inflammatory media, even though administered topically. Conclusion: PGE2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa, effecting PMN cells 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after application of PGE2 gel.Latar belakang: Beberapa penelitian melaporkan bahwa injeksi (Prostaglandin E2 PGE2pada mukosa bukal yang dikombinasikan dengan tekanan ortodonti dapat mempercepat pergerakan gigi, tapi

  3. A morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa of rats submitted to omentoenteropexy

    Pedro Muñoz Fernandez


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The omentoenteropexy technique was developed as an alternative method for intestinal neovascularization, due to the angiogenic properties of factors from the omentum. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in intestinal villi heights and crypts depths due to surgical techniques: seromiotomy with and without omentoenteropexy. METHOD: Thirty rats were operated on, after being divided into three groups, namely GI, GII and GIII with 10 rats each. In the GI rats were submitted to omentoenteropexy; rats in GII were submitted only to a seromiotomy, and in the GIII only laparotomy. Sixty days after the first surgery, the animals were sacrificed and a segment of intestine was removed for histology using Masson's trichrome technique and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The histological findings showed that seromiotomy with or without omentoenteropexy increased the length of intestinal villi when compared with GIII (only laparotomy (analysis of variance: P = 0.0068; GI 38.88 ± 4.17; GII 39.41± 6.33; GIII 31.85 ± 5.56; GI = GII P>0.05; GII>GIII PGIII P<0.001. CONCLUSION: No differences were demonstrated in relation to crypt depths between the groups (P = 0.60. Ongoing studies are being set forth by our group to add more data on the role of omentopexy as a tool to promote neovascularization and intestinal mucosal growth.

  4. Effects of zinc acexamate (NAS-501) on superoxide radicals and lipid peroxidation of rat gastric mucosa.

    Tsutsui, Y; Nakamura, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Kawanaka, N; Sato, M


    Zinc acexamate (NAS-501), an anti-ulcer agent, has been reported to prevent various acute experimental gastric mucosal lesions and duodenal ulcers in rats. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which NAS-501 exhibits the anti-ulcer effects, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of NAS-501 in vitro and in vivo. NAS-501 significantly reduced the superoxide radical-dependent chemiluminescence, generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, rat neutrophils and guinea-pig macrophages in vitro. These in vitro effects were also confirmed by electron spin resonance using a 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping method. In addition, NAS-501 significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by increasing concentrations of Fe2+/ascorbate in rat gastric mucosal homogenate in vitro. Oral administration of NAS-501 (30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in rat gastric mucosa following per os instillation of 60% ethanol in 150 mmol/l HCl in vivo. These results suggest that NAS-501 exhibits the preventive effect from acute gastric mucosal lesions by the anti-oxidative activity.

  5. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa).

    Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Bhat, Mudraje Narayana


    To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations. Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), wild Indian rat snakes (n=10), captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), and captive Indian rat snake (n=10). The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein. Hematological examinations were performed manually and serum biochemistry assays were performed on semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer. The values of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were slightly low in captive spectacled cobras and captive rat snakes compared to wild ones, whereas total leukocyte count was found to be slightly high in wild spectacled cobras compared to captive ones. All the recorded values of biochemical and electrolyte analytes were found to be well within expected range for snakes except for total protein and chloride levels in both the species which was slightly above the expected range. The hematology and serum biochemistry intervals of the two most common Indian snakes are presented here. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations and aiding in better medical management of the species studied. Since this study is the first to report complete hematologic and blood biochemical ranges for the study species, observations made here can also be used as referral intervals for future use.

  6. Effect of total parenteral nutrition, systemic sepsis, and glutamine on gut mucosa in rats

    Yoshida, S.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Bush, K. T.; Nagele, R. G.; Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Stein, T. P.


    The effect of the combination of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and systemic sepsis on mucosal morphology and protein synthesis was investigated. Rats were given a standard TPN mixture consisting of glucose (216, lipid (24, and amino acids (1.5 g for 5 days. On the 5th day the rats (n = 37) were randomized into four groups according to diet as follows: 1) control nonseptic on standard TPN, 2) control nonseptic on TPN with glutamine, 3) septic on standard TPN, and 4) septic with the TPN supplemented with glutamine. Twenty hours after the injection of Escherichia coli, the rats were given a 4-h constant infusion of [U-14C]leucine to determine the mucosal fractional protein synthesis rates. The following results were obtained. 1) Histological examination showed that systemic sepsis caused tissue damage to the ileum and jejunum. 2) Glutamine supplementation attenuated these changes. 3) There were no visible changes to the colon either from glutamine supplementation or sepsis. 4) Sepsis was associated with an increase in mucosal protein synthesis and decreased muscle synthesis. 5) Addition of glutamine to the TPN mix further increased protein synthesis in the intestinal mucosa of septic rats.

  7. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    Priscila de Freitas; Maria Raquel Martal Natali; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Marcilio Hubner Miranda Nero; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni


    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6±46.52 vs 680.6±30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4±5.19 vs 291.1 ±6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes meilitus with or without supplementation with AA.

  8. The signal transduction mechanisms on the intestinal mucosa of rat following irradiation

    You, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, K. J.; Lee, J. S. [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine


    Phospholipase C(PLC) isozymes play significant roles in signal transduction mechanism. The exact mechanisms of these signal transduction following irradiation, however, were not clearly documented. Thus, this study was planned to determine the biological significance of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC in damage and regeneration of rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated to entire body with a single dose of 8Gy. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to the sacrifice days after irradiation. The expression of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGRF PKC in each group were examined by the immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The histopathologic findings were observed using H and E stain, and the mitoses for the evidence of regeneration were counted using the light microscopy and PCNA kit. The phosphoinositide(PI) hydrolyzing activity assay was also done for the indirect evaluation of PLC-{gamma}1 activity. In the immunohistochemistry, the expression of PLC-{beta} was negative for all groups. The expression of PLC-{gamma}1 was highest in the group III followed by group II in the proliferative zone of mucosa. The expression of PKC-{delta}1 was strongly positive in group I followed by group II in the damaged surface epithelium. The above findings were also confirmed in the immunoblotting study. In the immunoblotting study, the expressions of PLC-{beta}, PLC-{gamma}1, and PLC-{delta}1 were the same as the results of immunohistochemistry. The expression of ras oncoprotein was weakly positive in groups II, III and IV and the expression of PKC was weakly positive in the group II and III. PLC-{gamma}1 mediated signal transduction including ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC play a significant role in mucosal regeneration after irradiation. PLC-{delta}1 mediated signal transduction might have an important role in mucosal damage after irradiation. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the signal transduction mediating the PLC

  9. Differential proteins analysis among human nasal inverted papilloma and nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa%鼻内翻性乳头状瘤与鼻息肉和对照组鼻黏膜组织差异蛋白分析

    孟庆书; 靳胜; 张秋航; 张曼


    目的 应用蛋白质组学技术,分析比较鼻内翻性乳头状瘤(nasal inverted papilloma,NIP)与鼻息肉、对照组鼻黏膜组织的差异蛋白质,筛选具有特异性表达的蛋白.方法 分别采集3例NIP组织、3例鼻息肉组织以及3例单纯鼻中隔偏曲患者(对照组)的中鼻甲黏膜组织标本,应用双向凝胶电泳(two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,2-DE)技术分离各组织的总蛋白质,利用GS-800Calibrated Densitometer凝胶成像系统获取图像,识别差异表达蛋白质点,查询数据库,鉴定差异表达蛋白质.结果 鉴定了6个NIP与鼻息肉组织有明显差异表达的蛋白质点,分别是半乳糖凝集素1、锰-超氧化物歧化酶、半乳糖凝集素7、曲古抑菌素A、抑制素、转铁蛋白.这6个蛋白质点在NIP中的表达均明显增强.结论 应用蛋白质组学研究方法可以对鼻黏膜组织进行差异蛋白分析,鉴定出6个差异表达蛋白质可能与NIP的发病相关.%Objective Proteomics-based approach was applied to analyze and compare the difference of proteins among human nasal inverted papilloma (NIP) ,nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa,in order to screen different proteins as marker.Methods The total proteins of NIP,nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) .Protein image obtained by using the gel of Calibrated GS-800 Densitometer system,and determined different protein spots.Results Six differential proteins between NIP and nasal polyp tissue were identified,which were galectin-1,Manganese-superoxiddismutase,galectin-7,trichostatin A,prohibitin and transferring.All of them were increased in NIP.Conclusions Six differential proteins were possibly involved in NIP,which provided a new way for discriminating NIP from nasal polyposis.The data would be good for the establishment of NIP protein 2-DE map.

  10. Cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase activity in rat nasal epithelial membranes

    Hadley, W.M.; Dahl, A.R.


    Cytochrome P-450 was found in nasal epithelial membranes (NEM) of the rat. The quantity was 12% that of liver on a per mg of microsomal protein basis and 1.6 times that of the lung on the same basis. Metabolism of p-nitroanisole was faster by microsomes from NEM than by microsomes from liver or lungs while the metabolism rate of aniline by microsomes from NEM was between that of microsomes from liver and lung.

  11. Baculovirus-mediated expression and characterization of rat CYP2A3 and human CYP2a6: role in metabolic activation of nasal toxicants.

    Liu, C; Zhuo, X; Gonzalez, F J; Ding, X


    Cytochrome P450 2A3 (CYP2A3) was previously identified in rat lung by cDNA cloning and recently found to be expressed at a high level in the olfactory mucosa. In the current study, CYP2A3 was expressed in insect cells lacking endogenous cytochrome P450 (P450) activity, and the substrate specificity of the recombinant cytochrome was characterized and compared with that of CYP2A6, a human ortholog of rat CYP2A3, which has been detected in human olfactory mucosa as well as in liver. The CYP2A3 and CYP2A6 cDNAs were cloned into baculovirus, and recombinant viruses were used to produce active enzymes in Spodoptera frugiperta (SF9) cells. The metabolic activities of S. frugiperta cell microsomal fractions containing CYP2A3 or CYP2A6 were studied in a reconstituted system with purified rabbit NADPH-P450 reductase. CYP2A3 was found to be active toward testosterone, producing 15 alpha-hydroxytestosterone and several other metabolites, but it had only low activity toward coumarin. On the other hand, CYP2A6 was active toward coumarin but not toward testosterone. However, both enzymes were active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, a nasal procarcinogen, and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN), a herbicide known to cause tissue-specific toxicity in the olfactory mucosa of rodents at very low doses. In addition, both enzymes were active toward 4-nitrophenol, a preferred substrate for CYP2E1. Consistent with CYP2A3 being a major catalyst in microsomal metabolism of DCBN, the activities of both CYP2A3 and rat olfactory microsomes in DCBN metabolism were inhibited strongly by metyrapone and methoxsalen (ID50 50 microM). Thus, rat CYP2A3 and human CYP2A6 have differences in substrate specificity as well as tissue distributor. These findings should be taken into account when assessing the risk of exposure to potential nasal toxicants in humans.

  12. Effects of celecoxib on acid-challenged gastric mucosa of rats: comparison with metamizol and piroxicam.

    Berenguer, Bettina; Alarcón De La Lastra, Catalina; Motilva, Virginia; La Casa, Carmen; Herrerias, Juan Manuel; Pozo, David; Calero, María José Martin


    Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions than classical NSAIDs. Nevertheless, these new agents may worsen and delay the healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in animals. In this study, we compared the effects of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), a preferential COX-1 inhibitor (piroxicam), and a nonnarcotic analgesic (metamizol) on normal gastric mucosa of rats and, on the other hand, in a setting of preexisting acute gastric lesions induced by 0.6 N hydrochloric acid. Under normal conditions, only piroxicam produced appreciable gastric lesions. However, after acid challenge the three assayed drugs induced significant macroscopic and microscopic damage. Myeloperoxidase activity as an index of neutrophil infiltration was elevated with celecoxib and piroxicam on normal gastric mucosa. On inflamed mucosa, celecoxib augmented enzymatic activity at the lower dose, which was parallelled by an increase in the interleukin 1beta level. Acid instillaton produced a significant rise in PGE2 content at 7 hr. Drug treatment after acid challenge decreased prostaglandin values in all cases, although to a lesser extent than after single drug dose administration. COX-2 mRNA expression was visible 1 hr after acid application, whereas COX-2 protein could only be detected at 7 hr. Piroxicam increased both expression levels. All NSAIDs enhanced transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor immunoreactivity around the acid-induced lesions. It is concluded that selective COX-2 inhibitors, like conventional NSAIDs, impair the healing of gastric damage, and therefore special attention should be paid in patients with gastric pathologies.

  13. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids: effect on the small-bowel mucosa in normal rats.

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Bliss, D Z; Hastings, J; Rombeau, J L; Settle, R G


    When enteral nutrition is excluded from animals maintained solely with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), atrophy of the intestinal mucosa is observed. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the colon by the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and fiber polysaccharides and have been shown to stimulate mucosal-cell mitotic activity in the intestine. This study compared the effects of an intravenous and an intracecal infusion of SCFAs on the small-bowel mucosa. Rats received standard TPN, TPN with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate), TPN with an intracecal infusion of SCFAs, or rat food. After 7 d jejunal and ileal mucosal weights, DNA, RNA, and protein were determined. Standard TPN produced significant atrophy of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Both the intracecal and intravenous infusion of SCFAs significantly reduced the mucosal atrophy associated with TPN. The intravenous and intracolonic infusion of SCFAs were equally effective in inhibiting small-bowel mucosal atrophy.

  14. Lysosomal exoglycosidases in nasal polyps.

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Kołodziejczyk, Paweł; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowski, Łukasz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz


    Nasal polyps are smooth outgrowths assuming a shape of grapes, formed from the nasal mucosa, limiting air flow by projecting into a lumen of a nasal cavity. Up to now the surgical resection is the best method of their treatment, but etiology and pathogenesis of the nasal polyps is not yet fully established. The aim of the study was the assessment of the selected lysosomal exoglycosidases activity in the nasal polyps. In this study the activity of β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase was determined in the tissue of the nasal polyps obtained from 40 patients (10F, 30M) and control tissues derived from mucosa of lower nasal conchas obtained during mucotomy from 20 patients (10F, 10M). We observed significant lower values of GAL, FUC and tendency to decrease of MAN and GLU concentration in nasal polyps (P) in comparison to control healthy nasal mucosa (C). In nasal polyp tissue (P) no differences of GAL, MAN and FUC specific activity in comparison to control mucosa (C) were found. Our research supports bioelectrical theory of the nasal polyps pathogenesis and directs attention at research on glycoconjugates and glycosidases of the nasal mucosa extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos


    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  16. Nasal Delivery of High Molecular Weight Drugs

    Erdal Cevher; Yıldız Ozsoy; Sevgi Gungor


    Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight (HMW) of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa. Recent studies have focused particula...

  17. In vivo photo-detection of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the rat palatal mucosa

    Nauta, JM; Speelman, OC; vanLeengoed, HLLM; Nikkels, PGJ; Roodenburg, JLN; Witjes, MJH; Vermey, A


    Photo-detection using in vivo fluorescence was studied for different stages of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the Wistar rat palatal mucosa. It was found that the epithelial dysplasia (numerically expressed in the epithelial atypia index (EAI)) of the ra

  18. In Situ and in Vivo Study of Nasal Absorption of Paeonol in Rats

    Pengyue Li


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in situ and in vivo nasal absorption of paeonol. A novel single pass in situ nasal perfusion technique was applied to examine the rate and extent of nasal absorption of paeonol by rats. Various experimental conditions, such as perfusion rate, pH, osmotic pressure and drug concentration, were investigated. The in situ experiments showed that the nasal absorption of paeonol was not dependent on drug concentration, and fitted a first order process. The absorption rate constant, Ka, increased with an increase in perfusion speed. Paeonol was better absorbed in acidic solutions than in neutral or alkaline solutions. The value of Ka was higher in a hypertonic environment than under isotonic or hypotonic conditions. In vivo studies of paeonol absorption were carried out in rats and the pharmacokinetics parameters of intranasal (i.n. and intragastric (i.g. administration were compared with intravenous (i.v. administration. The bioavailabilities of paeonol were 52.37% and 15.81% for i.n. and i.g, respectively, while Tmax values were 3.05 ± 1.46 min and 6.30 ± 0.70 min. MRT (Mean Residence Time were 23.19 ± 6.46 min, 41.49 ± 2.96 min and 23.09 ± 5.88 min for i.n., i.g. and i.v. methods, respectively. The results demonstrate that paeonol could be absorbed promptly and thoroughly by i.n. administration in rats.

  19. Changes in the Intestinal Mucosa Structure of Rats Caused by Pollen Administration in Diet

    Zuzana Hajková


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the microscopic changes in the small intestine of rats after administration of the pollen addition in diet. Experimental groups A, B and C (10 rats each were given the addition of pollen in concentration of 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.75%, respectively for 90 days in food. Using the quantitative morphometrical methods, statistically significant increase of intestinal villi length (p<0.0001 and Lieberkühn crypts depth (p<0.0001 in jejunum in the experimental groups A and B were found when compared to control without the pollen addition. In experimental group C we have found only statistically significant increase of intestinal villi length (p<0.0001 but statistically significant decrease of Lieberkühn crypts depth (p<0.0001 compared to control group. The results of our work show that the addition of pollen in the diet affects the structure of the small intestine mucosa of rats. The increased length of intestinal villi could modify the absorption rate in the digestive system.

  20. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum.

    Vador, N; Jagtap, Aarti G; Damle, Archana


    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic) rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  1. Vulnerability of gastric mucosa in diabetic rats, its pathogenesis and amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    N Vador


    Full Text Available Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  2. Exogenous ghrelin regulates proliferation and apoptosis in the hypotrophic gut mucosa of the rat.

    de Segura, Ignacio A Gómez; Vallejo-Cremades, María Teresa; Lomas, Jesús; Sánchez, Miriam F; Caballero, María Isabel; Largo, Carlota; De Miguel, Enrique


    Ghrelin is the natural endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptors. This peptide regulates energy homeostasis and expenditure and is a potential link between gut absorptive function and growth. We hypothesized that ghrelin may induce a proliferative and antiapoptotic action promoting the recovery of the hypotrophic gut mucosa. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the action of exogenous ghrelin following gut mucosal hypotrophia in rats fed an elemental diet. An elemental diet provides readily absorbable simple nutrients and is usually given to patients with absorptive dysfunction. Male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed the elemental diet for one week to induce mucosal hypotrophy and then treated for another week with systemic ghrelin and pair-fed with either a normoproteic or hyperproteic isocaloric liquid diet. Another group received a standard diet instead of the elemental diet and served as control (normotrophy). The elemental diet induced intestinal hypotrophia characterized by decreased proliferation in the ileum and increased apoptosis in jejunum and ileum. Ghrelin administration restored normal levels of proliferation in the ileum and apoptosis in the jejunum, with partial apoptosis restoration in the ileum. Ghrelin levels in plasma and fundus were increased in all groups, although the highest levels were found in rats treated with exogenous ghrelin. Ghrelin administration has a positive effect in the hypotrophic gut, regulating both proliferation and apoptosis towards a physiological balance counteracting the negative changes induced by an elemental diet in the intestines.

  3. Role of neutrophilic inflammation in ozone-induced epithelial alterations in the nasal airways of rats

    Cho, Hye Youn

    Ozone is a principal oxidant air pollutant in photochemical smog. Epithelial cells lining the centriacinar region of lung and the proximal aspects of nasal passage are primary target sites for ozone-induced injury in laboratory animals. Acute exposure of rats to high ambient concentrations of ozone (e.g., 0.5 ppm) results in neutrophilic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal transitional epithelium (NTE) lining the proximal nasal airways. The principal purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of pre-metaplastic cellular responses, especially neutrophilic inflammation, in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced MCM in rat NTE. For this purpose, three specific hypotheses-based whole-animal inhalation studies were conducted. Male F344/N rats were exposed in whole-body inhalation chambers to 0 (filtered air) or 0.5 ppm ozone for 1-3 days (8 h/day). Histochemical, immunochemical, molecular and morphometric techniques were used to investigate the ozone-induced cellular and molecular events in the NTE. Two in vitro studies were also conducted to examine the effects of ozone-inducible cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF- a, and interleukin-6; IL-6) on mucin gene (rMuc-5AC) expression. Ozone induced a rapid increase of rMuc-5AC mRNA in nasal tissues within hours after the start of exposure. It preceded the appearance of MCM, and persisted with MCM. Ozone-induced neutrophilic inflammation accompanied the mucin gene upregulation, but was resolved when MCM first appeared in the NTE. Antibody-mediated depletion of circulating neutrophils attenuated ozone-induced MCM, although it did not affect the ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin mRNA upregulation. In another study, it was found that preexisting neutrophilic rhinitis induced by endotoxin augmented the ozone-induced MCM. However, pre-existing rhinitis did not alter the severity of ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin gene upregulation


    秦明; 黄裕新; 王景杰; 赵保民; 高巍; 王庆莉


    Objective: To study the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) of Zusanli (ST 36) on plasma epidermal growth factor (EGF) and celcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in stress rats. Methods: 40 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 8) which was not given with either stress or EA; stress group (n = 8 ) which was given only with stress stimulation, and EA plus stress group (divided into 3 subgroups 1-d, 3-d and 5-d according to the EA treatment duration 1 day, 3 days and 5 days, with 8 rats being in each subgroup). The restrained-cold stress method was used for making stress animal model. Under light microscope and transmission electron microscope, the structural changes of the gastric mucosa were observed. By radioimmunoassay and Guth methods, plasma EGF and CGRP contents and the related ulcer index (UI) were analyzed. Results: In comparison with control group, plasma EGF of stress group decreased significantly (0.44±0.16 μg/L vs 0.23±0.01 μg/L, P < 0.05) ; while UI increased considerably (1.10±0.40 vs 28.0±4.1, P < 0.01). Compared with stress group, both plasma EGF and plasma CGRP in EA subgroup-1d increased significantly (0.23±0.01 μg/L vs 0.42±0.09 μg/L, P < 0.05; 145.00±6.00 ng/L vs 184.00±22.00 ng/L, P<0.05 respectively) ; while UI lowered obviously (28.00±4.10 vs 19.00±2.30, P<0.01 ). Plasma CGRP content of subgroup-5d increased significantly in comparison with that of subgroup-1d ( 184.00±22.00 ng/L vs 232.00±35.00 ng/L, P<0.01). Compared with EA group, the degrees of necrosis and damages of the mucosal cells and vascular endothelium were more severe in stress group. Conclusion: EA of Zusanli (ST 36) can protect gastric mucosa from injury in stress rats, in which the periphery EGF and CGRP are involved and the regulatory action of EA on plasma CGRP is also related to the treatment duration.

  5. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden)


    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  6. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa

    Sanath Krishna Muliya


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations. Materials and Methods: Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10, wild Indian rat snakes (n=10, captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10, and captive Indian rat snake (n=10. The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein. Hematological examinations were performed manually and serum biochemistry assays were performed on semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: The values of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were slightly low in captive spectacled cobras and captive rat snakes compared to wild ones, whereas total leukocyte count was found to be slightly high in wild spectacled cobras compared to captive ones. All the recorded values of biochemical and electrolyte analytes were found to be well within expected range for snakes except for total protein and chloride levels in both the species which was slightly above the expected range. Conclusion: The hematology and serum biochemistry intervals of the two most common Indian snakes are presented here. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations and aiding in better medical management of the species studied. Since this study is the first to report complete hematologic and blood biochemical ranges for the study species, observations made here can also be used as referral intervals for future use.

  7. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa)

    Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Bhat, Mudraje Narayana


    Aim: To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations. Materials and Methods: Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), wild Indian rat snakes (n=10), captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), and captive Indian rat snake (n=10). The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein. Hematological examinations were performed manually and serum biochemistry assays were performed on semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: The values of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were slightly low in captive spectacled cobras and captive rat snakes compared to wild ones, whereas total leukocyte count was found to be slightly high in wild spectacled cobras compared to captive ones. All the recorded values of biochemical and electrolyte analytes were found to be well within expected range for snakes except for total protein and chloride levels in both the species which was slightly above the expected range. Conclusion: The hematology and serum biochemistry intervals of the two most common Indian snakes are presented here. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations and aiding in better medical management of the species studied. Since this study is the first to report complete hematologic and blood biochemical ranges for the study species, observations made here can also be used as referral intervals for future use. PMID:27651683

  8. [Regulation of moxibustion for expression of gastric mucosa cell-related marker protein in rats with acute gastric ulcer].

    Yang, Zong-Bao; Wang, Chen-Guang; Gong, An; Xie, Yu-feng; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Qing


    To explore relevant material basis of moxibustion for recovering gastric mucosal lesion. METHODL Forty-five SD rats were randomly divided into a normal goup, a model group, an acupoint group and a control group, 15 rats in the model group and 10 rats in the rest three groups. Except the normal group, binding and cold stress method were used to establish gastric mucosa injury model. The suspended moxibustion was applied in the acupoint group and control group at acupoints of the stomach meridian ("Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST36) and control acupoints (Laterally 1cm next to the "Liangmen" (ST 21) and Zusanli" (ST36), once a day, consectutively for 12 days. After 12 days, morphology of gastric mucosal was observed under optical microscope; protein fingerprints of gastric mucosa cell in rats were detected by protein fingerprint technology, weak cation chip and weak anion chip. Also mass to charge ratio of differential proteins in groups were compared and analyzed. Compared with the model group, index of gastric mucosal lesion in the acupoint group was reduced and its morphology was obviously improved (Pgastric mucosal lesion were significantly improved in the acupoint group (Pgastric mucosa cell-related marker protein in rats with acute gastric ulcer and recover gastric mucosal lesion, it's effect is better than that of the points of laterally 1 cm next to acupoint.

  9. Effects of Intestinal Trefoil Factor on Colonic Mucosa in Experimental Colitis of Rats

    YANG Tian; ZOU Kaifang; QIAN Wei


    Summary: In order to investigate the protective effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) on colonic mucosa in experimental colitis of rats, ITF was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry at different time points. Three days after colitis induction, rats were treated with either 0.9 % saline solution or rhITF. Pathological changes and the expression of iNOS mRNA, NO, MDA and SOD were measured respectively. It was found that ITF was mainly located in goblet cells, significantly higher in model group than in normal group (P<0.05). rhITF could increase the iNOS mRNA expression and NO contents, and there was statistically significant difference between rhITF group and model group (P<0.05). rhITF also caused an increase of MDA and a decrease of SOD, but there was no significant difference between two groups. These results indicated that ITF has apparent therapeutic effects in ulcerative colitis, which may be associated with iNOS and NO.

  10. Alterations of intestinal mucosa structure and barrier function following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Chun-Hua Hang; Ji-Xin Shi; Jie-Shou Li; Wei Wu; Hong-Xia Yin


    AIM: Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common complication in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the effect of traumatic brain injury on intestinal mucosa has not been studied previously. The aim of the current study was to explore the alterations of intestinal mucosa morphology and barrier function, and to determine how rapidly the impairment of gut barrier function occurs and how long it persists following traumatic brain injury.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (6 rats each group) including controls without brain injury and traumatic brain injury groups at hours 3,12, 24, and 72, and on day 7. The intestinal mucosa structure was detected by histopathological examination and electron microscopy. Gut barrier dysfunction was evaluated by detecting serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability. The level of serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability was measured by using chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, respectively.RESULTS: After traumatic brain injury, the histopathological alterations of gut mucosa occurred rapidly as early as 3 hours and progressed to a serious state, including shedding of epithelial cells, fracture of villi, focal ulcer, fusion of adjacent villi, dilation of central chyle duct, mucosal atrophy,and vascular dilation, congestion and edema in the villous interstitium and lamina propria. Apoptosis of epithelial cells,fracture and sparseness of microvilli, loss of tight junction between enterocytes, damage of mitochondria and endoplasm, were found by electron microscopy. The villous height, crypt depth and surface area in jejunum decreased progressively with the time of brain injury. As compared with that of control group (183.7±41.8 EU/L), serum endotoxin level was signnificantly increased at 3, 12, and 24 hours following TBI (434.8±54.9 EU/L, 324.2±61.7 EU/L and 303.3±60.2 EU/L, respectively), and peaked at 72 hours (560.5±76.2 EU/L), then declined on day 7

  11. Regulation or moxibustion for expression of gastric mucosa cell-related marker protein in rats with acute gastric ulcer



    Objective To explore relevant material basis of moxibustion for recovering gastric mucosal lesion.Methods Forty-five SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group,a model group,an acupoint group and a control group,15 rats in the model group and 10 rats in the rest three groups.Except the normal group,binding and cold stress methods were used to establish gastric mucosa injury model.The suspended moxibustion was applied in the acupoint group and control group at acupoints of the stomach

  12. Nasal Physiology

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  13. Nasal Anatomy

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  14. Effects of zinc acexamate on blood flow and prostanoid levels in the gastric mucosa of the rat.

    Bulbena, O; Esplugues, J V; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Esplugues, J


    The effects of the new antiulcer compound zinc acexamate on blood flow and prostanoid levels in the gastric mucosa have been studied. Zinc acexamate (30 and 300 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevents the reduction induced by the perfusion of noradrenaline (3.5 micrograms/kg.min, 30 min) in gastric mucosal blood flow, as measured by 3H-aniline clearance. Zinc acexamate pretreatment also increases the levels of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric mucosa of the rat, both under control conditions and after infusion with noradrenaline. The levels of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin were not modified by zinc acexamate. These results confirm the importance of microcirculation in pathogenesis and the idea that the antiulcer activity of zinc acexamate is due in part to its action in increasing the mechanism which defend the gastric mucosa against aggression.

  15. Numerical simulation of airway dimension effects on airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns in the rat nasal cavity.

    Zehong Wei

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is largely dependent on the airflow and odorant transport in the nasal cavity, which in turn depends on the anatomical structure of the nose. In order to evaluate the effect of airway dimension on rat nasal airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns, we constructed two 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate models of the left nasal cavity of a Sprague-Dawley rat: one was based on high-resolution MRI images with relatively narrow airways and the other was based on artificially-widening airways of the MRI images by referencing the section images with relatively wide airways. Airflow and odorant transport, in the two models, were determined using the method of computational fluid dynamics with finite volume method. The results demonstrated that an increase of 34 µm in nasal airway dimension significantly decreased the average velocity in the whole nasal cavity by about 10% and in the olfactory region by about 12% and increased the volumetric flow into the olfactory region by about 3%. Odorant deposition was affected to a larger extent, especially in the olfactory region, where the maximum odorant deposition difference reached one order of magnitude. The results suggest that a more accurate nasal cavity model is necessary in order to more precisely study the olfactory function of the nose when using the rat.

  16. Effect of Mexican Tea Herb and Pilular Adina Herb on Concrescence of Gastric Mucosa in Experimental Gastric Ulcer Rats

    CAO Ming-bo; DONG Lei; CHANG Xin-ming; ZOU Bai-cang; QIN Bin


    Objective: To study the effect and mechanism of mexican tea herb and pilular adina herb (abbreviated to MP) on concrescence of gastric mucosa in experimental gastric ulcer rats by observing the changes of epidermal growth factor (EGF), nitrogen monoxidum (NO) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods: The rat ulcer model was established by 100% glacial acetic injection into the subserosa. The ulcer index (UI) was measured by sliding caliper.The levels of NO and EGF in tissue and serum were measured by the nitrate reductase method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of EGFR in the mucosa around the ulcer was detected by the immunohistochemical assay and microimage analysis system. Results:was lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the levels of NO and EGF in the tissue and serum were higher (P<0.05),the thickness of regenerated mucous membrane increased, and the width loss of lamina muscularis mucosa decreased (all P<0.05). (2) The expression of EGFR is weakly positive in gastric mucosa cells in the normal group, mainly in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane. In the model group, the expression of EGFR was mainly in epithelial cells in cervical part and basilar part of gastric gland around the ulcer margin, and the number of cells with EGFR weakly positive expression was more than that in the normal group. Compared with that in the normal and model groups, the number of cells with EGFR positive in MP groups and ranitidine group increased (all P<0.05), with weakly positive expression.Conclusion; MP can protect gastric mucosa, cure gastric ulcer, restrain the secretion of gastric acid,and boost multiplication, differentiation, migration and repair of the endothelial cell by promoting the secretion of NO and EGF, and increasing the expression of EGFR of gastric mucosa epithelial cells.

  17. Altered expression of a putative progenitor cell marker DCAMKL1 in the rat gastric mucosa in regeneration, metaplasia and dysplasia

    Watanabe Hiromitsu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1 is a candidate marker for progenitor cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Lineage cells in the gastric mucosa are derived from progenitor cells, but this process can be altered after injury. Therefore, we explored DCAMKL1 expression under pathological conditions. Methods An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in rat stomach with acute superficial injury, chronic ulcer, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results DCAMKL1 was exclusively expressed in immature quiescent cells in the isthmus of normal fundic glands, where putative progenitor cells are thought to reside. DCAMKL1-positive cells and proliferating cells shed into the lumen after superficial injury and re-appeared during the regenerative process, mainly in the superficial mucosa. In the marginal mucosa around the active ulcer, parietal and chief cells diminished, foveolar hyperplasia was evident, and trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2/spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM emerged at the gland base. DCAMKL1 cells re-emerged in the deep mucosa juxtaposed with SPEM and proliferating cells. In the healing ulcer, the TFF2 cell population expanded and seemed to redifferentiate to chief cells, while proliferating cells and DCAMKL1 cells appeared above and below the TFF2 cells to promote healing. SPEM appeared and PCNA cells increased in the intestinalized mucosa, and DCAMKL1 was expressed in the proximity of the PCNA cells in the deep mucosa. DCAMKL1, PCNA and TFF2 were expressed in different dysplastic cells lining dilated glands near SPEM. Conclusion The ultrastructural appearance of DCAMKL1-positive cells and the expression patterns of DCAMKL1 in normal and pathological states indicate that the cells belong to a progenitor cell population. DCAMKL1 expression is closely associated with TFF2/SPEM cells after injury. DCAMKL1 cells repopulate close to proliferating, hyperplastic

  18. Effect of Mica Monomer Powder on Chief and Parietal Cells as well as G and D Cells in Gastric Mucosa of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Rats

    ZHU Fang-shi; SI Jian-min; WANG Liang-jing; WANG Dong-fei; CHEN Ping


    Objective:To study the regulative action of mica monomer powder preparation on the chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa of the experimental atrophic gastritis(CAG)rats.Methods:Intervention therapy was given to the experimental CAG rats at three different doses of mica monomer powder preparation to evaluate the changes of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa and the histopathological changes of gastric mucosa.Results:Mica monomer powder preparation at three different doses could increase the amount of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in gastric mucosa of the experimental CAG rats and alleviate and control the inflammation of gastric mucosa and the atrophy of gastric mucosa glands.Especially,better effects were shown in the mid and high dose groups.Conclusion:Mica has the pharmacological action of protecting the gastric mucosa,promoting the regeneration of gastric glands,enhancing blood flow of the gastric mucosa,and consequently improving the inflammatory responses of the gastric mucosa.One of the mechanisms is associated with promoting the secretion of gastric acid and gastric pepsin and regulating the neuroendocrine mechanism including gut hormone secretion(gastrin and somatostatin)by increasing the number of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells.

  19. The Effects of Passive Smoking on Laryngeal and Tracheal Mucosa in Male Wistar Rats During Growth: An Experimental Study.

    Zaquia Leão, Henrique; Galleano Zettler, Claudio; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Lammers, Marcelo; Rigon da Luz Soster, Paula; Bastos de Mello, Fernanda; Reghelin Goulart, Guilherme; de Campos, Deivis; Pereira Jotz, Geraldo


    Cigarettes contain toxic and carcinogenic substances. In this context, cigarette smoking, and similar activities, are associated with numerous pathologies, being considered a risk factor in up to 10% of the total number of deaths in adults. Recent evidence suggests that the exposure of children to smoking in the early days of their development causes many diseases. Using light microscopy, this study aims to analyze the possible histopathological effects of an experimental model of chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke (passive smoking) on the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa of young Wistar rats. A total of 24 young Wistar rats were studied for a period of 120 days. The animals were divided into two groups: passive smoking (n = 16) and control (n = 8). The level of exposure to cigarette smoke was evaluated from the urinary cotinine level. Although no cancerous lesions were identified, histopathological analysis in the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa of all the animals in the experimental group showed that the proportion of moderate and focal inflammation was higher in animals exposed to chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke (P = 0.041). Histopathologic analysis revealed moderate and focal inflammatory lesions in the region of the infraglottic mucosa in exposed animals, although without dysplastic or neoplastic lesions in the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam

    Yong-Qiu Zheng; Wei Wei; Yu-Xian Shen; Min Dai; Li-Hua Liu


    AIM: To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen (CⅡ) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions.METHODS: AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam,AA model+oral CⅡ, AA model+nasal CⅡ, AA model+meloxicam+oral CⅡ and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CⅡ (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CⅡ intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT)method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis.RESULTS: Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats.There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg)could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05for oral CⅡ; P<0.01 for nasal CⅡ), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes.However, oral administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis

  1. Age dependency of the composition of immunocompetent cells and the expression of adhesion molecules in rat laryngeal mucosa.

    Jecker, P; Ptok, M; Pabst, R; Westermann, J


    Clinical evidence shows that laryngeal infections in infants differ significantly from those in adults. Therefore, the composition of the mucosal immune system (granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T and B lymphocytes) and the epithelial expression of class II-MHC molecules and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were studied in the larynx of newborn, 5-week-old, and 3-year-old rats. With the exception of macrophages, the immunocompetent cells began to immigrate into the laryngeal mucosa after birth, indicating that the laryngeal mucosa in newborn rats is immature. In contrast, ICAM-1 was already expressed. The number of immunocompetent cells and the expression of epithelial class II-MHC and ICAM-1 increased with age. Immunocompetent cells and epithelial class II-MHC and ICAM-1 expression were mainly detected in the subglottic region, but were almost absent in the vocal fold region.

  2. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J


    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  3. Increased numbers of mast cells in the hyperplastic buccal mucosa of the zinc-deficient rat.

    Kreavich, M E; Meyer, J; Waterhouse, J P


    Six weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 0.4 ppm Zn and seven were fed an identical diet except for 40 ppm Zn. After 4 weeks, specimens of buccal mucosa in the region facing the molar teeth were removed. Paraffin sections, cut at 6 micron, were stained with toluidine blue, and tracings made of five sections per animal, spaced no less than 60 micron apart. Counts of mast cells of five sections length of section were made in a superficial zone of the lamina propria of 50 micron width and a deeper zone of 250 micron width. The average number of mast cells, per mm in the subepithelial zone of the experimental animals was 15.4, the range 9.2-33.1. The control average was 4.0; the range was 2.9-5.3. No increase was found in the deeper zone. The epithelium was parakeratotic and its thickness was increased two-fold. In the peripheral portion of the section, cellular and keratin layers were evenly increased in thickness, but in the central portion a disproportionate, nearly four-fold increase occurred in the keratin layer and a lesser increase in the cellular layer.

  4. Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.

    Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M


    Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena.

  5. Influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric mucosa histological changes of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Araujo, José Carlos Ribeiro DE; Carvalho, Jorge José DE; Serra, Humberto Oliveira


    to evaluate the influence of Duodenal reflux in histological changes of the gastric mucosa of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. after two weeks of acclimation, we infected 30 male Wistar rats with Helicobacter pylori. We randomly divided them into three groups: one submitted to pyloroplasty, another to partial gastrectomy and the third, only infected, was not operated. After six months of surgery, euthanasia was carried out. Gastric fragments were studied by light microscopy to count the number of H. pylori, and to observe the histological changes (gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia). We confirmed these changes by immunohistochemistry using the molecular markers PCNA and TGF-beta. the animals submitted to pyloroplasty had higher percentage of colonization by H. pylori (median=58.5; gastrectomy=16.5; control=14.5). There was a positive correlation between the amount of H. pylori and the occurrence of chronic gastritis present in the antral fragments. Neoplasia occurred in 40% of rats from the group submitted to pyloroplasty. The staining with PCNA and TGF-ß confirmed the histopathological changes visualized by optical microscopy. the antral region was the one with the highest concentration of H. pylori, regardless of the group. There was a positive correlation between the appearance of benign disorders (chronic gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia) and cancer in mice infected with H. pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. avaliar a influência do refluxo duodenogástrico nas alterações histológicas da mucosa gástrica de ratos, infectados por Helicobacter pylori, submetidos à piloroplastia. após duas semanas de aclimatação, 30 ratos machos da raça Wistar, foram infectados com o microorganismo patogênico H. pylori. De forma aleatória, foram divididos em três grupos: um submetido à piloroplastia, outro à gastrectomia parcial e o terceiro, apenas infectados, não foi operado. Após seis meses de operados, procedeu-se a

  6. Discovery of unique and ENM- specific pathophysiologic pathways: Comparison of the translocation of inhaled iridium nanoparticles from nasal epithelium versus alveolar epithelium towards the brain of rats.

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G


    The biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles (NP) is more complex than that of larger particles since NP may NP deposited on the nasal mucosa of the upper respiratory tract (URT) may translocate to the olfactory bulb of the brain and also via the trigeminus (URT neuronal route); and (b) NP deposited in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) may cross the ABB into blood and enter the brain across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) or take a neuronal route from enervated tracheo-bronchial epithelia via the vagus nerve. Translocation from both - the URT and the LRT - are quantified during the first 24h after a 1-hour aerosol inhalation of 20nm-sized, (192)Ir radiolabeled iridium NP by healthy adult rats using differential exposures: (I) nose-only exposure of the entire respiratory tract or (II) intratracheal (IT) inhalation of intubated and ventilated rats, thereby bypassing the URT and extrathoracic nasal passages. After nose-only exposure brain accumulation (BrAcc) is significantly nine-fold higher than after IT inhalation since the former results from both pathways (a+b) while the latter exposure comes only from pathway (b). Interestingly, there are significantly more circulating NP in blood 24h after nose-only inhalation than after IT inhalation. Distinguishing translocation from URT versus LRT estimated from the differential inhalation exposures, the former is significantly higher (8-fold) than from the LRT. Although the BrAcc fraction is rather low compared to total NP deposition after this short-term exposure, this study proofs that inhaled insoluble NP can accumulate in the brain from both - URT and LRT which may trigger and/or modulate adverse health effects in the central nervous system (CNS) during chronic exposure.

  7. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  8. Nasal cavity dimensions in guinea pig and rat measured by acoustic rhinometry and fluid-displacement method

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.


    the potential of AR in pharmacological research with these animals. We measured the area-distance relationships by AR of nasal cavities postmortem in five guinea pigs (Duncan Hartley, 400 g) and five rats (Wistar, 250 g) by using custom-made equipment scaled for the purpose. Nosepieces were made from plastic...

  9. IGF-1 Gene Expression in Rat Colonic Mucosa After Different Exercise Volumes

    Buehlmeyer, Katja; Doering, Frank; Daniel, Hannelore; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Schulz, Thorsten; Michna, Horst


    The evidence is increasing for a close link between the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and colon cancer prevention by physical exercise. To reveal exercise-induced alterations in colon mucosa, gene expression of IGF-1 and related genes and serum IGF-1 were investigated. Twenty male Wistar rats performed a 12 week voluntary exercise program. Nine rats served as the control group. Gene expression of IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Circulating IGF-1 was analyzed exercise volume-dependent. Based on 3 distinguished groups with low (L-EX, 8314 m·night-1), we observed lower serum IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05) in all exercise groups as compared to the control group and IGF-1 levels declined proportional to the increase in exercise volume. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation was found between IGF-1 concentration and body mass (r = 0.50) and a significant negative correlation exists between body mass and exercise volume (r = -0.50). Significant differences in colonic mRNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IGF-BP3 could not be observed. Based on our data we propose that the exercise as well as the body mass reduction leads to a decrease in circulating IGF-1 and this might represent a prime link to colon cancer prevention. Key pointsThere were significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels in all exercise groups as compared to the control group.GF-1 levels declined proportional to the increase in exercise volume.A significant positive correlation was found between IGF-1 concentration and body mass and a significant negative correlation was found between body mass and exercise volume.Significant differences in colonic mRNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IGF-BP3 could not be observed. PMID:24149475

  10. Effect of aminated gelatin on the nasal absorption of insulin in rats.

    Seki, Toshinobu; Kanbayashi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tomonobu; Chono, Sumio; Tomita, Mikio; Hayashi, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro


    Absorption enhancers, which increase the permeability of drugs through epithelial membranes without damaging them, are especially useful for intranasal administration of peptide drugs. In this study, aminated gelatins, candidate enhancers, having different numbers of amino groups were prepared from gelatin (H-gelatin, isoelectric point = 9.0, MW 100 kDa) and a partial gelatin hydrolysate (L-gelatin, isoelectric point = 8.0, MW 5 kDa), and the enhancing effects on the nasal absorption of insulin, used as a model peptide drug, and 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF), a paracellular marker, were examined in rats. The enhancing effect on insulin and CF depends on the MW and number of amino groups. A high correlation between the enhancing effects on insulin and CF was observed and this suggests that an increase in the paracellular permeability is the mechanism governing the nasal absorption-enhancement of aminated gelatins, at least as far as insulin and CF are concerned. The enhancing mechanism might be shared with other cationic polymers having absorption-enhancing effects.

  11. Effects of collagen solution on the prevention of acute gastric mucosa injuryin rats

    Xu Wang; Gen Feng Li; Zong Cheng Yang


    AIM To investigate the effects of collagen solution on the prevention of acute gastric mucosal injury inrestricted rats inflicted by cooling in low temperature (4℃),METHODS Thirty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal (N, n = 10),injury (I, n = 10)and prevention (P, n = 10) groups. The rats were fasted for 48 h but free access to water without restrictionand cooling in normal group, fasted for 48 h but free access to water with restriction of rats onto the fixationframe for cooling in 4℃ for 4 h, so to cause stress injury of gastric mucosal membrane in I group and fed with3 mL of collagen solution 30min before injury in P group in addition to the procedures in I grobp. Gastricmucosal potential difference, blood flow volume, content of nitrite (NO2-) and hydrogen ion concentration(H+ ) in gastric juice were determined under aneasthesia at 48 h after fast in N group and at 4 h after injuryin I and P groups to evaluate the degree of injury (injury index).RESULTS Gastric mucosal potential difference was 22.10±5.27 in N group and 11.46±5.25 in I groupwith obvious difference (P<0.01), but 16.98±4.84 in P group which was remarkably improved whencompared to that in I group. Gastric mucosal blood flow volume was 23.65±10.65 in I group and 57.20±11.75 in N group with evident difference (P<0.01), but 37.49±5.87 in P group with sound effects incontrast to that in I group (P<0.01). Gastric injury index was 18.40±8.35 in I group and 7.9±2.13 in Pgroup with significant difference (P<0.01). Hydrogenion concentration in gastric juice was 118.0±41.2mmol/L in N group, 186.9±74.7 mmol/L in I group and 96.4±57.2 mmol/L in P group with prominentdifference (P< 0.01 ) between those in I and P group. Gastric mucosal nitrite concentration was 1.15±0.46in N group, 0.69±0.15 in I group and 1.04±0.44 in P group with obvious differences between N and Igroups (P<0.01) and between I and P group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Ischemic and hypoxic injury of gastric mucosal

  12. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S


    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA.

  13. Early ultrastructural changes in the dorsal mucosa of rat tongue after irradiation, with special reference to the microvasculature

    Obinata, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Hayato; Ito, Jusuke [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Takano, Yoshiro


    To clarify the acute effects of irradiation on the ultrastructural conformation of the dorsal mucosa of the rat tongue, with special reference to the changes in microvasculature. The proboscis of seventy rats were irradiated. The animals were then perfusion-fixed, followed by India ink-injection or resin casting at 3 to 7 days after irradiation. The bulk, frozen sections, or plastic embedded sections of the treated rat tongues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the dorsal epithelium of the rat tongue, multi-nucleated cells appeared in the basal layer at 3 days after irradiation. At day 5, the thickness of the epithelial layer and connective tissue papillae decreased dramatically, concomitant with the shortening of the capillary loops. At day 7, lingual papillae and connective tissue papillae disappeared, leaving dissociated epithelial cells and numerous neutrophils migrating throughout the tissue. Subepithelial blood vessels displayed drastic dilation with a number of neutrophils adhering to the endothelial surface, but without ultrastructural abnormalities in its cellular components. Early changes in the dorsal mucosa of the irradiated rat tongue were limited to the basal epithelial cells, leading to a total disruption of the epithelial layer. Atrophic changes of the capillary loops is due to the loss of the connective tissue papillae. Dilation and conformational changes of the subepithelial capillaries appear to result from the inflammatory reaction, taking place secondarily to the loss of the epithelial barrier of the irradiated tongue. A difference in radiosensitivity among the epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cell components of the rat tongue in vivo is suggested. (author)

  14. Fade and tachyphylaxis of gastric acid secretory response to pentagastrin in rat isolated gastric mucosa.

    Hirst, B H; Holland, J; Parsons, M E; Price, C A


    1. Gastric acid secretory responses to pentagastrin were characterized in the rat isolated gastric mucosa. In particular, the mechanisms underlying fade, declining response upon continued stimulation, and tachyphylaxis, progressively reduced responses upon repeated stimulation, were investigated. 2. Pentagastrin, 10(-9)-10(-7) M, resulted in concentration-related increases in acid secretion, with a mean maximum of 2.65 mumol cm-2 h-1 in response to pentagastrin, 10(-7) M. Higher concentrations of pentagastrin produced sub-maximal secretory rates; we define this as auto-inhibition. The responses to all concentrations of pentagastrin demonstrated fade. The rate of fade was correlated with the maximum acid secretory rate, declining at about 36% of the peak over the first 16 min. 3. The PO2, PCO2, [HCO3-], pH, [glucose], [lactate], [Na+] and [K+] did not decline during the fade of the acid secretory response to pentagastrin, 10(-7) M. Addition of a second aliquot of pentagastrin was not able to reverse fade, but these tissues were responsive to histamine. Replacement of the serosal solution, before addition of a second aliquot of pentagastrin, increased the acid response from 3% to 24% of the first response. 4. Serosal solution from donor tissues, allowed to respond to pentagastrin and then the acid secretion to fade, was able to stimulate secretion in fresh recipient tissues, although at lower rates. 5. Acid secretory responses to a second dose of pentagastrin were not significantly different, whether the tissues were previously unstimulated, or stimulated with pentagastrin washed out after attaining its peak secretory response (after 10-20 min). The second response was significantly reduced if the first response was allowed to fade with the pentagastrin in contact for 100 min; i.e. fade significantly influenced the extent of tachyphylaxis. 6. Proglumide, 10(-2) M, a gastrin receptor antagonist, and omeprazole, 10(-5) M, an inhibitor of the gastric (H+ + K

  15. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

    Océane, C Martin


    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  16. In vivo and in vitro analysis of the effect of various acid-secretion blockers on UDP-galactosyltransferase activities in rat gastric mucosa


    Gastric mucus glycoprotein is important for the protection of gastric mucosa from acid. UDP-galactosyltransfer-ase (UDP-Gal-T) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of gastric mucus glycoprotein. In this study, we investigted the effects of five acid-secretion blockers, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, roxatidine and omprazole on the UDP-Gal-T activity in rat gastric mucosa to clarify the interaction of the acid-secretion blocker and the gastric mucosal barrier. Intraperitoneal administration ...

  17. Dietary selenomethionine increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa.

    Zeng, Huawei; Yan, Lin; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Uthus, Eric O


    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. This study was to investigate whether selenium (Se) affects the methylation of globe genomic DNA and the exon-specific p53 gene. Three groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) were fed the AIN-93G basal diet supplemented with 0 [Se deficient (D)], 0.15 [Se adequate (A)], or 4 mg [Se supranutritional (S)] (Se as l-selenomethionine)/kg diet for 104 d, respectively. Rats fed the A or S diet had greater plasma and liver glutathione peroxidase activity, liver thioredoxin reductase activity, and plasma homocysteine concentration than those fed the D diet. However, compared with the A diet, rats fed the S diet did not further increase these Se-dependent enzyme activities or homocysteine concentration. In contrast, Se concentrations in kidney, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and plasma were increased in a Se-dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats fed the S diet had significantly less global liver genomic DNA methylation than those fed the D diet. However, the S diet significantly increased the methylation of the p53 gene (exons 5-8) but not the β-actin gene (exons 2-3) DNA in liver and colon mucosa compared with those fed the D diet. Taken together, long-term Se consumption not only affects selenoprotein enzyme activities, homocysteine, tissue Se concentrations, and global genomic DNA methylation but also increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in a Se-dose-dependent manner in rat liver and colon mucosa.

  18. [Comparison of the brain pharmacokinetics of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal rats and model rats].

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Yan, Yi-Lin; Zhou, Li-Ling


    The study is to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics change of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal and model rats. Acute cerebral ischemia rat model was successfully established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Both normal and model rats were given nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel (10 mg x kg(-1)). Perfusates of brain striatum area were collected at each time point by microdialysis. The content of TMPP was determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4 software at each time point of the brain drug concentration. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of TMPP were fitted with compartments 2. After nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel the values of C(max) and AUC of both components in brain showed as follows: the value of model group > that of normal group. Significant difference can be observed in the process of brain pharmacokinetics in normal and model rats after giving nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel.

  19. Effect of hypertonic saline resuscitation on heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock

    LU Yuan-qiang; GU Lin-hui; HUANG Wei-dong; MOU Han-zhou


    Background Massive blood loss due to trauma is the leading cause of death in trauma patients and military combatants. The fluid category of resuscitation for hypotensive trauma patients is open to debate. This study was conducted to investigate the early effects of hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of rats with hemorrhagic shock.Methods A model of severe hemorrhagic shock was established in 21 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham, normal saline resuscitation (NS), and hypertonic saline resuscitation (HTS) groups, with 7 in each group. We assessed and compared the HO-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis in the small intestinal mucosa of rats after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation using the SYBR Green I fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescein-iso-thiocyanate-annexin V/propidium iodide double staining, and flow cytometry.Results In the early stage of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, marked apoptosis occurred in the small intestinal mucosa from both the NS and HTS groups. The apoptotic rate in the NS group was higher than that in the HTS group (P <0.01). Among the three groups, HO-1 mRNA mucosa from the HTS group had the highest level of expression; however, the differences were not significant. There was a significant negative correlation between HO-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis in the small intestinal mucosa from the NS and HTS groups after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.Conclusions In this rat model of severe hemorrhagic shock, HTS resuscitation with a small volume is more effective than NS resuscitation in reducing apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa. Further, HO-1 mRNA over-expression in the intestinal mucosa may be one of the molecular mechanisms of HTS in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock.

  20. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail:; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.


    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  1. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in radiation exposed small intestinal mucosa of the rat

    Kwag, Hyon Joo [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ja; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes whose main function is the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have revealed that MMPs and TIMPs are related to the wound healing process and in photoaging caused by ultraviolet irradiation. However, the expressions of MMP and TIMP after irradiation have not, to the best of our knowledge, been studied. This study investigates the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. The entire abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated using a single dose method. The rats were sacrificed on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 following irradiation. Histopathological observations were made using hematoxilin and eosin staining. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were examined using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and ELISA. Radiation induced damage, associated with atrophic villi, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed from the first postirradiation day, and severe tissue damage was observed on the second and the third postirradiation days. An increase in mitosis and the number of regenerating crypts, as evidence of regeneration, were most noticeable on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunohistochemistry, the MMP-2 expression was observed from the first postirradiation day, but was most conspicuous on the third and the fifth postirradiation days. The TIMP-2 expression was most conspicuous on the fifth postirradiation day. From the immunoblotting, the MMP-2 expression was strongly positive on the third postirradiation day, and that of TIMP-2 showed a strong positive response on the fifth postirradiation day. In ELISA, tests, the expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. were increased in the postirradiation groups compared to those of the normal controls, and showed a maximum increase on the fifth postirradiation day. These results were statistically significant. The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were increased in the intestinal mucosa of the rats

  2. Characterization of primary rat nasal epithelial cultures in CFTR knockout rats as a model for CF sinus disease.

    Tipirneni, Kiranya E; Cho, Do-Yeon; Skinner, Daniel F; Zhang, Shaoyan; Mackey, Calvin; Lim, Dong-Jin; Woodworth, Bradford A


    The objectives of the current experiments were to develop and characterize primary rat nasal epithelial cultures and evaluate their usefulness as a model of cystic fibrosis (CF) sinonasal transepithelial transport and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. Laboratory in vitro and animal studies. CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(-/-) rat nasal septal epithelia (RNSE) were cultured on semipermeable supports at an air-liquid interface to confluence and full differentiation. Monolayers were mounted in Ussing chambers for pharmacologic manipulation of ion transport and compared to similar filters containing murine (MNSE) and human (HSNE) epithelia. Histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were completed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of CFTR(+/+) RNSE, MNSE, and HSNE was performed to evaluate relative CFTR gene expression. Forskolin-stimulated anion transport (ΔIsc in μA/cm(2) ) was significantly greater in epithelia derived from CFTR(+/+) when compared to CFTR(-/-) animals (100.9 ± 3.7 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9; P < 0.0001). Amiloride-sensitive ISC was equivalent (-42.3 ± 2.8 vs. -46.1 ± 2.3; P = 0.524). No inhibition of CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl(-) ) secretion was exhibited in CFTR(-/-) epithelia with the addition of the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTRInh -172. However, calcium-activated Cl(-) secretion (UTP) was significantly increased in CFTR(-/-) RNSE (CFTR(-/-) -106.8 ± 1.6 vs. CFTR(+/+) -32.2 ± 3.1; P < 0.0001). All responses were larger in RNSE when compared to CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(-/-) (or F508del/F508del) murine and human cells (P < 0.0001). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated 80% to 90% ciliation in all RNSE cultures. There was no evidence of infection in CFTR(-/-) rats at 4 months. CFTR expression was similar among species. The successful development of the CFTR(-/-) rat enables improved evaluation of CF sinus disease based on characteristic abnormalities of ion transport. NA. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological

  3. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Apis mellifera honey on the Helicobacter pylori infection of Wistar rats gastric mucosa

    Thiago Yamamoto AMARAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain. Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1. Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.

  4. Effect of early peritoneal drainage on the injury of intestinal mucosa in the rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Chao DENG


    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protective effect of early peritoneal drainage against injury of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods  Thirty-six SD rats were randomly and equally divided into three group, i.e. control group, model (SAP group, drainage (APD group. Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate (2ml/h, 0.1ml/100g into the common biliopancreatic duct. All the rats were sacrificed 24 hours after operation. The condition of abdominal cavity was observed, and pathological changes in ileum were detected by HE staining. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, diamine oxidase (DAO and D-lactate were determined by ELISA. Results  Compared with the control group, the histopathological changes in ileum were more marked, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, DAO and D-lactate were significantly higher in SAP group and APD group (P<0.05; Compared with SAP group, the histopathological changes in ileum were less marked, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, DAO and D-lactate were significantly lower in APD group (P<0.05. Conclusion  Early peritoneal drainage can effectively improve the intestinal mucosal injury in acute pancreatitis rats, and reduce the systemic inflammatory response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.07

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of Intranasal Midazolam on Nasal Mucosal Tissue.

    Ozbay, I; Kucur, C; Değer, A; Ital, I; Kasim, Cayci M; Oghan, F


    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of intranasal midazolam on nasal mucosal tissue in rats. Forty healthy rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (n = 8) was the control group, group 2 (n = 8) received intranasal saline, group 3 (n = 8) received intranasal midazolam, group 4 (n = 8) received intraperitoneal saline, and group 5 received intraperitoneal midazolam (n = 8). Midazolam and saline were administered via intraperitoneal and intranasal routes at doses of 200 μg/kg. Nasal septal mucosal stripe tissues were removed at the 6th hour. All materials were evaluated according to Ki67 and p53 staining to evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, respectively, and hemotoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histopathology evaluation. Ki67 values and inflammation in group 3 were statistically higher compared to group 1, group 2, and group 4. P53 values in group 3 were statistically higher compared to group 1. Assessment of subepithelial edema between group 3 and the other groups revealed no statistically significant differences. Assessment of cilia loss between group 3 and group 1, group 2, and group 4 revealed no statistically significant difference. The evaluation of goblet cell loss between group 3 and group 1 revealed a statistically significant difference. Intranasal midazolam had adverse effects on nasal mucosa. However, intranasal midazolam is as safe as systemic midazolam administration with respect to nasal mucosa.

  6. 鼻腔黏膜接触区与头痛关系的临床观察%Clinical observation on relation between nasal mucosa contact point and headache

    王佳; 尹金淑; 李健东; 杨磊; 段永利


    Objective To verify the correlation between nasal contact point and headache and to discuss the significance of nasal endoscopic surgery through observation of clinical outcomes in patients with nasal mucosa contact point treated by endoscopic surgery.Methods Forty-five patients diagnosed as nasal mucosa contact headache were treated by nasal endoscopic surgery. The results were analyzed retrospectively,including headache degree,headache frequency,lasting time and total time between before and 6,18,and 24 months after operation. The data were processed by rank-sum test by SPSS 18.0 software.Results 6,18 and 24 months after operation,the headache degree( VAS scores were 1.50 [0;4.00],2.00 [0; 5.00],3.25 [0; 5.75],respectively) was relieved (VAS score was 6.00[5.25; 8.25] before operation) dramatically ( Z value were - 4.913,- 4.070 and - 3.095,respectively,all P < 0.01 ).The total time of headache 6,18,24 months after operation ( It were 0.07 [0 ; 3.50],0.26 [0 ;7.77],1.04《0; 17.15] h,respectively) was shortened (It was 25.20[4.00; 186.00] h before operation) significantly (Z value were - 4.368, - 3.652, - 2.500,respectively,all P < O.05).Conclusions One of the key causes of patients suffered from intractable headaches is mucosal contact in the nasal cavity.The pain in these patients could be relieved through surgical correction of intranasal anatomic abnormalities.Nasal mucosa contact might not be the only etiology of intractable headache since the mechanism of headache is complicated and variable.The effect of endoscopic surgery needs to be estimated by long-term follow-up.%目的 通过对鼻内镜手术治疗鼻腔黏膜接触性头痛的临床观察,探讨鼻腔黏膜接触区与头痛的相关性.方法 回顾性分析45例经鼻内镜手术治疗的鼻腔黏膜接触性头痛患者术前、术后6、18、24个月的头痛强度、头痛频率、持续时间、总时间的差异.数据采用SPSS 18.0统计软件进行秩和检验.结果 鼻内镜术后6

  7. Role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.

    Jana Cinova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-γ by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN-γ significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-γ induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-γ and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa

  8. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    Anabela Baptista PAULA


    Full Text Available The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed.Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals.Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa.Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group.Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

  9. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the colonic mucosa of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na mucosa colonica de ratos com colite experimental

    Mardem Machado de Souza


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the colonic mucosa in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, macroscopic and microscopic score of the colonic mucosa, and DNA content of the mucosa. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na mucosa colônica de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo ácido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 - budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, aspecto macroscópico e microscópico da mucosa e conteúdo de DNA da mucosa colônica. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o início e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p<0.001. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos em relação a macroscopia e histologia. O grupo budesonida + probiótico apresentou conteúdo de DNA maior que o grupo controle (1,24±0,15 versus 0,92±0,30 g/100g de tecido; p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de budesonida com probióticos acelera o trofismo mucoso na colite experimental.

  10. Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.

    Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko


    Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid.

  11. Remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa after roux-en-y gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats.

    Konstantinos Arapis

    Full Text Available Whereas the remodeling of intestinal mucosa after bariatric surgeries has been the matter of numerous studies to our knowledge, very few reported on the remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa. In this study, we analyzed remodeling of gastric mucosa after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG in rats. Diet-induced obese rats were subjected to RYGB, VSG or sham surgical procedures. All animals were assessed for food intake, body-weight, fasting blood, metabolites and hormones profiling, as well as insulin and glucose tolerance tests before and up to 5 weeks post-surgery. Remodeling of gastric tissues was analyzed by routine histology and immunohistochemistry studies, and qRT-PCR analyses of ghrelin and gastrin mRNA levels. In obese rats with impaired glucose tolerance, VSG and RYGB caused substantial weight loss and rats greatly improved their oral glucose tolerance. The remaining gastric mucosa after VSG and gastric pouch (GP after RYGB revealed a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells that displayed a strong immunoreactivity for parietal cell H+/K+-ATPase. Ghrelin mRNA levels were reduced by 2-fold in remaining fundic mucosa after VSG and 10-fold in GP after RYGB. In the antrum, gastrin mRNA levels were reduced after VSG in line with the reduced number of gastrin positive cells. This study reports novel and important observations dealing with the remaining gastric mucosa after RYGB and VSG. The data demonstrate, for the first time, a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells, a transit cell population of the stomach bearing differentiating capacities into zymogenic and peptic cells.

  12. Effect of Jinguo Weikang Capsule(金果胃康胶囊) on Proto-oncogene Expression of Gastric Mucosa in Rats with Gastric Precancerous Lesions


    Objective:To study the effect of Jinguo Weikang Capsule (金果胃康胶囊,JWC) on the gene expression of H-ras,epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),P53 and C-myc of the gastric mucosa in rats with gastric precancerous lesions,and to investigate the action mechanism of JWC on gastric precancerous lesions.Methods:A rat model with paratypical proliferation of the gastric epithelium mucosa was established by using 60Co irradiation.Rats were divided into the normal group,model group,high-,medium-,low-dose JWC treatment groups,and the vitacoenzyme control group,and were treated for 30 days.The expression of H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc genes of the gastric mucosa was detected by using immunohistochemical methods.Results:The expression and over-expression rates of H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc gene in the high- and medium-dose JWC treatment groups were significantly lower (P<0.05)as compared with those of the model group.Conclusion:JWC can inhibit the expression of the H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc genes expression of the gastric mucosa in rats,which may be one of mechanisms involved in suppressing or reversing gastric carcinogenesis.

  13. Transcriptome and proteonome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis

    Dihal, A.A.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Charif, H.; Dekker, L.J.; IJsselstijn, L.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Stierum, R.H.


    Quercetin has been shown to act as an anticarcinogen in experimental colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to characterize transcriptome and proteome changes occurring in the distal colon mucosa of rats supplemented with 10 g quercetin/kg diet for 11 wk. Transcriptome data analyz

  14. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis

    Dihal, A.A.; Woude, H. van der; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Charif, H.; Dekker, L.J.; IJsselstijn, L.; Boer, V.C.J. de; Alink, G.M.; Burgers, P.C.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Stierum, R.H.


    Quercetin has been shown to act as an anticarcinogen in experimental colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to characterize transcriptome and proteome changes occurring in the distal colon mucosa of rats supplemented with 10 g quercetin/kg diet for 11 wk. Transcriptome data analyz

  15. Genotoxic Effect of Chronic Exposure to DDT on Lymphocytes, Oral Mucosa and Breast Cells of Female Rats

    Ruth De Celis


    Full Text Available The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Genotoxic effect of chronic exposure to DDT on lymphocytes, oral mucosa and breast cells of female rats.

    Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Salado-Ponce, Hugo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth


    The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells.

  17. Correlation of changes in capillary supply and epithelial in the hyperplastic buccal mucosa of zinc-deficient rats.

    Meyer, J; Stohle, M R; Stablein, M J


    Lengths of capillaries and epithelial dimensions were measured on tracings of sections of buccal mucosa stained for the alkaline phosphatase from rats on a zinc-deficient diet. The diet-deficient animals showed the following increases over controls; length of capillaries X 2.67; thickness of cell layer, X1.47; thickness of keratin layer. X2.82; basal layer length: surface length ratio, X1.41. Lengthening of the basal layer and the capillaries showed high positive correlations with thickening of the basal layer cell layer. Lengthening of the capillaries exceeded the lengthening of the basal layer cell layer amd the thickening of the epithelium but fell short of the increased anabolic performance of the epithelium as quantitated in previous investigations.

  18. The Effect of Fetal Olfactory Mucosa on Tissue Sparing and Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats

    Hamdollah Delaviz


    Full Text Available Objective: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs has been shown to have a neuroprotectiveeffect after transplanted in brain and spinal cord injury (SCI. This study was conductedto determine the possible beneficial results of transplantation of fetal olfactorymucosa (FOM that was the source of OECs in the recovery of locomotor function andin spinal tissue sparing after spinal cord hemisection.Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were spinallyhemisected at the L1 level and were randomized into the three groups of 16 animals.The first group, immunosuppressed injured animals were received cyclosporine A (CsAand FOM graft. The second group was received CsA and fetal respiratory mucosa(FRM graft, and the control group; non-immunosuppressed rats were received salineand gel foam. Locomotor performance was assessed weekly for 8 weeks after lesion,using locomotive rating scale developed by Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB. Afterbehavioral assessment, the spinal cord was examined by a histologist for spinal tissuesparing.Results: From weeks 6-8, the functional recovery of the FOM rats significantly increasedin comparison to the FRM, although a significant difference in tissue sparing was not apparent.From weeks, 2-8 the functional recovery of the FOM and FRM groups as well astissue sparing of the FOM group increased significantly compared to the control group.Conclusion: Thus, the FOM treatment may be effective to promote functional recoveryand partially preserving tissue sparing.

  19. Preventive oral supplementation with glutamine and arginine has beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic rats.

    Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Cui; He, Liuqin


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with a combination of arginine and glutamine on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adult rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight of 185 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: control group A (CA) and control group B (CB), both orally supplemented with 0.9% saline; group Arg, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) arginine; group Gln, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine; group AG, supplemented with 150 mg/kg day(-1) arginine and 150 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine. The experiment lasted for 2 weeks. Food intake and body weight were measured during the experiment. At 10.00 h of day 15, animals were injected with 4 mg/kg LPS (group CB, Arg, Gln, and AG) or sterile saline (group CA) after supplementation. Then at 14.00 h, all animals were killed and blood and tissue collected. The results showed that compared with group CB, arginine concentration tended to be increased (P > 0.05) in group Arg and AG, while there was no significant difference in glutamine concentration among the groups challenged with LPS. Oral supplementation with arginine or/and glutamine mitigated morphology impairment (lower villus height, P Arginine only significantly decreased TNF-α mRNA abundance in the ileum, while glutamine significantly decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in the ileum. A combination of arginine and glutamine significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA abundance in both the jejunum and ileum, while they also significantly decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the ileum. These results revealed that an oral supply of combined arginine and glutamine had more favorable effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines than a supply of arginine or glutamine alone.

  20. Nasal application of neuropeptide S reduces anxiety and prolongs memory in rats: social versus non-social effects.

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D


    Recent studies demonstrated potent behavioral effects of centrally applied neuropeptide S (NPS) in mice and rats. These include increased arousal and wakefulness, facilitation of fear extinction and object memory consolidation and anxiolysis. Here, we compared the effects of NPS on both social and non-social memory, in male rats, and on social preference/social anxiety versus non-social anxiety after either intracerebroventricular (icv) or nasal application. Intranasal application of neuropeptides has been successfully employed to alter behavioral parameters in humans and rodents, but studies concerning nasal application of NPS are lacking so far. First, we confirmed the facilitatory effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on object discrimination after an inter-exposure interval (IEI) of 240 min. These effects were context-dependent, as icv NPS (1 nmol) did not prolong social memory in a social discrimination paradigm. Second, we confirmed the anxiolytic effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on the elevated plus-maze, whereas neither icv NPS (1 nmol) nor NPS receptor antagonist (10 nmol) altered social preference/social avoidance behavior. Third, nasal NPS (4-40 nmol applied topically on the rhinarium) facilitated object discrimination in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the anxiolytic effect of NPS on the elevated plus-maze could be confirmed after nasal administration (40 nmol). In contrast, identical doses of subcutaneously injected NPS failed to produce corresponding behavioral effects in both tests. Our findings provide evidence for memory-enhancing and anxiolytic effects of icv NPS in a non-social context. We could further show that these effects are context-specific, as social memory and social preference behavior remained unchanged after icv NPS. The effects of icv NPS were replicated by nasal application of the neuropeptide. Thus, nasal application of NPS seems to be a useful method in rodents for screening for behavioral or physiological effects before more specific and time


    Iefimenko, O Yu; Savchenko, I O; Falalyeyeva, T M; Beregova, T V; Zholobak, N M; Shcherbakov, O B; Malyukin, Yu V; Spivak, M Ya


    It was established that with age the content of lipid peroxidation products increased in the mucosa of the stomach: Diene conjugates by 30%, products which react to thiobarbituric acid by 285% and Schif bases by 181%. Nanodisperse cerium dioxide (NCD) reduced the content of lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa in old rats: Diene conjugates by 43 %, products which react to thiobarbituric acid by 51% and Schif bases by 44% relative to the control group of rats given age. Similarly, it was established that the content of Diene conjugates increased by 40%, products which react to thiobarbituric acid by 114% and Schif bases by 132% in the mucosa of the colon of old rats. NDC significant reduced the content of products which react to thiobarbituric acid by 69% and Schyf basics by 132%. In the stomach superoxide dismutase (by 43%) and catalase activity (by 24%) decreases with age, while in the colon superoxide dismutase activity increases (by 43%). In the colon NCD significant decreased superoxide dismutase (by 34%) and catalase activity (by 21%) relative to controls. Thus, the NDC restores lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa and colon, in which develops oxidative stress with age.

  2. Effects of intra-gastric beta-casomorphin-7 on somatostatin and gastrin gene expression in rat gastric mucosa

    Ya-Feng Zong; Wei-Hua Chen; Yuan-Shu Zhang; Si-Xiang Zou


    AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of beta-casomorphin-7on the regulation of gastric somatostatin and gastrin messenger RNA in rat gastric mucosa.METHODS: Somatostatin and gastrin mRNA were quantified by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH)in 24 rats. The rats were divided into three treatment groups: basal diet + physiological saline (n = 8), basal diet + beta-casomorphin-7 (7.5 × 10-7 mol) (n = 8),and basal diet + poly-Gly-7 (containing equal mol of N with 7.5 x 10-7 mol beta-casomorphin-7) (n = 8).After oral administration for 30 days, rats were killed by exsanguinations.RESULTS: After intra-gastric administration of betacasomorphin-7 for 30 d, gastrin mRNA increased by 52.8% (P < 0.05, n = 8), and somatostatin mRNA levels decreased by 30.7% compared with the controls (P <0.01, n = 8). No significant differences in the expression of the two genes were observed in the poly-Gly-treated group, although gastrin mRNA expression was elevated by 35.6% as against the control group (P = 0.15, n =8). The long-term oral administration of a casomorphin solution significantly decreased the even gray of D-cells,but did not lower the number of D-cells both in the antrum and fundus. Interestingly, the number of G-cells increased in the antrum and fundus, but its average density was augmented only in the antrum.CONCLUSION: Beta-casomorphin-7 is capable of modulating gene expression of the regulatory peptides from G and D cells. Data from in situ hybridization studies indicate that beta-casomorphin-7 affects gastrin gene expression indirectly by means of the paracrine action of somatostatin, and depends on its intrinsic molecular function.

  3. The ΔF508-CFTR mutation inhibits wild-type CFTR processing and function when co-expressed in human airway epithelia and in mouse nasal mucosa

    Tucker Torry A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rescue or correction of CFTR function in native epithelia is the ultimate goal of CF therapeutics development. Wild-type (WT CFTR introduction and replacement is also of particular interest. Such therapies may be complicated by possible CFTR self-assembly into an oligomer or multimer. Results Surprisingly, functional CFTR assays in native airway epithelia showed that the most common CFTR mutant, ΔF508-CFTR (ΔF-CFTR, inhibits WT-CFTR when both forms are co-expressed. To examine more mechanistically, both forms of CFTR were transfected transiently in varying amounts into IB3-1 CF human airway epithelial cells and HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells null for endogenous CFTR protein expression. Increasing amounts of ΔF-CFTR inhibited WT-CFTR protein processing and function in CF human airway epithelial cells but not in heterologous HEK-293 cells. Stably expressed ΔF-CFTR in clones of the non-CF human airway epithelial cell line, CALU-3, also showed reduction in cAMP-stimulated anion secretion and in WT-CFTR processing. An ultimate test of this dominant negative-like effect of ΔF-CFTR on WT-CFTR was the parallel study of two different CF mouse models: the ΔF-CFTR mouse and the bitransgenic CFTR mouse corrected in the gut but null in the lung and airways. WT/ΔF heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype with regard to CFTR agonist responses in in vivo nasal potential difference (NPD recordings and in Ussing chamber recordings of short-circuit current (ISC in vitro on primary tracheal epithelial cells isolated from the same mice. In contrast, CFTR bitransgenic +/− heterozygotes had no difference in their responses versus +/+ wild-type mice. Conclusions Taken altogether, these data suggest that ΔF-CFTR and WT-CFTR co-assemble into an oligomeric macromolecular complex in native epithelia and share protein processing machinery and regulation at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. As a consequence, ΔF-CFTR slows WT

  4. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil


    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  5. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil


    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  6. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing


    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  7. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestinal mucosa in rats.

    Onishchenko, G E; Erokhina, M V; Abramchuk, S S; Shaitan, K V; Raspopov, R V; Smirnova, V V; Vasilevskaya, L S; Gmoshinski, I V; Kirpichnikov, M P; Tutelyan, V A


    Penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles into enterocytes after their administration into isolated loop of rat small intestine was shown in vivo by transmission electron microscopy. Using electron diffraction, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were identified in the apical regions of the cells under plasma membranes and in deeper parts of the cytoplasm as solitary objects or small aggregations. Water dispersions of nanoparticles (3-h exposure to high concentrations) caused no appreciable morphological changes in enterocyte ultrastructure. A 28-day subacute intragastric administration of water dispersion of nanoparticles to rats led to titanium accumulation in the liver, their level was significantly higher than in the control group, which was shown by mass spectrometry with inductive-bound plasma. These data indicated the possibility of penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles through the gastrointestinal barrier under near-physiological conditions.

  8. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum


    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced gly...

  9. Lead exposure increases oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa of HCI/ethanol-exposed rats


    AIM: To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species in the ulcer-aggravating effect of lead in albino rats.METHODS: Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated orally with 100 mg/L (low dose) or 5000 mg/L (high dose) of lead acetate for 15 wk. A third group received saline and served as control.At the end of wk 15, colorimetric assays were applied to determine the concentrations of total protein and nitrite, the activities of the oxidative enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation in homogenized gastric mucosal samples.RESULTS: Exposure of rats to lead significantly increased the gastric mucosal damage caused by acidified ethanol. Although the basal gastric acid secretory rate was not significantly altered, the maximal response of the stomach to histamine was significantly higher in the lead-exposed animals than in the unexposed control group. Exposure to low and high levels of lead significantly increased gastric lipid peroxidation to 183.2% ± 12.7% and 226.1% ± 6.8% of control values respectively (P < 0.0). On the other hand, lead exposure significantly decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and the amount of nitrite in gastric mucosal samples.CONCLUSION: Lead increases the formation of gastric ulcers by interfering with the oxidative metabolism in the stomach.

  10. [Effects of shugan jianpi recipe on the ion transport of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome rat colon mucosa induced by 5-HT].

    Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Wang, Zheng-Fang; Guo, Qian-Kun


    To investigate the mechanism of Shugan Jianpi Recipe (SJR) on the ion transportation of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) colon mucosa induced by 5-HT. Totally 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, i. e., the normal group, the model group, and the SJR group, 12 in each group. IBS-D Rat model was induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. After successful modeling, normal saline was given to rats in the normal group and the model group, while SJR was given to those in the SJR group by gastrogavage for 14 days. The short circuit current (lsc) technology was used to measure 5-HT induced lsc changes of the colon mucosa under the actions of drugs and specific blocking agents. There was no difference in basal current (BC), the potential difference (PD), and transmembrane resistance (TR) of the distal colon among the 3 groups (all P > 0.05). The 5-HT induced short circuit current change (delta lsc) was lower in the model group than in the normal group (P colonic mucosa, the 5-HT induced delta lsc was lower in the model group than in the normal group (P colonic mucosa, an epithelial Na+ channel blocker, the 5-HT induced delta lsc was lower in the model group than in the normal group (P < 0.05), and it was higher in the SJR group than in the model group (P < 0.05). SJR could affect the transmembrane electrolyte transportation of IBS-D rat induced by 5-HT through regulating the secretion of Cl- and HCO3-. The effects might be achieved by the coordination of apical Cl- channel CFTR, basolateral Na(+)-K+ ATPase, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, as well as K+ channel.

  11. Effect of Azithromycin on NF-kBp65 and IL-8 in nasal mucosa of chronic sinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery%阿奇霉素对慢性鼻-鼻窦炎患者术腔黏膜中NF-kBp65IL-8表达的影响

    白永; 李娜; 赵慎林; 张旻


    Objective To observe the effect of azithromycin on expressions of NF-kBp65 and IL-8 in nasal mucosa of chronic sinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods 45 patients with chronic sinusitis and/or nasal polyps who were treated with endoscopic surgery 2 weeks previously were divided into 3 groups: 15 patients treated with local glucocorticoid as the control group, 15 patients were added with cephalosporin(500 mg, once a day) as another control group, others were added with Azithromycin(500 mg, once a day) as the experimental group. The PV-6000 immuno-histochemical method was applied to explore expressions of NF-kBp65 and IL-8 in nasal mucosa before and after 3-week medical therapy while counting the quantity of positive cells. Results Chronic inflammation was observed in nasal mucosa after endoscopic sinus surgery by HE staining. There were many inflammatory cells such as neutrophil cells and eosinophil cells under the mucosa] epithelium, and the neutrophil cells were the key cells. Expression of NF-kBp65 was positive in the cytoplasm and some nuclei of the mucosal epithelia and the inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa. Expression of IL-8 was positive in the cytoplasm of the mucosal epithelia and inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa. Expressions of NF-kBp65 and IL-8 were significantly reduced in the mucosal epithelia and inflammatory cells of nasal mucosa after 3 weeks medical treatment compared with that of pre-treatment in the three groups (P 0. 05).Conclusion Azithromycin in combination with local glucocorticoid is better than glucocorticoid to inhibit expressions of NF-kBp65 and IL-8 in mucosal epithelia and inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa of chronic sinusitis and/or nasal polyps after endoscopic sinus surgery. It is an effective method to cure chronic inflammation of nasal mucosa in the nasal cavity after endoscopic sinus surgery.%目的 观察阿奇霉素对慢性鼻-鼻窦炎患者术腔黏膜中NF-kBp65、IL-8表达的影响,探讨阿奇霉素治疗术

  12. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M


    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Physical Exercise on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rats Submitted to a Hypothalamic Obesity Condition.

    Gomes, J R; Freitas, J R; Grassiolli, S


    The small intestine plays a role in obesity as well as in satiation. However, the effect of physical exercise on the morphology and function of the small intestine during obesity has not been reported to date. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on morphological aspects of the rat small intestine during hypothalamic monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. The rats were divided into four groups: Sedentary (S), Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Exercised (E), and Exercised Monosodium Glutamate (EMSG). The MSG and EMSG groups received a daily injection of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg) during the 5 first days after birth. The S and E groups were considered as control groups and received injections of saline. At weaning, at 21 days after birth, the EMSG and E groups were submitted to swimming practice 3 times a week until the 90th day, when all groups were sacrificed and the parameters studied recorded. Exercise significantly reduced fat deposits and the Lee Index in MSG-treated animals, and also reduced the thickness of the intestinal wall, the number of goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. However, physical activity alone increased the thickness and height of villi, and the depth of the crypts. In conclusion, regular physical exercise may alter the morphology or/and functions of the small intestine, reducing the prejudicial effects of hypothalamic obesity. Anat Rec, 299:1389-1396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Protective Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside on the Rat Small Intestine Transplanted Mucosa

    Feng-Hua Chen


    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosal epithelium is extremely susceptible to even brief periods of ischemia. Mucosal barrier damage, which is associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and consequently bacterial translocation, remains a major obstacle for clinically successful small bowel transplantation (SBT. Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of nitric oxide (NO on other transplanted organs and NO mediated intestinal protection has also been reported in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor, on graft mucosal histology and molecular markers of function after SBT in rats. We used SNP in different period of heterotopic SBT rats. The groups consisted of SBT, pre-SNP group, and post-SNP group. Interestingly, the pre-SNP graft samples exhibited less damage compared to the SBT and post-SNP samples. In addition, mucosal samples from the pre-SNP group showed higher Na+-K+-ATPase activity and higher levels of laminin expression compared to the SBT and post-SNP samples. The findings of the present study reveal that SNP given before graft ischemia/reperfusion injury has a protective effect on mucosal histology and molecular markers of function in the transplanted small intestine.

  15. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Ozkan Onal


    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  16. Morphological changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal mucosa at different ages

    Li Wang; Jian Li; Qing Li; Jian Zhang; Xiang-Lin Duan


    AIM: To study the changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal epithelium at different ages.METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia from birth to postnatal 12th month were observed using immunocytochemistry (ICC), and TUNEL method. The height of villus, the thickness of muscle layer and the number of goblet cells in jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia were measured by BeiHang analytic software and analyzed by STAT.RESULTS: (1) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells of jejunal glandulous recess were found and increased in number from birth to the postnatal 3rd month. The number of PCNA positive cells peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, and decreased from then on. (2) The number of apoptotic cells also peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, showing a similar trend to that of the PCNA positive cells. (3) The height of jejunal villus increased after birth, peaked in the postnatal 3rd month and decreased from then on. The jejunal muscle layer became thicker in the postnatal 3rd week and the postnatal 12th month.The number of goblet cells of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia had a linear correlation with age.CONCLUSION: (1) PCNA positive cells are distributed in the jejunal glandulous recess. (2) Apoptotic cell number peaks in the postnatal 3rd month, indicating that cell proliferation and apoptosis are developed with the formation of digestive metabolism as rat grows to maturity. (3) The thickness of jejunal muscle layer increases to a maximum in the postnatal 3rd week, which may be related to the change in diet from milk to solid food. (4) The number of goblet cells increases rapidly in the postnatal 3rd week, probably due to ingestion of solid food.

  17. Short- and long-term effects of irradiation on laryngeal mucosa of the rat

    Lidegran, M. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Forsgren, S. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Anatomy; Dahlqvist, Aa. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Franzen, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Domeij, S. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Histology and Cell Biology


    Although radiotherapy is often used to treat laryngeal carcinoma, there is little information on the effects of this treatment on laryngeal structures. Rats were irradiated to the head and neck region and the larynges were studied by light- and electron-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Ten days after irradiation, a change in the ultrastructural appearance of the granules of the subglottic glands was observed. Substance P-, bombesin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivity was increased in local ganglionic cells and glandular nerve fibres. The mast cells were reduced in number. At examination 4-6 months after irradiation, there were no obvious differences compared with controls concerning mast-cell numbers and neuropeptide expression. The ultrastructural changes seen in the subglottic glands remained to some extent. The results show that structural changes in the subglottic glands occur concomitantly with an increased expression of certain neuropeptides in the innervation of these glands, which implies a relationship between these two parameters. The mast cells respond drastically to irradiation, but in the long run, regeneration of these cells occurs. (orig.)

  18. Nanocrystalline cerium dioxide efficacy for prophylaxis of erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastric mucosa of rats induced by stress.

    Golyshkin, Dmytro; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Virchenko, Oleksandr; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Beregova, Tetyana; Ostapchenko, Lyudmyla; Caprnda, Martin; Skladany, Lubomir; Opatrilova, Radka; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Shcherbokov, Alexandr; Spivak, Mykola


    In our previous works, the important therapeutic properties of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide such as strong antioxidant ability, prebiotical and antibiotic activity were shown. Such properties were obtained due to stabilization of nanoparticles with precise size 3-7nm. Such modification of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide has contributed to its remarkable efficacy and low toxicity. We have carried out the investigation of toxicity of the nanodrug and revealed that in the condition of the acute toxicity test, LD 50 was 2000mg/kg when it was administered per os. This indicator is approximately 1000 times greater than effective dose of the compound that proved the possibility of its usage for humans. Considering the strong antioxidant properties of this substance, we have performed the investigation of the influence of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide on the erosive-ulcerative lesions in gastric mucosa of rats induced by Selye's restraint stress. It was established that the studied compound significantly reduced the lesions area by 58.3% (p<0.05) induced by Selye's restraint stress. The attenuation of inflammation and decrease of lipid peroxidation in the conditions of gastric lesions and prophylactic administration of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide were shown. That was confirmed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines content (interleukin (IL) 1β, 12B p40) and raise of anti-inflammatory cytokines content (IL-10 and transforming growth factor β). Measurement of lipid peroxidation products has proved the antioxidant properties of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide as it decreased the content of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid active products in the conditions of gastric ulceration induced by stress.

  19. Nasal Cancer

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  20. Smart polymers in nasal drug delivery

    Ankita Chonkar


    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  1. Rebamipide protects small intestinal mucosal injuries caused by indomethacin by modulating intestinal microbiota and the gene expression in intestinal mucosa in a rat model.

    Kurata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Takako; Osaki, Takako; Uematsu, Naoya; Shibamori, Masafumi; Sakurai, Kazushi; Kamiya, Shigeru


    The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNFα and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.

  2. 动物种属差异及黏膜部位对灯盏乙素经离体鼻黏膜渗透性的影响%Effects of species differences and the site of mucous membranes on scutellarin's permeability through nasal mucosa in vitro

    石森林; 宋晓玲; 叶赏和; 李昌煜; 葛卫红


    目的:考察动物种属差异及黏膜部位对药物经鼻黏膜渗透性的影响.方法:灯盏乙素为模型药物,采用立式扩散池,分别以新鲜的离体犬、小型猪、家猪离体鼻黏膜为渗透屏障,药物置于鼻黏膜上方,以pH6.8PBS为接收液,进行渗透试验(n=4),HPLC法测定灯盏乙素.结果:灯盏乙素经犬、小型猪、家猪鼻黏膜渗透系数分别为( 16.162±1.957)×10-3cm/min,(13.697±0.605)×10-3cm/min,(4.740±0.211)×10-3cm/min;灯盏乙素经上述动物离体鼻黏膜的渗透系数之间均存在显著性差异.灯盏乙素经离体家猪鼻中膈前部与鼻中膈黏膜的渗透系数分别为( 0.194±0.004)×10-3cm/min、(4.740±0.211)×10-3cm/min,两者比较,具有显著性差异.结论:灯盏乙素可经上述离体鼻黏膜渗透,但渗透系数存在种属差异;灯盏乙素经同一动物鼻黏膜不同部位的渗透性亦存在差异.%Objective: To study the effects of species differences and the site of mucous membranes on drug' permeability through nasal mucosa in vitro. Methods: The Franz diffusion cell method was used to experiment the permeability test(n=4), taking fresh nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro as permeation barrier separately, with Scutellarin, as the model drug, above them, and blank pH6.8 PBS as absorption liquid. HPLC was used to determine the scutellarin. Results: the permeability coefficient of Scutellarin through nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro are (16.262±1.957)xl0~3cm/min, (13.697±0.605)xl0°cm/min, (4.740±0.21 l)xl0-3cm/min, separately. There were significant differences among them. The permeability coefficient of Scutellarin through nasal mucosa of Anterior Spetum and spetum are (0.194±0.004)xl0'cm/min, (4.740±0.21 l)xl03cm/min, separately. There were significant differences. Conclusion: Scutellarin could permeate through the above-mentioned nasal mucosa in vitro. There might be different permeability coefficient among different

  3. Properties of phosphofructokinase from the mucosa of rat jejunum and their relation to the lack of Pasteur effect.

    Tejwani, G A; Ramaiah, A


    1. The properties of phosphofructokinase after its slight purification from the mucosa of rat jejunum were studied. 2. The enzyme is inhibited by almost 100% by an excess of ATP (1.6mm), with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate. AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+) at 0.2, 0.76, 1.0 and 2mm respectively do not individually prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity by 1.6mm-ATP with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate to any great extent, but all of them together completely prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase by ATP. 3. One of the effects of high concentrations of ATP on the enzyme was to increase enormously the apparent K(m) value for the other substrate fructose 6-phosphate, and this increase is largely counteracted by the presence of AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+). At low concentrations of ATP the above effectors individually decrease the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity and when present together they decrease it further, in a more than additive way. 4. When fructose 6-phosphate is present at a saturating concentration (5mm), 0.3mm-NH(4) (+) increases the maximum velocity of the reaction 3.3-fold; with 0.5mm-fructose 6-phosphate, 4.5mm-NH(4) (+) is required for maximum effect. The other effectors do not change the maximum reaction velocity. 5. The results presented here suggest that NH(4) (+), AMP, ADP and P(i) synergistically decrease the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity at high concentrations of ATP by decreasing the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity. Such synergism among the effectors and an observed, low ;energy charge' [(ATP+(1/2)ADP)/(AMP+ADP+ATP)] in conjunction with the possibility of a relatively high NH(4) (+) and fructose 6-phosphate concentration in this tissue, may keep the mucosal phosphofructokinase active and uninhibited by ATP under aerobic conditions, thus explaining the high rate of aerobic glycolysis and the lack of Pasteur effect in this tissue.

  4. Intranasal delivery of ciprofloxacin to rats: A topical approach using a thermoreversible in situ gel.

    Sousa, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Oliveira, Paula; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar


    Intranasal administration of antibiotics is an alternative and attractive delivery approach in the treatment of local infections such as chronic rhinosinusitis. This topical route has the advantage of delivering high drug concentrations directly to the site of infection when trying to eradicate the highly resistant bacterial biofilms. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin following intranasal and intravenous administrations to rats in plasma, olfactory bulb and nasal mucosa of two different nasal regions. For intranasal administration a thermoreversible in situ gel was used to increase drug residence time in nasal cavity. Ciprofloxacin concentration time-profile in nasal mucosa of the studied anterior region (at naso- and maxilloturbinates level) was markedly higher after intranasal administration (0.24mg/kg) than that following intravenous administration (10mg/kg), while in nasal mucosa of the more posterior region (at ethmoidal turbinates level) ciprofloxacin concentrations were found to be higher after intranasal administration when the different dose administered by both routes is taken into account. A plateau in ciprofloxacin concentration was observed in nasal mucosa of both studied regions after intranasal administration, suggesting a slow delivery of the drug over a period of time using the nasal gel formulation. In plasma and olfactory bulb, concentration of ciprofloxacin was residual after intranasal administration, which demonstrates this is a safe administration route by preventing systemic and particularly central nervous system adverse effects. Dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin exposure to nasal mucosa revealed higher values after intranasal delivery not only in the anterior region but also in the posterior nasal region. In conclusion, topical intranasal administration appears to be advantageous for delivering ciprofloxacin to the biophase, with negligible systemic

  5. The effects of glutamine-supplemented diet on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat Os efeitos de dieta com suplementação de glutamina sobre a mucosa intestinal do rato desnutrido em crescimento

    Uenis Tannuri


    Full Text Available Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and plays a key role in the response of the small intestine to systemic injuries. Mucosal atrophy is an important phenomenon that occurs in some types of clinical injury, such as states of severe undernutrition. Glutamine has been shown to exert powerful trophic effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa after small bowel resection or transplant, radiation injury, surgical trauma, ischemic injury and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Since no study has been performed on the malnourished animal, we examined whether glutamine exerts a trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat. Thirty-five growing female rats (aged 21 days were divided into 4 groups: control - chow diet; malnutrition diet; malnutrition+chow diet; and malnutrition+glutamine-enriched chow diet (2%. For the first 15 days of the experiment, animals in the test groups received a malnutrition diet, which was a lactose-enriched diet designed to induce diarrhea and malnutrition. For the next 15 days, these animals received either the lactose-enriched diet, a regular chow diet or a glutamine-enriched chow diet. After 30 days, the animals were weighed, sacrificed, and a section of the jejunum was taken and prepared for histological examination. All the animals had similar weights on day 1 of experiment, and feeding with the lactose-enriched diet promoted a significant decrease in body weight in comparison to the control group. Feeding with both experimental chow-based diets promoted significant body weight gains, although the glutamine-enriched diet was more effective. RESULTS: The morphological and morphometric analyses demonstrated that small intestinal villous height was significantly decreased in the malnourished group, and this change was partially corrected by the two types of chow-based diet. Crypt depth was significantly increased by malnutrition, and this parameter was partially corrected by the two

  6. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo


    Background & aims: Stress softening is a feature of mechanical preconditioning in soft tissue. Previously, we demonstrated that esophageal stress softening is reversible by muscle activation with KCl. Since the esophagus consists of muscle and mucosa-submucosa layers, the aim was to study......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...... losses due to stress softening were recovered by KCl-induced contraction. Such losses could not be recovered by KCl in the diabetic esophageal muscle layer. The normal esophageal mucosa-submucosa layer obtained extra energy gain by KCl activation whereas the diabetic mucosa-submucosa layer became softer...

  7. Topical application of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. promotes healing of excisional and incisional wounds in rat buccal mucosa.

    İlhan, Mert; Bolat, Ismail Eser; Süntar, İpek; Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Uğar Çankal, Dilek A; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra


    In Turkish folk medicine Momordica charantia L. is used for wound healing. The aim of the present study is to investigate this folkloric knowledge and confirm the plant's potential effect on buccal mucosa wound in the rat. Wound healing activity of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. was investigated in linear incision and circular excision wound models created in the buccal mucosa of the rat. The tissues were histopathologically evaluated, moreover, hydroxyproline contents of the tissues were determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was also assessed by using Whittle method with some modifications. Olive oil macerate of M. charantia showed significant wound healing activity both in incision (45.1%) and excision (89.8%) wound models and demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity with the inhibition value of 31.3% at the dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data revealed that M. charantia showed significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 长期胆汁反流对大鼠胃黏膜的影响%Effects of Chronic Bile Reflux on the Gastric Mucosa of Rats

    王学伟; 曹勤; 唐剑敏


    目的:建立模拟人体生理性胆汁反流的大鼠模型,观察长期胆汁反流对大鼠腺胃和前胃黏膜的影响.方法:13只Sprague-Dawley大鼠于十二指肠的胆总管开口下端截断,于大鼠前胃大弯侧行胃-空肠吻合,胆汁反流1年后,研究大鼠腺胃和前胃黏膜的病理特点,并采用免疫组化方法,研究胆汁反流对腺胃黏膜胃泌素表达的影响.结果:长期胆汁反流导致腺胃腺体显著增生、扩张,并出现异型增生和癌变,溃疡和肠化生相对少见;前胃鳞状上皮显著增生和角化,并出现角化珠和角化囊肿,肠化生相对少见,无溃疡和肿瘤发生.长期胆汁反流还可导致大鼠腺胃黏膜胃泌素表达显著增高.结论:长期胆汁反流可导致大鼠胃黏膜腺上皮和鳞状上皮显著增生,并发生异型增生和癌变,这可能与腺胃高胃泌素表达有关;肠化生和溃疡相对少见.%Objective:To establish a rat model that could simulate the physiological bile reflux in human beings, and to study the pathological effects of chronic bile reflux on the mucosa of glandular stomach and forestomach in rats. Methods:The duodenum of 13 Sprague -Dawley rats were transected below the opening of the common bile duct, and gastrojejunostomy was performed at the greater curvature of the forestomach. After the rats showed bile reflux for 1 year, the pathological features of the glandular stomach and forestomach mucosa were studied. The effect of bile reflux on gastrin expression in the glandular sto - mach mucosa was also studied by using immunohistochemistry. Results: Chronic bile reflux caused significant hyperplasia and expansion of gastric gland in the glandular stomach. Dysplasia and canceration also developed, whereas ulcer and intestinal metaplasia were relatively rare. In the forestomach, the squamous epithelium showed significant hyperplasia and keratinization along with keratin pearls and keratocysts, while intestinal metaplasia was relatively

  9. Atrofia mucosa/translocação bacteriana na sepse experimental em ratos Wistar Mucosal atrophy/bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis in Wistar rats

    Armando José d'Acampora


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avalizar a relação entre lesão mucosa e translocação bacteriana. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se 50 ratos distribuídos em 5 grupos: 1.Controle: injeção de inóculo padrão de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2.Dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e drenagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 3.Lavado: injeção do inóculo padrão e lavagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 4.Lavado + dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e após 6 horas, drenagem e lavagem da cavidade, 5.Normal: avaliação histológica da parede intestinal normal. Após o óbito, realizou-se hemocultura e cultura peritoneal. Realizou-se medida da espessura total da parede do jejuno e da camada mucosa em vilosidades seccionadas de forma longitudinal. RESULTADOS: Na hemocultura, houve crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli em 90% e 52,5% dos animais. Na cultura peritoneal, houve crescimento de P. aeruginosa, E. coli e Klebsiella sp em 87,5%, 85% e 5% dos animais. Quanto a altura da camada mucosa e da parede intestinal, não houve alteração estatisticamente significativa entre os 5 grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sepse aguda não causou alteração na camada mucosa do intestino delgado e a translocação ocorrida não pode ser considerada como decorrente de uma lesão da mucosa intestinal.PURPOSE: Observe the relation between small intestine's mucosal injury and bacterial translocation. METHODS: 50 adult female rats were distributed in 5 groups: 1. Control: intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2. Drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and drainage of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 3. Washed: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and washing of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 4. Washed + drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa plus drainage and washing of the cavity, after 6 hours, 5. Normal: evaluation of the normal intestinal wall. After death, blood and peritoneal cultures were performed. Fragments of

  10. Morphological evidence for natural poxvirus infection in rats

    Kraft, L. M.; Dantoni Damelio, E.; Damelio, F. E.


    Focal inflammatory and desquamating lesions were seen in the nasal mucosa of rats that were flown aboard the Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1129, in 1979 and in the ground based controls. The infection was clinically inapparent. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of poxvirus virions in desquamating cells. The specific poxvirus involved could not be identified. The lesions appeared to be similar to those described by others in rats experimentally infected with mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus by the intranasal route.

  11. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A


    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  12. Efficiency of different decalcification protocols for nasal osseous structures in a rat experimental model of allergic rhinitis, and their effects on epithelial histology: an attempt at standardization.

    Guibas, George V; Lakis, Sotiris; Gkimpas, Christoforos; Manda, Marianthi; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Spandou, Evangelia


    Decalcification of osseous specimens is required for histological analysis; this however may cause tissue damage. In rodent models of allergic rhinitis (AR), epithelial histologic assessment necessitates prior decalcification of the nasal osseous structures. However, respiratory epithelium is highly susceptible to damage, and rat nasal architecture is elaborate and its sectioning is challenging. Nevertheless, decalcification is not standardized in experimental AR. We therefore undertook this task, in order to reduce experimental bias. Six-to-eight week-old Wistar rats underwent an AR protocol. Subsequently, nasal structures were decalcified in the following mediums: (i) formic acid 10% for 5 and 20 days; (ii) formic acid 15% for 5 and 15 days; (iii) Morse Solution for 5 and 20 days and (iv) EDTA for 20 and 40 days. Decalcification efficiency/speed was evaluated via radiographic analysis. Furthermore, specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and assessed for preservation of epithelial features. Specimens were appropriately decalcified in 5 days in the formic acid-based mediums and in 20 days in EDTA with minimal epithelial damage. EDTA for 40 days had no unacceptable adverse effects; conversely, 15 and/or 20 days in acid-based agents provided no extra benefit for decalcification and were detrimental to the epithelium. EDTA treatment for 20 days is appropriate for decalcification of nasal structures in rat models of allergic rhinitis; further incubation preserves epithelial integrity but is not required. When urgency is a factor, formic-acid-based decalcification for 5 days yields acceptable results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal lifting.

    Pontes, Ronaldo; Pontes, Gisela Hobson; Serpa, Narayana Pauline; Lopez, Carlos


    Patients with gland hyperplasia as well as thickening and redundancy of nasal skin who receive treatment that addresses only the support structures generally suffer from lack of definition of the nasal tip. We report on a case in which this problem was treated by redefinition of the nasal dorsum and tip through resection of the redundant skin. The surgical approach involved open rhinoplasty with a columella-alar incision, wide dissection of the dorsum filling, caudal traction, and resection of excess tissue. This method enabled reshaping of the nasal dorsum and tip by readjustment of the cutaneous covering of the osteocartilaginous structures.

  14. Unusual Postrhinoplasty Complication: Nasal Dorsum Cyst

    Pier Giorgio Giacomini


    Full Text Available Among all the possible complications of aesthetic rhinoplasty, a rare one is the development of cystic masses on the nasal dorsum: several theories suggest that cysts develop commonly by entrapment of nasal mucosa in the subcutaneous space, but they can also originate from foreign body reactions. This report deals with two cases of nasal dorsum cysts with different pathogenesis: both patients had undergone aesthetic rhinoplasty in the past (26 years ago and 14 years ago, resp.. Both cystic masses were removed via a direct open approach and nasal reconstruction was performed successfully with autologous vomer bone. The pathologic investigations showed a foreign body inclusion cyst associated with latex rubber in the first case and a sequestration of a mucosal-lined nasal bone was not removed at the time of primary rhinoplasty in the second case. A brief review of the literature focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment options for nasal dorsal cysts following aesthetic rhinoplasty.

  15. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid amounts locally administered in the rat gingival mucosa induce ER stress in the systemic blood.

    Cueno, Marni E; Saito, Yuko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu


    Periodontal diseases have long been postulated to contribute to systemic diseases and, likewise, it has been proposed that periodontal disease treatment may ameliorate certain systemic diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are major secondary metabolites produced by oral anaerobic bacteria and, among the SCFAs, butyric acid (BA) in high amounts contribute to periodontal disease development. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid (PDL-BA) is found among patients suffering from periodontal disease and has previously shown to induce oxidative stress, whereas, oxidative stress is correlated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This would imply that PDL-BA may likewise stimulate ER stress, however, this was never elucidated. A better understanding of the correlation between PDL-BA and systemic ER stress stimulation could shed light on the possible systemic effects of PDL-BA-related periodontal diseases. Here, PDL-BA was injected into the gingival mucosa and the systemic blood obtained from the rat jugular was collected at 0, 15, 60, and 180 min post-injection. Collected blood samples were purified and only the blood cytosol was used throughout this study. Subsequently, we measured blood cytosolic GADD153, Ca(2+), representative apoptotic and inflammatory caspases, and NF-κB amounts. We found that PDL-BA presence increased blood cytosolic GADD153 and Ca(2+) amounts. Moreover, we observed that blood cytosolic caspases and NF-κB were activated only at 60 and 180 min post-injection in the rat gingival mucosa. This suggests that PDL-BA administered through the gingival mucosa may influence the systemic blood via ER stress stimulation and, moreover, prolonged PDL-BA retention in the gingival mucosa may play a significant role in ER stress-related caspase and NF-κB activation. In a periodontal disease scenario, we propose that PDL-BA-related ER stress stimulation leading to the simultaneous activation of apoptosis and inflammation may contribute to periodontal disease

  16. [Stimulation of gastric mucosa afferents by phenylephrine potentiates anticonvulsive and eliminates sedative action of sodium valproate in the pentylenetetrazol kindling model in rats].

    Serdiuk, S E; Gmiro, V E; Veselkina, O S


    Sodium valproate after chronic intragastric administration in the high dose of 100-200 mg/kg eliminates generalized clonic-tonic pentylenetetrazol seizures in 100 % of rats, but only in 33-57 % of rats it prevents local clonic kindling seizures. Strong sedation is induced by the specified doses of sodium valproate. The combined oral chronic administration of phenylephrine in threshold, noneffective alone dose of 0.2 mg/kg and sodium valproate in high doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg potentiates anticonvulsive action of sodium valproate, because prevents both clonic-tonic kindling. seizures in 100 % of rats and clonic kindling seizures in 86-100 % of rats, and also it increases in 1.7-1.9 times anticonvulsive activity of valproate. The specified combinations of sodium valproate with phenylephrine do not produce the sedative side effect. The basis of the mechanism of potentiation of anticonvulsive action and elimination of sedative action of sodium valproate in high doses is the stimulation of gastric mucosa afferents by phenylephrine.

  17. Different effects of two types of H2-receptor antagonists, famotidine and roxatidine, on the mucus barrier of rat gastric mucosa.

    Shikama, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Ishihara, Kazuhiko


    Compared with the aggressive factors, little attention has been paid to the mucosal defensive factors in ulcer therapy, and the role of the H2-receptor antagonists in gastric mucosal protection has not been well characterized. In the present study, the effects of different types of H2-receptor antagonists (famotidine and roxatidine) on rat gastric mucus cells were investigated using both biochemical and histological methods. Each drug (famotidine, 3 mg/kg; roxatidine, 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats by gavage once daily for 7 days. The biosynthesis and tissue content of mucin were compared in the gastric mucosa treated with each drug. Using anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies, the mucin content and immunohistochemical localization were also compared. Both the biosynthesis and the accumulation of gastric mucin were significantly decreased in the famotidine-treated rats, but not in the roxatidine. Both the content and the immunoreactivity of surface mucus cell-derived mucin were reduced by famotidine, while they were maintained in roxatidine-treated rat stomachs. There was no difference between the groups in the content and immunoreactivity of mucous neck cell-derived mucin. H2-receptor antagonists should be classified in relation to gastric surface mucus cell function, raising the possibility of more effective ulcer therapy.

  18. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K


    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  19. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Wenda Fitriati Noora


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  20. 鼻渊舒口服液对兔慢性鼻-鼻窦炎模型鼻窦黏膜上皮NF-κB p65蛋白表达的影响%Influence of Biyuanshu on NF-κB p65 Expression of Nasal Sinuses Mucosa Epithelial in Rabbit Chronic Rhinosinusitis Model

    李辉; 朱天民


    目的:观察兔慢性鼻-鼻窦炎( chronic rhinosinusitis,CRS)模型鼻窦黏膜上皮核因子-κB(NF-κB) p65蛋白表达的变化及鼻渊舒口服液对其的影响,探索鼻渊舒治疗CRS的可能机制.方法:取新西兰大白兔100只,适应性喂养1周后,随机分为正常组、模型组、假手术组、鼻渊舒组、西药治疗组,每组20只,建立CRS模型;鼻渊舒组、西药治疗组分别给予鼻渊舒口服液ig 4.05 g·kg -1,克拉霉素ig 25 mg· kg -1,共14 d,处死后取鼻窦黏膜组织HE染色光镜观察鼻窦黏膜病理变化,Western blotting法检测鼻窦黏膜上皮细胞胞质及细胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达.结果:模型组鼻窦黏膜呈慢性炎症表现,黏膜炎细胞浸润,上皮细胞、腺体和杯状细胞明显增生;胞质及细胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达较正常组显著增高(P<0.01).经鼻渊舒治疗后鼻窦黏膜上皮修复较好,炎细胞浸润、腺体和杯状细胞增生不明显;胞浆NF-κB p65蛋白表达虽显著低于模型组(P<0.01),但显著高于正常、假手术及西药组(P<0.01);胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达显著低于模型组(P<0.01),与正常、假手术及西药组比较无显著性差异.结论:NF-κB参与了CRS的发生,鼻渊舒口服液主要通过抑制NF-κB p65向细胞核易位而起治疗作用.%To investigate the influence of Biyuanshu (BYS) nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB ) p65 expression of nasal sinuses mucosa epithelial in rabbit chronic rhinosinusitis ( CRS) model, and explore its possible molecular mechanism. Method: One hundred New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal group, model group, sham operation group, BYS group, western medicine group, with 20 in each group, and CRS model was established. BYS group was given BYS 4.05 g · kg-1 · d-1, western medicine group given clarithromycin 25 mg·kg-1 · d-1 for 14 days. Nasal sinuses mucosa tissue was collected to observe nasal sinuses mucosa pathological changes with light microscopy after

  1. Clinical Pathological Analysis of 56 Cases of the Nasal Mucosa Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma%鼻腔粘膜活检诊断恶性黑色素瘤56例临床病理分析

    张艳琼; 李花梅


    Objective Analyzing the characteristic of the nasal mucosa pathological biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Methods The nasal mucosal biopsy, HE staining and immunohistochemical markers, discusses its organization form features. Results Malignant melanoma microscopically characterized by multiple types of cells, the immunohistochemical of HMB45 and according to positive. Conclusion Malignant melanoma type is more, the misdiagnosis rate is high, should be taken into consideration seriously.%目的:分析鼻腔粘膜活检诊断恶性黑色素瘤病理特征。方法鼻粘膜组织活检,HE染色及免疫组化标记,探讨其组织形态特点。结果恶性黑色素瘤镜下表现为多种类型细胞组成;免疫组化均表现为HMB45及S100阳性。结论恶性黑色素瘤类型较多,误诊率高,应引起重视。

  2. Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa.

    Karaki, Shin-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Junji; Tomizawa, Yuka; Kuwahara, Atsukazu


    ε-Viniferin is a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, a polyphenol synthesized in many plants, including grapevine. The present study investigated the effects of ε-viniferin and resveratrol on epithelial secretory and barrier functions in isolated rat small and large intestinal mucosa. Mucosa-submucosa tissue preparations of various segments of the rat large and small intestines were mounted on Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (Gt) were continuously measured. The mucosal addition of ε-viniferin (>10(-5) mol/L) and resveratrol (>10(-4) mol/L) to the cecal mucosa, which was the most sensitive region, induced an increase in Isc and a rapid phase decrease (P-1) followed by rapid (P-2) and broad (P-3) peak increases in Gt in concentration-dependent manners. Mucosal ε-viniferin (10(-4) mol/L), but not resveratrol (10(-4) mol/L), increased the permeability of FITC-conjugated dextran (4 kDa). The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked changes in Isc (Cl(-) secretion), but not in Gt, were attenuated by a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor and a selective EP4 prostaglandin receptor. The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked increase in Isc was partially attenuated, and P-2, but not P-1 or P-3, change in Gt was abolished by a transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) inhibitor. Moreover, the mucosal ε-viniferin concentration-dependently attenuated the mucosal propionate (1 mmol/L)-evoked increases in Isc and Gt Immunohistochemical studies revealed COX-1-immunoreactive epithelial cells in the cecal crypt. The present study showed that mucosal ε-viniferin modulated transepithelial ion transport and permeability, possibly by activating sensory epithelial cells expressing COX-1 and TRPA1. Moreover, mucosal ε-viniferin decreased mucosal sensitivity to other luminal molecules such as short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that ε-viniferin modifies intestinal mucosal transport and barrier

  3. [Use of Solcoseryl DAP after nasal septum surgery].

    Krzeski, A; Makowska, W


    Solcoseryl is a biological agent, which accelerates the healing tissue procedure. This influence was studied during the nasal septum surgery. In 25 patients the postoperational nasal plug was inserted with the Solcoseryl and in 10 (control) with the paraffin. The cytologic verifications were performed before and after the surgery. In the solcoseryl group the mucosa regeneration procedure was accelerated and the inflammation reduced.

  4. Tissue reactions to collagen scaffolds in the oral mucosa and skin of rats: environmental and mechanical factors.

    Jansen, R.G.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the tissue reactions to implanted collagen scaffolds in the palate and the skin of rats. DESIGN: Crosslinked collagen scaffolds were implanted submucoperiosteally in the palate, and subcutaneously on the skull and on the back of 25 rats and evaluated after up to 16 weeks. On H&

  5. Nasal polyps

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  6. ghrelin对失血性休克大鼠胃黏膜的保护作用%The protective effect of recombinant rat ghrelin on gastric mucosa in rats with hemorrhagic shock

    褚万立; 刘雪峰; 刘军英; 张强; 林兆奋


    目的 探讨重组大鼠ghrelin对失血性休克大鼠胃黏膜损伤的影响.方法 18只健康雄性SD大鼠被随机分为对照组、失血性休克组、ghrelin治疗组3组.每组6只.失血性休克组及ghrelin治疗组制备失血性休克模型.ghrelin治疗组休克复苏的同时经颈内静脉推注重组大鼠ghrelin 20μg/kg.于复苏后2 h使用激光多普勒血流仪测定大鼠胃黏膜血流量;用光镜及透射电镜观察胃黏膜损伤情况.结果 失血性休克组胃黏膜血流量较对照组明显降低(260.4±49.6)bpu比(418.6±57.3)bpu,P0.05);胃黏膜损伤显著改善.结论 重组大鼠ghrelin能够提高失血性休克大鼠胃黏膜血流量,改善胃黏膜缺血/再灌注损伤.%Objective To investigate the effect of recombinant rat ghrelin on gastric mucosa in rats with hemorrhagic shock.Methods Eighteen healthy male Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were randomly assigned into three groups:control group,hemorrhagic shock group,and ghrelin treatment group,with 6 rats for each group.The hemorrhagic shock model was reproduced in hemorrhagic shock group and ghrelin treatment group,and recombinant rat ghrelin(20μg/kg)was intravenously administered to rats in ghrelin treatment group when resuscitation begun.Two hours after resuscitation,the gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF)was determined with laser Doppler flowmetry(LDF).The light microscope and transmission electron microscope(TEM)were used to assess gastric mucosal injury.Results The GMBF of the rats in hemorrhagic shock group was significantly lower than that in control group[(260.4±49.6)bpu VS. (418.6±57.3)bpu,P0.05),and the gastric mucosa injuries were greatly improved in the rats of ghrelin treatment group.Conclusion Recombinant rat ghrelin,through enhancing the GMBF,can ameliorate the gastric mucosal ischemic/reperfusion injury in rats with hemorrhagic shock.

  7. [Do the effects of posture change and climbing stairs on nasal patency differ in acoustic rhinometry?].

    Gudziol, H; Stadeler, M


    Divergent results concerning nasal patency during positional body changes are found using acoustic rhinometry. Only small numbers of healthy subjects have been tested. The present study shall examine a larger number of healthy subjects providing a basis for later findings in sick nasal mucosa. 40 healthy subjects (20 female, 20 male; average age: 32.8+/-13.8 years) without any nasal and cardiovascular disease were examined. Using acoustic rhinometry, the total nasal volume (Vt) and the total minimum nasal cross-sectional area (Ft) were calculated from the collected data. Six measurements were made: in sedentary rest position, standing, lying dorsally, after standing up, after climbing stairs and in iteration in sedentary rest position. In healthy subjects, the total nasal volume (i. e. the nasal respiration space of the two nasal passages) did not change during standing and lying, after rapid standing up and in a repeat measurement 5 hours later. After climbing stairs, the nasal mucosa decongested significantly, chiefly dorsal to the isthmus nasi. The birhine partial volume (V2) increased by an average of 33 %. Positional changes have no effect on healthy nasal mucosa. Total nasal respiration is unaffected. The reaction of sick nasal mucosa must be established in future investigations.

  8. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A


    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that t

  9. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A

    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that

  10. Rhino-sinusitis related to endosseous implants extending into the nasal cavity - A case report

    Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A


    Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that t

  11. Role of Pterocarpus santalinus against mitochondrial dysfunction and membrane lipid changes induced by ulcerogens in rat gastric mucosa.

    Narayan, Shoba; Devi, R S; Devi, C S Shyamala


    Free radicals produced by ulcerogenic agents affect the TCA cycle enzymes located in the outer membrane of the mitochondria. Upon induction with ulcerogens, peroxidation of membrane lipids bring about alterations in the mitochondrial enzyme activity. This indicates an increase in the permeability levels of the mitochondrial membrane. The ability of PSE to scavenge the reactive oxygen species results in restoration of activities of TCA cycle enzymes. NSAIDs interfere with the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, resulting in uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation process. This usually results in diminished cellular ATP production. The recovery of gastric mucosal barrier function through maintenance of energy metabolism results in maintenance of ATP levels, as observed in this study upon treatment with PSE. Membrane integrity altered by peroxidation is known to have a modified fatty acid composition, a disruption of permeability, a decrease in electrical resistance, and increase in flip-flopping between monolayers and inactivated cross-linked proteins. The severe depletion of arachidonic acid in ulcer induced groups was prevented upon treatment with PSE. The acid inhibitory property of the herbal extract enables the maintenance of GL activity upon treatment with PSE. The ability to prevent membrane peroxidation has been traced to the presence of active constituents in the PSE. In essence, PSE has been found to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, provide mitochondrial cell integrity, through the maintenance of lipid bilayer by its ability to provide a hydrophobic character to the gastric mucosa, further indicating its ability to reverse the action of NSAIDs and mast cell degranulators in gastric mucosa.

  12. Celular viability of rat small bowel mucosa, after hypovolemic shock correction with NaCl 7,5% solution

    Brito,Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Nigro,Amaury José Texeira; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza [UNIFESP; Nascimento, José Luiz Martins do; SILVA, Paula Roberta Ferreira da; SIQUEIRA, Roberta Bianca Peres


    PURPOSE: Study the effect of the volemic correction with different solutions, in the mucous of the small bowel in rats. METHODS: Were used 120 rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus), males, adults, seemingly healthy, with individual weight varying between 310 and 410g, originating from of the Instituto Evandro Chagas of Belém of Pará, submitted to an adaptation period of 15 days, receiving water and ration ad libitum, during the role experiment. For the research, ten animals were distributed...

  13. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase Cγ-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis

    Duan-yong Liu


    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1 and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  14. Experimental study of the rat for the assessment of barium coating on the gastric mucosa: efficacy of ranitidine and acetylcysteine administration.

    Sugino, Yoshinori; Semmler, Wolfhard


    In order to improve the preparation method for barium examination of the stomach by ranitidine and acetylcysteine use, the effect on the rat gastric mucosa caused by the administration of ranitidine and acetylcysteine was studied. Rat stomach that had been treated with ranitidine or acetylcysteine at different intervals and examined in vivo was excised and coated with a barium suspension. A radiograph was subsequently taken and evaluated in regard to the removal of gastric mucus and imaging of the areae gastricae (AG). The removal of mucus was assessed by six blind observers. The imaging of AG was estimated as a percentage of the imaged AG area per total gastric corpus. No change was seen on the radiograph with ranitidine preparation, while the mucus was distinctly removed and AG well-imaged in the group studied 15 minutes after the peroral administration of acetylcysteine. Proper preparation for barium study of the stomach should involve treatment with a mucolytic agent about 15 minutes before the examination. H2-blockers must be used supplementally in the short term.

  15. Study of orexins signal transduction pathways in rat olfactory mucosa and in olfactory sensory neurons-derived cell line Odora: multiple orexin signalling pathways.

    Gorojankina, Tatiana; Grébert, Denise; Salesse, Roland; Tanfin, Zahra; Caillol, Monique


    Orexins A and B (OxA and OxB) are multifunctional neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism, wakefulness but also in a broad range of motivated behaviours. They signal through two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 and 2 (Ox1R and Ox2R). The orexins and their receptors are present at all levels of the rat olfactory system: epithelium, bulb, piriform cortex but their signalling mechanisms remain unknown. We have studied orexins signal transduction pathways in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM) and in the Odora cell line derived from olfactory sensory neurons and heterologously expressing Ox1R or Ox2R. We have demonstrated by western blot and RT-PCR that multiple components of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways were identical in OM and Odora cells. OxA and OxB induced a weak increase in IP3 in OM; they induced a significant rise in cAMP and IP3 in Odora transfected cells, suggesting the activation of AC and PLC pathways. Both OxA and OxB induced intracellular calcium elevation and transient activation of MAP kinases (ERK42/44) in Odora/Ox1R and Odora/Ox2R cells. These results suggest the existence of multiple orexins signalling pathways in Odora cells and probably in OM, corresponding to different possible roles of these peptides.

  16. Methotrexate administration induces differential and selective protein tyrosine nitration and cysteine nitrosylation in the subcellular organelles of the small intestinal mucosa of rats.

    Natarajan, Kasthuri; Abraham, Premila


    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most frequent dose limiting side effects of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug. Peroxynitrite (PON) overproduction is reported to contribute to MTX induced gastrointestinal mucositis. However, the consequence of PON overproduction i.e. protein tyrosine nitration and protein cysteine nitrosylation, the subcellular distribution of these modified proteins and their molecular weights have not been investigated yet. Mucositis was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of 3 consecutive i.p. injections of MTX. Tyrosine nitrated proteins and cysteine nitrosylated proteins were determined in the subcellular organelles fractions of mucosa using immunoprecipitation and western blot. The proteins in the subcellular fractions were separated by 1D electrophoresis, and probed with anti -nitrotyrosine antibody and anti-nitrosocysteine antibody. After MTX treatment, a general increase in protein tyrosine nitration as well as a change in the spectrum of proteins that underwent nitration was observed. The relative densities of the 3 nitrotyrosine protein adducts were as follows: Mitochondria > cytosol > microsomes > nucleus. In the mitochondrial fraction increased nitration of 12 kDa, 25 kDa 29Kda, 47 kDa, and 62Kda proteins, in the cytosol increased nitration of 12 kDa, 19 kDa, 45 kDa, and 60 kDa proteins and in the nuclear fraction increased nitration of 17 kDa, 35 kDa, and 58 kDa proteins was observed. On the other hand, MTX treatment resulted to a general decrease in protein cysteine nitrosylation in all the subcellular fractions. These results suggest that MTX induced, PON mediated small intestinal injury is mediated by differential nitration and nitrosylation of proteins in the subcellular organelles with increased protein tyrosine nitration and decreased cysteine nitrosylation. In addition MTX treatment results in selective nitration and nitrosylation of proteins in the intestinal mucosa. This differential

  17. Influence on Nasal Sinuses Mucosa Epithelium GR and IκBα Expression for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Model Treated with Bi-Yuan-Shu Oral Liquid%鼻渊舒口服液对慢性鼻-鼻窦炎模型鼻窦黏膜上皮GR及IκBα表达的影响

    李辉; 朱天民


    观察鼻渊舒口服液对慢性鼻原鼻窦炎(CRS)模型鼻窦黏膜上皮糖皮质激素受体(GR)及核因子资B抑制蛋白(I资Bα)表达的影响,从抑炎机制角度,探索鼻渊舒对CRS的治疗机制。方法:选取新西兰大白兔100只,按每组20只,随机分为正常组、假手术组、模型组、鼻渊舒组、克拉霉素组后,建立CRS模型,正常组、假手术组、模型组不干预,鼻渊舒、克拉霉素组分别给予鼻渊舒(1.5 mL·kg-1·d-1)、克拉霉素(25 mg·kg-1·d-1)灌胃14天,治疗结束后取鼻窦黏膜,HE染色观察其病理改变,Western Blotting法检测鼻窦黏膜上皮细胞胞浆糖皮质激素受体(GR)及核因子资B抑制蛋白(I资Bα)蛋白表达。结果:模型组鼻窦黏膜炎细胞明显浸润,呈慢性炎症病变,腺体及杯状细胞明显增生;与正常组比较,GR表达显著降低(P约0.01),I资Bα表达显著增高(P约0.01)。鼻渊舒灌胃治疗后,鼻窦黏膜上皮得到较好修复,炎细胞浸润不明显,腺体和杯状细胞增生亦不明显;与模型组比较,GR表达显著增高(P约0.01),I资Bα表达显著降低(P约0.01)。结论:鼻渊舒在促进抑炎途径的GR表达的同时,通过抑制I资Bα表达,防止I资Bα对NF-资B促炎途径的过度抑制,动态调控了鼻窦黏膜上皮炎症的平衡。%This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Bi-Y uan-Shu (BYS) Oral Liquid on glucocorticoid re-ceptor (GR) and nuclear factor IκBα expression of nasal sinuses mucosa epithelium among chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) models in order to explore its therapeutic mechanism for CRS from the anti-inflammatory reaction aspect. One hundred New Zealand rabbits were selected and randomly divided into the normal group, sham operation group, model group, BYS group, and clarithromycin group, with 20 rabbits in each group. After the CRS model was established, no intervention was given

  18. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M


    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity.

  19. Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model.

    Javier Ganz

    Full Text Available Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD.

  20. Rebamipide induces dendritic cell recruitment to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-exposed rat gastric mucosa based on IL-1β upregulation.

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Oka, Masashi; Inada, Ken-ichi; Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Kato, Jun; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Kodashima, Shinya; Niimi, Keiko; Ono, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko


    Rebamipide is usually used for mucosal protection, healing of gastric ulcers, treatment of gastritis, etc., but its effects on gastric malignancy have not been elucidated. Using Lewis and Buffalo rat strains treated with peroral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), we evaluated the effect of rebamipide on the induction of tumor-suppressive dendritic cells, which are known to be heterogeneous antigen-presenting cells of bone marrow origin and are critical for the initiation of primary T-cell responses. Using CD68 as a marker for dendritic cells, the stomach pyloric mucosae of Lewis and Buffalo rats were immunohistochemically analyzed in the presence or absence of rebamipide and MNNG. After a 14-day treatment of rebamipide alone, no significant change in number of CD68-expressing cells was detected in either rat strain. However, after concurrent exposure to MNNG for 14 days, treatment with rebamipide slightly increased CD68-positive cells in the Lewis strain, and significantly increased them in the Buffalo strain. Analysis of two chemotactic factors of dendritic cells, IL-1β and TNF-α, in the gastric cancer cells showed that expression of IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was induced by rebamipide in a dose-dependent manner. A luciferase promoter assay using gastric SH-10-TC cells demonstrated that an element mediating rebamipide action exists in the IL-1β gene promoter region. In conclusion, rebamipide has potential tumor-suppressive effects on gastric tumorigenesis via the recruitment of dendritic cells, based on the upregulation of the IL-1β gene in gastric epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Analysis of Morphology After the Treatment of Rabbit's Nasal Mucosa with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Low-temperature Radiofrequency Plasma Ablation%聚焦超声与低温等离子治疗后兔鼻黏膜形态学分析

    林春招; 隆琰; 白俊志; 黄秋平


    Objective To observe the influence degree of morphology after treating the rabbit's nasal muco-sa with focused ultrasound technology.Methods By using the High Intensity Focused Ultrasound,a straight line scan for a rabbit's turbinate under the certain dose parametem had been done.And then the rabbit's turbinate was treated with low temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation.A comparison test after one month and three months was carried out.A comparison between the changes of rabbit mucosa morphological of the two kinds of treatment methods through general morphology and light microscopy observation had been taken.Results The experimental results showed that there were no significant changes in appearance and color between the use of focused ultrasound treatment of rabbit's inferior turbinate and scan the rabbit's inferior turbinate under certain dose parametem after one month and three months later.Under the lisht microscope showed a complete rabbit nasal epithelium.And after the treatment by using low-temperature plasma mdiofrequeney ablation instrument,the rabbit's turbinate became narrow,gray in color and there were some secretions compared witk normal rabbit's turbinate.Under the light microscopy,the rabbit nasal epi-thelium showed broken and part of the conical slices completely disappeared.Conclusion Under certain parameters,the focused ultrasonic energy could not undermine the nasal epithelium;thereby the function of mucociliary system is fully retained%目的 观察聚焦超声与低温等离子对鼻黏膜形态学的影响程度及意义.方法 运用聚焦超声技术,在设定的剂量参数下对兔鼻甲进行直线扫描;运用低温等离子射频消融术对免鼻甲进行处理,在1个月及3个月后对两种方法处理后兔鼻甲切片及正常兔鼻甲切片进行对比观察,通过大体形态、光镜下观察对两种治疗方法兔鼻黏膜组织形态学的改变进行比较.结果 两种方法处理后1个月及3个月后兔鼻甲在

  2. The study of cell homeostasis state of the gastric mucosa of rats on model of rheumatoid arthritis , treatment with ibuprofen and its combination with vinboron

    F. V. Hladkykh


     of Ki-67 and CPP32 showed that the basis of gastroprotective effect of vinboron with ibuprofen-induced gastropathy in rats with adjuvant arthritis is its ability to enhance the regenerative properties of the gastric epithelium by restoring the proliferative activity. In addition vinboron is able to inhibit apoptosis induced by ibuprofen epithelial cells of the stomach, which helps to maintain cellular homeostasis of the gastric mucosa.

  3. Spatial Localization and Binding of the Probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis to the Rat Intestinal Mucosa: Influence of Chronic Stress.

    Da Silva, Stéphanie; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Raymond, Arthur; Mercade-Loubière, Myriam; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Ringot, Bélinda; Léonard, Renaud; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Loubière, Pascal; Théodorou, Vassilia; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel


    The present study aimed at detecting the exogenously applied probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis in rats, after exposure to IBS-like chronic stress, based on 4-day Water Avoidance Stress (WAS). The presence of L. farciminis in both ileal and colonic mucosal tissues was demonstrated by FISH and qPCR, with ileum as the preferential niche, as for the SFB population. A different spatial distribution of the probiotic was observed: in the ileum, bacteria were organized in micro-colonies more or less close to the epithelium whereas, in the colon, they were mainly visualized far away from the epithelium. When rats were submitted to WAS, the L. farciminis population substantially decreased in both intestinal regions, due to a stress-induced increase in colonic motility and defecation, rather than a modification of bacterial binding to the intestinal mucin Muc2.

  4. Spatial Localization and Binding of the Probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis to the Rat Intestinal Mucosa: Influence of Chronic Stress.

    Stéphanie Da Silva

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at detecting the exogenously applied probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis in rats, after exposure to IBS-like chronic stress, based on 4-day Water Avoidance Stress (WAS. The presence of L. farciminis in both ileal and colonic mucosal tissues was demonstrated by FISH and qPCR, with ileum as the preferential niche, as for the SFB population. A different spatial distribution of the probiotic was observed: in the ileum, bacteria were organized in micro-colonies more or less close to the epithelium whereas, in the colon, they were mainly visualized far away from the epithelium. When rats were submitted to WAS, the L. farciminis population substantially decreased in both intestinal regions, due to a stress-induced increase in colonic motility and defecation, rather than a modification of bacterial binding to the intestinal mucin Muc2.

  5. Histological analysis of the distribution pattern of glandular tissue in normal inferior nasal turbinates

    Millas, Ieda; Liquidato, Bianca Maria; Dolci,José Eduardo Lutaif; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Macéa,José Rafael


    Nasal turbinates play an important role in nasal physiology. These functions include the important function of particle filtration by the mucocilliary system. Many nasal mucosal diseases, such as rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, are directly related with structural alterations of the mucosal lining of the turbinates. AIM: To study the distribution pattern of the glandular epithelium of the lamina propria in the normal lower nasal turbinate mucosa of the anterior, medium and posterior portions. MA...

  6. Glutathione transferase activity and reduce glutathione content in the cytosol of rat gastric mucosa cells under carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine treatment

    Ostapchenko L. I.


    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the activity of glutathione transferase (GT and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in the cytosol of the gastric mucosa cells in experimental gastrocarcinogenesis. Methods. The activity of GT was determined spectrophotometrically, the content of GSH was measured spectrofluorimetrically. Gastrocarcinogenesis was initiated by 10-week replacement of drinking water by 0.01 % solution of carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, at the same time the rats were given a diet containing 5 % NaCl. Results. It was established that at the end of the 4th and 6th weeks of consumption of carcino- gen and NaCl, the activity of GT increased by 26 and 94 %, whereas the content of GSH increased by 135 and 85 %, respectively. After 12 weeks there was a decrease in the activity of GT by 50 % and the maximum decrease in the GSH concentration by 69 %. At the end of the 18th and 24th weeks it was recorded the increase in the activity of GT by 44 and 47 % and the decrease in the GSH content by 55 and 52 %. Conclusions. The changes in the activity of GT and GSH-content are evidence of the violation of glutathione homeostasis, which may cause the delay as well as initiation of development of the pathology. The reduction of GSH is established at the early stages of tumors formation.

  7. Prolonged use of the food dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow no 5) and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats.

    Moutinho, I L D; Bertges, L C; Assis, R V C


    Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic amine sulfanilic acid after being metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora. 45 male Wistar rats were assigned to a control group (A) or a treatment one (B). The treatment group received 7.5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) of tartrazine daily in drinking water offered ad libitum for ten months from weaning to the age of twelve months. There was a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils of the gastric antrum mucosa. No carcinogenetic changes in any gastric area were observed during the study. As tartrazine belongs to the azo class, it is still a possible food carcinogen. Other studies with different doses and schedules, observing their effects associated to other carcinogens should be carried out if their safe use is to be recommended.

  8. Prolonged use of the food dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow n° 5 and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats

    ILD. Moutinho

    Full Text Available Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic amine sulfanilic acid after being metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora. 45 male Wistar rats were assigned to a control group (A or a treatment one (B. The treatment group received 7.5 of tartrazine daily in drinking water offered ad libitum for ten months from weaning to the age of twelve months. There was a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils of the gastric antrum mucosa. No carcinogenetic changes in any gastric area were observed during the study. As tartrazine belongs to the azo class, it is still a possible food carcinogen. Other studies with different doses and schedules, observing their effects associated to other carcinogens should be carried out if their safe use is to be recommended.

  9. A model of airflow in the nasal cavities: Implications for nasal air conditioning and epistaxis.

    Bailie, Neil; Hanna, Brendan; Watterson, John; Gallagher, Geraldine


    A friction force is generated when moving air contacts the nasal walls, referred to as wall shear stress. This interaction facilitates heat and mass transfer between the mucosa and air, i.e., air-conditioning. The objective of this research was to study the distribution of wall shear stress within the nasal cavity to identify areas that contribute significantly to air-conditioning within the nasal cavity. Three-dimensional computational models of the nasal airways of five healthy subjects (three male and two female subjects) were constructed from nasal CT scans. Numerical simulations of nasal airflow were conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code Fluent 6 (Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Wall shear stress was derived from the numerical simulation. Air-conditioning was simulated to confirm the relationship with wall shear stress. Nasal airflow simulations predicted high wall shear stress along the anterior aspect of the inferior turbinate, the anteroinferior aspect of the middle turbinate, and within Little's area. The airflow simulations indicate that the inferior and middle turbinates and Little's area on the anterior nasal septum contribute significantly to nasal air-conditioning. The concentration of wall shear stress within Little's area indicates a desiccating and potentially traumatic effect of inhaled air that may explain the predilection for spontaneous epistaxis at this site.

  10. Influence of cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning and nasal geometry.

    Lindemann, J; Hoffmann, T; Koehl, A; Walz, E M; Sommer, F


    Nasal geometries and temperature of the nasal mucosa are the primary factors affecting nasal air conditioning. Data on intranasal air conditioning after provoking the trigeminal nerve with a cold stimulus simulating the effects of an arctic condition is still missing. The objective was to investigate the influence of skin cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning, mucosal temperature and nasal geometry. Standardized in vivo measurements of intranasal air temperature, humidity and mucosal temperature were performed in 55 healthy subjects at defined detection sites before and after wearing a cooling face mask. Measurements of skin temperature, rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were accomplished. After wearing the face mask the facial skin temperature was significantly reduced. Intranasal air temperature did not change. Absolute humidity and mucosal temperature increased significantly. The acoustic rhinometric results showed a significant increase of the volumes and the cross-sectional areas. There was no change in nasal airflow. Nasal mucosal temperature, humidity of inhaled air, and volume of the anterior nose increased after application of a cold face mask. The response is mediated by the trigeminal nerve. Increased mucosal temperatures as well as changes in nasal geometries seem to guarantee sufficient steady intranasal nasal air conditioning.

  11. Diclofenac sodium and Imipenem action on rat intestinal mucosa: a biomechanical and histological study Ação do Diclofenaco de sódio e Imipenem na mucosa intestinal do rato: estudo biomecânico e histológico

    Irio Gonçalves Junior


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study diclofenac sodium induced histological and mechanical alterations and their prevention with Imipenem in rat intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=240 were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: GI: n=60 treated with 0.9% saline IM; GII: n=60 treated with 6mg/kg body weight diclofenac sodium IM for four days; GIII: n=60 treated with 30mg/kg body weight Imipenem IM for four days, and GIV n=60 treated with diclofenac sodium plus Imipenem at the above doses IM for 4 days. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups of 15 rats each and sacrificed at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of follow-up, respectively. Abdominal cavity macroscopy and histology, and small bowel breaking strength were analyzed at each sacrifice moment. RESULTS: There were no histological or mechanical alterations in normal control rats throughout the study. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were observed and breaking strength decreased in all diclofenac sodium treated rats. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were prevented by Imipenem in all rats. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium induced ulcerated lesions in rat intestinal mucosa can be prevented by Imipenem treatment.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas e biomecânicas do diclofenaco de sódio na mucosa intestinal do rato e a associação com o uso de Imipenem. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 240 ratos Wistar distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais: GI: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico 0,9%; GII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de diclofenaco de sódio na dose de 6mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de Imipenem na dose de 30 mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIV: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico e diclofenaco de sódio nas doses acima. Em cada grupo os animais foram posteriormente divididos em 4 momentos de 15 animais em cada um para sacrifício, respectivamente, no 4º, 7º, 14º e 21º dias após o in

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of type III collagen expression in the lingual mucosa of rats during organogenesis of the tongue.

    Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Asami, Tomoichiro; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu


    We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium, and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was distributed widely in the mesenchymal connective tissue in fetuses on day 15 after conception (E15), at which time the lingual epithelium was composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells and the lingual muscle was barely recognizable. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was clearly detected on the lamina propria in fetuses on E17 and E19, and it was relatively distinct just beneath the lingual epithelium. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing lingual muscle. In fetuses on E19, the epithelium became clearly stratified and squamous. At postnatal stages from newborn (P0) to postnatal day 14 (P14), keratinization of the lingual epithelium advanced gradually with the development of filiform papillae. On P0, myogenesis of the tongue was almost completed. The intensity of the fluorescence immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen at postnatal stages was almost same as that on E19. The immunoreactivity around the fully mature muscle was relatively distinct between P0 and P14. Thus, type III collagen appeared in conjunction with the morphogenesis of filiform papillae and the keratinization of the lingual epithelium as well as in the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle during myogenesis of the rat tongue.

  13. Picornavirus-Induced Airway Mucosa Immune Profile in Asymptomatic Neonates

    Wolsk, Helene M.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.; Birch, Sune;


    Bacterial airway colonization is known to alter the airway mucosa immune response in neonates whereas the impact of viruses is unknown. The objective was therefore to examine the effect of respiratory viruses on the immune signature in the airways of asymptomatic neonates. Nasal aspirates from 571...

  14. Isolating nasal olfactory stem cells from rodents or humans.

    Girard, Stéphane D; Devéze, Arnaud; Nivet, Emmanuel; Gepner, Bruno; Roman, François S; Féron, François


    The olfactory mucosa, located in the nasal cavity, is in charge of detecting odours. It is also the only nervous tissue that is exposed to the external environment and easily accessible in every living individual. As a result, this tissue is unique for anyone aiming to identify molecular anomalies in the pathological brain or isolate adult stem cells for cell therapy. Molecular abnormalities in brain diseases are often studied using nervous tissue samples collected post-mortem. However, this material has numerous limitations. In contrast, the olfactory mucosa is readily accessible and can be biopsied safely without any loss of sense of smell(1). Accordingly, the olfactory mucosa provides an "open window" in the adult human through which one can study developmental (e.g. autism, schizophrenia)(2-4) or neurodegenerative (e.g. Parkinson, Alzheimer) diseases(4,5). Olfactory mucosa can be used for either comparative molecular studies(4,6) or in vitro experiments on neurogenesis(3,7). The olfactory epithelium is also a nervous tissue that produces new neurons every day to replace those that are damaged by pollution, bacterial of viral infections. This permanent neurogenesis is sustained by progenitors but also stem cells residing within both compartments of the mucosa, namely the neuroepithelium and the underlying lamina propria(8-10). We recently developed a method to purify the adult stem cells located in the lamina propria and, after having demonstrated that they are closely related to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), we named them olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSC)(11). Interestingly, when compared to BM-MSCs, OE-MSCs display a high proliferation rate, an elevated clonogenicity and an inclination to differentiate into neural cells. We took advantage of these characteristics to perform studies dedicated to unveil new candidate genes in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease(4). We and others have also shown that OE-MSCs are promising candidates

  15. Studies on the attachment of fatty acid and N-acetylgalactosamine to mucus glycoprotein nascent chains in rat gastric mucosa

    Tsukada, H.; Carter, S.R.; Zielenski, J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.


    The authors have investigated the process of mucin protein acylation and glycosylation to ascertain whether fatty acids and galactosamine are added to nascent chains prior to the completion or after release from the ribosome. For fatty acid and carbohydrate labeling, the rat gastric mucosal cell suspension was incubated with (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid, and (/sup 14/C)-N-acetylgalactosamine for 3h at 37/sup 0/C. After incubation, the cells were washed with incubation medium and subjected to subcellular fractionation. The peptidyl-tRNA was released from polysomes by sedimentation in sucrose gradient containing EDTA (20-30% sucrose gradient). The fraction containing peptidyl-tRNA was dialyzed and nascent chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. The peptidyl-tRNA, eluted with a linear NaCl gradient was hydrolyzed and separated by SDS-gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. The individual bands isolated from thin layer plates were analyzed for the content of (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid and (/sup 14/C) N-acetylgalactosamine. The results revealed that fatty acids are incorporated into nascent chains prior to chain completion. Gel electrophoresis and thin layer chromatography showed that the fatty acid moiety is added soon after the acylation site is synthesized on the ribosome, while the GalNAc becomes incorporated only to the acylated peptide.

  16. Thiolated polycarbophil as an adjuvant for permeation enhancement in nasal delivery of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Vetter, A; Martien, R; Bernkop-Schnürch, A


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thiolated polycarbophil as an adjuvant to enhance the permeation and improve the stability of a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (PTO-ODN) on the nasal mucosa. Polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) was synthesized by the covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. Cytotoxicity tests were examined on human nasal epithelial cells from surgery of nasal polyps confirmed by histological studies. Deoxyribonuclease I activity in respiratory region of the porcine nasal cavity was analyzed by an enzymatic assay. The enzymatic degradation of PTO-ODNs on freshly excised porcine nasal mucosa was analyzed and protection of PCP-cysteine toward DNase I degradation was evaluated. Permeation studies were performed in Ussing-type diffusion chambers. PCP-Cys/GSH did not arise a remarkable mortal effect. Porcine respiratory mucosa was shown to possess nuclease activity corresponding to 0.69 Kunitz units/mL. PTO-ODNs were degraded by incubation with nasal mucosa. In the presence of 0.45% thiolated polycarbophil and 0.5% glutathione (GSH), this degradation process could be lowered. In the presence of thiolated polycarbophil and GSH the uptake of PTO-ODNs from the nasal mucosa was 1.7-fold improved. According to these results thiolated polycarbophil/GSH might be a promising excipient for nasal administration of PTO-ODNs.

  17. Actions of Angeli's salt, a nitroxyl (HNO) donor, on ion transport across mucosa-submucosa preparations from rat distal colon.

    Pouokam, Ervice; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitroxyl (HNO), a redox variant of the radical gasotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) with therapeutically promising properties, affects colonic ion transport. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) induced by the HNO donor Angeli's salt were recorded in Ussing chambers. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was measured with fura-2. The nitroxyl donor induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc across rat distal colon which was due to a stimulation of chloride secretion. The secretion induced by Angeli's salt (5×10(-4)mol/l) was not altered by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), but was abolished by the HNO scavenger l-cysteine. The response was not dependent on the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase or enteric neurons, but was inhibited by indomethacin. Experiments with apically permeabilized epithelia revealed the activation of basolateral K(+) channels and a stimulation of the current carried by the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-pump by Angeli's salt. The secretion induced by Angeli's salt was reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). A prominent increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was evoked by Angeli's salt predominantly in subepithelial cells within the submucosa, which had the same dependence on extracellular Ca(2+) as the Angeli's salt-induced Cl(-) secretion. Consequently, Angeli's salt induces a soluble guanylate cyclase-independent, Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion via activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and of basolateral K(+) channels. Cyclooxygenase metabolites produced within the submucosa seem to be involved in this response.

  18. 大黄酸对大鼠肠黏膜的保护作用观察%Protective effects of rhein on intestinal mucosa in rats

    彭胜男; 曾慧红; 傅爱香; 陈小文; 朱清仙


    目的 观察大黄酸(RH)对大鼠肠黏膜的保护作用.方法 将28只SD雌性大鼠随机分成对照组、肠黏膜损伤组、RH保护组和RH修复组.用HE染色和体视学方法测量各组大鼠肠绒毛高度、肠隐窝深度、两者比值、肠绒毛中中央乳糜管体密度及其直径,ELISA法检测肠黏液中免疫球蛋白A(IgA)的浓度.结果 RH保护组、RH修复组与肠黏膜损伤组相比,肠绒毛高度增加,肠隐窝深度变浅,两者比值增大,肠绒毛中中央乳糜管体密度减小,直径缩短,肠黏液中IgA的浓度下降(P<0.05).以上结果比较,以RH保护组效果为佳.结论 RH能改善损伤的肠黏膜结构,减轻肠绒毛的缩短,促进肠上皮的生长,减轻中央乳糜管的扩张,减少肠黏膜IgA的过度分泌,具有保护肠黏膜的作用.%Objective To investigate the protective effects of rhein on intestinal mucosa in rats. Methods Twenty-eight female sprague dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7 per group) , namely control group, intestinal mucosal injury group, rhein-prevented group and rhein-treated group. Using hematoxylin-eosin staining and stere-ological methods, the intestinal villus height, crypt depth, the ratio of them, volume density and diameter of the central lacteals were measured. The intestinal mucus IgA concentration was detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Compared with the intestinal mucosal injury group, the intestinal villus height increased, crypt depth shallowed, the ratio of them increased, volume density and diameter of the central lacteals decreased and the IgA concentration of the intestinal mucus decreased in the rhein-prevented group and rhein-treated group. The effect of the rhein-prevented group was better than the rhein-treated group. Conclusions Rhein can improve the structure of the small intestine in the intestinal mucosal injury, including to mitigate the atrophy of intestinal villi, promote the growth of the

  19. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud


    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  20. Kartagener's syndrome presented with nasal obstruction: A case report

    Suna Asilsoy


    Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester modifies the Th1/Th2 balance in ileal mucosa after γ-irradiation in the rat by modulating the cytokine pattern

    Olivier Grémy; Marc Benderitter; Christine Linard


    AIM: To pharmacologically modulate Th polarization in the ileum exposed to ionizing radiation by using the immuno-modulatory/apoptotic properties of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE).METHODS: Rats received CAPE (30 mg/kg) treatment ip 15 min prior to intestinal 10 Gy γ-irradiation and once a day for a 6 d period after irradiation. Expression of genes implicated in Th differentiation in ileal mucosa (IL-23/IL12Rβ2), Th cytokine responses (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13),Th migratory behaviour (CXCR3, CCR5, CCR4), Th signailing suppressors (SOCS1, SOCS3), transcription factor (T-Bet, GATA-3) and apoptosis (FasL/Fas, TNF/TNFR,XIAP, Bax, caspase-3) was analyzed by RT-PCR 6 h and 7 d post-irradiation. CD4+ and TUNEL positive cells were visualized by immunostaining.RESULTS: The expression of Th1-related cytokine/chemokine receptors (IFN-γ, IL-2, CXCR3, CCR5) was repressed at 7 d post-irradiation while Th2 cell cytokine/chemokines (IL-4, IL-13, CCR4) were not repressed or even upregulated. The irradiation-induced Th2 profile was confirmed by the upregulation of both Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 and SOCS3. Although an apoptosis event occurred 6 h after 10 Gy of intestinal γ-irradiation, apoptotic mediator analysis showed a tendency to apoptotic resistance 7 d post-irradiation. CAPE amplified apoptotic events at 6h and normalized Bax/FasL expressions at 7 d.CONCLUSION: CAPE prevented the ileal Th2 immune response by modulating the irradiation-influenced cytokine environment and apoptosis.

  2. Experimental carcinogenesis on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats with hydrochloric acid, sodium nitrate and pepsin Carcinogênese experimental na mucosa orofaríngea de ratos com ácido clorídrico, nitrato de sódio e pepsina

    André Del Negro


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the carcinogenic action of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats, simulating the reflux of gastric contents. METHODS: Eighty-two Wistar rats were divided in seven groups and submitted to 2 or 3 weekly applications of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the pharyngeal mucosa during six months. Study groups comprised 12 animals each. Rats in groups I and II were submitted to 2 (GI or 3 (GII weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid. Groups III and IV were submitted to 2 (GIII or 3 (GIV weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid solution with pepsin. Groups V and VI were submitted to 2 (GV or 3 (GVI weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid and treated with daily nitrate diluted in water. Group VII consisted of 10 animals submitted to 2 weekly applications of filtered water. RESULTS: No dysplasia, intra-epithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinomas were detected. Inflammatory changes were observed in varying degrees and mast cells were more common in Groups V and VI (p=0.006. CONCLUSION: The data of the current study could not corroborate the hypothesis that gastroesophageal and pharyngolaryngeal refluxes are carcinogenic factors to the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, and more studies are necessary in the future.OBJETIVO: Investigar a ação carcinogênica do ácido clorídrico, pepsina e nitrato de sódio na mucosa orofaríngea de ratos, simulando o refluxo do conteúdo gástrico à mucosa do faringo-laringea. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois ratos Wistar foram divididos em 7 grupos e submetidos a 2 ou 3 aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico, pepsina e nitrato de sódio na mucosa orofaríngea durante 6 meses. Os grupos de estudo envolveram 12 animais cada. Os ratos nos grupos I e II foram submetidos à 2 (GI ou 3 (GII aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico 0,1N. Nos grupos III e IV foram 2 (GIII ou 3 (GIV aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico e pepsina. Nos

  3. A simple method for measuring thickness of the mucus gel layer adherent to rat, frog and human gastric mucosa: influence of feeding, prostaglandin, N-acetylcysteine and other agents.

    Kerss, S; Allen, A; Garner, A


    1. A technique has been developed for measuring thickness of the gastric surface mucus gel layer. Mucosal sections (1.6 mm) were cut from frog and rat stomach and human antrum, mounted transversely and viewed by an inverse microscope (x 200 magnification) under dark field illumination or phase contrast. The mucus layer was readily distinguishable and its dimensions could be recorded by means of an eyepiece graticule. 2. Mean mucus gel thickness in rat, frog was 73, 76, 55 and 192 micrometer respectively. However, there was variation in the average thickness of the gel layer between individual mucosae from the same species (up to twofold). Mucus thickness between adjacent regions of the same mucosal section also varied markedly (up to tenfold). 3. Topical administration of 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 by oral intubation caused a significant increase in thickness in both rat and frog at doses of 5 microgram/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml respectively. Feeding and exposure of the mucosa to N-acetylcysteine (10-20%, w/v) produced variable effects whereas pepsin (1 mg/ml) caused a marked reduction in thickness of the surface gel layer in both rat and frog. 4. The technique provides a rapid and simple method for determining gastrointestinal mucus thickness in relation to mucosal morphology. It is ideally suited for studying the control of mucus secretion and effect of drugs.

  4. Hydrolytic activity toward pyridoxine-5'-beta-D-glucoside in rat intestinal mucosa is not increased by vitamin B-6 deficiency: effect of basal diet composition and pyridoxine intake.

    Mackey, Amy D; Lieu, Siam O; Carman, Catherine; Gregory, Jesse F


    Pyridoxine-5'-beta-D-glucoside (PNG), a glycosylated form of dietary vitamin B-6, is partially hydrolyzed in the small intestine by the cytosolic enzyme pyridoxine-5'-beta-D-glucoside hydrolase (PNG hydrolase) and by the brush border enzyme lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) to release free pyridoxine (PN). This laboratory has previously shown that PNG hydrolase activity is inversely related to dietary vitamin B-6 in rats and guinea pigs. The current investigation was done to examine the effect of dietary PN on PNG hydrolytic activity and its distribution. Nutrient compositional differences between the AIN-76A and AIN-93G purified diets that were unrelated to vitamin B-6 were also examined in relation to PNG hydrolysis in rat small intestinal mucosa. Study one included rats (n = 29) that were fed the AIN-93G diet providing a range of PN concentrations for 5 wk. Rats (n = 49) in study two were fed either AIN-76A or AIN-93G each with graded concentrations of PN. In both studies, rat growth and plasma and liver pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with increasing concentrations of dietary PN. PNG hydrolytic activity localized to the brush border membrane was five times that measured in the cytosol. Cytosolic PNG hydrolytic activity increased significantly with increasing dietary PN concentration in rats fed the AIN-76A, but not AIN-93G diet. Activity in the mucosal total membrane fraction did not increase in proportion to dietary PN concentration for either diet. Regardless of dietary PN concentration, the basal nutrient composition of the diets affected growth and PNG hydrolytic activity in intestinal mucosa. In contrast to previous results from this laboratory, intestinal hydrolytic activity toward PNG did not increase in vitamin B-6-deficient rats.

  5. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina

    Sidney Resende Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day. Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300 connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with

  6. Nasal rhinosporidiosis.

    Echejoh, Godwins O; Manasseh, Agabus N; Tanko, Matthew N; Ogala-Echejoh, Stella E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Nimkur, Tonga L; Mandong, Barnabas M


    Rhinosporidiosis is a rare chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It affects mainly the mucosa of the nose, nasopharynx, palate, conjunctiva and the urethra. A seven-year-old girl presented with intranasal polypoid growth with recurrent nose bleeding for one year. Excision biopsy was done, and the tissue was subjected to routine histological processing and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stains with additional mucicarmine special stain. Variable-sized sporangia containing magenta-colored spores and capsule were observed. We hereby present a rare infective disease diagnosed nine years after the first reported case in our center.

  7. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  8. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

    Míriam Elias Cavallini


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and to compare macro and microscopically the intense injuries of the gastric mucosa of rats which were caused by NSAIDS celecoxib and indomethacin and the gastric cytoprotection with omeprazole and misoprostol. METHODS: The sample is formed by one hundred and fifty Wistar rats with average weight 200 g, distributed in four groups, such as: Group A, subdivided in groups A1 and A2 - pre-treatment with omeprazole (20 mg/rat during seven days and on the 8th day - use of NSAIDS, concerning A1 (20 rats were given celecoxib (1mg/rat and A2 (20 rats were given indomethacin. The Group B, subdivided in group B1 and B2 - pre-treatment with misoprostol (20mg/rat during seven days and on the 8th day use of NSAIDS, concerning B1 (20 rats were given celecoxib (1 mg/ rat and B2 (20 rats were given indomethacin (12.5 mg/rat. The Group C: were not given cytoprotection during seven days, from the 7th to the 8th day - fast of food and water ad libitum, on the 8th day of NSAIDS use, concerning C1 (20 rats were given celecoxib, C2 (20 rats were given indomethacin (12.5 mg/ rat, C3 (20 rats were given celecoxib (200mg/rato, and Group D - control group, concerning 10 rats were observed during seven days ingesting food and water ad libitum. On the 9th day, the stomachs were taken out and were macro and microscopically evaluated for the identification of the gastric injuries. RESULTS: On the macroscopic studies, the groups A2, B2 and C2 presented a remarkable high number of injuries for cm² /animal, respectively 18.55 injuries for cm² /animal, 16.25 injuries for cm² /animal and 13.55 injuries for cm²/animal. On the microscopic studies, the percentage of the injured mucosa, presented expressive difference among the groups A1, B1, C1 when compared to the groups A2, B2, C2 (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar macro e microscopicamente as lesões agudas da mucosa gástrica de ratos provocadas pelos AINEs celecoxib e indometacina e a citoproteção g

  9. 丙酸氟替卡松对变应性鼻炎鼻黏膜重塑动态影响的实验研究%The effect of the fluticasone propionate to the dynamic process of the nasal mucosal remodeling in allergic rhinitis of the rats model

    谢冰斌; 刘月辉; 刘建国; 朱新华; 梅晓峰


    Objective:To investigate the dynamic process of the nasal mucosal remodeling, and the effect of the fluticasone propionate(FP) to remodeling, by establish animal model of allergic rhinitis(AR). Method: One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: the normal Group A used as controls and experimental groups: Group B and C, each group had 40 rats. After the animal model were established successfully by OVA+ Al(OH)3 and disposed, then, the dynamic process of the nasal mucosal remodeling was observed, through HE staining and transmission electron microscopic section in special times. Result: The Group B, C nasal epithelium and cilia were not complete, eosinophil-based inflammatory cell infiltration, basement membrane thickening, collagen deposition, and a small amount of fibrosis could be found, but the structure of cells were not damaged. While those changes could not be observed in the Group A. The morphological changes of the nasal mucosa of Group B aggravated gradually under persistent allergen exposure, even stripped to the basement membrane in whole epithelial layers, cell and tissue structure were destroyed seriously. The morphological changes of nasal mucosa of Group C did not further increase, but still showed varying degrees of cilia arranged in uneven fashion, basement membrane thickening, collagen deposition and fibrous hyperplasia after treatment by FP. Conclusion:Remodeling happenes in the nasal mucosa, which would be aggravated, and even becomes irreversible if the allergen exposure continues persistently. The FP canrelieve the clinical symptoms, slow down and even reverse the remodeling of AR. And it is ineffective when the changes become irreversible.%目的:探讨变应性鼻炎(AR)实验动物模型鼻黏膜重塑的动态表现,及丙酸氟替卡松(FP)对重塑的影响.方法:选近交系健康SD大鼠120只,随机分为正常对照组(A组)、AR组(B组)和FP治疗组(C组),每组各40只.以OVA+Al(OH)3

  10. 4NQO诱导大鼠腭黏膜癌模型建立的实验研究%A rat model of palatal mucosa carcinoma induced by 4-nitroquinolinel-oxide water solution

    岳阳丽; 季旭东; 刘进忠


    目的:建立与人腭黏膜癌及癌前病变发生相似的动物模型.方法:体积分数为0.5%的四硝基喹啉-1-氧化物(4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,4NQO)水溶液涂抹Wistar大鼠腭部黏膜至28周,肉眼及组织学观察癌变全过程.结果:随4NQO作用时间的延长,小鼠腭黏膜相继出现白色斑块、红白相间斑块、乳头状新生物和浸润性肿块等改变,组织学上经历了单纯性上皮增生、异常增生、原位癌、浸润性癌的病理过程,用药16、20、24、28周时腭癌的发生率分别为0、11.1%、44.4%、100%,未见远处转移.结论:4NQO涂抹法诱发大鼠腭癌模型建立方法简单、靶器官代表性强、病变典型,癌变时间稳定集中,且与人类口腔癌病变过程相似,是研究口腔癌的理想动物模型.%Aim:To establish a rat model for palatal mucosa carcinoma and precancerous lesions that is histologically and pathologically comparable to the human counterpart.Methods:0.5% 4NQO solution was applied to the rat's palate mucosa once two days,and the animals were observed until the 28th week.The rats were killed and their palatal mucosas were biopsied for pathological analyses.Results:Gross changes included leukoplakia,erythroplakia appearances,papillary hyperplasia and invasive carcinoma of the palatal mucosa of experimental group rats during carcinogenesis.The palate lesions had undergone a classical progress of squamous cell carcinoma including simple epithelial hyperplasia,dysplasia,in situ carcinoma and invasive cancer.The incidence of palate cancer in rats treated with 4NQO for 16 weeks,20 weeks,24 weeks,and 28 weeks was 0,11.1%,44.4% and 100%,respectively.No metastases were found.Conclusion:4NQO can reliably induce rat palatal preneoplastic lesions,carcinoma of the rat palatal mucosa.The process of carcinogenesis and the biological behavior parallel to those of human oral carcinoma.The target organ is typical,and the method is handy.This model is simple

  11. Absorption and metabolism of the absorption enhancer didecanoylphosphatidylcholine in rabbit nasal epithelium in vivo

    Vermehren, C.; Johansen, P.B.; Hansen, Harald S.


    The absorption enhancer, didecanoylphosphatidylcholine (DDPC), improves the nasal absorption of human growth hormone in rabbits. We elucidated the uptake and the metabolism of 1,2-di[1-C]decanoyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-didecanoyl-L-3-phosphatidyl[N-methyl-H]choline in rabbit nasal mucosa...

  12. Comparação das anastomoses esôfago-gástricas término-terminais em plano único e por invaginação de submucosa e mucosa, em ratos End-to-end esophagogastric anastomosis comparative study, between a single layer and submucosa-mucosa invagination technics: in rats

    Décio Iandoli Júnior


    Full Text Available A cirurgia do esôfago ainda representa um grande desafio técnico-cirúrgico, devido a alta incidência de fístulas e estenoses. A anastomose esôfago-gástrica por telescopagem de um tubo cranial de submucosa e mucosa, desponta como grande esperança na melhoria dos resultados. Comparamos, em ratos, a anastomose extra-mucosa em plano único com telescopagem de tubo de submucosa e mucosa, com a realizada sem o tubo, procurando confirmar a eficácia desta anastomose na proteção da sutura contra a ocorrência de fístulas, e verificar se em um prazo maior de observação, esta técnica não aumentaria a ocorrência de estenoses. Utilizamos 40 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 2 grupos com 20 animais, sendo que, 10 foram observados por 7 dias e 10 por 14 dias. A avaliação dos resultados foi feita através de parâmetros medidos nas duas operações, como a variação ponderal, variação do diâmetro externo do esôfago, e o índice de estenose; além da análise à microscopia ótica. Foi feita análise estatística de todos os resultados. Os animais com a anastomose por invaginação de submucosa e mucosa, tiveram menor incidência de complicações, confirmando a segurança deste tipo de anastomose e suas vantagens em relação à anastomose convencional.The surgery of the esophagus represents, still today, a technician-surgical challenge, to its high incidence of complications as leakage and estenosis. The esophagus-gastric anastomosis for invagination of a craneal tube of submucosa and mucosa shows up as a great hope of obtaining better results. In this study, we compared, in rats, the extra-mucous anastomosis in single layer with a submucosa and mucosa tube, with accomplished it in the same way without the tube, trying to confirm the effectiveness of that anastomosis type in the protection of the suture edges against the leakage occurrence, as well, to verify if, this technique would not increase the estenosis occurrence. We stabilished a

  13. An investigation into the usefulness of a rostrocaudal nasal radiographic view in the dog

    R.M. Kirberger


    Full Text Available A rostrocaudal (RCd nasal view was developed in large breed mesaticephalic dogs using a complete, subsequently sectioned, skull and cadaver specimens to optimise the radiographic technique and evaluate normal anatomic features. Gelatin was placed in one nasal passage of the cadaver specimens to mimic the effects of nasal pathology. The latter specimens and 18 clinical cases with suspected nasal disease were evaluated to determine the usefulness of the RCd view compared to standard nasal views. An optimal RCd view was obtained with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the head symmetrically positioned with the hard palate perpendicular to the table using a table top technique with 8 : 1 grid, collimating to the nasal region and centring the primary beam on the philtrum. The dorsolateral aspects of the maxillary bone, the nasal bones, septal sulcus of the vomer, mucosa lined nasal septum and conchae could be seen. A centrodorsal more radiolucent area representing the ethmoid bone region was also visible. Gelatin soft tissue opacification of the nasal passage could be seen more clearly in RCd nasal view than in occlusal dorsoventral view. In clinical cases the RCd view was useful to build up a 3-dimensional image of nasal passage pathology as well as to detect nasal septum and osseous nasal border pathology not visible in other views. This view is particularly useful in cases where cross-sectional imaging modalities are not available or where the nasal investigation is limited by cost considerations.

  14. Opportunities and challenges for the nasal administration of nanoemulsions.

    Comfort, Claurice; Garrastazu, Gabriela; Pozzoli, Michele; Sonvico, Fabio


    Nasal delivery has become a growing area of interest for drug administration as a consequence of several practical advantages, such as ease of administration and non-invasiveness. Moreover, the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism and rapid and efficient absorption across the permeable nasal mucosa offer a promising alternative to other traditional administration routes, such as oral or parenteral delivery. In fact, nasal delivery has been proposed for a number of applications, including local, systemic, direct nose-to-brain and mucosal vaccine delivery. Nanoemulsions, due to their stability, small droplet size and optimal solubilization properties, represent a versatile formulation approach suitable for several administration routes. Nanoemulsions demonstrated great potential in nasal drug delivery, increasing the absorption and the bioavailability of many drugs for systemic and nose-to-brain delivery. Furthermore, they act as an active component, i.e. an adjuvant, in nasal mucosal vaccinations, displaying the ability to induce robust mucosal immunity, high serum antibodies titres and a cellular immune response avoiding inflammatory response. Interestingly, nanoemulsions have not been proposed for the treatment of local ailments of the nose. Despite the promising results in vitro and in vitro, the application of nanoemulsions for nasal delivery in humans appears mainly hindered by the lack of detailed toxicology studies to determine the effect of these formulations on the nasal mucosa and cilia and the lack of extensive clinical trials.

  15. PRL-3 expression in nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma

    Zi-Hui Chen; Min-Ying Li


    Objective:To investigate the relationship between liver regeneration phosphatase-3 (PRL-3) with differentiation extent of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, and molecular biological effects on the pathogenesis of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma to comprehend its relevance, so as to make early diagnosis of patients, and to give guidance to the prognosis. Methods:Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PRL-3 in 30 cases of different degrees of sinus nasal squamous cell carcinoma. 20 cases of normal nasal cavity of mucosa tissues were set as control. Results:The PRL-3 in all levels of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma tissues, there was a significant difference compared with the normal nasal mucosa (P<0.05), squamous cell carcinoma and its expression increased with the grade with enhanced trend. Conclusions:PRL-3 expression increased significantly in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma than in nasal polyp tissue, showed that it may be associated with squamous cell carcinoma of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, may be the early event.

  16. The protective effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on gastric mucosa injury after cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats%大鼠脑缺血再灌注后降钙素基因相关肽对受损胃黏膜的保护作用

    冯国营; 许晓博; 王迁


    @@ The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of calcitonin gene-related pepfide (CGRP) on gastric mucosa injury after focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion and gastric ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Wistar male rats (280-320g) were selected for this experiment. Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model was established with left middle cerebral artery occlusion by using thread inserting.

  17. Ultrastructural changes of gastric mucosa of rats with atrophic gastritis caused by hot water%热水致大鼠萎缩性胃炎胃黏膜超微结构变化

    张沥; 张玲霞; 陶梅; 王春梅; 江梅; 杨家骥; 宋瑛


    Objective To observe the ultrastructural changes of gastric mucosa of rats with atrophic gastritis caused by hot water and investigate the pathogenesis of atrophic gastritis and the relationship between chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and hot diet. Methods The rat atrophic gastritis model was induced by gavage with hot water(55℃, 150g/mL, 2.5mL/d x 32 weeks). Histopathological methods were used to examine the selected gastric glands and antrum of rat. The ultrastructure of gastric mucosa were observed under scanning electromicroscope. Results (1) The optical microscope observation showed that the surface of the gastric mucosa was smooth and no erosion could be observed there in control group. There was no inflammatory infiltration in lamina propria. Nor was there edema in submucous layer or inflammatory infiltration in muscular layer. In hot water group, when hot water was given 24 weeks, the body of gastric gland of rat's gastric mucosa shrank obviously. The smooth muscle in muscular layer of mucosa had hyperplasia and got into the lamina propria of mucosa. The glandular epithelium in the up 1/3~2/3 part of the gland was atrophic. The lumen of the glards became broadened and the width of mucosa in the neck of gastric pit became narrowed. (2) The scanning electromicroscope observation showed that, in control group, the gastric mucosa was compartmentalized by crisscross grooves into many micro gastric areas, in the shape of reticulation. The epithelium was lined regularly and covered with laminar mucus. In hot water group, when hot water was given for 24 weeks, the gastric mucosa cells became atrophic. The lumen of gland was broadened and bleeding could be observed . When hot water was given for 32 weeks, besides the atrophic gastric mucosa and more broadened lumen of gland, much exfoliation of epithelium, the breakage of the cells and the focal erosion of mucosa were also found. (3) The transmission electromicroscope observation showed that the body of gland

  18. 磷酸川芎嗪鼻用pH敏感型原位凝胶在正常大鼠和模型大鼠的脑部药动学比较研究%Comparison of the brain pharmacokinetics of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal rats and model rats

    刘宏伟; 晏亦林; 周莉玲


    The study is to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics change of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal and model rats. Acute cerebral ischemia rat model was successfully established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Both normal and model rats were given nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel (10 mg·kg-1). Perfusates of brain striatum area were collected at each time point by microdialysis. The content of TMPP was determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4 software at each time point of the brain drug concentration. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of TMPP were fitted with compartments 2. After nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel the values of Cmax and AUC of both components in brain showed as follows: the value of model group > that of normal group. Significant difference can be observed in the process of brain pharmacokinetics in normal and model rats after giving nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel.

  19. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K


    the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included...

  20. MR findings of nasal cavity lesions showing the infundibular widening on

    Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Uk; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Several kinds of nasal cavity lesions located in the region of the infundibulum on CT. At such time, the visualization of these lesions is very similar. The purpose of this study was to differentially diagnose these nasal cavity lesions through evaluation of the MR findings. In 51 cases of pathologically proven nasal cavity masses which on CT showed infundibular widening, we retrospectively evaluated the MR findings. The cases involved prolapsed antral mucosa from sinusitis(n=15), inverted papilloma(n=10), antrochoanal polyp(n=10), aspergillosis(n=9), and nasal polyp(n=7). All patients underwent both CT and MR. imaging. In all cases, CT findings were similar ; soft tissue masses filling the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity were associated with infundibular widening caused by pressure on the uncinate process, leading to erosion. Differential diagnosis by CT was very difficult ; MR T2 weighted imaging was most effective for differential diagnosis of these nasal cavity masses. Prolapsed antral mucosa showed central inhomogeneous mixed signal intensity, with a peripheral rim of hyperintensity along the sinus wall and nasal component. Antrochoanal polyps showed homogeneous bright signal intensity of the antral and nasal component. Aspergillosis showed central dark signal foci. Inverted papillomas showed mixed intermediate and high intensity mixed with high signal intensity. Nasal polyps showed striation mixed of intermediate and high signal intensity, while nasal polyp showed striation of intermediate and high intensity. On Gd-enhanced T1 weighted images, prolapsed antral mucosa and antrochoanal polyp showed peripheral rim enhancement of the antral and nasal component. In contrast, inverted papilloma and nasal polyp showed intense enhancement of the mass and can be separate from the sinus inflammatory disease. Various nasal cavity masses showing infundibular widening on CT can be differentiated on MR images, especially of these are T2 weighted or contrast enhanced T1

  1. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    Uzomefuna, Vincent


    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  2. Efeitos do butirato nos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica sem trânsito fecal: estudo experimental em ratos Effects of butyrate on levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa without fecal stream: experimental study in rats

    Thais Miguel do Monte Lameiro


    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC representam o principal substrato energético para células da mucosa cólica. A derivação intestinal, reduzindo suprimento de AGCC, responsabiliza-se pela colite de exclusão (CE. Aplicação retal de butirato tem sido eficaz no tratamento da doença. Então, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de lipoperoxidação na mucosa cólica, após aplicação de butirato, em modelo de CE. Vinte seis ratos Wistar foram submetidos à colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos segundo sacrifício ser realizado em duas ou quatro semanas. Cada grupo foi subdividido em dois subgrups segundo intervenção com soro fisiológico ou butirato. O diagnóstico de CE foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de lipoperoxidação pelos níveis de malondialdeído (MDA. Utilizaram-se os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis (significantes quando pThe short-chain fatty acids (SCFA are the main energy substrate for the cells of the colonic mucosa. Diversion of the fecal stream reducing the supply of SCFA is responsible for diversion colitis (DC. Rectal application of butyrate has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of the disease. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in the colon mucosa after application of butyrate in model of DC. Twenty-six rats were submitted to proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into two groups according sacrifice carried out in two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to intervention with saline solution or butyrate. The diagnosis of colitis was established by histopathology and the levels of lipid peroxidation by tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. We used the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, establishing a significance level of 5% (significant with p<0.05. After two weeks, the levels of MDA were lower in the segments

  3. Suplatast tosilate alleviates nasal symptoms through the suppression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-mediated IL-9 gene expression in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Naoki; Kadota, Takuya; Kominami, Takahiro; Das, Asish K; Sawada, Akiho; Tamada, Misaki; Miyagi, Kohei; Adachi, Tsubasa; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki


    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis; its expression level is highly correlated with the nasal symptom severity. Antihistamines are widely used as allergy treatments because they inhibit histamine signaling by blocking H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. However, long-term treatment with antihistamines does not completely resolve toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced nasal symptoms, although it can decrease H1R gene expression to the basal level, suggesting additional signaling is responsible for the pathogenesis of the allergic symptoms. Here, we show that treatment with suplatast tosilate in combination with antihistamines markedly alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats. Suplatast suppressed TDI-induced upregulation of IL-9 gene expression. Suplatast also suppressed ionomycin/phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced upregulation of IL-2 gene expression in Jurkat cells, in which calcineurin (CN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling is known to be involved. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that suplatast inhibited binding of NFAT to DNA. Furthermore, suplatast suppressed ionomycin-induced IL-9 mRNA upregulation in RBL-2H3 cells, in which CN/NFAT signaling is also involved. These data suggest that suplatast suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression in TDI-sensitized rats and this might be the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of combined therapy of suplatast with antihistamine.

  4. 尿液环境中大鼠小肠黏膜结构与功能的变化%A study of the histological and functional changes of rat small intestinal mucosa in urinary circumstance

    高金龙; 王晓雄; 赖载礼


    目的 观察长期在尿液环境中大鼠小肠黏膜结构与功能的变化.方法 将22只大鼠随机分为2组,实验组12只,截取4 cm末段小肠,接受代膀胱术;对照组10只,接受假手术.术后1个月和5个月,观察代膀胱黏膜的组织结构、吸收与分泌功能的变化,体质量、血生化的变化.结果 术后5个月,代膀胱黏膜表现为增生;杯状细胞术后1个月明显增多,术后5个月明显减少;代膀胱黏膜对水、K+,NH;,表现为吸收,1h吸收量分别为:(0.39 ±0.09) ml、(5.2±0.9)μmol、(7.11±0.87) μmol;对Na+、Cl-、HCO;,表现为分泌,1h分泌量分别为:(33.2±4.6)、(8.0±3.7)、(17.7±7.0) μmol,与术后1个月的检测值比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);黏液分泌量为(0.091 ±0.079)g,与术后1个月的检测值比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后5个月,实验组大鼠体质量及血生化检测值,与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 长期在尿液环境中的大鼠小肠黏膜,组织结构表现为增生;杯状细胞早期增多,后期明显减少;对水、电解质的 吸收或分泌不发生明显改变;黏液分泌量逐渐减少.4 cm末段小肠构建的代膀胱,对大鼠远期健康的影响不明显.%Objective To study the histological and functional changes of rat small intestinal mucosa in urinary circumstance for a long period.Methods 22 rats divided into two groups randomly,12 rats in experiment group accepted bladder substitution operation use 4cm distal small intestine and 10 rats in control group accepted sham operation.1 month and 5 month postoperation,to observe the histological changes,secretion and absorption changes of the neobladder mucosa,and body weight,blood biochemistry changes of the rats.Results 5 month postoperation,histological hyperplasia happened in neobladder mucosa.the number of goblet cells increased apparently 1 month postoperation and decreased significantly 5month postoperation.neobladder mucosa showed

  5. Method of expression of certain bacterial microflora mucosa olfactory area

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Nosova, Yana V.; Shushlyapina, Natalia O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral


    The article is devoted to the actual problem - the development of new express diagnostic methods, based on which a doctor-otolaryngologist can quickly and efficiently determine a violation of smell. The work is based on the methods of processing and analysis of medical images and signals. We have also identified informative indicators of endoscopic image of the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa of the upper course.

  6. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone ...

  7. Determination of oxidative stress and effect of erdosteine on rhinitis medicamentosa in a rat model.

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Cevik, Cengiz; Ozler, Gul Soylu; Ozgur, Tumay; Arli, Cengiz; Sefil, Fatih; Yonden, Zafer


    We aimed to determine the presence of oxidative stress in rhinitis medicamentosa (RM) and to evaluate the effect of erdosteine (ED) on mucosal changes in a rat model. Twenty-four male rats were used in this experimental study. Three groups were created. Group 1 (n=8) was the control group. Two puffs of 0.05% oxymetazolin were sprayed into the nasal cavities of the remaining rats (n=16) three times daily for eight weeks. One of these 16 rats was scarified at the end of the eight weeks and examined to confirm the presence of RM. Seven of the remaining 16 rats were killed, and venous blood samples were taken (Group 2). Group 3 (n=8) received 10mg/kg of an ED suspension orally for seven days. All rats were put on formalin for light microscopy. The total antioxidant status (TAS) was similar in all groups (p=0.073). The total oxidative status (TOS) of the RM group was significantly higher than that of the control group and RM+ED group (Group 3) (p=0.003 and p=0.011, respectively). The pathological recovery of the nasal mucosa of the rats was similar in the RM+ED and control groups. The TOS was high in this RM rat model, and oxidative stress was associated with RM. ED significantly ameliorated nasal mucosal changes induced by RM, suggesting that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of this condition.

  8. Efeito do exercício físico sobre o volume nasal Effects of physical exercise in nasal volume

    Marconi Teixeira Fonseca


    Full Text Available A variação da permeabilidade nasal tem sido demonstrada usando-se várias técnicas de exame. As estruturas nasais geram uma resistência que representa cerca de 50% da resistência respiratória total. O exercício físico é um dos fatores que pode causar um efeito vasoconstritor sobre a mucosa nasal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o grau de mudança do volume nasal após exercício físico e o tempo de retorno aos níveis basais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove indivíduos foram submetidos à realização de teste físico em bicicleta ergométrica. O volume nasal foi obtido através da rinometria acústica, realizada em repouso, após o fim do exercício físico, e nos minutos décimo e vigésimo de seu final. RESULTADOS: Os resultados rinométricos mostram um aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume nasal (p The nasal permeability has been demonstrated using several exams. Nasal structures produces a resistance to the nasal air flux that represents over 50% of the total respiratory resistance. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen heathly subjects were submitted to aerobic exercise in ergometric bike. The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume (p<0,001. The nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercises, generally, increases the nasal volume. However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical

  9. Effects of paneth cells on restitution of intestinal mucosa in rat model of hemorrhagic shock%潘氏细胞在大鼠休克复苏后肠黏膜重建过程中的作用

    杨斌; 何嘉辉; 傅玉如; 常建星; 陈双


    目的 观察小肠潘氏细胞在大鼠失血性休克复苏后肠黏膜重建过程中的作用。方法 42只雄性Wistar大鼠建立失血性休克复苏模型,随机分为实验组(n=7)和对照组(n=35),实验组再分5组,分别于复苏后1、3、6、12、24h观察回肠黏膜的形态学改变、复苏前后潘氏细胞数量及形态变化特点及各时相电镜下潘氏细胞结构特点。结果 休克复苏后小肠黏膜明显损伤,集中表现于绒毛部分。复苏后3h为明显,6h后绒毛已开始修复,至24h肠黏膜表面细胞连续性已恢复。复苏后1h,回肠黏膜潘氏细胞计数明显减少(P<0.05),3h降至最低(P<0.05),6h后与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。电镜下潘氏细胞表现肠内分泌细胞超微结构特征,核无凋亡改变。结论 失血性休克复苏后肠黏膜屏障早期受损,但具快速重建能力,潘氏细胞颗粒的合成和分泌可受缺血再灌注损伤的诱导。潘氏细胞对维持肠道黏膜防御机制具有重要的生理意义。%Objective To investigate the changes of Paneth cells during the restitution process of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Methods A total of 42 Wistar male rats were randomized divided into control group ( n =7) and model group ( n =35 ). The rats in model group were further divided into five subgroups (n =7 in each group) according to different time points. Hemorrhagic shock model was established. The morphological changes of ileum mucosa and Paneth cells were observed during the restitution process after hemorrhagic shock, and the number of Paneth cells was counted under the light microscopy at different time points. Ultrastructures of Paneth cells were observed under different stages of resuscitation. Results After hemorrhagic shock, the mucosal epithelial injury was obvious in the upper villus and became more serious in 1 h up to 3 h, and mucosal restitution was found 6 h after resuscitation, almost established

  10. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    Sanjay Balwant Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue.

  11. Gene Expression Profile of Colon Mucosa after Cytotoxic Insult in wt and Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats: Possible Relation to Resistance to Apoptosis during Carcinogenesis

    Angelo Pietro Femia


    Full Text Available Apc-mutated Pirc rats, spontaneously developing intestinal tumours, are resistant to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH- induced colon apoptosis. To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed the expression of genotoxic stress-related genes Mgmt, Gsta1, and Gstp1 in the colon of wt and Pirc rats in basal conditions and 24 h after DMH; plasmatic oxidant/antioxidant status was also evaluated. After DMH, Mgmt expression was increased in both genotypes but significantly only in wt rats; Gsta1 expression was significantly increased in both genotypes. Gstp1 expression did not vary after DMH but was lower in Pirc rats. Moreover, for each genotype, we studied by microarray technique whole gene expression profile after DMH. By unsupervised cluster analysis, 28 genes were differentially modulated between the two genotypes. Among them were interferon-induced genes Irf7, Oas1a, Oasl2, and Isg15 and the transcription factor Taf6l, overexpressed in DMH-treated wt rats and unchanged in Pirc rats. RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in DMH-treated wt rats and showed a slighter variation in DMH-treated Pirc rats. Taken together, despite a blunted induction of Irf7, Oas1a, and Mgmt, defective apoptosis in Pirc rats 24 h after DMH is not mirrored by major differences in gene expression compared with wt rats.

  12. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute


    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  13. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions


    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  14. Balloon sinuplasty: a new concept in the endoscopic nasal surgery

    Nogueira Júnior, João Flávio


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinus diseases affect millions of people annually. Clinical treatment is effective in most patients, but in case of failure of this therapy the functional endoscopic surgery is currently the treatment choice for surgical treatment. The objective of the functional endoscopic surgery is to increase the aeration and drainage of the involved paranasal sinuses, which allows for the adequate functioning of the nasal mucosa mucociliary clearance. However, this method still has some limitations, mainly because it removes the nasal mucosa and bone tissue, and it may lead to physiologic alterations of the nasosinusal mucosa and cicatricial fibrosis. Many of these patients could be benefited from less invasive methods, with larger nasal mucosa preservation. Since 2006, an even less invasive procedure was remarked in our specialty: the balloon dilatation of the paranasal sinus ostia. Objective: The objective of this article is to define the concept of sinuplasty, its action mechanism, and present the necessary material for the procedures performance; to describe the techniques with the equipment in a nasosinusal endoscopic surgery simulator model and review the current literature about the indications, complications, results, and follow-up of patients submitted to this procedure. Balloon sinuplasty is safe and appears to be effective in the improvement of the quality of life of patients not responsive to conventional clinical therapy. New applications and indications for this equipment should be described and researched.

  15. Changes of the ultrastructure of colon mucosa after partial hepatectomy in rats%部分肝切除后大鼠结肠黏膜层超微结构的变化

    唐超智; 张文学; 高道文; 张新胜; 傅山岗; 徐存拴


    Objective To study the effects of partial hepatectomy (PH) on the ultrastructure of colon mucosa in rats. Methods Thirty-five healthy SD rats were divided into one normal control group, three sham-operation (SO) control groups and three operation (2/3 PH) groups. The rats in the SO and PH groups were sacrificed at the 6th, 12th and 24th hour after speration). The colon was collected and prepared as ultrathin sections. Samples were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results Compared with that in the normal control group rats, the ultrastructure of colon mucosa did not show distinct changes in the SO groups. However, significant changes were observed in PH 6- and 12- hour groups rats, for example, the microvilli became short, enterocyte interspace was greatly increased, mitochondria of goblet cells was impaired, endocrine cells were stimulated, degranulation of mast cells was marked, macrophages were filled with phagosomes, neutrophilic granulocytes were gathered to lamina propna. In PH 24-hour groups, endocrine cells were still active, but other changes were not evident. Conclusion After PH, colon mucosa barrier is acutely damaged which leads a rising rate of infection. However, stimulation of endocrine cells and mast cells may be helpful to liver regeneration and recovery%目的 探讨部分肝切除(PH)对大鼠结肠黏膜层超微结构的影响.方法 选取健康SD大鼠35只,分为1个正常对照组、3个假手术(SO)对照组和3个2/3 PH组,正常对照组大鼠直接处死,SO组和PH组大鼠分别于术后6、12和24 h处死,均取结肠固定后超薄切片,透射电镜下观察结肠黏膜层超微结构的变化.结果 与正常对照组相比,SO组大鼠结肠黏膜层超微结构无明显变化.PH 6和12 h组结肠黏膜层超微结构发生了较明显变化:微绒毛萎缩,上皮细胞间隙增大,杯形细胞线粒体损伤,内分泌细胞分泌增强,肥大细胞脱颗粒明显,巨噬细胞吞噬

  16. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Gelardi M


    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens


    Dhrupesh panchal


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, advances in the in situ gel technologies have spurred development in manymedical and biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel in situ gel baseddelivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever increasing needs of thepharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling systems are liquid at room temperature but undergogelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH. In situ gel forming drug delivery is a type ofmucoadhesive drug delivery system. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperaturemodulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultraviolet irradiation from which the drug gets released ina sustained and controlled manner. Nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where commondrug administrations such as intravenous, intramuscular or oral are inapplicable. Recently, it has beenshown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. This has beenattributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled withavoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in thegastrointestinal tract. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles but offers a promising route for noninvasivesystemic delivery of numerous therapies and debatably drug delivery route to the brain. Thusthis review focuses on nasal drug delivery, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, nasal drugabsorption mechanisms, various nasal drug delivery systems and their applications in drug delivery.

  18. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R


    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  19. Sebaceous Naevus Located in Nasal Cavity – A Unique Case

    Iffat Hassan


    Full Text Available Sebaceous naevi are congenital hamartomas comprising of sebaceous glands. They usually present at birth or may appear later as single lesion. The morphology of the lesion changes around puberty when it becomes thickened and nodular. Sebaceous naevus has definite potential for malignant transformation in later life therefore prophylactic surgical excision is recommended in childhood. The common sites of occurrence of naevus sebaceus are scalp and face. Involvement of mucus membrane is extremely rare in naevus sebaceous. We report this unusual case of naevus sebaceous located in nasal cavity involving nasal mucosa.

  20. Diving response in rats: role of the subthalamic vasodilator area.

    Eugene Golanov


    Full Text Available Diving response is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces diving response in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic (AP, HR, CBF and EEG responses to the known diving response-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats. Responses in AP, HR, CBF and EEG to cold stimulation of the forehead and ammonia vapors instillation into the nasal cavity were comparable and differed significantly from responses to the cold stimulation of the tail base. Excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic vasodilator area, which is known to participate in CBF regulation and to afford neuroprotection upon excitation, failed to affect autonomic components of the diving response evoked by forehead cold stimulation or nasal mucosa ammonia stimulation. We conclude that cold stimulation of the forehead triggers physiological response comparable to the response evoked by ammonia vapor instillation into the nasal cavity, which considered as stimulus triggering protective diving response. These observations may explain the neuroprotective effect of the forehead stimulation. Data demonstrate that subthalamic vasodilator area does not directly participate in the autonomic adjustments accompanying diving response, however, it is involved in diving-evoked modulation of EEG. We suggest that forehead stimulation can be employed as a stimulus capable of triggering oxygen-conserving diving response and can be used for neuroprotective therapy.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the potential of thiomers for the nasal administration of Leu-enkephalin.

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Obermair, K; Greimel, A; Palmberger, T F


    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the potential of thiolated polycarbophil for the nasal administration of Leucine-enkephalin (Leu-enkephalin). The enzymatic degradation of Leu-enkephalin on freshly excised bovine nasal mucosa was analysed qualitatively via thin layer chromatography and quantitatively via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The potential of thiolated polycarbophil gels to provide a sustained release for the therapeutic peptide was investigated via diffusion studies. Permeation studies were performed in Ussing-type diffusion chambers with freshly excised bovine nasal mucosa. Results demonstrated that Leu-enkephalin is mainly degraded by the cleavage of tyrosine from the N-terminus of the peptide. Within one hour more than 63.5 +/- 2% of this therapeutic peptide are degraded on the nasal mucosa. In the presence of 0.25% thiolated polycarbophil, this degradation process, however, could be significantly lowered. Diffusion studies demonstrated that Leu-enkephalin being incorporated in a 0.5% thiolated polycarbophil gel is sustained released out of it. The appearent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for Leu-enkephalin on the nasal mucosa was determined to be 1.9 +/- 1.2 x 10(-7) cm/sec. Furthermore, in the presence of 0.5% thiolated polycarbophil and 1% glutathione, which is used as permeation mediator for the thiomer, the uptake of Leu-enkephalin from the nasal mucosa was even 82-fold improved. According to these results thiolated polycarbophil might be a promising excipient for nasal administration of Leu-enkephalin.

  2. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals.

    Sunderman, F W


    Occupational exposures to inhalation of certain metal dusts or aerosols can cause loss of olfactory acuity, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, mucosal ulcers, perforated nasal septum, or sinonasal cancer. Anosmia and hyposmia have been observed in workers exposed to Ni- or Cd-containing dusts in alkaline battery factories, nickel refineries, and cadmium industries. Ulcers of the nasal mucosa and perforated nasal septum have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating, or to As(III) in arsenic smelters. Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium has been observed in rodents following inhalation of NiSO4 or alphaNi3S2. Cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses have been reported in workers exposed to Ni compounds in nickel refining, cutlery factories, and alkaline battery manufacture, or to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating. In animals, several metals (eg, Al, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) have been shown to pass via olfactory receptor neurons from the nasal lumen through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. Some metals (eg, Mn, Ni, Zn) can cross synapses in the olfactory bulb and migrate via secondary olfactory neurons to distant nuclei of the brain. After nasal instillation of a metal-containing solution, transport of the metal via olfactory axons can occur rapidly, within hours or a few days (eg, Mn), or slowly over days or weeks (eg, Ni). The olfactory bulb tends to accumulate certain metals (eg, Al, Bi, Cu, Mn, Zn) with greater avidity than other regions of the brain. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal translocation in olfactory neurons and deposition in the olfactory bulb are unclear, but complexation by metal-binding molecules such as carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) may be involved.

  3. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs in nasal polyposis

    Adner Mikael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α, βδ and γ are nuclear receptors activated by fatty acid metabolites. An anti-inflammatory role for these receptors in airway inflammation has been suggested. Methods Nasal biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Nasal polyps were obtained from 22 patients, before and after 4 weeks of local steroid treatment (fluticasone. Real-time RT-PCR was used for mRNA quantification and immunohistochemistry for protein localization and quantification. Results mRNA expression of PPARα, PPARβδ, PPARγ was found in all specimens. No differences in the expression of PPARs were obtained in nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. Nasal polyps exhibited lower levels of PPARα and PPARγ than normal nasal mucosa and these levels were, for PPARγ, further reduced following steroid treatment. PPARγ immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium, but also found in smooth muscle of blood vessels, glandular acini and inflammatory cells. Quantitative evaluation of the epithelial immunostaining revealed no differences between nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. In polyps, the PPARγ immunoreactivity was lower than in nasal mucosa and further decreased after steroid treatment. Conclusion The down-regulation of PPARγ, in nasal polyposis but not in turbinates during symptomatic seasonal rhinitis, suggests that PPARγ might be of importance in long standing inflammations.

  4. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P


    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  5. Effects of San Qi on Gastric Secretion and Protective Factors of Gastric Mucosa in the Rat with Precancerous Lesion of Stomach

    石雪迎; 赵凤志; 戴欣; 董秀云; 方杰; 杨会敏


    @@ In the model rat with precancerous lesion of stomach induced by the combined method of insertion of a spring into the pylorus and high salt hot paste, effects of San Qi (三七 Radix Notoginseng) on gastric secretion and protective factors of stomach were investigated.

  6. Supplemental Antioxidants Do Not Ameliorate Colitis Development in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats Despite Extremely Low Glutathione Levels in Colonic Mucosa

    Schepens, M.A.A.; Vink, C.; Schonewille, A.J.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Meer, van der R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.


    Background: Oxidative stress is presumed to play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Accordingly, antioxidant supplementation might be protective. Dietary calcium inhibited colitis development in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, an animal model mimicking IBD. As antioxidants might act at


    Choudhary Rakhi; Goswami Lakshmi


    Drug delivery through nasal route has attracted the interest of scientific community as it has been potentially explored as an alternative route for the administration of vaccines and biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and non-peptide drugs that are susceptible to enzymatic or acidic degradation and first-pass hepatic metabolism. The nasal mucosa is one of the most permeable and highly vascularised sites for drug administration ensuring rapid absorption and onset of therapeutic action. I...

  8. [New data on nasal morphology and morphological structure of paranasal sinuses].

    Piskunov, S Z; Kharchenko, V V


    The authors summarize the results of investigations of specific anatomical features of paranasal sinuses in more than 12,000 subjects. The patients with suspected cerebral pathology and lesions in the paranasal sinuses were examined using computed tomography. Structural variants of ethmoid bone and ethmoidal labyrinth, nasal septum, maxillary, frontal, and sphenoidal sinuses are described. The morphometric analysis revealed the zonal relationship between different structures of nasal mucosa and the new variants of regulatory structures in the cavernous sinus vessels.

  9. Cyanoacrylate ("superglue") injury to the nasal cavity: case report and a proposed management algorithm.

    Sira, James; Uppal, Sandeep; Dezso, Atilla


    We report the case of a deliberate application of cyanoacrylate adhesive (commonly called "superglue") to the nose of a 9-year-old boy during a fight. The glue was successfully removed under general anesthesia without causing trauma to the nasal mucosa. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 other case of cyanoacrylate injury to the nasal cavity has been published in the literature. We also provide an algorithm to guide clinicians in the future management of this unusual circumstance.

  10. 脑出血大鼠血清白蛋白水平与肠黏膜变化的关系%Correlation between serum albumin level and intestinal mucosa change in rats with cerebral hemorrhage

    王建林; 张苏明; 杨志秀; 张晓敏; 范云虎; 王静梅


    目的 探讨脑出血大鼠血清白蛋白水平与空肠黏膜形态学之间的关系.寻找导致低蛋白血症的机制.方法 制作脑出血大鼠模型.检测正常对照组、假手术组及脑出血组术后1、7、14 d(每组8只)血清白蛋白水平与空肠黏膜形态学的参数.进行血清白蛋白水平与空肠黏膜形态学的参数值之间的相关分析.结果 血清白蛋白与小肠绒毛高度(r=0.869,P<0.01)、绒毛面积(r=0.659,P<0.01)、黏膜厚度(r=0.915,P<0.01)、肠腺深度(r=0.545,P<0.05)及肠腺密度(r=0.475,P<0.05)呈正相关.结论 血清白蛋白水平与空肠黏膜形态学变化的关系密切.%Objective To explore the correlation between the serum albumin level and the jejunal mucosal morphology in rats with cerebral hemorrhage and to find out the mechanism of the resulting hypoproteinemia.Methods A rat model of cerebral hemorrhage was used to detect the serum albumin level and the morphologic parameters of jejunal mucosa on day 1,7 and 14 after the hemorrhage.The results were compared to the normal control group and the sham-operated group. The correlation between the serum albumin level and the parameters of the jejunal mucosal morphology was explored.Results The serum albumin level was positively correlated with the small intestinal villous height(r =0.869,P<0.01),villous area(r=0.659,P<0.01),mucosal thickness (r=0.915,P<0.01),depth of intestinal glands(r=0.545,P<0.05)and density of intestinal glands(r=0.475,P<0.05).Conclusion The serum albumin level is closely related to the morphologic changes of the jejunal mucosa.

  11. Influence of chronic alcohol intake on I-R induced gastric mucosa injury in rats%慢性饮酒对大鼠胃缺血再灌注损伤影响

    马小波; 王洪建; 徐庆雷; 杜东书


    目的 探讨酒精对大鼠胃缺血再灌注损伤的影响机制.方法 制备胃缺血再灌注及慢性饮酒大鼠模型,实验分为6组:假手术、饮酒假手术、胃缺血再灌注1、2 h组、饮酒胃缺血再灌注1、2 h组,每组6只;记录各组胃黏膜损伤指数并检测胃黏膜丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性;缺口末端标记法(TUNEL)检测胃黏膜细胞凋亡情况.结果 缺血再灌注1、2h后胃黏膜损伤指数分别为(106.0±12.0)和(74.4±11.0),黏膜细胞凋亡率分别为(73.2±6.5)%和(54.0±7.4)%,明显高于假手术组(P<0.05);与假手术组比较,缺血再灌注1h后胃黏膜MDA含量(7.98±2.1)nmol/mgprot]明显增加,SOD活性[(141±16.1)U/mgprot]明显降低;饮酒可引起胃黏膜轻微损伤(损伤指数为9.2±0.7),但饮酒并未加剧缺血再灌注带来的胃黏膜损伤,仅使机体自身修复能力降低.结论 饮酒可导致SOD活性下降,加剧机体内氧化和抗氧化平衡失调,使胃黏膜自身修复损伤能力降低.%Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol on ischemia-reperfusion(I-R) induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methods The rat model of gastric I-R injury and chronic alcohol drinking was established and the rats were randomly divided into 6 groups:normal sham operation group, alcohol drinking sham operation group, normal gastric I-R 1hr/2hr groups,and alcohol drinking gastric I-R lhr/2hr groups. Gastric mucosal injury index was recorded. The contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) and the activity of superoxidase dismutase(SOD) in gastric mucosa were measured. The status of gastric mucosa cellula apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results I-R induced gastric mucosa injury( P < 0. 05 ). The gastric mucosa injury index was 106 ± 12 and 74. 4 ± 11 after the reperfusion of 1 hr and 2 hr with the mucosal apoptosis rate of 73. 2 ±6. 5% and 54 ±7. 4% ,respectively. Compared with that of normal sham group, the

  12. Effect of a hyperlipidic diet rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9 on aberrant crypt formation in rat colonic mucosa Efeito de uma dieta hiperlipídica rica em ômegas 3, 6 e 9 na formação de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colonic mucosa of Wistar rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: At eight weeks of life, the rats were assigned to four groups: Group I―standard diet (STD not treated with AOM; Group II―hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet (FED, not treated with AOM; Group III―STD, treated with AOM; Group IV―FED, treated with AOM. At 16 weeks, the animals were injected intraperitoneal with 0.9% saline solution (Group I and II or AOM at 15mg/Kg (Groups III and IV once a week for two weeks. Fifteen weeks later, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: FED promoted weight gain in Groups II and IV compared to Groups I and III, respectively. The groups did not differ with regard to the total number of ACF. The Chi-square test revealed no predominance of the presence of foci with OBJETIVO: Determinar se uma dieta hipercalórica, hiperlipídica, rica em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (FED tem influência na formação de focos de cripta aberrante (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar expostos ao azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Com oito semanas de vida, os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I: Dieta padrão (SD sem AOM; Grupo II: FED, sem AOM; Grupo III: SD, com AOM; Grupo IV: FED com AOM. Com 16 semanas, os animais dos grupos I e II receberam injeções intraperitoneais de solução salina 0,9%, enquanto os dos grupos III e IV receberam AOM na dose de 15mg/Kg de peso, 1 vez por semana por duas semanas. Quinze semanas após, os animais foram mortos. RESULTADOS: FED promoveu aumento de peso nos grupos II e IV em relação aos grupos I e III. Não houve aumento significante no número total de FCA entre os grupos. Em relação à multiplicidade das criptas por FCA, o teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que não houve predominância da presença <4 criptas por foco. Contudo, focos ≥5 criptas

  13. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A


    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations.

  14. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Egemen Kucuk


    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  15. [Nasal foreign body in infants].

    Claudet, I; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Maréchal, C; Rekhroukh, H; Grouteau, E


    %), stones or pebbles (11%), and paper (6%). The extraction was instrumental in 82% of cases, and 26% of patients were referred to an ENT specialist when PED attempts were unsuccessful. One child needed hospitalization for extraction under general anesthesia of two beads located deep in the same nostril. No complication occurred. Five children had repeated accidents within an average delay of 6 months. Often benign, this frequent accident can be serious in case of batteries or neodymium magnet insertion: the extraction becomes an emergency because of risks of nasal mucosa necrosis and/or nasal septum perforation. In other cases, positive pressure techniques (the parent's kiss or its variants) could be tried first in the emergency department or at home at the time of a call to emergency services before a medical visit.

  16. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe


    responses against the infection. Host behaviour may in fact prevent larviposition and inflammatory/immune reactions limit larval development. The main pathophysiological mechanisms involve mast cells and eosinophils which destroy the larvae in sensitized animals. The intense eosinophilic reaction has side effects both locally (i.e. on the nasal mucosa) and also generally, with possible interactions with gastrointestinal strongyles (e.g., both worm burdens and fecundity decreased in lambs infected by O. ovis). Infected animals (e.g., sheep, goat, camel, and donkey) firstly suffer from fly strike, when adult flies inject first stage larvae on nostrils: sheep may try to avoid fly swarms but eventually Rangifer tarandus can only manage a terror-stricken look! Secondly, hosts will suffer from myiasis with typical nasal discharge and sneezing related to sinusitis. Clinical manifestations may vary: for example O. ovis induces severe clinical signs in sheep whilst produces few effects in goats! These parasites are diffused in many Mediterranean and tropical countries. Unfortunately, it is commonly believed that bacterial infections induced by nasal bots are of greater clinical importance: this view is not substantiated and the control of this condition depends on treatment with macrocyclic lactones, closantel and nitroxynil. Reinfections are common, and controlling nasal bots is not so simple.

  17. Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae.

    Vago, Bernadette; Hausser, Ingrid; Hennies, Hans Christian; Enk, Alexander; Jappe, Uta


    Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by deposition of hyaline material around the basement membrane of the skin and mucous membranes. Typical clinical symptoms are hoarseness, infiltration of the mucous membranes and papular verrucous skin changes. Mutations within the extracellular matrix protein gene (ECM-1) are the underlying defect. We report on a 24-year-old man, who had first been seen in our department at the age of seven and had undergone the necessary diagnostic procedures and who revisited 17 years later with hoarseness and extensive verrucous skin changes at elbows and knees which were removed by excision. A new mutation of the ECM1 gene was identified.

  18. [Isolated bacteria from nasal cultures. Are they important in patients with acute leukemia?].

    Barranco-Lampón, Gilberto; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto; Cabrera-Osuna, Silvia; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Ventura, Yanet; Gutiérrez-Romero, Mario; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfos; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar


    INTRODUCCIÓN: la colonización nasal por Staphylcoccus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus es frecuente y se ha relacionado con bacteremia en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. En la investigación que se presenta, los objetivos fueron determinar la frecuencia de cepas que colonizan la mucosa nasal en pacientes en tratamiento de leucemia aguda y su relación con los cultivos de sangre periférica. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, retrolectivo de cultivos nasales obtenidos durante cuatro semanas. La relación con los hemocultivos se estableció mediante chi cuadrada; se calculó razón de momios.

  19. Tissue quantification of neutral and acid mucins in the mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream in rats Quantificação tecidual de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa do cólon com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Ronaldo Nonose


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the intensity of the expression of neutral and acids mucins in mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream and to correlate this with the duration of fecal transit diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to fecal transit deviation in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, according to whether sacrificing would be performed six, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using the histochemical techniques of Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue, respectively. The tissue mucins expression was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis software (NIS-Elements in the segments with and without fecal stream. Student's paired t test was used to compare the quantities of mucins in colon with or without fecal stream and variance between the experimental groups by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post-test, establishing level of signification of 5% (pOBJETIVO: Quantificar a intensidade de expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica provida e desprovida de trânsito intestinal relacionando-a ao tempo de exclusão fecal. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo por colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, 12 e 18 semanas após a cirurgia. A avaliação da expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica foi realizada com as técnicas histoquímicas do Periódico Ácido de Schiff e Azul de Alcian, respectivamente. A quantificação da expressão tecidual das mucinas foi com auxílio de programa de análise de imagem assistida por computador (NIS-Elements nos segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito fecal. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student pareado na comparação da expressão de mucinas nos segmentos

  20. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    ... vestibule. Nasal furuncles may develop into a spreading infection under the skin (cellulitis) at the tip of the nose. A doctor becomes concerned about infections in this part of the face because veins ...

  1. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    ... a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.To use the nasal spray, follow these steps: ... used to treat certain types of migraine headaches (hemiplegic or basilar) or other types of headaches (such ...

  2. Nasal packing and stenting

    Weber, Rainer K.


    Full Text Available Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue.

  3. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    ... ingredients in budesonide nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  4. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking, or ...

  5. 不同剂量脑醒喷鼻剂对再灌注损伤脑组织自由基及一氧化氮合酶变化的干预%Changes of free radicals and nitric oxide synthase in rat brain following ischemia-reperfusion injury due to different dosage brain-awakening nasal sprayer intervention

    李荣; 吴伟; 陈宏珪; 黄衍寿; 刘煜德; 杨开清


    BACKGROUND: Brain-awakening nasal sprayer is composed of many herbs,such as Chuanxiong and Shichangpu, which were regarded by "Shennong Bencaojing" as having the function of "preventing stroke in the brain".OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of free radicals and nitric oxide synthase in rat brain following focal ischemic-reperfusional injury due to brain-awakening nasal sprayer intervention and compare with that due to classical nimodipine.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of internal medicine of a hospital affiliated to a traditional Chinese medical university.MATERIALS: Seventy adult male Wistar rats of clean grade, were randomly divided into seven groups: brain-awakening nasal sprayer of higher dosage group, moderate dosage group, lower dosage group, nimodipine intraperitoneal injection group, physical saline nasal sprayer group, menstruum nasal sprayer group, and sham operation group with 10 rats in each.METHODS: Focal brain ischemia-reperfusion model was established by blocking the left cerebral middle artery in rats of all the groups except sham operation group. Three days before model establishment and during reperfusion, rats were given different dosages of brain-awakening nasal sprayer composed of Chuanxiongqin and Shichangpu of 5.4, 2.7, 1.08 mg/(kg · d) and 1.35, 0. 54, 0.27 g/(kg· d), respectively, three times a day; which was replaced by physical saline and menstruum nasal sprayer of 0. 18 mL/ (kg · d),three times a day in physical saline nasal sprayer group and menstruum nasal sprayer group; rats in nimodipine intraperitoneal injection group received intraperitoneal injection of nimodipine by 0. 8 mg/(kg · d) twice a day. Rats in sham operation group were routinely raised. The content of prodialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide synthase were measured with colorimetric method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The changes of prodialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide synthase activity in rat brain

  6. Nasal administration of metoclopramide from different dosage forms: in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo evaluation.

    Tas, Cetin; Ozkan, Cansel Kose; Savaser, Ayhan; Ozkan, Yalcin; Tasdemir, Umut; Altunay, Hikmet


    Nasal drug delivery is an interesting route of administration for metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTC) in preventing different kind of emesis. Currently, the routes of administration of antiemetics are oral or intravenous, although patient compliance is often impaired by the difficulties associated with acute emesis or invasiveness of parenteral administration. In this perspective, nasal dosage forms (solution, gel, and lyophilized powder) of MTC were prepared by using a mucoadhesive polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). In vitro and ex vivo drug release studies were performed in a modified horizontal diffusion chamber with cellulose membrane and excised cattle nasal mucosa as diffusion barriers. The tolerance of nasal mucosa to the formulation and its components were investigated using light microscopy. In vivo studies were carried out for the optimized formulations in sheep and the pharmacokinetics parameters were compared with oral solution and IV dosage form. The release of MTC from solution and powder formulations was found to be higher than gel formulation (p nasal bioavailability of gel is higher than those of solution and powder (p nasal residence time and thereby nasal absorption.


    Choudhary Rakhi


    Full Text Available Drug delivery through nasal route has attracted the interest of scientific community as it has been potentially explored as an alternative route for the administration of vaccines and biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and non-peptide drugs that are susceptible to enzymatic or acidic degradation and first-pass hepatic metabolism. The nasal mucosa is one of the most permeable and highly vascularised sites for drug administration ensuring rapid absorption and onset of therapeutic action. Intranasal administration is a non-invasive route for drug delivery, which is widely used for the local treatment of rhinitis or nasal polyposis. Since drugs can be absorbed into the systemic circulation through the nasal mucosa, this route may also be used in a range of acute or chronic conditions requiring considerable systemic exposure. In addition it minimizes the lag time associated with oral drug delivery and offers non-invasiveness, self medication, patient comfort and patient compliance which are hurdled in intravenous drug therapy. The objective of this review is to provide an anatomical, histological and physiological overview of nose, absorption enhancers, barriers related to nasal drug delivery, physicochemical, biological and formulation related factors affecting nasal drug delivery system and its advantages. It also highlights research approaches on brain targeting through nasal cavity.

  8. Nasal gouty tophus: Report a rare case presenting as a nasal hump with nasal obstruction

    John Chung-Han Wu


    Full Text Available Dorsal nasal gouty tophus are rare occurrences with limited documentation. Here we report a male patient who has a history of poorly controlled gouty arthritis. He had nasal obstruction with an enlarging mass over his left nasal ridge for the past three years. Image studies revealed a nasal bone defect underneath the nasal lesion. The firm mass was excised and confirmed to be of gouty origin. The nasal bone defect was repaired with a titanium mesh plate to prevent nasal depression. He has fully recovered with no more nasal obstruction or recurrence of nasal tophus. The case report illustrates a common illness, gout, with a rare clinical manifestation leading to a common symptom, nasal obstruction. It demonstrates the importance of a detailed history, a thorough physical examination and most important of all, an extensive differential diagnosis in our clinical practice.

  9. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion

    Robert M Naclerio


    Full Text Available Robert M Naclerio1, Claus Bachert2, James N Baraniuk31University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; 3Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion is a common symptom in rhinitis (both allergic and nonallergic, rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Congestion can also be caused by physical obstruction of nasal passages and/or modulation of sensory perception. Mucosal inflammation underlies many of the specific and interrelated factors that contribute to nasal congestion, as well as other symptoms of both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. A wide range of biologically active agents (eg, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, cell adhesion molecules and cell types contribute to inflammation, which can manifest as venous engorgement, increased nasal secretions and tissue swelling/edema, ultimately leading to impaired airflow and the sensation of nasal congestion. Inflammation-induced changes in the properties of sensory afferents (eg, expression of peptides and receptors that innervate the nose can also contribute to altered sensory perception, which may result in a subjective feeling of congestion. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation can facilitate improved treatment selection and the development of new therapies for congestion.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, obstruction, pathophysiology, rhinosinusitis

  10. New insights into impairment of mucosal defense in portal hypertensive gastric mucosa.

    Tomikawa, M; Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J D; Kawanaka, H; Sugimachi, K; Sarfeh, I J; Tarnawski, A S


    Portal hypertension (PHT) increases susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PHT affects rat gastric mucosal defense mechanisms in vivo at the pre-epithelial, epithelial, and/or post-epithelial levels. PHT was produced in rats by staged portal vein ligation and sham-operated (SO) rats served as controls. The gastric mucosa was exposed, chambered, and continuously superfused with buffers under in vivo microscopy. We measured gastric mucosal gel layer thickness, surface epithelial cell intracellular pH (pHi), mucosal blood flow, and mucosal/serosal oxygenation. In PHT rats, gastric mucosal gel layer thickness was significantly reduced (88 +/- 16 microm in PHT rats vs. 135 +/- 25 microm in SO rats; P oxygenation of the gastric mucosal surface was decreased by 42% (P portal hypertensive gastric mucosa to injury.

  11. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G


    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

  12. Optimization of Thermoreversible In Situ Nasal Gel of Timolol Maleate

    Swati Jagdale


    Full Text Available Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism (80%. The drug has half-life of 4 hrs. Oral bioavailability of timolol maleate is 61%. The aim of the present study was to optimize controlled release in situ nasal delivery for timolol maleate. HPMC and Poloxamer 407 were selected as polymer in formulation of thermoreversible in situ nasal gel. Optimization was carried out using 32 factorial design. It was observed that formulations f1 and f4 revealed the highest % drug release, that is, 93.57% and 91.66%, respectively. Factorial design study indicated that the drug release and viscosity were most significant dependent factors. Ex vivo diffusion study through nasal mucosa indicated 67.26 ± 2.10% and 61.07 ± 2.49% drug release for f1 and f4 formulations. f1 was the optimized batch. This batch thus can act as a potential nasal delivery with enhanced bioavailability for the drug.

  13. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Belić Branislav


    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  14. Observation of ultrastructure and absorption function of colon mucosa in rats with ultra-short bowel syndrome%超短肠大鼠结肠代偿的细胞超微结构变化

    姜海平; 郭庆丰; 张海伟; 袁璐; 陈丹


    目的 观察超短肠大鼠结肠黏膜细胞超微结构和吸收功能的变化.方法 将30只雄性SD大鼠随机分为超短肠组(手术切除大鼠90%~95%的小肠)、假手术组和正常对照组,每组10只.给予肠内营养支持21 d后,采用扫描电镜观察结肠黏膜表画形态,透射电镜观察结肠黏膜上皮细胞超微结构变化.用D-木糖溶液和15N-甘氨酸对结肠进行封闭式连续循环灌注3 h,测定结肠对水、碳水化合物、氨基酸的吸收情况.结果 透视电镜观察结果显示,超短肠组大鼠较正常大鼠的结肠黏膜杯状细胞减少,吸收上皮细胞增多,微绒毛变长变密,细胞膜表面积增加,细胞间连接明显增多,桥粒、紧密连接和缝隙连接较多,内质网和高尔基体发达,线粒体数量明显增多.扫描电镜观察结果显示,超短肠组大鼠较正常大鼠的结肠皱襞深度增加,黏膜增厚,隐凹开口明显增多;隐凹内微绒毛样结构数目明显增多,长度增长且密度增加.超短肠组大鼠结肠对水的吸收能力明显高于假手术组和正常对照组(P均=0.000);1、2、3 h内木糖吸收率和15N-甘氨酸吸收率均明显高于假手术组和正常对照组(P均<0.01).结论 超短肠大鼠结肠吸收能力可代偿增强.结肠黏膜细胞凋亡减少、吸收细胞增多、微绒毛增生、细胞膜表面积增加和线粒体增多可能是其物质和能量基础.%Objective To observe the ultrastructure and absorption function of colon mucosa in rat with ultra-short bowel syndrome. Methods Totally 30 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: ultra-short bowel group (90%-95% of the intestine was surgically resected, n = 10), sham group (n = 10), and normal control group (n = 10). All animals were given with enteral nutrition. Scanning electron microscopy was performed 21 days later to observe the morphology of mucosal surface, and transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructural

  15. Proteomic expression analysis of colonic mucosa in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome%肠易激综合征大鼠结肠组织的蛋白质组学研究

    丁莺; 吕宾; 孟立娜; 范一宏; 郭赟; 沈雁; 陈硕


    conditions of physical restraint as a non-conditional stimulation in turn. The total proteins were extracted from colon mucosa of two different rat groups. After preparation of total proteins, selubilized proteins were separated by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Those differential protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS). The identified proteins were classified through an online web gene ontology tool. Some of the valuable differently expressed proteins were chosen for further verification by Western blotting. ResultsIntensity changes of 19 spots were detected among 1396 protein spots. A total of 13 different proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS successfully ; eight of these were up-regulated and five down-regulated in colon mueosa of IBS rat. The eight over-expressed proteins were cytokeratin 8, protein disulfide isomerase A3 ( PDIA3 ),peroxiredoxin-6, cathepsin S, heterogeneous nuclear ribonueleoprotein F, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, earbonyl reductase 1, glyoxalase I; five under-expressed proteins were alpha-enolase, transgelin,serpinB5, cardiac α-actin 1 and 40S ribosomal protein SA. The results of Western blotting confirmed that PDIA3 was indeed over-expressed in colonic mucosa of IBS rat. ConclusionsSome proteins related to immunity of intestinal tract, inflammation and nerve are differently expressed in colonic mueosa of IBS rat. It is suggested that immunity, inflammation and neuro-endocrine network in gut are associated with the pathogenesis of IBS.

  16. Environmental toxicants-induced immune responses in the olfactory mucosa

    Fumiaki Imamura


    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the olfactory bulb via the olfactory mucosa, and directly affect the CNS. On the other hand, environmental toxicants may induce inflammatory responses in the olfactory mucosa, including infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, these inflammatory responses cause the loss of OSNs that are then replaced with newly generated OSNs that re-connect to the olfactory bulb after inflammation has subsided. It is now known that immune cells and cytokines in the olfactory mucosa play important roles in both degeneration and regeneration of OSNs. Thus, the olfactory system is a unique neuroimmune interface where interaction between nervous and immune systems in the periphery significantly affects the structure, neuronal circuitry, and immunological status of the CNS. The mechanisms by which immune cells regulate OSN loss and the generation of new OSNs are, however, largely unknown. To help develop a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we have provided a review of key research that has investigated how the immune response in the olfactory mucosa affects the pathophysiology of OSNs.

  17. Nasal valve surgery.

    Apaydin, Fazil


    Nasal obstruction can be due to internal and external valve problems that can be seen before and after rhinoplasty. The main scope of this article is to concentrate on surgical solutions to these problems. To overcome nasal obstruction at the internal valve, spreader grafts, spreader flaps, upper lateral splay graft, butterfly graft, flaring suture, M-plasty, Z-plasty, and suspension sutures have been described. The management of the external valve problems is possible by using lateral crural dissection and repositioning, lateral crural strut grafts, alar battens, lateral crural turn-in flap, alar rim grafts, and various other methods. It is not easy to decide which techniques would work best in every case. After a thorough examination and analysis, the underlying cause of the nasal obstruction can be understood, and one or multiple procedures can be chosen according to each individual problem.

  18. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  19. The nasal delivery of nanoencapsulated statins – an approach for brain delivery

    Clementino A


    efficiency (EE; 98%. Size distribution was further confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy. The particles showed a relatively fast release of simvastatin in vitro (35.6%±4.2% in 6 hours in simulated nasal fluid. Blank nanoparticles did not show cytotoxicity, evidencing that the formulation is safe for nasal administration, while cytotoxicity of simvastatin-loaded nanoparticles (IC50 was found to be three times lower than the drug solution (9.92 vs 3.50 µM. In rats, a significantly higher radioactivity was evidenced in the brain after nasal delivery of simvastatin-loaded nanoparticles in comparison to the administration of a similar dose of simvastatin suspension. Conclusion: The SVT-LCNs developed presented some of the most desirable characteristics for mucosal delivery, that is, small particle size, positive surface charge, long-term stability, high EE, and mucoadhesion. In addition, they displayed two exciting features: First was their biodegradability by enzymes present in the mucus layer, such as lysozyme. This indicates a new Trojan-horse strategy which may enhance drug release in the proximity of the nasal mucosa. Second was their ability to enhance the nose-to-brain transport as evidenced by preliminary gamma scintigraphy studies. Keywords: nose-to-brain, simvastatin, nanoparticles, neurodegenerative diseases, gamma scintigraphy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, lysozyme, biodegradable nanoparticles

  20. Expression of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    Milonski, Jaroslaw; Zielinska-Blizniewska, Hanna; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Przybyłowska-Sygut, Karolina; Sitarek, Przemyslaw; Korzycka-Zaborowska, Barbara; Olszewski, Jurek


    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is one of the most frequently encountered chronic nasal diseases with a significant impact on patient quality of life. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the association between the POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 gene expression and the nasal polyp development. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 genes in the mucosa and polyps of 63 patients with CRSwNP and 23 chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) when compared with patients with nasal septum deviation (n=18) who were used as controls. The expression level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays in the polyp tissue and the mucosa of paranasal sinus collected while undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Expression of the mRNAs of all three genes, IL-4, IL-13, and POSTN, was significantly greater in the paired tissues of CRS patients with NPs or without NPs than in control subjects, with highest levels of POSTN and IL-13 seen in CRSwNP. An increased level of POSTN, IL-4, and IL-13 gene expression may be related to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, but polyp formation seemed to be associated especially with POSTN and IL-13 expression.

  1. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni


    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  2. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni


    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  3. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C


    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  4. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  5. 间歇性双侧完全鼻阻塞的幼年大鼠模型的建立%Animal model of bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction in young rats

    朱敏; 陈金东; 聂萍; 刘炯; 盛潇; 赵彦惠; 徐晓珑; 陶丽


    目的 建立生长发育期大鼠的间歇性双侧完全鼻阻塞的动物模型.方法 30只3周龄SD大鼠,分为3组,A组:对照组,B组:单侧鼻阻塞组,C组:双侧鼻阻塞组(张口呼吸组),每组各10只.用特制的阻塞器阻塞大鼠鼻腔,阻塞的时间为8:00am至4:00pm,4周后处死30只大鼠.结果 A组、B组大鼠以鼻呼吸为主;C组表现为张口呼吸.A、B、C三组的呼吸频率分别为(96.8±5.91)次/min、(92.8±2.98)次/min和(48.6±4.38)次/min,C组的呼吸频率较A组与B组明显减慢(P<0.001).建模4周时,A、B、C三组的体重分别为(276.60±20.17)g、(236.80±19.46)g和(127.33±24.8)g,C组的体重较A组和B组明显的降低(P<0.001).结论 本研究通过间歇性的双侧完全阻塞大鼠的外鼻初步建立了一个存活率高、重复性较好与人类张口呼吸较相似的大鼠的间歇性张口呼吸模型.%Objective To build up a steady and credible animal model of bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction in young rats.Methods Thirty 3-week-old SD rats were employed and divided into group A(control),group B(left nostril occluded),and group C(both nostrils occluded by nose plugs).The occlusion period was between 8 a.m.and 4 p.m.every day.Four weeks later all rats were sacrificed.Results Rats in group A and B remained nose breathing,but group C developed mouth breathing.The mean respiratory rate of rats in group A,B and C were (96.8±5.91),(92.8±2.98) and (48.6 ± 4.38) respectively.Group C was significantly slower compared with group A and B (P<0.001).The meanweight for group A,B and C were(276.60±20.17) g、(236.80±19.46) g and (127.33±24.8) g four weeks later,respectively.Group C reduced significantly compared with group A and B(P<0.001).Conclusions The animal model of bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction in young rats established by occlusion with nose plugs was steady,credible and similar to oral breathing of human being.

  6. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in laryngectomized patients

    Jörres Rudolf A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO shows differing concentrations in lower and upper airways. Patients after total laryngectomy are the only individuals, in whom a complete separation of upper and lower airways is guaranteed. Thus the objective of our study was to assess exhaled and nasal NO in these patients. Methods Exhaled bronchial NO (FENO and nasal nitric oxide (nNO were measured in patients after total laryngectomy (n = 14 and healthy controls (n = 24. To assess lung function we additionally performed spirometry. Co-factors possibly influencing NO, such as smoking, infections, and atopy were excluded. Results There was a markedly (p NO in patients after total laryngectomy (median (range: 4 (1-22 ppb compared to healthy controls 21 (9-41 ppb. In contrast, nNO was comparable between groups (1368 versus 1380 in controls but showed higher variability in subjects after laryngectomy. Conclusions Our data suggest that either bronchial NO production in patients who underwent laryngectomy is very low, possibly due to alterations of the mucosa or oxidant production/inflammation, or that substantial contributions to FENO arise from the larynx, pharynx and mouth, raising FENO despite velum closure. The data fit to those indicating a substantial contribution to FENO by the mouth in healthy subjects. The broader range of nNO values found in subjects after laryngectomy may indicate chronic alteration or oligo-symptomatic inflammation of nasal mucosa, as frequently found after total laryngectomy.

  7. Thixotropy of nasal medications—its role in clinical practice.

    Koźmiński, Maciej; Kupczyk, Maciej


    Optimal medication should be characterized by good bioavailability, rapid onset of action, a long period of therapeutic activity, with preserved high safety profile and the lowest possible risk of side effects. Therefore, in addition to traditional drug administration routes, such as oral or injection, novel methods for drug applications, for example in the form of a nasal application have been developed. Because of the anatomy of the nose, drugs administered intranasally can be rapidly absorbed and, depending on the nature of the active substance, may act locally on the mucosa or can have a significant systemic effect. Most nasal drugs are developed in the form of solution administered as aerosol. In some cases, these solutions are thixotropic. They are able to change their physical properties under agitation to facilitate supply of the drug and its adhesion to the mucosa. Intranasal corticosteroids represent the mainstay of treatment for any form of chronic allergic rhinitis (AR) and moderate to severe periodic AR, especially with impaired nasal obstruction and frequent occurrence of symptoms. The article discusses the rheological properties of intranasal corticosteroids, their role in therapy and efficacy in the everyday clinical practice.

  8. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

    Hayashi, H


    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus.

  9. Alkaline phosphatase in nasal secretion of cattle: biochemical and molecular characterisation.

    Ghazali, M Faizal; Koh-Tan, H H Caline; McLaughlin, Mark; Montague, Paul; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Eckersall, P David


    Nasal secretion (NS) was investigated as a source of information regarding the mucosal and systemic immune status of cattle challenged by respiratory disease. A method for the collection of substantial volumes (~12 ml) of NS from cattle was developed to establish a reference range of analytes that are present in the NS of healthy cattle. Biochemical profiles of NS from a group of 38 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows revealed high alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of up to 2392 IU/L. The character and source of the high activity of AP in bovine NS was investigated. Histochemical analysis confirmed the localization of the AP enzyme activity to epithelial cells and serous glands of the nasal respiratory mucosa. Analysis of mRNA levels from nasal mucosa by end point RT-PCR and PCR product sequencing confirmed that the AP was locally produced and is identical at the nucleotide level to the non-specific AP splice variant found in bovine liver, bone and kidney. Analysis by isoelectric focussing confirmed that AP was produced locally at a high level in nasal epithelium demonstrating that AP from nasal secretion and nasal mucosa had similar pI bands, though differing from those of the liver, kidney, bone and intestine, suggesting different post-translational modification (PTM) of AP in these tissues. A nasal isozyme of AP has been identified that is present at a high activity in NS, resulting from local production and showing distinctive PTM and may be active in NS as an anti-endotoxin mediator.

  10. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    ... is important that you get enough calcium and vitamin D while you are using calcitonin salmon. Your doctor may prescribe supplements if your dietary ... examinations of the nose to make sure calcitonin salmon nasal spray is not ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  11. Nasalization in Polish

    Rubach, Jerzy


    This paper gives a complete account of vowel nasalization in Standard Polish. A distinction is made between obligatory and phonostylistic processes. Phonostylistic evidence may serve as a basis for making unambiguous decisions about the structure of underlying representations, intermediate phonological forms, and assimilation of borrowings to the…

  12. Nasal tooth: case report

    Park, Si Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hee Young; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Chol Heui [Gachon Medical School, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)


    Ectopic tooth is not uncommon and usually occurs in the palate and maxillary sinus. We report a case of ectopic tooth located in the nasal cavity, a rare site. The mass depicted by CT was highly attenuated, and central lucency was observed.

  13. Oxidative stress disturbs energy metabolism of mitochondria in ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury

    Jin-Shui Pan; Shao-Zhen He; Hong-Zhi Xu; Xiao-Juan Zhan; Xiao-Ning Yang; Hong-Min Xiao; Hua-Xiu Shi; Jian-Lin Ren


    AIM: To study the role of mitochondrial energy disorder in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury.METHODS: Wistar rats were used in this study. A gastric mucosal injury model was established by giving the rats alcohol. Gross and microscopic appearance of gastric mucosa and ultrastructure of mitochondria were evaluated. Malondiadehyde (MDA) in gastric mucosa was measured with thiobarbituric acid. Expression of ATP synthase (ATPase) subunits 6 and 8 in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: The gastric mucosal lesion index was correlated with the MDA content in gastric mucosa. As the concentration of ethanol was elevated and the exposure time to ethanol was extended, the content of MDA in gastric mucosa increased and the extent of damage aggravated. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was positively related to the ethanol concentration and exposure time. The expression of mtDNA ATPase subunits 6 and 8 mRNA declined with the increasing MDA content in gastric mucosa after gavage with ethanol.CONCLUSION: Ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury is related to oxidative stress, which disturbs energy metabolism of mitochondria and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury.

  14. Nasal Drug Absorption from Powder Formulations: Effect of Fluid Volume Changes on the Mucosal Surface.

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Enomura, Yuki; Hori, Tomoki; Shimomura, Rina; Maeda, Chiaki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira


    The effect of changes in the mucosal fluid volume on the nasal drug absorption of powder formulations was evaluated using warfarin (WF), piroxicam (PXC), and norfloxacin (NFX) as model drugs. Lactose and sodium chloride (NaCl), which are water soluble and small-sized chemicals that increase osmotic pressure after dissolution, were used as excipients to change the mucosal fluid volume. The in vitro study using a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer indicated that lactose and NaCl, sprayed over the surface of air interface monolayers, increased the fluid volume on the monolayer surface and enhanced the transepithelial transport of the model drugs. The in vivo animal study indicated that the nasal absorption of PXC is enhanced by lactose and NaCl after nasal administration of the powder formulations. This is likely due to the enhanced dissolution of PXC on fluid-rich nasal mucosa and an increase in the effective surface area for drug permeation, which lead to better nasal absorption. However, both excipients failed to increase the nasal absorption of WF and NFX. To clarify the mechanism of the drug-dependent effect of lactose and NaCl, the nasal residence of the formulation was examined using FD70 as a non-absorbable marker. The nasal clearance of FD70 was enhanced by lactose and NaCl, leading to a decrease in the nasal drug absorption. Lactose and NaCl caused no damage to the nasal tissue. These results indicate that the addition of water-soluble excipients such as lactose to powder formulations can enhance the nasal absorption of highly permeable but poorly soluble drugs.

  15. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery as a primary modality of treatment for primary and recurrent nasal polyposis.

    Gohar, Mohammad Shahid; Niazi, Saleem Asif; Niazi, Sohail Baber


    To describe the efficacy of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery(FESS) in our set up in comparison with other published studies to treat primary and recurrent nasal polyposis. This descriptive study was conducted in 02 years at Ear Nose Throat Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Multan from October 2013 to October 2015. Convenient sample comprising 116 patients of both sexes of age group from 18 to 60 years were selected from ENT Out Patient Department, with documented diagnosis of nasal polyposis that underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Out of 116 patients, 15 (12.9%) had recurrent nasal polyposis while 101 (87.1%) had primary nasal polyposis. Patients were assessed clinically. Preoperative nasal endoscopy and CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses were performed in every patient to assess the extent of disease and evaluate the surgical anatomy. Patients were followed up 03 monthly, 06 monthly and after 01 year. Clinical signs of nasal polyposis were evaluated by nasal endoscopy at each follow up visit. There were 116 patients with documented diagnosis of nasal polyposis. Among these, 75 (64.7%) were male and 41 (35.3%) were female patients. Mean age of presentation in males was 39.1 years and that of females was 36.7 years. Only 15 patients (12.9%) developed recurrent disease within a year. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is preferred as a primary treatment modality for primary and recurrent nasal polyposis. Mucosal polyps can be carefully debrided, the natural ostia enlarged, the ethmoid sinuses are unroofed, and sphenoid sinuses are opened in nasal cavity and sinus nasal mucosa is mostly preserved due to excellent visualization and surgical technique. Improvement in symptoms with minimal chance of recurrence may be expected in more than 90% patients.

  16. Rationally designed nanocarriers for intranasal therapy of allergic rhinitis: influence of carrier type on in vivo nasal deposition

    Sallam MA


    Full Text Available Marwa Ahmed Sallam, Hala Mahmoud Helal, Sana Mohamed Mortada Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop a locally acting nasal delivery system of triamcinolone acetonide (TA for the maintenance therapy of allergic rhinitis. The effect of encapsulating TA in different nanocarriers on its mucosal permeation and retention as well as in vivo nasal deposition has been studied. A comparative study was established between polymeric oil core nanocapsules (NCs, lipid nanocarriers such as nanoemulsion (NE, and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. The elaborated nanocarriers were compared with TA suspension and the commercially available suspension “Nasacort®”. The study revealed that NC provided the highest mucosal retention, as 46.14%±0.048% of the TA initial dose was retained after 24 hours, while showing the least permeation through the nasal mucosa. On the other hand, for TA suspension and Nasacort®, the mucosal retention did not exceed 23.5%±0.047% of the initial dose after 24 hours. For NE and NLC, values of mucosal retention were 19.4%±0.041% and 10.97%±0.13%, respectively. NC also showed lower mucosal irritation and superior stability compared with NE. The in vivo nasal deposition study demonstrated that NC maintained drug in its site of action (nasal cavity mucosa for the longest period of time. The elaborated polymeric oil core NCs are efficient carriers for the administration of nasally acting TA as it produced the least permeation results, thus decreasing systemic absorption of TA. Although NCs have been administered via various routes, this is the first study to implement the polymeric oil core NC as an efficient carrier for localized nasal drug delivery. Keywords: allergic rhinitis, nanocapsules, triamcinolone acetonide, nasal mucosa, nasal deposition

  17. Na+-K+-2Cl-共转运体不同亚型在大鼠胃黏膜的差异性分布及表达%Differential Expression of NKCC1 and NKCC2 in Rat Gastric Mucosa

    豆张锋; 张悦; 纪托; 薛红; 朱进霞


    目的 研究Na+-K+-2Cl-共转运体(Na+-K+-2Cl-co-transporter,NKCC)的两种亚型在胃不同部位黏膜层的差异性分布及表达的意义.方法 用免疫荧光组织化学法和实时定量PCR技术检测NKCC不同亚型NKCC1与NKCC2在正常大鼠胃不同部位(胃底、胃体和胃窦)黏膜组织的分布和表达.结果 ①免疫荧光组织化学显示:NKCC1多分布于胃底、胃窦黏膜底部及胃体黏膜中下部,细胞膜表达最多;而NKCC2则多分布于胃体、胃窦黏膜全层及胃底黏膜上1/3部,细胞质、细胞膜均有表达.②实时定量PCR显示:NKCC1的mRNA在正常大鼠胃体表达最高,NKCC2的mRNA则在胃窦表达最高.结论 正常大鼠NKCC1与NKCC2在不同部位胃黏膜上皮细胞的分布及表达含量不同,NKCC1多分布在黏膜底部或中下部,NKCC2多分布于黏膜顶部或全层.%Objective To investigate differential distribution and gene content of two isoforms of Na + -K + -2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), NKCC1 and NKCC2 in rat gastric mucosa. Methods lmmunofluorescenee and real-time PCR were used to investigate the distribution and expression of NKCC1 and NKCC2 in different parts of stomach( gastric fundus, corpus and antrum). Results ① NKCC1 immunoactivity in the gastric mucosa was found in the bottom part of gastric fundus and antrum, and middle and bottom mucosa of gastric corpus of rats, and cell membrane showed strong NKCC1 labeling. NKCC2 distributed across the full-thickness mucosa of gastric corpus and antrum but in the upper 1/3 mucosa of gastric fundus of rat, and it was dispersed in the cytoplasm and cell membrane. ② Real-time PCR indicated that the mRNA of NKCCI expressed mostly in the gastric corpus, however, the mRNA of NKCC2 expressed mostly in the gastric antrum. Conclusion In normal rats, the two isoforms of NKCC showed differential distribution and mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa; NKCC1 distributed mostly in the bottom or middle and bottom part of gastric mueosa, NKCC2

  18. Preliminary study on effect of aspirin against endogenous protective factors of intestinal mucosa in SD rats%阿司匹林对SD大鼠小肠内源性保护因素影响的初探

    郑桐; 杨天飞; 车筑平; 谭庆华


    IOD of Alcian blue was counted by image analysis in each group.The concentration of SST ,EGFR and PGE2 were detected by ELISA immuno-histochemistry ,and the IOD of each index was measured by image analysis in each group.Results:The score of ileum mucosal injury were highest in aspirin treatment groups ( P<0.05 ) ,but the score was no difference among aspirin treatment groups.The area and IOD of mucus in aspirin treatment groups were less than normal control group .The Area ( 602.17 ±158.03 ) and level of IOD ( 249.54 ± 113.19) in intraperitoneal injection group was the lowest (P<0.05).There were no differences of level of SST ,EGFR was observed among all groups .The concentration and IOD of PGE2 in normal control group was the highest (P<0.05).However,his discrepancy was not obvious among three groups of aspirin.Conclusion: Aspirin, in the four routes of administration , can cause damage to the mucosa of the rat small intestine in two weeks.The integrity of the small intestinal mucosa and mucus secretion were damaged significantly ,and it was the worst in intraperitoneal injection group.These changes might be correlated with the reduction of PGE 2.No clear results showed that the SST and EGFR were involved in the pathophysiology of the NSAIDs .

  19. 咽炎消合剂对慢性咽炎大鼠咽黏膜修复作用的研究%Study on the rePairment of Yanyanxiao mixture in Pharyngeal mucosa of rats with chronic Pharyngitis

    王艺; 张玲; 周家璇


    Objective It is to observe the repairment effect of Yanyanxiao mixture( YYX)in pharyngeal mucosa of rats with chronic pharyngitis and its mechanism. Methods 48 Wistar rats were randomly divided into YYX low-dose group,YYX high-dose group,positive drug group( Manyanshuning),antibiotic group( amoxicillin),model group and black control group,8 cases in each. Except to the blank control group,all the other groups were received 5% ammonia for spraying in pharyngeal. After successful?animal model establishment,the rats were fed with YYX 1 mL/d and 2 mL/d orally in YYX low-dose group and YYX high-dose groups,and was given tablets dissolve Manyanshuning 1mL/d orally in the positive drug group,and was given amoxicillin liquid 1mL/d orally in antibiotic group. 20 days later,the pathology of pharyngeal mucosa tissue in each group was observed. Results 10 days after treatment,the general state of the animals in YYX high-dose group, low dose group and positive drug group were improved,and were better in YYX high-dose and low-dose groups. In YYX low-dose and high-dose group,the local symptoms were improved significantly,the symptoms of reduced feeding rate were disap-peared,and the feeding rate was reduced and the restlessness symptoms had no improved in positive drug group. Observation of frontal mirror showed that the pharyngeal tissue was closed to the normal animal,although parted of mild chronic conges-tion,but mucosal showed ruddy color. After 20 days of treatment,YYX high-dose group and low-dose group and pathological manifestations of mucosal tissue was closed to the black control group,epithelial hyperplasia was not obvious,and no inflam-matory cell infiltration,inherent film changed little,muscle fibers arranged more rules,these were closed to the blank control group. While the pathology change of antibiotics group was not big,and it was approximate to the model group. Conclusion YYX achieve a significant effect on chronic pharyngitis by anti

  20. Preparation and characterisation of mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride for treatment of anxiety disorders

    Shyamoshree Basu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive nasal gels of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Mucoadhesive nasal gels were prepared using polymers like carbopol 934 and sodium alginate and characterized in terms of viscosity, texture profile analysis, ex vivo drug permeation profiles and histopathological studies. The results show that values of viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness increase while those of cohesiveness decrease with corresponding increase in concentration of the polymers. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing 5% sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations over a period of 12 h. Histopathological studies assured that gels containing different polymers did not produce any significant change in the nasal mucosae of goat even after 12 h permeation study. Mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride is a novel dosage form which delivers the drug directly into systemic circulation and provides controlled release of the drug.

  1. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others


    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  2. Efficacy of volatile organic compounds in evoking nasal pungency and odor.

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S


    Sensory irritation (pungency) figures prominently among the symptoms associated with polluted indoor environments. In order to separate the pungent from the olfactory response, we measured nasal pungency thresholds in subjects lacking olfaction (anosmics) and odor thresholds in normal controls (normosmics) for a homologous series of ketones and for selected secondary and tertiary alcohols and acetates. As seen previously for homologous alcohols and acetates, both types of nasal thresholds decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Pungency thresholds decreased exponentially with chain length. With respect to all nonreactive chemicals studied so far, threshold nasal pungency is achieved at a fairly constant percentage of vapor saturation, irrespective of molecular size or chemical functional group. Such a relationship does not hold for odor thresholds. The outcome for pungency implies an important role for a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with nasal mucosa.

  3. Acute Rhinosinusitis in Children: a Place of Nasal Decongestants in the Treatment of the disease

    H.V. Beketova


    Full Text Available The article presents current data on acute rhinosinusitis, its essence, classification, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment approaches in children. It is emphasized that the key to successful treatment of this disease is the impact on all parts of pathogenesis. Given the leading etiopathogenetic links of acute rhinosinusitis, its comprehensive treatment requires prescribing of preparations with anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, secretolytic and immune-stimulating action, as well as nasal decongestants — to eliminate the swelling of the nasal mucosa and to improve the quality of life of the patient. The detailed description of nasal decongestants is presented, the attention is paid to the next generation drug without preservatives — dosed nasal drops Nasivin® Sensitive.

  4. Local tissue hypoxia and formation of nasal polyps

    姜舒; 董震; 朱冬冬; 杨占泉


    Objective To explore the response of nasal mucosa epithelial cells to hypoxia in terms of formation of nasal polyps (NP). Methods Epithelial cells of NP and inferior turbinate (IT) were cultured serum-fr ee under normal oxygen and hypoxic circumstances with stimulation of IL-1β and TNFα. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)mRNA and VEGF protein leve ls of the cultured cells were detected using in situ hybridization and ELISA, re spectively. Results The expression of VEGF mRNA was significantly higher in epithelial cells of NP t han in IT exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines or hypoxia (P<0.01). VEGF levels were higher in NP epithelial cells than those of IT (P<0.01) under hypoxia.Conclusion VEGF-induced by hypoxia is very important for the early stages of forming polyps.

  5. Perforation of the nasal septum as the first sign of histoplasmosis associated with AIDS and review of published literature.

    Jaimes, Angel; Muvdi, Sandra; Alvarado, Zulma; Rodríguez, Gerzaín


    Disseminated histoplasmosis in South America is associated with AIDS in 70-90 % of cases. It is visceral and cutaneous, compromising the oral, pharynx, and laryngeal mucous membranes. The involvement of the nasal mucosa is unusual. Two patients with perforation of the nasal septum as the only sign of their disease were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as leishmaniasis. The revision of the biopsies and the culture of nasal discharge secretions showed that the pathogens seen were not amastigotes but Histoplasma capsulatum. Other mycotic lesions were not detected, nor there was history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The leishmanin skin test, available only for the male patient, was negative. The PCR and immunofluorescence antibody titers for Leishmania were negative in both patients. They were HIV positive; in the male, his CD4+ T cell count was 60/mm(3) and in the female 133/mm(3). The nasal ulcer was the only manifestation of histoplasmosis and the first of AIDS in both patients. The male patient recovered with amphotericin B and itraconazole treatment. The female has improved with itraconazole. Both patients received antiretroviral treatment. Nasal mucous membrane ulcers should include histoplasmosis among the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, two patients had perforation of their nasal septum as the only manifestation of histoplasmosis, a diagnosis confirmed by nasal mucosa biopsy and by culture of H. capsulatum, findings which demonstrated that both patients had AIDS.


    V. V. Epishev


    Full Text Available Aim. Clinical use of implants based on patient’s individual topographic anatomical features. Materials and methods. The paper describes two case reports involving the correction of nasal anatomical structure affected during the surgery for facial cancer. Using selective laser sintering technology we manufactured 2 intricate 3D-deformed individual implants from Ti70V30 alloy powders. Implant design was based on CAT/MRT data. Clinical use was conducted on the premises of the department of head and neck surgery in Chelyabinsk Regional Oncological Dispensary. Results. In the fi rst case we obtained an impressive functional result – huge and wide nasal cavity, nose skeleton, and easy nasal breathing. In 30 days we performed endoscopic video-analysis (via nasal passages which showed that 65% of implant surface was covered with mucosa. In the second case, the designed implant allowed the combined surgery including excision of soft tissues, atypical resection of the upper jaw (left part and the left cheek, left maxillary sinusotomy and reconstruction of the left part of the nose and the left cheek with implant and skin fl ap. Conclusion. Clinical use revealed pros and contras of the applied technology. Among contras there are relatively high cost of technology, high standards of competency of a surgeon, a programmer and engineers. Pros include free modeling and setting the implant parameters before operation, exact match between implant size/shape and topographic anatomical data of a certain patient. 

  7. Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal drug delivery.

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Tyagi, Vinod; Lohiya, Gopal; Nerkar, Pankaj


    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of thermosensitive gels formed by a xyloglucan polysaccharide derived from tamarind seed for nasal drug delivery. Xyloglucan that had been partially degraded by β-galactosidase to eliminate 45% of galactose residues formed gels at concentrations of 2.5% w/w at gelation temperatures decreasing over the range 27-28°C. The in vitro release of ondansetron hydrochloride from the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels followed higuchi kinetics over a period of 5 h at 34°C by anomalous transport mechanism. The ex vivo permeation of ondansetron hydrochloride from the gels was sustained. Histological examination of nasal mucosa following a single administration of the gels showed no evidence of mucosal damage. Finally, the bioavailability study in rabbits revealed that the absolute bioavailability of ondansetron hydrochloride was significantly increased from 28.64% in the case of the oral drug solution to 52.79% in the case of the nasal in situ gel. The results of this study suggest the potential of the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal delivery of drugs.

  8. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo


    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  9. Efeitos da alteração de postura sobre a permeabilidade nasal Effects of posture change on nasal patency

    Renato Roithmann


    Full Text Available Obstrução nasal ao deitar é uma experiência comumente relatada na clínica diária otorrinolaringológica. Das explicações postuladas destacam-se as alterações das pressões venosas que afetam o conteúdo sangüíneo da mucosa nasal, quer por compressão da veia do pescoço, quer por diferenças hidrostáticas. A rinometria acústica é uma técnica não-invasiva de aferição objetiva da permeabilidade nasal. A reflexão de ondas sonoras é analisada para gerar um gráfico de áreas intranasais. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram aferir por meio da rinometria acústica o efeito da alteração de postura sobre a permeabilidade nasal entre as posições sentada e deitada. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Dez voluntários normais com idades entre 19 e 30 anos e 10 riníticos com idades entre 18 e 27 anos foram selecionados. A percepção de respiração nasal foi testada por meio de uma escala analógica visual e a área e volume nasal por meio de rinometria acústica nas posições sentado e 15 minutos após deitar. RESULTADO: Ambos os grupos mostraram a ocorrência significativa de obstrução nasal tanto na análise da percepção como também na área e no volume nasal. Nos participantes com história de rinite, a percepção de obstrução nasal foi significativamente maior do que no grupo de normais em todas as posições estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a alteração de postura da posição sentada para a deitada piora a área e o volume nasal tanto em indivíduos normais como em indivíduos com história de rinite. Contudo indivíduos com história clínica de rinite são mais sensíveis à percepção de obstrução nasal induzida pelo decúbito dorsal.Nasal obstruction when lying down frequently brings patients to the otolaryngologic clinic. There are several explanations for the problem. The nasal mucosa reaction to venous changes that alter local blood flow, secondary to compression of the

  10. Clinical Experience of Using Nasal Drops Milt and Elimination Therapy with Nasal Spray Pshyk in Children with Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Yu.V. Havrylenko


    Full Text Available The article deals with the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis in children. Attention is paid to unwarranted use of antibiotics, misuse of vasoconstrictor drops. It is emphasized that broad-spectrum antibiotics in accordance with the recommendations of EPOS 2012 should be administered after the 5th day of the disease or in the presence of severe symptoms. Saline irrigation has the highest level of evidence advisability for the administration from the first day of acute rhinosinusitis. The findings of the clinical study on therapeutic effect and tolerability of nasal drops Milt in combination with nasal spray Pshyk manufactured by Farmak сompany (Ukraine when treating children with acute rhinosinusitis are presented. It is shown that use of these drugs helps maintain and significantly improve the functional state of the nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in children with acute rhinosinusitis as well as quickly and safely reduce the signs of inflammation in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This makes it possible to avoid invasive treatments not only by reducing the symptoms, but also the provision of pathogenetic therapeutic effect.

  11. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.


    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  12. Effect of poly-L-arginine on intestinal absorption of hydrophilic macromolecules in rats.

    Yamaki, Tsutomu; Uchida, Masaki; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Shimazaki, Yohei; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Ogihara, Masahiko; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi


    We have already reported that poly-L-arginine (PLA) remarkably enhanced the in vivo nasal absorption of hydrophilic macromolecules without producing any significant epithelial damage in rats. In the present study, we examined whether PLA could enhance the absorption of a model hydrophilic macromolecule, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-4), across the intestinal mucosa, as well as the nasal mucosa, by an in situ closed-loop method using the rat intestine. PLA was found to enhance the intestinal absorption of FD-4 in a concentration-dependent manner within the concentrations investigated in this study, but segment-specific differences were found to be associated with this effect (ileum>jejunum>duodenum≧colon). The factors responsible for the segment-specific differences were also investigated by intestinal absorption studies using aprotinin, a trypsin inhibitor, and an analysis of the expression of occludin, a tight junction protein. In the small intestine, the differences in the effect of PLA on the absorption of FD-4 may be related to the enzymatic degradation of PLA. In the colon, the reduced effect of PLA on the absorption of FD-4 may be related to the smaller surface area for absorption and the higher expression of occludin compared with other segments.

  13. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls

    Dimitrios Ioannidis


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6 and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. METHODS: Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4% versus controls (4/38; 10.5%, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.06. Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29% versus controls (10/38; 26.32%,p = 0.13. In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%, and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%, versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11. CONCLUSION: Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis.

  14. Modeling of inertial deposition in scaled models of rat and human nasal airways: Towards in vitro regional dosimetry in small animals

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Zhou, Yue


    Rodents are routinely used in inhalation toxicology tests as human surrogates. However, in vitro dosimetry tests in rodent casts are still scarce due to small rodent airways and in vitro tests to quantify sub-regional dosimetry are still impractical. We hypothesized that for inertial particles whose deposition is dominated by airflow convection (Reynolds number) and particle inertia (Stokes number), the deposition should be similar among airway replicas of different scales if their Reynolds and Stokes numbers are kept the same. In this study, we aimed to (1) numerically test the hypothesis in three airway geometries: a USP induction port, a human nose model, and a Sprague-Dawley rat nose model, and (2) find the range of applicability of this hypothesis. Five variants of the USP and human nose models and three variants of the rat nose model were tested. Inhalation rates and particle sizes were scaled to match the Reynolds number and Stokes numbers. A low-Reynolds-number k–ω model was used to resolve the airflow and a Lagrangian tracking algorithm was used to simulate the particle transport and deposition. Statistical analysis of predicted doses was conducted using ANOVA. For normal inhalation rates and particle dia- meters ranging from 0.5 to 24 mm, the deposition differences between the life-size and scaled models are insignificant for all airway geometries considered (i.e., human nose, USP, and rat nose). Furthermore, the deposition patterns and exit particle profiles also look similar among scaled models. However, deposition rates and patterns start to deviate if inhalation rates are too low, or particle sizes are too large. For the rat nose, the threshold velocity was found to be 0.71 m/s and the threshold Froude number to be 50. Results of this study provide a theoretical foundation for sub-regional in vitro dosimetry tests in small animals and for interpretation of data from inter-species or intra-species with varying body sizes.

  15. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral inferior turbinate in patients with unilateral nasal septal deviation. A computed tomography study.

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Ossa Echeverri, Carla C; Betances Reinoso, Frank A; Osorio Velasquez, Alejandra; Santidrian Hidalgo, Carmelo


    The compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in patients with septal deviation to one of the nostrils is considered to protect the airways from the excess of air that could enter through the nostril and its potential negative effects such as dryness, alteration of air filtration, mucociliary flow, or lung involvement. A prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study. Patients were divided in two groups: 10 consecutive patients, with nasal septal deviation and compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity (10 non-hypertrophied turbinates as control and 10 contralateral hypertrophied turbinates as study cases), and the second group with 5 patients without any nasal pathology (10 turbinates without any obvious pathology). In both groups CT scans of the nasal region were performed. A comparison of patients with nasal septal deviation with compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity and with non-pathological inferior turbinate was carried out. When analyzing the groups of patients with septal deviation, the contralateral hypertrophied turbinate and the non-hypertrophied turbinate side, we found a significant hypertrophy in the anterior portion of the inferior turbinate, at the level of the medial mucosa (P = 0.002) and bone (P = 0.001) in the group of patients with contralateral hypertrophied turbinate. However, when we compared the contralateral hypertrophic turbinate with the turbinate of patients without septal deviation, we found a significant difference in all volumes of the medial and lateral mucosa and the bone portion (P = 0.001, P = 0.005). Surgical correction of the nasal septum and lateralization or reduction of the volume of the inferior turbinate (which may include the medial mucosa, head or part of the bone) is necessary in order to improve air passage into the nasal valve.

  16. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Jeevan Lata


    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  17. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens: A Bounding Approach for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Based on PBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    Bogen, K T


    A relatively simple, quantitative approach is proposed to address a specific, important gap in the appr approach recommended by the USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment to oach address uncertainty in carcinogenic mode of action of certain chemicals when risk is extrapolated from bioassay data. These Guidelines recognize that some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate 'linear' (genotoxic) vs. 'nonlinear' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient t to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably o extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach - similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints - can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low low-dose risk as a function of administere administered or internal dose. Even when a 'nonlinear' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was i illustrated llustrated for a likely DMOA rodent carcinogen naphthalene, specifically to the issue of risk extrapolation from bioassay data on naphthalene naphthalene-induced nasal tumors in rats. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based p

  18. [Reconstruction of the floor of the nasal cavity, hemipalate, bucal cheek and lower lip].

    Zapater, E; Simón, E; Ferrandis, E; Vendrell, B


    We describe the surgical technique used to reconstruct a defect created by resection of a tumor of the palate, malar mucosa, lower lip and adjacent gingival mucosa. We used a microvascular radial forearm flap. A strip across the flap is de-epithelialized and the flap is folded in half at that point. The sides are used for the oral and nasal linings, respectively. The thinness of this flap, its vascularization and the length of its pedicle make this design possible. Four months after the surgery the patient was free of disease and had achieved adequate phonation and swallowing.

  19. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires


    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  20. Nasal delivery of P-gp substrates to the brain through the nose-brain pathway.

    Shingaki, Tomotaka; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Shinji


    The objective of this study was to evaluate in rats the potential utility of the nasal route to enhance central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs recognized by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Well-known P-gp substrates verapamil and talinolol were perfused nasally or infused intravenously, and when plasma concentrations following intravenous infusion and nasal perfusion showed similar profiles. The concentration of verapamil in the brain after nasal perfusion was twice that after intravenous infusion. Although talinolol in the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid after i.v. infusion were below the detection limit, it was detected after nasal perfusion. When rats were treated with cyclosporin A, brain concentrations of verapamil after both administration modes were increased significantly, while those of talinolol were not significantly changed. Since the permeability of talinolol is low, talinolol in the brain which was transported directly from the nasal cavity has little chance of transport by P-gp localized in the apical membrane of cerebral microvessel endothelial cells. The potential for drug delivery utilizing the nose-CNS route was confirmed for P-gp substrates. The advantage of nasal delivery over i.v. delivery of talinolol to the brain was more significant than that of verapamil, suggesting that nasal administration is more useful strategy for the brain delivery of low-permeability P-gp substrates than the use of P-gp inhibitors.

  1. 复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂对急性胃黏膜损伤模型大鼠血清SOD活性、MDA含量及胃黏膜病理组织学的影响%Effect of Different Combinations of Compound Lizards Powder on the Activity of SOD and MDA Contents in Serum and Gastric Mucosa Pathological Changes of Absolute Ethanol Induced Acute Gastric Mucosa Injury in Rats

    肖清燕; 朱西杰; 王延丽; 李卫强; 韩博; 蔡根深


    Objective: To discuss the therapeutic effect of different combinations of Compound lizards Powder on acute gastric mucosal lesion in rats. Methods -.60 male Spaque - Dawley rats were divided into six groups randomly:normal control group,experimental control group, Bismuth Potassium Citrate group, 80 mesh of Compound Lizards Powder group, 100 mesh of Compound Lizards Powder group,80 + 100 mesh of Compound Lizards Powder group. The lesion of gastric mucosa was established by giving absolute alcohol. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD)and malondialdehyde(MDA)in serum were determined by colorimet-ric assay and pathological changes of gastric mucosa were assessed under light microscopy. Results: Different combinations of Compound Lizards Powder elevated SOD activity but reduced MDA content in serum on acute gastric mucosal lesion in rats. In addition, the therapeutic effect of 80 +100 mesh of Compound Lizards Powder group is best. The extent of mucosal lesion of experimental groups was significantly less than that of experimental control under light microscopy. Conclusion:Bifferent combinations of Compound Lizards Powder can significantly treat absolute ethanol - induced acute gastric mucosal lesion. The mechanism may be related to the antioxidation of the powder.%目的:探讨复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂对大鼠急性胃黏膜损伤的治疗作用.方法:将60只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为6组:正常对照组、模型对照组、枸橼酸铋钾组和复方蜥蜴散80目、100目、80+100目组,采用无水乙醇诱导大鼠急性胃黏膜损伤,用比色法分别测定各组大鼠血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,并在光镜下观察胃黏膜病理学改变.结果:复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂能提高大鼠急性胃黏膜损伤血清SOD活性,减少血清MDA含量,且复方蜥蜴散80+100目效果最显著;胃黏膜病理组织学损伤有明显改善.结论:复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂对无水乙

  2. Effects of bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction on the mandibular growth and development in young rats%间歇性双侧完全鼻阻塞对幼年大鼠下颌骨生长发育的影响

    陈金东; 王晓玲; 孙惠珺; 薛晓晨; 朱妍菲; 朱敏


    Objective To investigate the effects of bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction on the mandibular growth and development of young rats. Methods Thirty 3-week⁃old SD rats were randomly distributed into three groups ( n=10 each) . The experimental sub⁃jects were treated with single / both nostrils occluded with nose plugs, while the internal control group was left with blank treatment. The experimental subjects were sacrificed after 4 weeks and their mandibles were detached. Ten variables of mandibles were acquired based on X⁃rays. Results The subjects with bilateral nasal obstruction showed significant reduced mandible and femur in size com⁃pared to unilateral nasal obstruction group and control group. However, only length of mandibular body、height of first molar in mandi⁃ble and length of femur in unilateral nasal obstruction group showed significant difference compared to control group. Conclusion The bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction may retard the development of mandibles in rats.%目的:探讨间歇性双侧完全鼻阻塞对幼年大鼠下颌骨生长发育的影响。方法30只3周龄SD大鼠,分为3组,A组:对照组,B组:单侧鼻阻塞组,C组:双侧鼻阻塞组(张口呼吸组),每组各10只。4周后处死30只大鼠,分离大鼠的下颌骨,在X线片上测量10项下颌骨的指标。结果双侧鼻阻塞组与对照组及单侧鼻阻塞组相比,下颌骨及股骨明显小,差异有统计学意义。单侧鼻阻塞组与对照组相比仅下颌体长度、下颌磨牙高度、股骨长度有统计学差异。结论间歇性双侧完全鼻阻塞可以引起大鼠下颌骨的发育不足。

  3. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone


    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  4. Stress-related changes of intestinal mucosa barrier following graded traumatic brain injury in rats%大鼠不同程度创伤性脑损伤后肠黏膜屏障的应激性变化

    郎宇璜; 陈凤媛; 缪京丰; 席晨辉


    目的 探讨大鼠不同程度创伤性脑损伤(TBI)后肠黏膜屏障(IMB)的应激性变化.方法 健康清洁级Sprague-Dawley大鼠78只,随机分为无脑损伤的对照组(n=6)和轻、中、重度TBI组,再分别按伤后3、12、24、72h时间点分为4个亚组(n=6).参照Feeney's方法建立轻、中、重度TBI模型,光学显微镜下观察各组肠黏膜组织形态变化并检测血浆D-乳酸(D-LAC)、门静脉血内毒素(ET)水平、血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性.结果 与对照组比较:轻度TBI组伤后24h肠黏膜损伤指数(MDI)、D-LAC、ET水平、DAO活性均升高(P<0.05),伤后72h均回落与对照组无明显差异.重度TBI组伤后3h MDI、D-LAC、ET水平、DAO活性均明显升高(P<0.01),至伤后72h仍明显高于对照组(P<0.01).中度TBI组上述指标介于轻、重度TBI组之间.结论 大鼠不同程度TBI后发生不同程度肠黏膜结构损伤和屏障功能障碍.轻度TBI伤后24h出现一过性肠黏膜结构损伤和屏障功能障碍.中、重度TBI肠黏膜结构损伤和屏障功能障碍发生早并持续至伤后72h.%To study the stress-related changes of intestinal mucosa barrier (IMB) following graded traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Methods Seventy-eighl heallhy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: conlrol group ( n = 6 ) , mild TBI ( n = 24 ) , moderale TBI ( n = 24 ) , severe TBI group ( n = 24). TBI groups were further divided inlo four sub-groups for assessment at 3h,12h,24h and 72h post-injury( n = 6 per group) , respectively. TBI model of rals was referred to the Feeneys melhod. Inleslinal mucosal hislology was delermined by light microscope and plasma concenlralions of D-laclale( D-tAC) ,diamine oxidase(DAO) and endo-toxin(ET) in portal blood were delecled. Results In mild TBI group, the mucosal damage index( MDI) ,the level of D-tAC and ET,lhe aclivily of DAO al 24h post-injury were significantly higher than those in conlrol group, respectively (P< 0. 05 ). Al

  5. Definitive magnetic nasal prosthesis for partial nasal defect

    E Nagaraj


    Full Text Available Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, trauma, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites, and burns. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potential compromises in quality of life. Restoration of facial defects, especially nasal defects, is a difficult challenge for both the surgeon and the prosthodontist. Here is a case report of partial nasal defect caused by trauma, rehabilitated with a magnetic nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers using mechanical and anatomical retentive aids.

  6. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping


    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  7. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption.

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira


    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules.

  8. Fuzzy zoning for feature matching technique in 3D reconstruction of nasal endoscopic images.

    Rattanalappaiboon, Surapong; Bhongmakapat, Thongchai; Ritthipravat, Panrasee


    3D reconstruction from nasal endoscopic images greatly supports an otolaryngologist in examining nasal passages, mucosa, polyps, sinuses, and nasopharyx. In general, structure from motion is a popular technique. It consists of four main steps; (1) camera calibration, (2) feature extraction, (3) feature matching, and (4) 3D reconstruction. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is normally used for both feature extraction and feature matching. However, SIFT algorithm relatively consumes computational time particularly in the feature matching process because each feature in an image of interest is compared with all features in the subsequent image in order to find the best matched pair. A fuzzy zoning approach is developed for confining feature matching area. Matching between two corresponding features from different images can be efficiently performed. With this approach, it can greatly reduce the matching time. The proposed technique is tested with endoscopic images created from phantoms and compared with the original SIFT technique in terms of the matching time and average errors of the reconstructed models. Finally, original SIFT and the proposed fuzzy-based technique are applied to 3D model reconstruction of real nasal cavity based on images taken from a rigid nasal endoscope. The results showed that the fuzzy-based approach was significantly faster than traditional SIFT technique and provided similar quality of the 3D models. It could be used for creating a nasal cavity taken by a rigid nasal endoscope.

  9. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira


    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules. PMID:27598527

  10. Effects of Quercetin Encapsulated Liposomes via Nasal Administration: A Novel Cognitive Enhancer

    Terdthai Tong-un


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Demand for cognitive-enhancing drugs is growing. Numerous medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity have received much attention as food supplement to improve cognitive function. Quercetin is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. However, the limitations of quercetin: Rapidly metabolized is an obstacle to its use for a cognitive enhancer. In addition, the burden of blood brain barrier can be overcome by nasal administration and liposomes. In the present study, we investigated whether nasal administration of quercetin liposomes could improve spatial memory in healthy adult rats. Approach: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin liposomes, containing 0.5 mg of quercetin in 20 µL (dose = 20 µg, via right nasal cavity once daily continually for 4 weeks. Evaluation of rodent learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test and then all rats were sacrificed for determining the survival and cholinergic neurons densities in hippocampus. Results: Quercetin liposomes via nasal route treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in cognitive performance. In addition, nasal administration of quercetin liposomes also resulted in induced the densities of survival and cholinergic neurons in hippocampus. However, further researches about the precise underlying mechanism are still required. Conclusion: Our studies demonstrate that quercetin liposomes via nasal administration may have a candidate for cognitive enhancer in the future.

  11. Hydrogel nanoparticles and nanocomposites for nasal drug/vaccine delivery.

    Salatin, Sara; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Milani, Mitra Alami; Jelvehgari, Mitra


    Over the past few years, nasal drug delivery has attracted more and more attentions, and been recognized as the most promising alternative route for the systemic medication of drugs limited to intravenous administration. Many experiments in animal models have shown that nanoscale carriers have the ability to enhance the nasal delivery of peptide/protein drugs and vaccines compared to the conventional drug solution formulations. However, the rapid mucociliary clearance of the drug-loaded nanoparticles can cause a reduction in bioavailability percentage after intranasal administration. Thus, research efforts have considerably been directed towards the development of hydrogel nanosystems which have mucoadhesive properties in order to maximize the residence time, and hence increase the period of contact with the nasal mucosa and enhance the drug absorption. It is most certain that the high viscosity of hydrogel-based nanosystems can efficiently offer this mucoadhesive property. This update review discusses the possible benefits of using hydrogel polymer-based nanoparticles and hydrogel nanocomposites for drug/vaccine delivery through the intranasal administration.

  12. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A


    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  13. Insulin delivery through nasal route using thiolated microspheres.

    Nema, Tarang; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of developed thiolated microspheres for insulin delivery through nasal route. In the present study, cysteine was immobilized on carbopol using EDAC. A total of 269.93 µmol free thiol groups per gram polymer were determined. The prepared nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were studied for particle shape, size, drug content, swellability, mucoadhesion and in vitro insulin release. The thiolated microspheres exhibited higher mucoadhesion due to formation of covalent bonds via disulfide bridges with the mucus gel layer. Drug permeation through goat nasal mucosa of nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were found as 52.62 ± 2.4% and 78.85 ± 3.1% in 6 h, respectively. Thiolated microspheres bearing insulin showed better reduction in blood glucose level (BGL) in comparison to nonthiolated microspheres as 31.23 ± 2.12% and 75.25 ± 0.93% blood glucose of initial BGL were observed at 6 h after nasal delivery of thiolated and nonthiolated microspheres in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.

  14. Nasal pungency and odor of homologous aldehydes and carboxylic acids.

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H


    Airborne substances can stimulate both the olfactory and the trigeminal nerve in the nose, giving rise to odor and pungent (irritant) sensations, respectively. Nose, eye, and throat irritation constitute common adverse effects in indoor environments. We measured odor and nasal pungency thresholds for homologous aliphatic aldehydes (butanal through octanal) and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, butanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic). Nasal pungency was measured in subjects lacking olfaction (i.e., anosmics) to avoid odor biases. Similar to other homologous series, odor and pungency thresholds declined (i.e., sensory potency increased) with increasing carbon chain length. A previously derived quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based on solvation energies predicted all nasal pungency thresholds, except for acetic acid, implying that a key step in the mechanism for threshold pungency involves transfer of the inhaled substance from the vapor phase to the receptive biological phase. In contrast, acetic acid - with a pungency threshold lower than predicted - is likely to produce threshold pungency through direct chemical reaction with the mucosa. Both in the series studied here and in those studied previously, we reach a member at longer chain-lengths beyond which pungency fades. The evidence suggests a biological cut-off, presumably based upon molecular size, across the various series.


    Bhardwaj Atul


    lipid base Nasya probably increases the physical weight on the mucosa thus deceases the ciliary transport transiently. Pippalyadi Avpeeda nasya (aqueous base nasal drops was found to be most effective in enhancing mucociliary clearance activity.

  16. Nasalization in Galician and Portuguese

    Regueira Fernández, Xosé Luís


    Gallego y portugués compartieron una parte de su historia, y en su evolución el comportamiento de las nasales ha jugado un importante papel. El gallego contemporáneo no presenta nasalidad contrastiva (vocales orales vs nasales), mientras que si las tiene el portugués. En este trabajo muestro que la descripción de la coarticulación velar (o nasalización) de las vocales en contacto con sonorantes nasales es relevante para la descripción de las lenguas tanto gallega como portuguesa y, adem...

  17. Veterinary vaccine nanotechnology: pulmonary and nasal delivery in livestock animals.

    Calderon-Nieva, Daniella; Goonewardene, Kalhari Bandara; Gomis, Susantha; Foldvari, Marianna


    Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases. Additionally, vaccines administered via the respiratory mucosa could lower costs by removing the need of trained medical personnel, and lowering doses yet achieving similar or increased immune stimulation. The respiratory route often brings challenges in antigen delivery efficiency with enough potency to induce immunity. Nanoparticle (NP) technology has been shown to enhance immune activation by producing higher antibody titers and protection. Although specific mechanisms between NPs and biological membranes are still under investigation, physical parameters such as particle size and shape, as well as biological tissue distribution including mucociliary clearance influence the protection and delivery of antigens to the site of action and uptake by target cells. For respiratory delivery, various biomaterials such as mucoadhesive polymers, lipids, and polysaccharides have shown enhanced antibody production or protection in comparison to antigen alone. This review presents promising NPs administered via the nasal or pulmonary routes for veterinary applications specifically focusing on livestock animals including poultry.

  18. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  19. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael


    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  20. Avaliação dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após aplicação de enemas com peróxido de hidrogênio: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of lipid peroxidation levels on mucosa colonic cells afther application of hydrogen peroxide in enemas: experimental study in rats

    Letícia Helena Sousa Marques


    Full Text Available A aplicação de clisteres contendo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 determina o aparecimento de quadros graves de colite, algumas vezes de evolução fatal. É possível que a colite induzida por H2O2 possa ocorrer pela quebra da barreira funcional do epitélio cólico por estresse oxidativo. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após instilação de H2O2 no reto excluso de trânsito fecal. Método: Vinte seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a colostomia proximal terminal no cólon descendente e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram randomizados em dois grupos segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado duas ou quatro semanas após a derivação intestinal. Cada grupo experimental foi dividido e dois subgrupos segundo aplicação de clisteres, em dias alternados, contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou H2O2 a 3%. O diagnóstico de colite foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de dano oxidativo tecidual pela dosagem de malondialdeído por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram analisados com os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, estabelecendo-se nível de significância de 5% (pThe use of rectal enemas with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 determines the onset of severe colitis, sometimes with fatal evolution. It is possible that H2O2-induced colitis can occur by damage to the functional epithelial barrier of the colon by oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of present study was evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa after instillation of H2O2 into the rectum excluded from fecal transit. Method: Twenty six male Wistar rats were undergone to proximal terminal colostomy in the descending colon and distal mucous fistula. The animals were randomized in two experimental groups according to the sacrifice was made two or four weeks after diversion of the fecal stream. Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups second application of

  1. Degeneration and recovery of rat olfactory epithelium following inhalation of dibasic esters.

    Keenan, C M; Kelly, D P; Bogdanffy, M S


    Dibasic esters (DBE) are solvent mixtures used in the paint and coating industry. To evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of DBE, groups of male and female rats were exposed for periods of up to 13 weeks to DBE concentrations of 0, 20, 76, or 390 mg/m3. After approximately 7 and 13 weeks of exposure, 10 rats per sex per group were subjected to clinical chemical, hematological, and urine analyses. Following 7 or 13 weeks of exposure, 10 or 20 rats per sex per group, respectively, were euthanized. An additional 10 rats were euthanized following a 6-week recovery period. A standard profile of tissues, including four levels of nasal cavity, was evaluated histopathologically. After 7 weeks of exposure, slight degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in both male and female rats at 76 and 390 mg/m3. After 13 weeks, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was present at all DBE concentrations in female rats, but only at the mid and high concentrations in male rats. The severity and incidence of the lesions were concentration related for both sexes with female rats being more sensitive than males. Following the recovery period, histological changes compatible with repair in the olfactory mucosa included an absence of degeneration, focal disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia. All other tissues were macroscopically normal. No other signs of toxicity were indicated by the other parameters evaluated. Inhalation studies of other esters demonstrate similar pathology in the olfactory epithelium. Since olfactory mucosa is rich in carboxylesterase activity, acids may be the toxic metabolites of these compounds. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the sensitivity of olfactory tissue to the effects of DBE.

  2. Estudio clínico e histológico de la poliposis nasal Clinical and histological study of nasal polyposi

    Eulalia Alfonso Muñoz


    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de 50 pacientes que padecieron de poliposis nasal. La mayoría de los pacientes están comprendidos en la 4ta. y 5ta. décadas de la vida, con predominio del sexo masculino. El tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad que predominó en los pacientes fue de 1 a 4 años. Los antecedentes alérgicos y la eosinofilia sanguínea estuvieron presentes en nuestros casos. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico, que consistió en polipectomía nasal anterior, en ocasiones asociada a la técnica de maxiloetmoidectomía. En las muestras obtenidas predominó, desde el punto de vista macroscópico, el aspecto polipoide, la mucosa engrosada y la secreción mucoserosa. Asimismo, en el análisis histopatológico se observó hipertrofia epitelial, engrosamiento de la membrana basal, edema e hiperplasia glandular en la lámina propiaA study of 50 patients suffering from nasal polyposis was conducted. Most of the patients were 40 and 50 years old. It was observed a predominance of males. The time of the evolution of the disease prevailing among the patients was from 1 to 4 years. The allergy history and blood eosynophilia were present in our cases. All the patients underwent surgery, which consisted in anterior nasal polypectomy on occasions associated with the maxilloethmoidectomy technique. In the samples obtained it was observed a predominance, from the macroscopical point of view, of the polypoid aspect, the thickened mucosa and the mucoserous secretion. Likewise, epithelial hypertrophy, thickening of the nasal membrane, edema and glandular hyperplasia in the own lamina were found in the histopathological analysis

  3. Influence of the turbinate volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging on nasal air conditioning.

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Vital, Victor; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Pauls, Sandra; Wacke, Florian; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M


    Changes in nasal airflow caused by varying intranasal volumes and cross-sectional areas affect the contact between air and surrounding mucosa entailing alterations in nasal air conditioning. This study evaluates the correlation between nasal air conditioning and the volumes of the inferior and middle turbinates as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Each volunteer had been examined by rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, intranasal air temperature, and humidity measurements at defined intranasal sites as well as MRI of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. The volumetric data of the turbinates was based on the volumetric software Amira. Comparable results were obtained regarding absolute humidity values and temperature values within the nasal valve area and middle turbinate area for both the right and the left side of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences were found in the rhinomanometric values and the acoustic rhinometry results of both sides (p > 0.05). No statistical correlations were found between the volumes of the inferior (mean, 6.1 cm3) and middle turbinate (mean, 1.8 cm3) and the corresponding humidity and temperature values. Additionally, the air temperature and humidity values did not correlate with the rhinometrical endonasal volumes (0-20 mm and 20-50 mm from the nasal entrance). The normal range of volumes of the inferior and middle turbinate does not seem to have a significant impact on intranasal air conditioning in healthy subjects. The exact limits where alterations of the turbinate volume negatively affect nasal air conditioning are still unknown.

  4. Assessing the relationship between serum resistin and nasal obstruction in children with allergic rhinitis.

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Occasi, Francesca; Cesoni Marcelli, Azzurra; Marcelli, Azzurra Cesoni; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Carbone, Maria Palma; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Giuffrida, Anna; Duse, Marzia


    Nasal obstruction has been reported as a "key symptom" of allergic rhinitis (AR) because it is deeply associated with impaired quality of life and it reflects more directly the allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa. Resistin is known to be involved in inflammatory processes exerting an important role in the regulation of cytokine production even though its effective proinflammatory activity at nasal level has never been fully established. This study investigates the relationship between resistin levels and nasal obstruction assessed by an objective method such as active anterior rhinomanometry. Fifty-three children between 4 and 10 years of age affected by persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were enrolled and subdivided in two groups. Serum resistin levels were detected in all children. The same day patients underwent rhinomanometry, which was considered negative (no nasal obstruction) when the fraction of predicted values (p.v.'s) was between 71 and 100% and it was considered positive when the fraction of p.v. was ≤70%. The serum resistin levels were significantly higher in children with moderate-severe PAR than in patients with mild PAR (p < 0.03). Furthermore, serum resistin levels were significantly higher in children with positive rhinomanometry compared with negative rhinomanometry (p < 0.03). The fraction of p.v.'s of nasal flows in patients with nasal obstruction had a significant negative correlation with serum resistin levels (p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that resistin levels are increased in children with severe nasal obstruction measured by an objective and quantitative approach.

  5. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.


    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  6. Coarticulation effects on the nasalization of vowels using nasal/voice amplitude ratio instrumentation.

    Larson, P L; Hamlet, S L


    Nasal coarticulation in phonetically controlled nonsense syllables was investigated in four normal adult speakers. Nasalization was determined using the ratio of a nasal accelerometer signal amplitude to airborn microphone signal amplitude. Measurements of nasalization were made at the midpoint of vowels and at a constant time from the nasal consonant. Nasal acoustical coupling was greater for high vowels than for low vowels in all consonant contexts. Nasalization was also greater for vowels between two nasal consonants than for vowels between a nasal consonant and a fricative or stop. Results for progressive versus regressive assimilation depended on the measurement strategy. For within-vowel measurements made a constant time from the nasal consonant, prenasal vowels showed greater nasalization than postnasal vowels. This nasal accelerometric technique shows promise for clinical assessment of articulatory details of velar function.

  7. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    Arruda, Milena Moreira


    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis.

  8. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de


    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  9. Lesions of the oral mucosa in cocaine users who apply the drug topically.

    Gandara-Rey, J M; Diniz-Freitas, M; Gandara-Vila, P; Blanco-Carrion, A; Garcia-Garcia, A


    The use and abuse of cocaine is increasingly frequent in many countries, and the associated problems are increasingly evident. The effects of cocaine in the oral cavity vary depending on the form used and the route of self-administration. In the present study we describe the lesions observed in four patients with a history of topical self-application of cocaine to the oral and/or nasal mucosa, with the aim of relieving pain produced by cocaine-induced cluster headache. In three of the four patients this practice has led to erythematous lesions, while the remaining patient showed gingival recession and bone sequestration. These lesions can probably be attributed to the vasoconstrictor activity of cocaine, and to its caustic effects on the mucosa.

  10. Protection to Fasciola hepatica in the gut mucosa of immune rats is associated with infiltrates of eosinophils, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies around the parasites

    Milligen, van F.J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Hendriks, I.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.


    We investigated the immune effector mechanisms that underlie protection against F. hepatica in the gut wall of immune rats, using (immuno)histochemistry. In the lamina propria of immune Wistar rats, four weeks after oral infection, frequencies of IgE-positive cells, eosinophils and mucosal mast cell

  11. A entomoftorose nasal

    Zilton A. Andrade


    Full Text Available São apresentados os dados clínico-patológicos de dois casos de entomoftorose nasal, nova doença humana causada por um ficomiceto - Entomophthora coronata. Os pacientes, uma menina e um homem, com 8 e 44 anos de idade respectivamente, apresentaram doença localizada, com nódulos no nariz e região paranasal, edema e deformação da face. O parasito foi isolado do primeiro caso, mas todas as tentativas para isolá-lo no segundo caso resultaram negativas. Histologicamente, havia reação granulomatosa, fibrose e edema, em torno de hifas não septadas, as quais exibiam envólucro eosinófilo amorfo em torno. Foram demonstrados anticorpos circulantes contra, as hifas do E. coronata no soro de um dos pacientes. O material eosinófilo em torno das hifas continha fibrina e material auto-fluorescente sob luz ultra-violeta, provavelmente lipofuscina, mas não foram demonstrados anticorpos ou antígenos nesta área. A apresentação destes casos, os primeiros a serem descritos no Brasil, é acompanhado, de uma revisão geral do assunto, pois tal poderá vir a ser de interesse para aqueles que estudam os problemas da patologia tropical em nosso meio.

  12. A Retrospective Analysis of γδ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps.

    Lee, Wenting; Chang, Lihong; Huang, Zizhen; Huang, Jiancong; Yang, Luoying; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Gehua


    To examine whether γδ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps. Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of γδ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of γδ T cells was detected by using qRT-PCR. All patients underwent nasal endoscopy, and postoperative follow-up lasted over 12 months. CRS patients were evaluated by preoperative VAS scores of symptoms and nasal endoscopy Lund-Kennedy scores. The expression of γδ T cells in the CRSwNP groups was stronger than in the CRSsNP and the control group (p T cells in the eosinophilic CRSwNP group was higher than that in the CRSsNP group and the control group (p T cells was associated with high rate of recurrence, tissue eosinophil infiltration, worse symptom score of nasal obstruction, and higher Lund-Kennedy score (all p T cells in CRSwNP may be associated with recurrence of nasal polyps. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 脑出血大鼠肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺水平的关系%Correlation between intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters and plasma catecholamines level in rats with cerebral hemorrhage

    邱月; 宁显忠


    目的 探讨脑出血大鼠肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺(肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素)水平之间的关系.方法 制作脑出血大鼠模型,检测正常组、假手术组及脑出血后24h、48h、72h(每组8只)肠黏膜组织形态学参数及血浆肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素水平.进行空肠黏膜组织形态学参数值与血浆肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素水平之间的相关分析.结果 小肠绒毛高度与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.566,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺索(r=-0.545,P<0.01);绒毛面积与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.755,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素(r=-0.702,P <0.01);黏膜厚度与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.478,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素(r=-0.405,P<0.01);肠壁厚度与与血浆肾上腺素(r=-0.536,P<0.01)、血浆去甲肾上腺素肠(r=-0.489,P<0.01)均成显著的负相关.结论 脑出血时肠黏膜组织形态学变化与血浆儿茶酚胺水平呈负相关.%Objective To explore the correlation between intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic changes and plasma catecholamines(adrenaline and nurepinephrine) level in rats with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods A rat model of hemorrhage was used to detect the intestinal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters changes and the plasma catecholamines (adrenaline and norepinephrine) level at 24h,48h and 72h after the hemorrhage. The results were compared to normal control group and the sham-operated group. The correlation between the jejunal mucosa tissue morphologic parameters changes and plasma adrenaline and plasma norepinephrine were also explored. Results Small intestinal villous height was negatively correlated with the level of plasma adrenaline (r = - 0. 566, P < 0. 01) and plasma norepinephrine (r = - 0. 545, P < 0.01) . Small intestinal villous area was negatively correlated with the level of plasma adrenaline ( r = - 0. 755, P < 0. 01 ) and plasma norepinephrine( r = - 0. 702, P < 0. 01). Mucosal thickness was negatively

  14. Nasal inserts containing ondansetron hydrochloride based on Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex: In vitro–in vivo studies

    Sonje, Ashish G.; Mahajan, Hitendra S., E-mail:


    The aim of this study was the production of ondansetron hydrochloride loaded lyophilized insert for nasal delivery. The nasal insert was prepared by the lyophilisation technique using Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex as the polymer matrix. The ondansetron loaded inserts were evaluated with respect to water uptake, bioadhesion, drug release kinetic study, ex vivo permeation study, and in vivo study. Lyophilised nasal inserts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the porous sponge like structure of inserts whereas release kinetic model revealed that drug release followed non-fickian case II diffusion. The nasal delivery showed improved bioavailability as compared to oral delivery. In conclusion, the ondansetron containing nasal inserts based on Chitosan–gellan gum complex with potential muco-adhesive potential is suitable for nasal delivery. - Highlights: • Chitosan–gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex based inserts have been prepared. • The synthesized polymer complex demonstrated important insert properties. • No toxicity was observed toward nasal mucosa. • In vivo study demonstrates the enhancement of bioavailability.

  15. Association between cigarette smoking and interleukin-17A expression in nasal tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma

    Huang, Chien-Chia; Wang, Chun-Hua; Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Chen, Yi-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Pei-Wen; Lee, Ta-Jen


    Abstract Cigarette smoke plays a substantial role in the development of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Interleukin (IL)-17A might contribute to cigarette smoke-related inflammation of the airway. This study aimed to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and IL-17A expression in the nasal tissues of patients with CRS and asthma. We prospectively recruited 24 patients (13 smokers, 11 nonsmokers) with CRS and asthma and 6 patients with asthma but without CRS (control group) in a tertiary medical center. Nasal mucosa was obtained as part of the nasal surgery. Protein and mRNA levels of IL-17A in the nasal tissues were determined by immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The number of unexpected emergency clinic visits for acute asthma attacks were higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Interleukin-17A protein and mRNA levels in the nasal tissues of smokers were greater compared to those in the nasal tissues of nonsmokers (P = 0.02 both) and control patients (P = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). Cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in the number of unexpected emergency clinic visits due to acute asthma attack and in the expression of IL-17A in the nasal tissues of patients with airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:27893686

  16. A modified combined transseptal/transnasal binostril approach for pituitary lesions in patients with a narrow nasal space: technical note.

    Takemura, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Taisuke; Komori, Masahiro; Stamm, Aldo C; Vellutini, Eduardo; Mariani, Pedro; Kawanishi, Yu; Shimizu, Keiji


    We describe a modification of the combined transseptal/transnasal binostril approach using a two-surgeon, four-handed technique (modified Stamm's approach) for pituitary lesions in patients with narrow nasal spaces. This approach comprises of a transseptal route through one nostril and a transnasal route without harvesting a pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) through the other. On the transseptal side, the nasal septum was removed using an endoscopic septoplasty technique. On the transnasal side, the mucosa containing the septal branch of the sphenopalatine artery over the face of the sphenoid and nasal septum was preserved for harvesting the NSF if an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was encountered. This approach was performed in six patients with pituitary lesions, including four non-functioning macroadenomas, one growth hormone-producing macroadenoma, and one Rathke's cleft cyst, all of which were associated with a severe deviation of the nasal septum and/or narrow nasal space. The meticulous and comfortable manipulation of an endoscope and instruments were achieved in all six patients without surgical complications. Our findings, although obtained in a limited number of cases, suggest that the modified Stamm's approach may be useful for selected patients, particularly those with a severe deviation of the nasal septum, without considerable damage to the nasal passages.

  17. Epithelial cell-derived micro RNA-146a generates interleukin-10-producing monocytes to inhibit nasal allergy.

    Luo, Xi; Han, Miaomiao; Liu, Jianqi; Wang, Yu; Luo, Xiangqian; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Dabo; Yang, Ping-Chang; Li, Huabin


    The aberrant immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Micro RNAs (miR) are involved in regulating the immunity in the body. This study aims to test a hypothesis that miR-146a induces the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in monocytes (Mos). In this study, the levels of miR-146a were determined by real time RT-PCR. The IL-10(+) Mos were evaluated by flow cytometry. The miR-146a-laden exosomes were generated with RPMI2650 cells (an airway epithelial cell line). An allergic rhinitis mouse model was developed. The results showed that nasal epithelial cells expressed miR-146a, which was markedly lower in the nasal epithelial cells of patients with nasal allergy than that in healthy controls. Exposure to T helper (Th)2 cytokines suppressed the levels of miR-146a in the nasal epithelial cells. The nasal epithelial cell-derived miR-146a up regulated the expression of IL-10 in Mos. The inducible IL-10(+) Mos showed an immune suppressor effect on the activities of CD4(+) effector T cells and the Th2 polarization in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In summary, nasal epithelial cells express miR-146a, the latter is capable of inducing IL-10 expression in Mos, which suppress allergic reactions in the mouse nasal mucosa.

  18. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.


    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films.

  19. Characteristics of benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa

    Shu-Xia Li; Shi-Feng Yu; Kai-Hua Sun


    AIM: To investigate the pathological characteristics and carcinogenesis mechanism of benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM).METHODS: The expressions of Ki-67, CD34 and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemical SP staining in 64 paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Of them, 9 were from BLOM with dysplasia, 15 from BLOM without dysplasia,15 from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 15 from oral precancerosis, and 10 from normal tissues. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis of tissue samples were also analyzed.RESULTS: The expression of Ki-67 in BLOM with dysplasia,oral precancerosis and OSCC was significantly higher than in BLOM without dysplasia and normal mucosa. The microvascular density (MVD) in BLOM with and without dysplasia, oral precancerosis, and OSCC was significantly higher than in normal mucosa. Apoptosis in BLOM and oral precancerosis was significantly higher than in OSCC and normal mucosa.CONCLUSION: Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa has potentialities of cancerization.

  20. Local production and detection of (specific) IgE in nasal B-cells and plasma cells of allergic rhinitis patients

    J.G. Vinke; L.W. Severijnen; W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex)


    textabstractAllergic diseases are characterized by allergic complaints in the shock organ and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E in serum. Literature data indicate that the nasal mucosa itself could produce at least a large part of the specific IgE in allergic rhinitis patie

  1. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Singh Arun


    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  2. Taenia taeniaeformis: immunoperoxidase localization of metacestode culture product(s) in hyperplastic gastric mucosa.

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Walton, A


    Rats infected with the hepatic metacestode Taenia taeniaeformis develop an extraordinary gastric hyperplasia. Indirect immunoperoxidase staining localized larval in vitro excretory secretory product specifically in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the epithelial cells lining the pits and glands in the hyperplastic gastric mucosa. The accumulation of this substance in the stomach epithelial cells may be relevant to the gastric hyperplasia induced by tapeworm infection.

  3. 营养支持方式对急性胰腺炎大鼠治疗的实验性研究%An experimental study on enteral nutritional support for protection of intestinal mucosa of severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    汤海涛; 邢雪


    Objective To investigate the influence of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition to intestinal mucosa , liver function and inflammatory factor of rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods 60 Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups,ie.sham operation group,(S group, n=20), total parenteral nutrition group (TPN group, n=20) and enteral nutrition group (EN group, n=20). The rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was established by means of injection of 3.8%sodium taurocholate under pancreatic capsule.The alanine aminotransferase (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, AST), endotoxin,tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL-6 and Lactulose (L)mannitol(M) ratio were determined from cardiac blood and urine at the points of after the nutritional support 3,5,7,10,12d. The tissue samples of the pancreas, liver and ileum were observed under the light microscopy for the pathological changes and ileum mucosa morphology. Results SD rats in EN group and in TPN group for the nutritional support were well tolerated, the inspection index of SD rats in S group of were normal. The inspection index of SD rats in EN group and in TPN group at each time point was significantly different compared with those of in S group (P<0.05). The inspection index of SAP model rats in EN group and in TPN group increased and the inspection index(endotoxin, AST, IL-6, TNF, L/M, ALT ) of SAP model rats in TPN group significantly increased(P<0.05).Liver, pancreas, intestinal mucosa morphology change is obvious. Conclusion Enteral nutrition could improve the permeability of intestinal mucosa, prevent the bacteria translocation, reduce the secondary infections, decrease endotoxemia and levels of inflammatory factor and protect the liver function.%目的:探讨肠内、肠外营养对急性胰腺炎大鼠肠黏膜、肝功能、炎性因子的影响。方法60只Sprague-Dawley(SD)健康雄性大鼠

  4. Effect of Kuiyangping on Expression of VEGF and Flt-1 mRNA in Gastric Mucosa of Rats with Aspirin-induced Gastric Ulcer Recurrence%溃疡平对阿司匹林诱导的复发胃溃疡大鼠胃黏膜组织中VEGF和Flt-1 mRNA表达的影响

    赵堃; 赵红晔; 牛淑冬; 王滨


    Objective: To investigate the anti-ulcer recurrence mechanism of Kuiyangping through establishing experimental chronic ulcer model. Method: Okeba modified method was used to establish gastric ulcer model in rats by administering intragastrically with aspirin once a day. Kuiyangping of 5.60 g -kg was administrated for 14 days. The RT-PCR method was used to detect the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor Flt-1 mRNA in the gastric mucosa surrounding ulcer. Result; Kuiyangping could increase the expression of VEGF and Flt-1 mRNA in the gastric mucosa surrounding ulcer ( compared with recurrence group, P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusion: Kuiyangping could decrease the gastric ulcer recurrence induced by aspirin. The effective mechanisms might be related to the enhancement of the expression of VEGF and Flt-1 mRNA, the increase in microvascular permeability, and the promotion of vasculogenesis in the gastric mucosa surrounding ulcer.%目的:以菲甾体类抗炎药物阿司匹林所致胃溃疡复发大鼠为模型,探讨溃疡平抗胃溃疡复发的机制.方法:以Okeba改良法复制大鼠实验性胃溃疡,ig阿司匹林制作复发模型,采用RT-PCR法观察溃疡平5.6 g·kg-1,连续ig 14 d对胃溃疡组织血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF) mRNA表达的影响.结果:溃疡平组VEGF mRNA和VEGF受体(Flt-1) mRNA的表达较复发组显著增高(P<0.01).结论:溃疡平可提高胃黏膜中VEGF和Flt-1 mRNA的表达,从而增加黏膜中微血管通透性,将胃内有害物质稀释,并且刺激黏膜中腺体和血管的生成,达到保护胃黏膜的作用.这可能是溃疡平促进胃溃疡愈合,减少其复发的重要机制之一.

  5. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi


    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18β-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa.

  6. Análise do clearance mucociliar nasal e dos efeitos adversos do uso de CPAP nasal em pacientes com SAHOS

    Ferri Ricardo Gimenes


    Full Text Available Desde 1981, o uso da pressão aérea positiva através do CPAP nasal vem sendo considerado o principal tratamento clínico da síndrome da apnéia-hipopnéia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS, apesar de sua adesão parcial a longo prazo. Alguns autores referem que as queixas nasais provenientes do fluxo de ar sob pressão positiva na cavidade nasal são as principais responsáveis pela interrupção do tratamento. Isto ocorreria porque o uso do CPAP levaria a alterações na mucosa e mudanças no transporte mucociliar e, conseqüentemente, um maior número de infecções nasosinusais. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o clearance mucociliar nasal em pacientes com SAHOS em uso de CPAP nasal através do teste de sacarina e correlacionar os efeitos adversos desta terapia com o tempo de tratamento e o nível de pressão utilizada no mesmo. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo clínico caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com SAHOS entre 18 a 70 anos em uso de CPAP nasal a partir de um mês acompanhados no Instituto do Sono (UNIFESP-EPM e submetidos ao teste de sacarina cujos resultados foram comparados com um grupo de 25 indivíduos sem doenças nasosinusais. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos em relação ao teste de sacarina.Os efeitos adversos estavam presentes em 84% da amostra, sendo 60% ressecamento e 36% obstrução nasal. Não houve correlação entre estas queixas e o tempo de tratamento ou a pressão aplicada pelo aparelho. CONCLUSÕES: O clearance mucociliar nasal no grupo com SAHOS em uso de CPAP nasal foi semelhante ao grupo controle e a obstrução nasal e o ressecamento não apresentaram correlação com o tempo de tratamento e o nível de pressão utilizada pelo aparelho.

  7. Schwannoma of the nasal septum

    Abdullah Karatas


    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign and slow growing tumors originating from the Schwann cells of peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of sinonasal origin are rare (4% however septal schwannomas are much more rarer. We presented a 31 year old female patient. At physical examination a pale gray, smooth polypoid lesion obstructing the right nasal cavity was detected. Midfacial degloving and endoscopic approach were combined for surgical treatment. The tumor was originating from posteromedial area of the septal nasal cartilage, close to the bony cartilaginous junction. Postoperative histological examination of the specimen showed a benign tumoral growth consisting of spindle shaped cells and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor proved septal schwannoma.

  8. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar


    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Observation of sub-cell level of the effect of danshen on mitochondrial function of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa of burnt rats%丹参改善烧伤大鼠肠黏膜上皮细胞线粒体功能的亚细胞水平观察

    邱振中; 李锐


    BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosa was damaged by ischemia and hypoxia during severe burn, and injury and infection of oxygen-derived free radicals during reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To study on the basis of sub-cell level whether danshen can improve respiratory function of mitochondrion of epithelial cell in intestinal mucosa and decrease the production of oxygen-derived free radicals so as to protect intestinal mucosa of burnt rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study with single sample.SETTING: Department of Burn, the Third Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at the Surgery Institute of the Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from December 2001 to February 2002.Totally 96 SD rats of clean grade were randomly divided into normal control group (n=24), burning model group (n=36) and danshen treatment group (n=36). 1 mL danshen parenteral solution had 1.5 g raw materials.METHODS: ① Rats in the burning model group and danshen treatment group were used to establish grade Ⅲ burning models with 20% scald of total body surface. ② Rats in the normal control group were not injured.③ After modeling, 1 mL/kg danshen parenteral solution was slowing injected into rats in the danshen treatment group through femoral vein, but saline was injected slowly into rats in the normal control group and burning model group. ④ Twelve rats from each of the burning mgdel group and the danshen treatment group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 6 hours after modeling, and 8 rats in the normal control group were sacrificed at relevant time points respectively. ⑤ Samples of small intestine were collected to measure cytochrome aa3, cytochrome C, level of energy charge and activity of superoxide dismutase of mitochondrion of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cytochrome aa3, cytochrome C, level of energy charge and activity of superoxide dismutase of mitochondrion of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa 1, 2 and 6 hours after modeling

  10. 水通道蛋白3、4、8在大鼠慢传输型便秘模型结肠黏膜中的表达%Expression of aquaporin 3,4, and 8 in colonic mucosa of rat models with slow transit constipation

    智会; 袁维堂


    Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin 3, 4, and 8 in the colonic mucosa of rat models with slow transit constipation (STC). Methods STC rat model was established by giving the rats the compound solution of diphenoxylate. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of aquaporin mRNA in colonic mucosa of STC rat models (study group,n= 16) and normal rats (control group,n=16). Cray scale ratio of aquaporin to β-action (internal reference) was used for quantification. Results RT-PCR revealed that the mean gray scale ratios of aquaporin 3 in the proximal colon of the study group and control group were 0.344 and 0.602 (P0.05), respectively. The mean gray scale ratios of aquaporin 4 in the proximal and the distal colon were 0.764 and 0.759 in the study group (P>0.05), and were 0.776 and 0.736 in the control group (P>0.05), respectively. However, there was no expression of aquaporin 8 in the proximal and the distal colon in either the study group or the control groups. Conclusions Expression of aquaporin 3 in the proximal colon of STC rat models is down-regulated, which regulates water absorption. There are no significant changes in the expressions of aquaporin 4 and 8.%目的 探讨水通道蛋白(AQP)3、4、8在大鼠慢传输型便秘(STC)模型中的表达情况.方法 利用复方地芬诺酯灌胃的方法建立大鼠STC模型,采用RT-PCR方法测定STC组(16只)及对照组大鼠(16只)升、降结肠黏膜的AQP3、4、8 mRNA表达情况.结果 STC组与对照组升结肠、降结肠AQP3平均相对表达量分别为0.344和0.602(P0.05);STC组和对照组升结肠、降结肠AQP4平均相对表达量分别为0.764和0.759(P>0.05)、0.776和0.736(P>0.05);AQP8在实验组和对照组升降结肠中未见明显表达.结论 AQP3在STC大鼠的升结肠黏膜中表达下调,对水吸收起调节作用;AQP4和AQP8的表达无明显变化.

  11. The Influence ofSiShenPills on the Expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and Protein in Colonic Mucosa of the Rats with Ulcerative Colitis%四神丸对溃疡性结肠炎大鼠结肠黏膜PPAR-γmRNA和蛋白表达的影响

    郭敏; 潘政; 张彤哲


    Objective: To observe the effects ofSiShenpills on the expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and protein in colonic mucosa of TNBS/alcohol enema-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) rats, and explore its mechanism. Methods: Sixty rats were randomized into the blank group, the model group,SiShenpills group (5 g/kg ) and SASP group (0.3 g/kg), UC rat model was replicated by TNBS/alcohol enema, gross morphological injuries of the colon were observed under the naked eyes and scored, the expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical method. Results: The inflammation and ulceration could be seen in the mucous layer of colon tissue of the rats in the model group; compared with the blank group, the expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and protein decreased notably in the colon tissue of the rats in the model group, and the difference presented statistical meaning (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and protein raised evidently inSiShen pills group, and the difference demonstrated statistical meaning(P<0.01). Conclusion:SiShenpills could up-regulate the expressions of PPAR-γmRNA and protein in colon mucosa of UC rats, which suggests that the mechanism of SiShenpills in treating UC might be related to PPAR-γ-related signal transduction pathway regulation.%目的:观察四神丸对三硝基苯磺酸(trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid,TNBS)/乙醇灌肠所致溃疡性结肠炎(ulcerative colitis,UC)模型大鼠结肠黏膜PPAR-γmRNA和蛋白表达的影响,探讨其作用机制。方法:将Wistar大鼠60只随机分为空白组、模型组、四神丸组(5 g/kg)及柳氮磺吡啶(SASP,0.3 g/kg)组,采用TNBS/乙醇灌肠法复制UC大鼠模型,灌胃给药后肉眼观察结肠大体形态损伤并评分,采用RT-PCR和免疫组化法检测PPAR-γ mRNA和蛋白的表达。结果:模型组大鼠结肠组织黏膜层可见炎症和溃疡形成;与空白组比较,模型组大鼠结肠组织PPAR-γ mRNA和蛋

  12. The influence of steroids on the vascular tension of isolated superficial nasal and facial veins in gilts during sexual maturation.

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S


    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the facial vein into the external jugular vein and through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus. The venous cavernous sinus is the site where hormones and pheromones permeate from venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to: (1) determine whether estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in maturating prepubertal gilts (PP) and in prepubertal gilts deprived of ovarian hormones (PPov), and (2) to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors (PR), and estradiol receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in these veins. The influence of hormones on the vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel, the hormonal status and dose of hormone used. Estradiol decreased the vascular tension in the nasal and facial veins of PP gilts (P tension in the proximal and distal parts of the facial vein (P tension in the proximal segment of the nasal vein and in the distal segment of the frontal and facial veins, and decreased the tension in the distal segment of the nasal and facial veins (P tension of distal and proximal segments of the nasal vein (P tension of the distal part of the nasal vein (P superficial nasal and facial veins. In conclusion, the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins in prepubertal gilts may influence the transfer of boar pheromones from the nasal mucosa to the brain via local humoral pathway during sexual maturation.

  13. Pharmacological evaluation of selective α2c-adrenergic agonists in experimental animal models of nasal congestion.

    Jia, Yanlin; Mingo, Garfield G; Hunter, John C; Lieber, Gissela B; Palamanda, Jairam R; Mei, Hong; Boyce, Christopher W; Koss, Michael C; Yu, Yongxin; Cicmil, Milenko; Hey, John A; McLeod, Robbie L


    Nasal congestion is one of the most troublesome symptoms of many upper airways diseases. We characterized the effect of selective α2c-adrenergic agonists in animal models of nasal congestion. In porcine mucosa tissue, compound A and compound B contracted nasal veins with only modest effects on arteries. In in vivo experiments, we examined the nasal decongestant dose-response characteristics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, duration of action, potential development of tolerance, and topical efficacy of α2c-adrenergic agonists. Acoustic rhinometry was used to determine nasal cavity dimensions following intranasal compound 48/80 (1%, 75 µl). In feline experiments, compound 48/80 decreased nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional areas by 77% and 40%, respectively. Oral administration of compound A (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), compound B (0.3-5.0 mg/kg), and d-pseudoephedrine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decongestion. Unlike d-pseudoephedrine, compounds A and B did not alter systolic blood pressure. The plasma exposure of compound A to produce a robust decongestion (EC(80)) was 500 nM, which related well to the duration of action of approximately 4.0 hours. No tolerance to the decongestant effect of compound A (1.0 mg/kg p.o.) was observed. To study the topical efficacies of compounds A and B, the drugs were given topically 30 minutes after compound 48/80 (a therapeutic paradigm) where both agents reversed nasal congestion. Finally, nasal-decongestive activity was confirmed in the dog. We demonstrate that α2c-adrenergic agonists behave as nasal decongestants without cardiovascular actions in animal models of upper airway congestion.

  14. Applying Convolution-Based Processing Methods To A Dual-Channel, Large Array Artificial Olfactory Mucosa

    Taylor, J. E.; Che Harun, F. K.; Covington, J. A.; Gardner, J. W.


    Our understanding of the human olfactory system, particularly with respect to the phenomenon of nasal chromatography, has led us to develop a new generation of novel odour-sensitive instruments (or electronic noses). This novel instrument is in need of new approaches to data processing so that the information rich signals can be fully exploited; here, we apply a novel time-series based technique for processing such data. The dual-channel, large array artificial olfactory mucosa consists of 3 arrays of 300 sensors each. The sensors are divided into 24 groups, with each group made from a particular type of polymer. The first array is connected to the other two arrays by a pair of retentive columns. One channel is coated with Carbowax 20 M, and the other with OV-1. This configuration partly mimics the nasal chromatography effect, and partly augments it by utilizing not only polar (mucus layer) but also non-polar (artificial) coatings. Such a device presents several challenges to multi-variate data processing: a large, redundant dataset, spatio-temporal output, and small sample space. By applying a novel convolution approach to this problem, it has been demonstrated that these problems can be overcome. The artificial mucosa signals have been classified using a probabilistic neural network and gave an accuracy of 85%. Even better results should be possible through the selection of other sensors with lower correlation.

  15. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Bijan Naghibzadeh


    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  16. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H


    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  17. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei


    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  18. Intracranial hemorrhagic infarct after local anesthesia on nasal mucosa: A case report

    Murat Koçyiğit


    Conclusion: We want to emphasize that all surgeons especially the ENT surgeons should be careful while using local anesthetic medicines which contains adrenaline for rare complication of intracranial hemorrhagic infarction. Another fact is that the patients must sign an informed consent form including those situations even for all minor surgical procedures to avoid a medicolegal problem.

  19. Topical COliicosteroids in Allergic Rhinitis: Effects on Nasal Inflammatory Cells and Mucosa

    A.F. Holm (Adriaan)


    textabstractl.l.l DEFINITION In 1873, Blackley was the first to establish that pollen played a role in the causation of hay fever or "slmuller catarrh"(l). Von Pirquet introduced in 1906 the tern] allergy (2). He discovered that under certain conditions, patients, instead of developing immunity, dem

  20. Entomoftoromicose cutâneo-mucosa: Apresentação de um caso com evolução atípica

    Achiléa Lisboa Bittencourt


    Full Text Available E apresentado um caso de entomoftoromicose cutâneo-mucosa em paciente com 39 anos, tratado e considerado como curado eque cerca de dois anos depois teve recidiva associada à diabete. Apresentou então, além das lesões de mucosa nasal e pele, ulceração e perfuração do palato e, microscopicamente, uma maior freqüência de hifas, na ausência do fenômeno de Hóeppli-Splendore. Os autores comentam acerca do diagnóstico diferencial com a mucormicose.

  1. Changes in nasal resistance and nasal geometry using pressure and acoustic rhinometry in a feline model of nasal congestion

    McLeod, R.L.; Mingo, G.G.; Herczku, C.


    This is the first report describing the use and pharmacological characterization of nasal patency by both pressure rhinometry and acoustic rhinometry (AcR) in an experimental cat model of nasal congestion. In pressure rhinometry studies, aerosolized compound 48/80 (0.1-3.0%), a mast cell liberator...... histamine (0.1-1.0%) on nasal geometry were similar to compound 48/80. We conclude that the cat is a useful model for evaluating the pharmacological actions of potential nasal decongestants. Furthermore, we also conclude that AcR is a useful method for noninvasive assessment of nasal patency...

  2. 音乐电针对抑郁模型大鼠下丘脑和结肠黏膜β-内啡肽含量的影响%Impacts of Musical Electroacupuncture on the β-Endorphin Content in the Hypothalamus and Colonic Mucosa in the Depression Model Rats

    滕金艳; 李志刚; 白妍; 赛音朝克图


    Objective To observe the impacts of musical electroacupuncture on β - endorphin(β -EP Jin the hypothalamus and colonic mucosa in depression model rats, discover the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of gastrointestinal somatic symptoms of depression and verify the effects. Methods Forty -eight healthy SD rats were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a fluoxetine group and a music electroacupuncture group, 12 rats in each one. The chronic unpredictable mild stimulation combined with singly housed method was used to prepare depression model. In the fluoxetine group, the gastric infusion was applied for medication every day. In the musical electroacupuncture group, acupuncture was given at Baihui( GV20 ) and Yintang( EX - HN3)and attached by the musical electroacupuncture apparatus. The radioimmunoassay was adopted for the detection of β - EP content. Results Compared with the blank group,the content of β- EP in the hypothalamiis was reduced significantly(P<0. 05)and that in colonic mucosa was increased signif-icantly(P <0. 05) in the model group. Compared with the model group,the content of β- EP in the hypothalamus was increased significantly(P<0. 05) and that in colonic mucosa was reduced significantly(P<0. 05 ) in the musical electroacupuncture group and the fluoxetine group. Conclusion Musical electroacupuncture regulates the imbalance of brain - gut peptide in different regions, which provides the practical approach to the clinical treatment of depression.%目的 观察音乐电针对抑郁模型大鼠下丘脑、结肠黏膜β-内啡肽(β-EP)的影响,以揭示针刺治疗抑郁症胃肠道躯体化症状的作用机制,并验证其作用效果.方法 将48只健康SD大鼠随机分为空白组、模型组、百优解组、音乐电针组,每组12只.采用慢性不可预见的温和刺激结合孤养.方法 制备抑郁模型.百忧解组每天灌胃给药.音乐电针组针刺大鼠"百会"和"印堂"穴,接音乐电针治疗

  3. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    Castrup, H J


    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  4. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa

    P Anitha Krishnan


    This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.

  5. Effects of Weipixiao on Ultrastructure of Gastric Mucosa Capillaries in Rats with Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Cancer%胃痞消对胃癌前病变大鼠胃黏膜微血管超微结构的影响

    袁玉梅; 潘华峰; 史亚飞; 王超; 郭丽丽; 李海文; 赵自明; 任金铃


    Objective To observe the effects of Weipixiao on the ultrastructure of gastric mucosa capillaries in rats with precancerous lesions of gastric cancer ( PLGC). Methods The rats were randomized into six groups, including normal group, model group, Vatacoenayme Tablets group ( 0.2 g·kg-1·d-1) , and high-, middle-, and low- dose Weipixiao groups ( 15, 7.5, and 3.75 g·kg-1·d-1 respectively) . The rats received spontaneous intake of N-methyl-N’-nitro-nitrosoguanidine ( MNNG, 200 μg/mL) solution combined with irregular diet and intragastric administration of purgative herbs Xiao Chengqi Decoction ( 2 mL, containing 1 g/mL crude drug) for 18 weeks to induce spleen-deficiency PLGC. The pathological changes in gastric mucosa and the ultrastructure of gastric mucosa capillaries were observed under the transmission electron microscope. Results The model has been established successfully. Transmission electron microscopy results in the model group showed as severely swollen endothelial cells of gastric mucosa capillaries, severely-narrowing or even blocked vascular lumens, rough and discontinuous basement membrane, and swollen, degenerated or even absent pericytes. And the ultrastructure of gastric mucosa capillaries in high-, middle-, and low- dose Weipixiao groups were improved to some degrees, the effect of low-dose Weipixiao group being the best. Conclusion The improvement of the mucosal microcirculation of spleen-deficiency PLGC rats may be one of the pathohistological mechanisms of Weipixiao for spleen-deficiency PLGC.%【目的】观察胃痞消对脾虚型胃癌前病变(PLGC)模型大鼠胃黏膜微血管超微结构的影响。【方法】将SD大鼠分为6组:正常对照组,模型组,维酶素组(剂量为0.2 g·kg-1·d-1),胃痞消高、中、低剂量组(剂量为15、7.5、3.75 g·kg-1·d-1)。采用N-甲基-N’-硝基-N’-亚硝基胍(MNNG)溶液(200μg/mL)自由饮用、小承气汤(2 m

  6. Development of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) microparticles for the nasal administration of exenatide.

    Millotti, Gioconda; Vetter, Anja; Leithner, Katharina; Sarti, Federica; Shahnaz Bano, Gul; Augustijns, Patrick; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas


    The purpose of this study was to develop a microparticulate formulation for nasal delivery of exenatide utilizing a thiolated polymer. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cys) and unmodified PAA microparticles loaded with exenatide were prepared via coprecipitation of the drug and the polymer followed by micronization. Particle size, drug load and release of incorporated exenatide were evaluated. Permeation enhancing properties of the formulations were investigated on excised porcine respiratory mucosa. The viability of the mucosa was investigated by histological studies. Furthermore, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) studies were performed. Microparticles displayed a mean size of 70-80 µm. Drug encapsulation was ∼80% for both thiolated and non-thiolated microparticles. Exenatide was released from both thiolated and non-thiolated particles in comparison to exenatide in buffer only within 40 min. As compared to exenatide dissolved in buffer only, non-thiolated and thiolated microparticles resulted in a 2.6- and 4.7-fold uptake, respectively. Histological studies performed before and after permeation studies showed that the mucosa is not damaged during permeation studies. CBF studies showed that the formulations were cilio-friendly. Based on these results, poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-based microparticles seem to be a promising approach starting point for the nasal delivery of exenatide.


    PENG Na; CHANG Xiao-rong; YI Shou-xiang; PENG Yan; YAN Jie


    Objective: To observe effect of moxibustion at Zusanli (足三里 ST 36) and Liangmen (梁门 ST 21 ) on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in gastric mucosa of the rat of stress ulcer (SU) to explore the mechanism of moxibustion in resisting oxidative injury of the gastric mucosa. Methods: Sixty SD rats were evenly randomized into 4 groups, a blank group, a model group, an acupoint moxibustion group and a non-acupoint moxibustion group. Water restraint stress (WRS) method was used to make stress gastric ulcer rat model. The ulcerative index (UI) of gastric mucosa was evaluated by using GUTH method, the gastric mucosa blood flux (GMBF) was detected by a laser Doppler bloodflow monitor, and HSP70 expression and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the gastric mucosa were determined respectively with immunohistochemical and thiobarbiturate methods. Results: Moxibustion at Zusanli (ST 36) and Liangmen (ST 21 ) significantly decreased UI, up-regulated HSP70 expression, increased GMBF, and decreased MDA content in the gastric mucosa in the rat of stress gastric ulcer, with significant differences as compared with the model group and the non-acupoint moxibustion group ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Moxibustion at Zusanli (ST 36) and Liangmen (ST 21 ) can induce high expression of HSP70 and decrease MDA content in the gastric mucosa, so as to resist oxidative injury, with relative acupoint specificity.

  8. Nasal intubation: A comprehensive review

    Varun Chauhan


    Full Text Available Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article. Various complications may arise while doing nasotracheal intubation but a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and physics behind the procedure can help reduce such complications and manage appropriately. It is important for an anesthesiologist to be well versed with the basics of nasotracheal intubation and advances in the techniques. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and the advent of newer devices have abolished the negative effect of blindness of the procedure.

  9. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin


    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...

  10. Diagnostic strategies in nasal congestion

    John Krouse


    Full Text Available John Krouse1, Valerie Lund2, Wytske Fokkens3, Eli O Meltzer41Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Ear Institute, University College London, UK; 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; 4Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion is a major symptom of upper respiratory tract disorders, and its characterization an important part of the diagnosis of these illnesses. Patient history and assessment of nasal symptoms are essential components of diagnosis, providing an initial evaluation that may be adequate to rule out serious conditions. However, current congestion medications are not always fully effective. Thus, if symptoms do not respond adequately to therapy, or symptoms suggestive of more serious conditions are present, specialized assessments may be needed. Various techniques are available for diagnosing patients, including those used chiefly by primary care clinicians and those requiring the expertise of otolaryngologists, allergists, and other specialists. Endoscopy remains a mainstay for evaluating nasal blockage and its causes, while modalities such as peak nasal inspiratory flow and acoustic rhinometry are evolving to provide easy-to-use, noninvasive procedures that are sensitive enough to measure small but clinically important abnormalities and therapeutic changes. Several imaging modalities are available to the specialist for severe or unusual cases, as are specialized diagnostic procedures that measure adjunctive features of congestion, such as impaired mucociliary function.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, diagnosis, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  11. Nasal Schwannoma: a case report

    Siu-Navarro YJ, Pérez-Carbajal AJ


    Full Text Available Introduction: Schwannomas are benign tumors that arise from Schwann cells peripheral nerves sheath. About 25-45% occur in the head and neck and only 4% of these tumors involve the sinunasal tract.Objective: To provide, through a clinic case and lecture review, the clinical and radiopatology findings of a bening and unusual tumors, as are the Nasal schwannomas. Case Report: We report a case of a young woman with nasal schwannoma, who complain of left nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which after subsequent imaging studies, surgical and pathology analisis, diagnosis was found. Sustained a favorable clinical evolution.Results and Discussion: The clinic and radiologic findings are nonspecific, depend upon the location or size of the tumor and subsequent involvement of surrounding structures, but generally present as a mass with less agressive behavior. The elective treatment is surgery, confirming this disease by microscopic and immunohistochemistry studies.Conclusion: Given these aspects must be considered nasal schwannomas within the differential diagnosis of a tumor with less aggressive behavior, clinical-radiological, because implies good results for the patient and unusual recurrence after surgery.

  12. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Adriana Handra-Luca


    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  13. Fibrose angiocêntrica eosinofílica da cavidade nasal: relato de caso e revisão de literatura Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the nasal cavity: case report and literature review

    Roberto Alcântara Maia


    Full Text Available A fibrose angiocêntrica eosinofílica (FAE é uma doença rara que acomete o trato nasossinusal. Poucos casos foram relatados até o momento na literatura, sendo o acometimento, em geral, na cavidade nasal e nos seios maxilares, e menos comumente, na região subglótica. A doença acarreta uma proliferação fibrótica da mucosa nasal com sintomas nasais obstrutivos. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente de 62 anos, sexo masculino, com obstrução nasal de longa data. Ao exame físico apresentava um alargamento importante da porção anterior do septo, com obstrução bilateral da cavidade nasal. O paciente foi submetido a septoplastia e o material obtido do septo foi encaminhado para exame histopatológico, sendo feito o diagnóstico de FAE. O objetivo deste relato de caso é alertar os otorrinolaringologistas sobre esta rara doença, seu diagnóstico diferencial em relação as doenças granulomatosas nasais, seus aspectos histopatológicos e clínicos.Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare disease which affects the sinonasal tract. A few cases have been reported in the literature affecting the nose and maxillary sinus with even fewer cases in the subglottic area. The disease causes fibrotic proliferation of the nasal mucosa and nasal obstructive symptoms. We present the case of a male patient, 62 years old, with history of nasal obstruction for several years. The clinical examination showed septal enlargement and bilateral nasal obstruction. The patient was submitted to a septoplasty and the septal material was sent for histological examination, which showed the diagnosis of EAF. The aim of this report is to show a rare benign lesion (EAF associated with nasal obstruction, its differential diagnosis with nasal granulomatosis and its histopathological and clinical features.

  14. Study of mucoadhesive microsphere of pirfenidone for nasal drug delivery

    Vrushali Kashikar


    Full Text Available The present research work involves formulation development and evaluation of nasal mucoadhesive microsphere in view to, improve bioavailability and reduce dosing regimen. Microspheres were prepared by spray drying and cross-linking method using chitosan and HPMC K4M, using 32 central composite design. Microspheres were evaluated for particle size, drug content, swelling ability, and percentage yield. Compatibility was checked by doing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry study. The polymorphism and particle shape were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size of spray-dried and cross-linked formulations were found in the range between 20-50 μm and 30-60 μm with percent mucoadhesion in the range of 80%-90% and 60-70%, respectively. In vitro drug release was found to be proportional to drug to polymer ratio. In vitro drug release for optimized formulation, that is, (F1, for spray-drying method and cross-linking method was found to be 88.73% and 70.93% at the end of 6 h, respectively. Release of drug from microspheres followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetics. Ex vivo studies were performed with sheep nasal mucosa for mucoadhesion, histopathological study, and drug permeation. The histopathological study indicates nonirritant nature of microsphere. The microspheres were found to be stable at accelerated storage conditions for 1 month, as per International Conference of Harmonisation guidelines.

  15. Development of a Transnasal Delivery System for Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH): Effects of the Concentration and Molecular Weight of Poly-L-arginine on the Nasal Absorption of rhGH in Rats.

    Kawashima, Ryo; Uchida, Masaki; Yamaki, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Kazuo; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi


    A novel system for delivering recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) that is noninvasive and has a simple method of administration is strongly desired to improve the compliance of children. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for the intranasal (i.n.) co-administration of rhGH with poly-L-arginine (PLA) as a novel delivery system by evaluating the effects of the concentration and molecular weight of PLA on the nasal absorption of rhGH. The influence of the formation of insoluble aggregates and a soluble complex in the dosage formulation on nasal rhGH absorption was also evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration. PLA enhanced the nasal absorption of rhGH at each concentration and molecular weight examined. Nasal rhGH absorption increased dramatically when the PLA concentration was 1.0 % (w/v) due to the improved solubility of rhGH in the formulation. A delay in rhGH absorption was observed when the molecular weight of PLA was increased. This appeared to be because the increase in molecular weight caused the formation of a soluble complex. It seems that the PLA concentration affects the absorption-enhancing effect on rhGH, while the molecular weight of PLA affects the time when the maximum plasma rhGH concentration was reached (Tmax) of rhGH after i.n. administration, mainly because of the interactions among rhGH, PLA, and additives. Therefore, the transnasal rhGH delivery system using PLA is considered to be a promising alternative to subcutaneous (s.c.) injection if these interactions are sufficiently controlled.

  16. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Mehdi Bakhshaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  17. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis of nasal dorsum

    Shrinath D.P Kamath


    Full Text Available A 23-year-old lady presented with a slowly progressing firm mass on the nasal dorsum since 8 months. Her biochemical, haematological and collagen vascular disease screening tests were normal. Radiographs of the nasal bones showed a subcutaneous calcifying lesion with no evidence of nasal bone erosion. A diagnosis of idiopathic calcinosis cutis (ICC was made. The mass was excised and soft tissue defect was augmented with silicone prosthesis. The histopathology with the haematoxylin and eosin staining and von Kossa stain confirmed the diagnosis of calcinosis cutis. This is an unusual presentation of ICC involving the nasal dorsum requiring surgery and nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone prosthesis.

  18. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: A study

    Belagola D Sathyanarayana


    Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  19. Obstrução nasal por granuloma fúngico em eqüino: relato de caso Nasal obstruction caused by fungal granuloma in a horse: case report

    A.L.V. Zoppa


    Full Text Available Um eqüino de nove anos de idade apresentou ausência de ar expirado e secreção serossanguinolenta na narina direita, associado a ruído respiratório. Os exames endoscópico e radiológico mostraram uma formação de aproximadamente seis centímetros de diâmetro recoberta por mucosa amarelada, que obstruía a cavidade nasal direita e insinuava-se para a cavidade nasal esquerda. Tal massa foi ressecada por meio de sinusotomia frontal direita. O exame histológico e a cultura revelaram lesão granulomatosa causada por fungos. O tratamento pós-operatório compreendeu associação de antibiótico e antiinflamatório, assim como de lavagens com água destilada e chá de camomila.A 9-year-old horse presented serosanguineous nasal discharge, absence of breath out through the right nostril, and respiratory noise. Endoscopic and radiographic exams revealed a six centimeter diameter mass, covered by yellowish mucosa, which was obstructing the entire right nasal cavity and part of the left one. The mass was excised through a right frontal sinusotomy. The microscopic exam and the culture revealed a fungic granulomatous rhinitis. Antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs were postoperatively administered; moreover, camomile tea and distilled water were flushed in a drain placed above the bone flap.

  20. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K


    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.




    Full Text Available Nasal route of intubation is commonly used for surgical procedures involving Head and Neck, Patients with intra - oral pathology, structural abnormalities, trismus, cervical spine instability, cervical spine disease and OSA. The intubation may be aided by direct laryngoscopy, flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy or by blind technique. The classical tec hnique of blind nasal intubation requires a spontaneously breathing patient and uses breath sounds to guide placement. Most common complication associated with this technique is epistaxis. Other rare complications include - Inferior turbinate avulsion, mid dle turbinate/nasal polyp/tumour avulsion, Bacteraemia, Retropharyngeal mucosa dissection/laceration. Here we present to you a case of fracture mandible posted for ORIF for which blind nasal intubation was planned. While attempting the intubation the endot racheal tube coursed behind the retropharyngeal mucosa for a short distance before entering the trachea. Post - operatively the patient was put on Ryle’s tube feeding for 3 days followed by orals. The track healed spontaneously and the recovery was uneventfu l.


    Ramachandra Prabhu


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma is an inflammatory, reversible and progressive disease with episodes of exacerbations. Asthma is now considered as single airway disease and hence comprehensive diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of upper and lower respiratory tract is essential. Both the Nasal and Bronchial mucosa are the elements of united airway disease and Eosinophils measured from this mucosa can be an indirect marker of Airway inflammation in asthma. Eosinophil infiltration is hallmark feature of pathogenesis of asthma which is the trigger for the chronic airway inflammation and these are raised in acute exacerbations. Hence assessing Eosinophil is evidence of serological marker for Airway inflammation (AI. Nasal Smear Eosinophils (NSE is used in asthma with Allergic Rhinitis (AR. This study Using Definition of GINA explores the utility of NSE as marker for management of Asthma. METHODS: In this study 100 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma attending the outpatient department in KIMS were studied. The severity of asthma was assessed as per FEV1 classification- Adapted from 2007 NHLBI Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Asthma Expert panel Report 3. The Statistical analysis was done with SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment RESULTS: Asthma was more common in Females in this study with M: F ratio of 1.04 and Allergic Rhinitis was found in 55% of Asthmatics. Nasal Eosinophilia was seen in 44% in asthmatic group and 49% in Asthma with Allergic Rhinitis. Absolute Eosinophil count (AEC and Differential count (DC for Eosinophils was almost same in both groups. The Sensitivity of NSE with respect to DC is 70% and in AR group with Asthma and in Asthma group with/without AR it was 38%. Similarly the NSE with respect to AEC was 47% in AR group with Asthma whereas in Asthma group with/without AR it was 38%. CONCLUSIONS: The finding confirms that symptoms, Variable airflow Obstruction and


    Yu. G. KOLENKO


    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  4. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan


    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  5. Benefits, limits and danger of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as nasal decongestants.

    Laccourreye, O; Werner, A; Giroud, J-P; Couloigner, V; Bonfils, P; Bondon-Guitton, E


    Due to their vasoconstrictive action on the nasal mucosa, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are highly efficient amines for relief of nasal congestion. As with any vasoconstrictor and as underscored by the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology in its 2011 guideline, these molecules should not be used in patients under the age of 15. Furthermore, due to unpredictable severe cardiovascular and neurological adverse events that may occur even at low dose and in the absence of any pre-existing pathology, they should not be prescribed for the common cold, and ENT physicians must carefully weigh the risk/benefit ratio in patients with allergic rhinitis. Distribution should be regulated and over-the-counter sales banned.

  6. Effect of Aspirin and ibuprofen either alone or in combination on gastric mucosa and bleeding time and on serum prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 levels in the anaesthetized rats in vivo.

    Bastaki, Salim M A; Padol, Ireneusz T; Amir, Naheed; Hunt, Richard H


    There is much evidence that a combination of ibuprofen (IBU) and Aspirin (ASA) can antagonize the irreversible inhibition of platelet function. This study was designed to investigate the degree of gastric damage, bleeding time (BT) and fluctuations in the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) after oral administration of ASA (200 mg/kg) and IBU (50 mg/kg) either alone or in combination in rats in vivo. The stomach was assessed for any damage either after 6 h, 18 h or 6 days and carboxymethylcellulose (1% CMC) served as a vehicle and control. ELISA was used to measure TXA2 and PGE2 in serum. Bleeding time was assessed using tail blood. The results show that ASA and IBU either alone or in combination can cause gastric ulceration in 25-100% of the rats at 6 and 18 h. In contrast, gastric ulceration was seen in 50% of rats with a combination of ASA given before IBU only after 6 days of oral administration. BT was unaffected either by ASA or IBU when administered alone except after 18 h for IBU. In contrast, BT was significantly reduced when IBU was administered before ASA after 18 h and 6 days (P < 0.001). Serum PGE2 levels decreased significantly after ASA administered either alone or in combination with IBU for 6 h, 18 h and 6 days (P < 0.05). Serum TXA2 levels were significantly reduced after 6 h, 18 h and 6 days following ASA and IBU administration except for IBU alone which caused a significant increase in serum TXA2 6 days after its administration (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that ASA and IBU administered either alone or in combination can cause gastric ulcers in the rat stomach after 6 h and 18 h, but less severe after 6 days. IBU either alone or in combination with ASA reduced BT only after 18 h and 6 days of administration. Together, the results show that gastric ulceration correlated well with the inhibition of serum PGE2 and TXA2 levels.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Different Excipients on RPMI 2650 Human Nasal Epithelial Cells

    Tamás Horváth


    Full Text Available The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need to be tested in appropriate models for toxicity. The aim of the study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six pharmaceutical excipients, which could help to reach larger residence time, better permeability, and increased solubility dissolution rate. The following excipients were investigated on RPMI 2650 human nasal septum tumor epithelial cells: β-d-mannitol, sodium hyaluronate, α and β-cyclodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and methylcellulose. 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT dye conversion assay and real-time impedance analysis were used to investigate cytotoxicity. No excipient showed toxicity at 0.3% (w/v concentration or below while 1% concentration a significantly reduced metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay for methylcellulose and cyclodextrins. Using impedance measurements, only β-cyclodextrin (1% was toxic to cells. Mannitol at 1% concentration had a barrier opening effect on epithelial cells, but caused no cellular damage. Based on the results, all additives at 0.3%, sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol at 1% concentrations can be safely used for nasal formulations.

  8. C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Mediated Antigen Delivery for Nasal Pneumococcal Vaccine.

    Hidehiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Efficient vaccine delivery to mucosal tissues including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues is essential for the development of mucosal vaccine. We previously reported that claudin-4 was highly expressed on the epithelium of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT and thus claudin-4-targeting using C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE effectively delivered fused antigen to NALT and consequently induced antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, we applied the C-CPE-based vaccine delivery system to develop a nasal pneumococcal vaccine. We fused C-CPE with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA, an important antigen for the induction of protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, (PspA-C-CPE. PspA-C-CPE binds to claudin-4 and thus efficiently attaches to NALT epithelium, including antigen-sampling M cells. Nasal immunization with PspA-C-CPE induced PspA-specific IgG in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF as well as IgA in the nasal wash and BALF. These immune responses were sufficient to protect against pneumococcal infection. These results suggest that C-CPE is an efficient vaccine delivery system for the development of nasal vaccines against pneumococcal infection.

  9. The role of temporalis fascia for free mucosal graft survival in small nasal septal perforation repair.

    Jeon, Eun-Ju; Choi, Jin; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Won; Nam, In-Chul; Park, Yong-Su; Jin, Sang-Gyun; Cheon, Byung-Jun


    Temporalis fascia has been used widely as a interposition graft for mucosal rotation flap in nasal septal perforation repair. However, the exact role of temporalis fascia in healing process has not yet been clarified. For the pedicle of rotation flap has been considered as a major vehicle for nutrition distribution, the role of temporalis fascia has been devaluated. In this study, we experienced small nasal septal perforation repairs using free mucosal graft not having pedicles but covered by temporalis fascia. Three patients with small nasal septal perforations not larger than 1 × 1 cm were included. In 2 patients, the perforations were repaired using free composite grafts from the inferior turbinate mucosa covered by continuous temporalis fascia not divided, and the surgical results were successful with complete healings. In 1 patient, however, the temporalis fascia was divided into 2 parts to better fit the shape of the perforation, and the graft failed to survive. These surgical results suggest that the temporalis fascia might have an important role in healing process of nasal septal defect and could be used as a beneficial options for small mucosal defect repair surgeries using free mucosal grafts.

  10. Si-Jun-Zi decoction repairs mitochondrial damage of cells of liver,myocardium, gastric mucosa and skeletal muscle in rats with spleen asthenia%四君子汤对脾虚大鼠肝、心肌、胃黏膜和骨骼肌细胞线粒体损伤的修复作用

    刘友章; 王昌俊; 刘静; 周俊亮; 刘兆周; 欧志穗; 金友


    著低于正常对照组(P<0.01);自然复健组显著高于脾虚模型组(P<0.05~0.01);四君子汤组大鼠各组织线粒体含量最高,除显著高于脾虚模型组和自然复健组外(P<0.05~0.01),并显著高于正常对照组(P<0.01).②实验34周末各组大鼠骨骼肌、肝、心肌、胃黏膜组织线粒体形态比较:脾虚模型组大鼠心肌细胞线粒体高度肿胀;肝细胞线粒体致密质粒减少或消失,嵴断裂;骨骼肌细胞线粒体数量减少,线粒体变小,线粒体膜结构破坏;胃壁细胞线粒体减少,线粒体内部结构不清,胃主细胞线粒体峭断裂.自然复健组大鼠各组织的线粒体形态改变较轻,四君子汤组与正常对照组接近.结论:四君子汤具有提高脾虚大鼠骨骼肌、肝、心肌、胃黏膜组织细胞线粒体含量,修复线粒体损伤的作用.%BACKGROUND: Spleen is correlated with mitochondrion. The "spleen governs movement and transformation of food and liquids" in traditional Chinese medicine refers to not only the digestion and absorption of food in gastrointestinal tract, but also the process of biological oxidation and energy production of mitochondrion.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Si-Jun-Zi decoction (SJZD), a typical prescription for invigorating spleen and replenishing qi, on repairing the mitochondrial damage of cells of liver, myocardium, gastric mucosa and skeletal muscle in rats with spleen asthenia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTINGS: Second Department of Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the internal medicine laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the testing center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June to December in 2004. Forty SD rats were provided by the animal center of Guangzhou

  11. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.


    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition, aldehy

  12. Nasal Outcomes of Presurgical Nasal Molding in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Emily M. Williams


    Full Text Available Objective. Short-term nasal forms following primary lip repair were compared between presurgical nasal molding and control groups. Aim. To compare nasal symmetry between patients that had nasal molding and lip repair with those that had only lip repair. Design. Retrospective case-control study Patients. Complete unilateral CL+P patients had basilar and frontal photographs at two time points: (1 initial (2 postsurgical. 28 nasal molding patients and 14 control patients were included. Intervention. Presurgical nasal molding was performed prior to primary lip repair in intervention group. No nasal molding was performed in control group. Hypothesis. Nasal molding combined with lip surgery repair according to the Millard procedure provides superior nasal symmetry than surgery alone for nostril height-width ratios and alar groove ratios. Statistics. Shapiro-Wilk test of normality and Student’s -tests. Results. A statistically significant difference was found for postsurgical nostril height-width ratio (<.05. No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions. Nasal molding and surgery resulted in more symmetrical nostril height-width ratios than surgery alone. Alar groove ratios were not statistically significantly different between groups perhaps because application of nasal molding was not early enough; postsurgical nasal splints were not utilized; overcorrection was not performed for nasal molding.

  13. Multifunctional liposomes for nasal delivery of the anti-Alzheimer drug tacrine hydrochloride

    Corace, Giuseppe; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco


    . This approach was chosen in order to obtain at the same time two positive results: an enhanced drug permeation through nasal mucosa and a concomitant neuroprotective effect. Several liposome formulations were prepared using the Reverse Phase Evaporation technique followed by membrane filter extrusion...... formulations showed a mean diameter in the range of 175 nm to 219 nm with polydispersity index lower than 0.22, a lightly negative zeta potential and excellent encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, along with good mucoadhesive properties, multifunctional liposomes showed a markedly increase in tacrine...

  14. Nasal septum resection due congenital thickness in foalsRessecção de septo nasal devido ao espessamento congênito em potros

    Antônio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo Wouk


    Full Text Available Nasal obstructions caused by nasal septal diseases are uncommon in horses and the main causes are malformations, mucosal lesions, neoplasias and trauma. The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of nasal obstruction in foals. Clinical signs were progressive with reduction of air flow bilaterally, intense respiratory noise and dyspnea. Endoscopy evaluation was not performed because, in both cases, it was not possible to introduce the probe into the nasal cavity due to bilateral stenosis. Radiographic exam confirmed nasal septum thickness. Both animals were submitted to septum resection surgery. In order to promote a better respiratory condition, tracheotomy was performed in both foals prior the surgery. The surgical technique applied was modified from DOYLE technique described previously (2005. Briefly, nasal bone trephine role was initially done in order to do osteotomy of its caudal portion. For osteotomy a modified osteotomy was used. The dorsal and ventral limits of the nasal bone were removed with a obstetric wire protected by metalical guide. After surgical recovery, in both cases, the clinical exam showed that the air flow was normal and without noise, allowing the foals to breathe normally. Tracheotomy healed by second intention. After eight months both foals breathed comfortably and they were suitable for physical activity. Histopathology evaluation did not show signs of inflammation, neoplasia, and any other histological changes, suggesting the thickness was congenital.Obstruções nasais causadas por doenças do septo nasal são incomuns em cavalos e as principais causas são: malformações, lesões nas mucosas, neoplasias e trauma. O objetivo deste relato é descrever dois casos de obstrução nasal congênita em potros. Os sinais clínicos demonstravam redução progressiva do fluxo de ar bilateral, ruído respiratório e dispnéia intensa. Não foi possível realizar avaliação endoscópica pois em ambos os casos, n

  15. Glutamine Supplementation Reduces the Harmful Effect of Overtraining on the Mechanical Barrier of Small Intestinal Mucosa in Rats%过度训练对大鼠小肠粘膜机械屏障的影响及谷氨酰胺的干预作用

    杨加玲; 顾明


    目的:探讨过度训练对大鼠小肠粘膜机械屏障的影响及谷氨酰胺的干预作用和机制.方法:实验大鼠随机分为对照组(C)、过度训练组(HT)、谷氨酰胺干预组(HT+Gln).两HT组大鼠进行每周6次、共9周的力竭性跑台运动.HT+Gln组大鼠在运动前按1.5 g/kgBW剂量补充谷氨酰胺.9周后,末次运动训练后第二天晨取材,通过HE染色观察各组大鼠安静时小肠粘膜组织结构,并测定血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性、内毒素含量以及小肠SOD活性和MDA含量.结果:(1)与对照组比较,HT组大鼠小肠绒毛水肿增粗,数目明显减少,绒毛间隙变大,绒毛高度显著缩短,部分粘膜上皮细胞出现肿胀、变性,甚至坏死等病理性变化.且血浆DAO活性和内毒素含量显著升高,小肠组织SOD活性显著降低,MDA含量显著升高.(2)HT+Gln组大鼠小肠粘膜形态结构与对照组相比无明显变化.与HT组相比,HT+Gln组血浆DAO活性和内毒素含量显著降低,小肠组织MDA含量显著下降,SOD活性虽有所升高,但无显著性差异.结论:过度训练可使肠道清除自由基能力下降,氧自由基生成增加,从而导致小肠粘膜萎缩和损伤,破坏小肠粘膜屏障,引起小肠粘膜通透性增加,引起"内毒素易位".补充Gln可以增强机体抗氧化能力,有效缓解过度训练大鼠肠道粘膜的损伤,降低小肠粘膜通透性,对保护小肠粘膜的屏障功能有重要作用.%Objective To explore whether the glutamine (Gln) supplementation reduces the harmful effect of overtraining on the mechanical barrier of small intestinal mucosa. Methods Experimental rats were randomly divided into control group (C) , overtraining group (HT) and glutamine intervention group (HT+Gln) . Exhaustive training in group HT was carrying on for 9 weeks, 6 times/week. The rats in group HT+Gln was supplied with Gln( 1.5 g/kgBW) before training. Sampling was performed in the morning in the 2nd day after the last training, and

  16. Post septorhinoplasty custom-made unilateral nasal stent for nasal cleft deformity

    Manu Rathee


    Full Text Available Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case report provides a novel technique for fabrication of esthetic nasal stent after postseptorhinoplasty for secondary cleft nose deformity correction. Conclusion: This case report presents a simple, convenient technique for nasal stent fabrication for prevention of restenosis for cleft nose deformity post secondary septorhinoplasty. Provision of nasal stent allows breathing, maintains esthetics, comfort, nasal patency, and contour with minimal discomfort.

  17. Effects of fluoxetine on serum cortisol, TNF-α and expression of ICAM-1 in gastric mucosa in chronic stress rats%氟西汀对慢性应激大鼠血清皮质醇、肿瘤坏死因子-α、胃黏膜细胞间黏附分子-1表达的影响

    夏静; 邵云; 李艳辉; 王旭梅; 金魁和


    目的 研究氟西汀对慢性应激大鼠血清皮质醇、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量、胃黏膜细胞间黏附分子-1(ICAM-1)表达的影响.方法 将青年雄性Wistar大鼠24只随机分为对照组、应激组、氟西汀组各8只.应激组和氟西汀组大鼠每笼1只喂养,实验第1-21天,接受各种不同的应激.氟西汀组大鼠每天给予氟西汀水溶液灌胃.对照组大鼠群养不给任何刺激.实验第22天杀死所有大鼠,检测血清皮质醇、TNF-α浓度;用免疫组化法检测胃黏膜蛋白ICAM-1表达,进行图像分析,测定光密度平均值.结果 应激组大鼠与对照组比较,血清皮质醇含量[(77.12±9.76)μg/ml,(44.96±6.25)μg/ml,t=7.85,P<0.01]、TNF-α含量[(69.66±6.68)pg/ml,(39.21±3.57)pg/ml,t=11.37,P<0.01]、胃黏膜ICAM-1表达的光密度平均值[(53.87±6.84),(30.26±3.68),t=8.59,P<0.01]有明显增高;与应激组比较,氟西汀组大鼠血清皮质醇含量[(58.82±6.56)μg/ml,t=4.40,P<0.01]、TNF-α含量[(50.18±3.23)pg/ml,t=7.43.P<0.01]、胃黏膜ICAM-1表达的光密度平均值(36.61±4.39,t=6.00,P<0.01)明显下降.结论 慢性应激可引起大鼠血清皮质醇、TNF-α含量增高,胃黏膜ICAM-1过表达,而氟西汀可以部分的逆转这些改变.%Objective To study the effects of fluoxetine on serum cortisol, TNF-α and expression of ICAM-1 in gastric mucosa in chronic stress rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into control group,stress group and fluoxetine group randomly, and 8 rats each group. Stress group and fluoxetine group were separated one rat in each box, from 1 ~ 21 days,and accepted various types of stresses. At the same time,fluoxetine group were given fluoxetine every day. The control group were fed in two boxes with no stress from 1 ~ 21 days. On 22nd day, all the rats were killed. The concentrations of cortisol and TNF-α in serum were measured. Immunohistochemistry method was used to measure the expression of ICAM-1 protein in gastric mucosa

  18. Post septorhinoplasty custom-made unilateral nasal stent for nasal cleft deformity

    Manu Rathee; Mohaneesh Bhoria; Priyanka Boora


    Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case repo...

  19. IgG4-Related Nasal Pseudotumor

    L. K. Døsen


    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is recognized as one form of autoimmune pancreatitis. During the last ten years, it has also been described in several other organs. We present two patients with lesions showing a histological picture of fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations with abundant IgG4 positive plasma cells at hitherto unreported symmetrical nasal locations. The symmetrical complex consisted of one central lesion in the anterior nasal septum and the two others in each of the lateral nasal walls. The lesions extended from the anterior part of the inferior concha into the vestibulum and caused severe nasal obstruction.

  20. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L


    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  1. Fibroblasts isolated from human middle turbinate mucosa cause neural progenitor cells to differentiate into glial lineage cells.

    Xingjia Wu

    Full Text Available Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs is a potential therapy for repair of spinal cord injury (SCI. Autologous transplantation of OECs has been reported in clinical trials. However, it is still controversial whether purified OECs or olfactory mucosa containing OECs, fibroblasts and other cells should be used for transplantation. OECs and fibroblasts were isolated from olfactory mucosa of the middle turbinate from seven patients. The percentage of OECs with p75(NTR+ and GFAP(+ ranged from 9.2% to 73.2%. Fibroblasts were purified and co-cultured with normal human neural progenitors (NHNPs. Based on immunocytochemical labeling, NHNPs were induced into glial lineage cells when they were co-cultured with the mucosal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that OECs can be isolated from the mucosa of the middle turbinate bone as well as from the dorsal nasal septum and superior turbinates, which are the typical sites for harvesting OECs. Transplantation of olfactory mucosa containing fibroblasts into the central nervous system (CNS needs to be further investigated before translation to clinical application.

  2. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    Walker, Rachel


    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  3. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John


    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Com