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Sample records for rat mitochondrial malate

  1. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

  2. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

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    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats

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    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fe...

  4. FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS OF THE N-TERMINAL PREPEPTIDES OF WATERMELON MITOCHONDRIAL AND GLYOXYSOMAL MALATE-DEHYDROGENASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEHNERER, M; KEIZERGUNNIK, [No Value; VEENHUIS, M; GIETL, C

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial and glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; gMDH; L-malate : NAD(+) oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37) of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons are synthesized with N-terminal cleavable presequences which are shown to specify sorting of the two proteins. The two presequences differ in

  5. Pre-ischemic mitochondrial substrate constraint by inhibition of malate-aspartate shuttle preserves mitochondrial function after ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Nichlas Riise; Yokota, Takashi; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxiacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We examined whether transient inhibition of the MAS during ischaemia......, but not IPC, reduced the myocardial interstitial concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the onset of reperfusion. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that metabolic regulation by inhibition of the MAS at the onset of reperfusion may be beneficial for the preservation...... of mitochondrial function during late reperfusion in an IR-injured heart. ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR...

  6. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats.

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    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5 g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-(ΔΔC)T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.

  7. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

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    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  8. Calcium signaling in brain mitochondria: interplay of malate aspartate NADH shuttle and calcium uniporter/mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Laura; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2009-03-13

    Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria has been mainly attributed to Ca2+ entry to the matrix through the Ca2+ uniporter and activation of mitochondrial matrix dehydrogenases. However, mitochondria can also sense increases in cytosolic Ca2+ through a mechanism that involves the aspartate-glutamate carriers, extramitochondrial Ca2+ activation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). Both pathways are linked through the shared substrate alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG). Here we have studied the interplay between the two pathways under conditions of Ca2+ activation. We show that alphaKG becomes limiting when Ca2+ enters in brain or heart mitochondria, but not liver mitochondria, resulting in a drop in alphaKG efflux through the oxoglutarate carrier and in a drop in MAS activity. Inhibition of alphaKG efflux and MAS activity by matrix Ca2+ in brain mitochondria was fully reversible upon Ca2+ efflux. Because of their differences in cytosolic calcium concentration requirements, the MAS and Ca2+ uniporter-mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways are probably sequentially activated during a Ca2+ transient, and the inhibition of MAS at the center of the transient may provide an explanation for part of the increase in lactate observed in the stimulated brain in vivo.

  9. Phellinus rimosus improves mitochondrial energy status and attenuates nephrotoxicity in diabetic rats.

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    Rony, K A; Ajith, T A; Kuttikadan, Tony A; Blaze, R; Janardhanan, K K

    2017-09-26

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and increase in reactive oxygen species during diabetes can lead to pathological consequences in kidneys. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Phellinus rimosus in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat renal mitochondria and the possible mechanism of protection. Phellinus rimosus (50 and 250 mg/kg, p.o) was treated after inducing diabetes by STZ (45 mg/kg, i.p) in rats. The serum samples were subjected to creatinine and urea estimation. Mitochondrial antioxidant status such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione; adenosine triphosphate level; and lipid peroxidation were measured. The activities of Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, III, and IV in kidney mitochondria were also determined. Administration of P. rimosus (250 mg/kg b.wt) once daily for 30 days, significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, and ATP level. Further, P. rimosus had significantly protected the renal mitochondrial antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation. The results of the study concluded that by limiting the extent of renal mitochondrial damage in the hyperglycemic state, P. rimosus alleviated nephrotoxicity.

  10. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

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    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  11. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

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    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  12. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

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    Khushbu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult.

  13. Ferulic acid with ascorbic acid synergistically extenuates the mitochondrial dysfunction during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

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    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-10-27

    Disruption of mitochondria and free radical mediated tissue injury have been reported during cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic catecholamine. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of ferulic acid (FA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the mitochondrial damage in ISO induced cardiotoxicity. Induction of rats with ISO (150 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) for 2 days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of respiratory chain enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c-oxidase), tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), mitochondrial antioxidants (GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, GSH), cytochromes (b, c, c1, aa3) and in the level of mitochondrial phospholipids. A marked elevation in mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were also observed in ISO intoxicated rats. Pre-co-treatment with the combination of FA (20 mg/kg b.wt.) and AA (80 mg/kg b.wt.) orally for 6 days significantly enhanced the attenuation of these functional abnormalities and restored normal mitochondrial function when compared to individual drug treated groups. Mitigation of ISO induced biochemical and morphological changes in mitochondria were more pronounced with a combination of FA and AA rather than the individual drug treated groups. Transmission electron microscopic observations also correlated with these biochemical parameters. Hence, these findings demonstrate the synergistic ameliorative potential of FA and AA on mitochondrial function during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity and associated oxidative stress in rats.

  14. Methylene blue improves mitochondrial respiration and decreases oxidative stress in a substrate-dependent manner in diabetic rat hearts.

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    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petruş, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Raţiu, Corina D; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H 2 O 2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. H 2 O 2 production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μmol·L -1 ) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H 2 O 2 release in the presence of complex I substrates (glutamate and malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with complex II substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  15. Mitochondrial energy metabolism of rat hippocampus after treatment with the antidepressants desipramine and fluoxetine.

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    Villa, Roberto Federico; Ferrari, Federica; Bagini, Laura; Gorini, Antonella; Brunello, Nicoletta; Tascedda, Fabio

    2017-07-15

    Alterations in mitochondrial functions have been hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of depression, because brain bioenergetic abnormalities have been detected in depressed patients by neuroimaging in vivo studies. However, this hypothesis is not clearly demonstrated in experimental studies: some suggest that antidepressants are inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism, while others observe the opposite. In this study, the effects of 21-day treatment with desipramine (15 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were examined on the energy metabolism of rat hippocampus, evaluating the catalytic activity of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways. Because of the micro-heterogeneity of brain mitochondria, we have distinguished between (a) non-synaptic mitochondria (FM) of neuronal perikaryon (post-synaptic compartment) and (b) intra-synaptic light (LM) and heavy (HM) mitochondria (pre-synaptic compartment). Desipramine and fluoxetine changed the catalytic activity of specific enzymes in the different types of mitochondria: (a) in FM, both drugs enhanced cytochrome oxidase and glutamate dehydrogenase, (b) in LM, the overall bioenergetics was unaffected and (c) in HM only desipramine increased malate dehydrogenase and decreased the activities of Electron Transport Chain Complexes. These results integrate the pharmacodynamic features of desipramine and fluoxetine at subcellular level, overcoming the previous conflicting data about the effects of antidepressants on brain energy metabolism, mainly referred to whole brain homogenates or to bulk of cerebral mitochondria. With the differentiation in non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria, this study demonstrates that desipramine and fluoxetine lead to adjustments in the mitochondrial bioenergetics respect to the energy requirements of pre- and post-synaptic compartments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Malate and fumarate extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Clare B Edwards

    Full Text Available Malate, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle metabolite, increased lifespan and thermotolerance in the nematode C. elegans. Malate can be synthesized from fumarate by the enzyme fumarase and further oxidized to oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase with the accompanying reduction of NAD. Addition of fumarate also extended lifespan, but succinate addition did not, although all three intermediates activated nuclear translocation of the cytoprotective DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor and protected from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. The glyoxylate shunt, an anabolic pathway linked to lifespan extension in C. elegans, reversibly converts isocitrate and acetyl-CoA to succinate, malate, and CoA. The increased longevity provided by malate addition did not occur in fumarase (fum-1, glyoxylate shunt (gei-7, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (sdha-2, or soluble fumarate reductase F48E8.3 RNAi knockdown worms. Therefore, to increase lifespan, malate must be first converted to fumarate, then fumarate must be reduced to succinate by soluble fumarate reductase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex II. Reduction of fumarate to succinate is coupled with the oxidation of FADH2 to FAD. Lifespan extension induced by malate depended upon the longevity regulators DAF-16 and SIR-2.1. Malate supplementation did not extend the lifespan of long-lived eat-2 mutant worms, a model of dietary restriction. Malate and fumarate addition increased oxygen consumption, but decreased ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential suggesting a mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Malate also increased NADPH, NAD, and the NAD/NADH ratio. Fumarate reduction, glyoxylate shunt activity, and mild mitochondrial uncoupling likely contribute to the lifespan extension induced by malate and fumarate by increasing the amount of oxidized NAD and FAD cofactors.

  17. The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats

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    Kephart, Wesley C.; Mumford, Petey W.; Mao, Xuansong; Romero, Matthew A.; Hyatt, Hayden W.; Zhang, Yufeng; Mobley, Christopher B.; Quindry, John C.; Young, Kaelin C.; Beck, Darren T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the

  18. Reperfusion promotes mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

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    Jun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the cell death observed after cerebral ischemia, and several mechanisms for this dysfunction have been proposed. Reperfusion after transient cerebral ischemia may cause continued and even more severe damage to the brain. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to observe the features of mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated mitochondria during the reperfusion period following focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated mitochondria were fixed for electron microscopic examination; calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling was quantified using spectrophotometry. Cyclophilin D was detected by Western blotting. Fluorescent probes were used to selectively stain mitochondria to measure their membrane potential and to measure reactive oxidative species production using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Signs of damage were observed in the mitochondrial morphology after exposure to reperfusion. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+ increased gradually with the increasing calcium concentration, and this tendency was exacerbated as the reperfusion time was extended. Cyclophilin D protein expression peaked after 24 hours of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly during the reperfusion period, with the greatest decrease observed after 24 hours of reperfusion. The surge in mitochondrial reactive oxidative species occurred after 2 hours of reperfusion and was maintained at a high level during the reperfusion period. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia induced significant mitochondrial morphological damage and Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial swelling. The mechanism of this swelling may be mediated by

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and gene transcription in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.W.; Bjork, J.A.; Wallace, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in the production of non-stick surface compounds, exhibits a worldwide distribution in the serum of humans and wildlife. In rodents PFOA transactivates PPARα and PPARγ nuclear receptors and increases mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which may be critical to the altered metabolic state of affected animals. A key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcription of mitochondrial genes is the PPARγ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) protein. The purpose of this study was to determine if Pgc-1α is implicated in the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis that occurs following the treatment of rats with PFOA. Livers from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that received a 30 mg/kg daily oral dose of PFOA for 28 days were used for all experiments. Analysis of mitochondrial replication and transcription was performed by real time PCR, and proteins were detected using western blotting. PFOA treatment caused a transcriptional activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway leading to a doubling of mtDNA copy number. Further, transcription of OXPHOS genes encoded by mtDNA was 3-4 times greater than that of nuclear encoded genes, suggestive of a preferential induction of mtDNA transcription. Western blot analysis revealed an increase in Pgc-1α, unchanged Tfam and decreased Cox II and Cox IV subunit protein expression. We conclude that PFOA treatment in rats induces mitochondrial biogenesis at the transcriptional level with a preferential stimulation of mtDNA transcription and that this occurs by way of activation of the Pgc-1α pathway. Implication of the Pgc-1α pathway is consistent with PPARγ transactivation by PFOA and reveals new understanding and possibly new critical targets for assessing or averting the associated metabolic disease.

  20. Correlation between myocardial malate/aspartate shuttle activity and EAAT1 protein expression in hyper- and hypothyroidism.

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    Ralphe, J Carter; Bedell, Kurt; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2005-05-01

    In the heart, elevated thyroid hormone leads to upregulation of metabolic pathways associated with energy production and development of hypertrophy. The malate/aspartate shuttle, which transfers cytosolic-reducing equivalents into the cardiac mitochondria, is increased 33% in hyperthyroid rats. Within the shuttle, the aspartate-glutamate carrier is rate limiting. The excitatory amino acid transporter type 1 (EAAT1) functions as a glutamate carrier in the malate/aspartate shuttle. In this study, we hypothesize that EAAT1 is regulated by thyroid hormone. Adult rats were injected with triiodothyronine (T3) or saline over a period of 8-9 days or provided with propylthiouracil (PTU) in their drinking water for 2 mo. Steady-state mRNA levels of EAAT1 and aralar1 and citrin (both cardiac mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporters) were determined by Northern blot analysis and normalized to 18S rRNA. A spectrophotometric assay of maximal malate/aspartate shuttle activity was performed on isolated cardiac mitochondria from PTU-treated and control animals. Protein lysates from mitochondria were separated by SDS-PAGE and probed with a human anti-EAAT1 IgG. Compared with control, EAAT1 mRNA levels (arbitrary units) were increased nearly threefold in T3-treated (3.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.2; P Hyperthyroidism in rats is related to an increase in cardiac expression of EAAT1 mRNA and protein. The 49% increase in EAAT1 mitochondrial protein level shows that malate/aspartate shuttle activity increased in hyperthyroid rat cardiac mitochondria. Although hypothyroidism resulted in a decrease in EAAT1 mRNA, neither the EAAT1 protein level nor shuttle activity was affected. EAAT1 regulation by thyroid hormone may facilitate increased metabolic demands of the cardiomyocyte during hyperthyroidism and impact cardiac function in hyperthyroidism.

  1. Co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins in the lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy of rat brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Giralt, M; Viñas, O; Iglesias, R; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F

    1995-01-01

    The relative abundance of the mitochondrial-encoded mRNAs for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I was lower in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from lactating rats than in virgin controls. This decrease was in parallel with a significant decrease in mitochondrial 16 S rRNA levels and in the relative content of mitochondrial DNA in the tissue. BAT from lactating rats showed lowered mRNA expression of the nuclear-encoded genes for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase and the adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms ANT1 and ANT2, whereas mRNA levels for the ATP synthase beta-subunit were unchanged. However, the relative content of this last protein was lower in BAT mitochondria from lactating rats than in virgin controls. It is concluded that lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy in BAT is associated with a co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins. This decrease is caused by regulatory events acting at different levels, including pre- and post-transcriptional regulation. BAT appears to be a useful model with which to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the co-ordination of the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8948428

  2. Impaired mitochondrial functions contribute to 3-bromopyruvate toxicity in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Ondřej; Endlicher, René; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, Otto; Rychtrmoc, David; Raad, Marjan; Hakeem, Khurum; Červinková, Zuzana

    2016-08-01

    A compound with promising anticancer properties, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a synthetic derivative of a pyruvate molecule; however, its toxicity in non-malignant cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we elected to study the effects of 3-BP on primary hepatocytes in monolayer cultures, permeabilized hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After a 1-h treatment with 100 μM 3-BP cell viability of rat hepatocytes was decreased by 30 % as measured by the WST-1 test (p < 0.001); after 3-h exposure to ≥200 μM 3-BP lactate dehydrogenase leakage was increased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species production was increased in the cell cultures after a 1-h treatment at concentrations ≥100 μmol/l (p < 0.01), and caspase 3 activity was increased after a 20-h incubation with 150 μM and 200 μM 3-BP (p < 0.001). This toxic effect of 3-BP was also proved using primary mouse hepatocytes. In isolated mitochondria, 3-BP induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential during a 10-min incubation both with Complex I substrates glutamate + malate or Complex II substrate succinate, although this decrease was more pronounced with the latter. We also measured the effect of 3-BP on respiration of isolated mitochondria. ADP-activated respiration was inhibited by 20 μM 3-BP within 10 min. Similar effects were also found in permeabilized hepatocytes of both species.

  3. Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J L; Wu, Q P; Huang, J M; Chen, R; Cai, M; Tan, J B

    2007-01-01

    L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.

  4. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  5. Translation of mitochondrial proteins in digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzela, S.; Wielburski, A.; Nelson, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Although it is now clear that up to 13 peptides may be encoded in mammalian mitochondrial DNA there is little agreement concerning the numbers of stable translation products detectable in these mitochondria. Part of this uncertainty is due to the low rates of labeling of mammalian mitochondrial translations products resulting from the relatively slow growth rates of mammalian cells. Indeed, it is often necessary to isolate mammalian mitochondria in order to analyze their translation products, and the isolation procedures could conceivably lead to artifacts from proteolysis or from the early release of nascent peptides. To circumvent this problem, it would be desirable to have available a mammalian system which combines the advantage of high rates of labeling of mitochondrial proteins with rapid preparation times. The authors report the novel use of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes, which provide such a system. This preparation, which is complete in <10 min, does not carry out cytosolic protein synthesis, but labels mitochondrial translation products at rates much higher than intact cells or isolated, in vitro labeled mitochondria. (Auth.)

  6. The antidiabetic drug metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Dringen, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping 13 C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U- 13 C]glucose. The presence of metformin did not compromise the viability of cultured astrocytes during 4 hr of incubation, but almost doubled cellular glucose consumption and lactate release. Compared with control cells, the presence of metformin dramatically lowered the molecular 13 C carbon labeling (MCL) of the cellular TCA cycle intermediates citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malate, as well as the MCL of the TCA cycle intermediate-derived amino acids glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. In addition to the total molecular 13 C labeling, analysis of the individual isotopomers of TCA cycle intermediates confirmed a severe decline in labeling and a significant lowering in TCA cycling ratio in metformin-treated astrocytes. Finally, the oxygen consumption of mitochondria isolated from metformin-treated astrocytes was drastically reduced in the presence of complex I substrates, but not of complex II substrates. These data demonstrate that exposure to metformin strongly impairs complex I-mediated mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes, which is likely to cause the observed decrease in labeling of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates and the stimulation of glycolytic lactate production. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, NRF-1α and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  8. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  9. Hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirai, Y.; Koga, N.; Tomokuni, K.

    1983-01-01

    The hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/ was investigated with specific reference to the oxygen utilization of liver slices. In control rats, the major oxygen utilization of the liver slices was attributed to mitochondrial particles. Since the mitochondrial oxygen utilization was inhibited by cyanide, the microsomal oxygen utilization was induced by NADPH and phenobarbital (a substrate for microsomal mixed function oxidase). Changes in oxygen utilization were observed in the recovery course of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/, and the recovery of mitochondria was found to be faster than that of microsomes. A sex difference was present in the recovery mechanism of the microsomes.

  10. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 evokes chromosomal instability and transforms primary rat skin fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Kashuba, Elena; Carbone, Ennio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Tirinato, Luca; Petruchek, Maria; Drummond, Catherine; Kovalevska, Larysa; Gurrapu, Sreeharsha; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Darekar, Suhas D.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown earlier that overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts. The derived cells expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, and cellular pathways

  11. Effect of Lamium Album on Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosh Khanaki

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: According to the present findings, it seems that L. album at a dose of 100 mg/kg could not decrease mitochondrial ROS production from neutrophils in diabetic rats. Further studies considering higher concentrations of L. album are appreciated to evaluate its impact on the production of mitochondrial ROS along with extracellular ROS in diabetes condition.

  12. Cellular distribution, purification and electrophoretic properties of malate dehydrogenase in Trichuris ovis and inhibition by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Ortega, J E; Valero, A

    1989-12-01

    High levels of malate dehydrogenase were found in Trichuris ovis. Two molecular forms of the enzyme, of different cellular location and electrophoretic pattern, were isolated and purified. The activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase was greater than that of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Both forms also displayed different electrophoretic profiles in comparison with purified extracts from goat (Capra hircus) liver. Substrate concentration directly affected enzyme activity. Host and parasite malate dehydrogenase activity were both inhibited by a series of benzimidazoles and pyrimidine-derived compounds, some of which markedly reduced parasite enzyme activity, but not host enzyme activity. Percentage inhibition by some pyrimidine derivatives was greater than that produced by benzimidazoles.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats: effect of l-Arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M Del Carmen; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Albertoni Borghese, M Florencia; Balonga, Sabrina; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana Laura; Cicerchia, Daniela; Majowicz, Monica; Bustamante, Juanita

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many diseases, including diabetes. It is well known that oxygen free radical species are produced endogenously by mitochondria, and also nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) associated to mitochondrial membranes, in consequence these organelles constitute main targets for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to analyze mitochondrial physiology and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats in an early stage of diabetes and the potential effect of L-arginine administration. The diabetic condition was characterized by a clear hyperglycaemic state with loose of body weight after 4 days of STZ injection. This hyperglycaemic state was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction that was evident by an impairment of the respiratory activity, increased production of superoxide anion and a clear mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, the alteration in mitochondrial physiology was associated with a significant decrease in both NO production and nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS I) expression associated to the mitochondrial membranes. An increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain cortex homogenates from STZ-diabetic rats indicated the presence of lipid peroxidation. L-arginine treatment to diabetic rats did not change blood glucose levels but significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lower TBARS and a lower level of superoxide anion. This effect was paralleled by improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function and a partial mitochondrial repolarization.In addition, the administration of L-arginine to diabetic rats prevented the decrease in NO production and NOSI expression. These results could indicate that exogenously administered L-arginine may have beneficial effects on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats.

  14. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Kousei

    2016-01-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity was evaluated using primary rat hepatocytes. • Galactose and hyperoxia could activate OXPHOS in primary rat hepatocytes. • Cells with enhanced OXPHOS exhibit improved sensitivity to mitochondrial toxins. • Transferrin potentiate mitochondrial toxicity via increased ROS production.

  15. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi, E-mail: ssekine@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Ito, Kousei

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity was evaluated using primary rat hepatocytes. • Galactose and hyperoxia could activate OXPHOS in primary rat hepatocytes. • Cells with enhanced OXPHOS exhibit improved sensitivity to mitochondrial toxins. • Transferrin potentiate mitochondrial toxicity via increased ROS production.

  16. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Pokkunuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP- mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month and aged (21-month Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls and with GP (1.5% in drinking water and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions.

  17. Nutritional support contributes to recuperation in a rat model of aplastic anemia by enhancing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Lifen; Liu, Bing; Shan, Yujia; Li, Yang; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2018-02-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease that leads to hematopoietic disorder and peripheral blood pancytopenia. We investigated whether nutritional support is helpful to AA recovery. We established a rat model with AA. A nutrient mixture was administered to rats with AA through different dose gavage once per day for 55 d. Animals in this study were assigned to one of five groups: normal control (NC; group includes normal rats); AA (rats with AA); high dose (AA + nutritional mixture, 2266.95 mg/kg/d); medium dose (1511.3 mg/kg/d); and low dose (1057.91 mg/kg/d). The effects of nutrition administration on general status and mitochondrial function of rats with AA were evaluated. The nutrient mixture with which the rats were supplemented significantly improved weight, peripheral blood parameters, and histologic parameters of rats with AA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that the number of mitochondria in the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain was increased after supplementation by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Nutrient administration also improved mitochondrial DNA content, adenosine triphosphate content, and membrane potential but inhibited oxidative stress, thus, repairing the mitochondrial dysfunction of the rats with AA. Taken together, nutrition supplements may contribute to the improvement of mitochondrial function and play an important role in the recuperation of rats with AA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adiponectin alleviates genioglossal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanpeng Huang

    Full Text Available Genioglossal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS characterized by nocturnal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The pathophysiology of genioglossal dysfunction and possible targeted pharmacotherapy for alleviation of genioglossal injury in CIH require further investigation.Rats in the control group were exposed to normal air, while rats in the CIH group and CIH+adiponectin (AD group were exposed to the same CIH condition (CIH 8 hr/day for 5 successive weeks. Furthermore, rats in CIH+AD group were administrated intravenous AD supplementation at the dosage of 10 µg, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. We found that CIH-induced genioglossus (GG injury was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in the numbers of mitochondrias, impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, and a reduction in type I fibers. Compared with the CIH group, impaired mitochondrial structure and function was significantly improved and a percentage of type I fiber was elevated in the CIH+AD group. Moreover, compared with the control group, the rats' GG in the CIH group showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK, and PGC1-α, whereas there was significant rescue of such reduction in phosphorylation within the CIH+AD group.CIH exposure reduces mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs mitochondrial function in GG, while AD supplementation increases mitochondrial contents and alleviates CIH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction possibly through the AMPK pathway.

  19. Elevated mitochondrial gene expression during rat liver regeneration after portal vein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Suzuki, H; Nimura, Y; Onoue, S; Nagino, M; Tanaka, M; Ozawa, T

    1995-10-01

    We explored the molecular basis of mitochondrial energy production during rat liver regeneration after portal vein ligation. Ligation of the left branch of the portal vein induces an increase in the weight of the nonligated lobe, counterbalancing the reduced weight of the ligated lobe. Using this model, we investigated changes in mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat hepatocytes of the nonligated lobes. The amount of mitochondrial DNA-binding protein increased maximally (200% to 300% of the preoperative level) at 12 hours after the operation, before an increase (390%) in mitochondrial DNA content at 24 hours, and parallel to an increase (240%) in mitochondrial mRNA levels at 12 hours. These results suggest that the energy supply for liver regeneration is achieved through enhancement of mitochondrial DNA replication as well as transcription, in which the mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins probably play regulatory roles. We also found that in the nonligated lobes, mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor increased to a detectable level only 12 hours after the operation. These molecular biochemical data help explain why preoperative portal vein embolization, which is a modification of portal vein branch ligation, is an effective method to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure.

  20. Triiodothyronine induces lipid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat Harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Burrone, L; Falvo, S; Senese, R; Lanni, A; Chieffi Baccari, G

    2013-10-01

    The rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones. In this study, we found that both isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (Trα (Thra) and Trβ (Thrb)) are expressed in rat HGs. Although Thra is expressed at a higher level, only Thrb is regulated by triiodothyronine (T3). Because T3 induces an increase in lipid metabolism in rat HGs, we investigated the effects of an animal's thyroid state on the expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (Cpt1b) and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox1) (rate-limiting enzymes in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation respectively), as well as on the mitochondrial compartment, thereby correlating mitochondrial activity and biogenesis with morphological analysis. We found that hypothyroidism decreased the expression of Cpt1b and Acox1 mRNA, whereas the administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats increased transcript levels. Respiratory parameters and catalase protein levels provided further evidence that T3 modulates mitochondrial and peroxisomal activities. Furthermore, in hypothyroid rat HGs, the mitochondrial number and their total area decreased with respect to the controls, whereas the average area of the individual mitochondrion did not change. However, the average area of the individual mitochondrion was reduced by ∼50% in hypothyroid T3-treated HGs, and the mitochondrial number and the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased. The mitochondrial morphometric data correlated well with the molecular results. Indeed, hypothyroid status did not modify the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1 and Tfam, whereas T3 treatment increased the expression level of these genes.

  1. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  2. Increased Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Zucker Diabetic Rat Liver and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, FA/FA rat is a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance with progressive metabolic syndrome. We have previously demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the heart, kidneys and pancreas of ZDF rats. However, the precise molecular mechanism of disease progression is not clear. Our aim in the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Methods: In this study, we have measured mitochondrial oxidative stress, bioenergetics and redox homeostasis in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Results: Our results showed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in the ZDF rat brain compared to the liver, while nitric oxide (NO production was markedly increased both in the brain and liver. High levels of lipid and protein peroxidation were also observed in these tissues. Glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory functions were adversely affected in ZDF rats when compared to Zucker lean (ZL, +/FA control rats. Reduced ATP synthesis was also observed in the liver and brain of ZDF rats. Western blot analysis confirmed altered expression of cytochrome P450 2E1, iNOS, p-JNK, and IκB-a confirming an increase in oxidative and metabolic stress in ZDF rat tissues. Conclusions: Our data shows that, like other tissues, ZDF rat liver and brain develop complications associated with redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results, thus, might have implications in understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of diabesity which in turn, would help in managing the disease associated complications.

  3. In vitro effects of toxaphene on mitochondrial calcium ATPase and calcium uptake in selected rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottman, C.H.; Rao, K.S.P.; Morrow, W.; Uzodinma, J.E.; Desaiah, D.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro effects of toxaphene on Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca 2+ -uptake were studied in mitochondrial fractions of heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared by the conventional centrifugation method. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity was determined by measuring the inorganic phosphate liberated during ATP hydrolysis. Toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase in a concentration dependent manner in all the three tissues. Substrate activation kinetics, with heart, kidney and liver tissue fractions, revealed that toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase activity non-competetively by decreasing the maximum velocity of the enzyme without affecting the enzyme-substrate affinity. Toxaphene also inhibited mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ -uptake in the three selected tissues in a concentration dependent manner. These results indicate that toxaphene is an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca 2+ -ATPase and calcium transport in heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. 19 references, 5 figures

  4. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation of oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Cánovas-Márquez, José T; Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous fungi requires the supply of reducing power, NADPH, and the precursor of fatty acids, acetyl-CoA, which is generated in the cytosol being produced by ATP: citrate lyase which requires citrate to be, transported from the mitochondrion by the citrate/malate/pyruvate transporter. This transporter, which is within the mitochondrial membrane, transports cytosolic malate into the mitochondrion in exchange for mitochondrial citrate moving into the cytosol (Fig. 1). The role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi is not fully understood, however. Therefore, the expression level of the mt gene, coding for a malate transporter, was manipulated in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides to analyze its effect on lipid accumulation. The results showed that mt overexpression increased the lipid content for about 70 % (from 13 to 22 % dry cell weight, CDW), whereas the lipid content in mt knockout mutant decreased about 27 % (from 13 to 9.5 % CDW) compared with the control strain. Furthermore, the extracellular malate concentration was decreased in the mt overexpressing strain and increased in the mt knockout strain compared with the wild-type strain. This work suggests that the malate transporter plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungus M. circinelloides.

  7. Melanocortin 4 Receptor Activation Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Hao; Liu, Jiao; Qin, Gui-Jun; Li, Xia-Lian; Du, Pei-Jie; Hao, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Tian, Tian; Wu, Jing; Yun, Meng; Bai, Yan-Hui

    2017-11-01

    A previous study has confirmed that the central melanocortin system was able to mediate skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in mice fed a high-fat diet, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our hypothesis was that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) was involved in the development of skeletal muscle injury in diabetic rats. In this study, we treated diabetic rats intracerebroventricularly with MC4R agonist R027-3225 or antagonist SHU9119, respectively. Then, we measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial biogenesis, and the protein levels of p-AMPK, AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. The results showed that there was significant skeletal muscle injury in the diabetic rats along with serious oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. Treatment with R027-3225 reduced oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, and also activated the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. However, diabetic rats injected with MC4R antagonist SHU9119 showed an aggravated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our results revealed that MC4R activation was able to attenuate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle induced by diabetes partially through activating the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4072-4079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

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    Kathryn Bauerly

    Full Text Available We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ- or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+. Measurements included: 1 serum glucose and insulin, 2 total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4, 3 respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states, 4 changes in plasma lipids, 5 the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6 indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+ were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

  9. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

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    Hongjuan Yu

    Full Text Available A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1 is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial function of AKIP1 is, however, still elusive. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial function of AKIP1 in a neonatal cardiomyocyte model of phenylephrine (PE-induced hypertrophy. Using a seahorse flux analyzer we show that PE stimulated the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR in cardiomyocytes. This was partially dependent on PE mediated AKIP1 induction, since silencing of AKIP1 attenuated the increase in OCR. Interestingly, AKIP1 overexpression alone was sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial OCR and in particular ATP-linked OCR. This was also true when pyruvate was used as a substrate, indicating that it was independent of glycolytic flux. The increase in OCR was independent of mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in ETC density or altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In fact, the respiratory flux was elevated per amount of ETC, possibly through enhanced ETC coupling. Furthermore, overexpression of AKIP1 reduced and silencing of AKIP1 increased mitochondrial superoxide production, suggesting that AKIP1 modulates the efficiency of electron flux through the ETC. Together, this suggests that AKIP1 overexpression improves mitochondrial function to enhance respiration without excess superoxide generation, thereby implicating a role for AKIP1 in mitochondrial stress adaptation. Upregulation of AKIP1 during different forms of cardiac stress may therefore be an adaptive mechanism to protect the heart.

  10. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  11. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase α subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

  12. Protective effects of myricetin on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance and mitochondrial impairments in rats.

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    Dan Zou

    Full Text Available Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myricetin, a dietary flavonoid compound widely found in fruits and vegetables, on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance in vivo and in vitro.Male rats were administered myricetin or vehicle for 7 days and subsequently spent 24 hours at a barometric pressure equivalent to 5000 m. Exercise capacity was then assessed through the run-to-fatigue procedure, and mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The enzymatic activities of electron transfer complexes were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. mtDNA was quantified by real-time-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining. Protein expression was detected through western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence.Myricetin supplementation significantly prevented the decline of run-to-fatigue time of rats in hypoxia, and attenuated acute hypoxia-induced mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle cells in vivo and in vitro by maintaining mitochondrial structure, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of the respiratory chain complexes. Further studies showed that myricetin maintained mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells under hypoxic conditions by up-regulating the expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related regulators, in addition, AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK plays a crucial role in this process.Myricetin may have important applications for improving physical performance under hypoxic environment, which may be attributed to the protective effect against mitochondrial impairment by maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis.

  13. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 μM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt max of 105 ± 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 ± 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 ± 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 ± 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 ± 1 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 ± 3 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  14. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  15. Factors influencing radiation-induced impairment of rat liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, K.C.; Aiyar, A.S.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of some experimental conditions on the radiation-induced impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria has been studied. Shielding of the liver during whole body irradiation of the animal does not significantly alter the decreased efficiency of phosphorylation. There exists a great disparity in the in vivo and in vitro radiation doses required for the manifestation of damage to liver mitochondria. While these observations point to the abscopal nature of the radiation effects, direct involvement of the adrenals has been ruled out by studies with adrenalectomised rats. Prior administration of the well known radio-protective agents, serotonin or 2-aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide hydrobromide, is effective in preventing the derangement of mitochondrial function following radioexposure. The hypocholesterolemic drug ethyl-α-p-chlorophenoxy isobutyrate, which is known to influence hepatic mitochondrial turnover, does not afford any significant protection against either mitochondrial damage or the mortality of the animals due to whole body irradiation. (author)

  16. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  18. Diglycolic acid, the toxic metabolite of diethylene glycol, chelates calcium and produces renal mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Taylor; Landry, Greg M; Aw, Tak Yee; Nichols, Royce; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) has caused many cases of acute kidney injury and deaths worldwide. Diglycolic acid (DGA) is the metabolite responsible for the renal toxicity, but its toxic mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction produced from DGA by examining several mitochondrial processes potentially contributing to renal cell toxicity. The effect of DGA on mitochondrial membrane potential was examined in normal human proximal tubule (HPT) cells. Isolated rat kidney mitochondria were used to assess the effects of DGA on mitochondrial function, including respiratory parameters (States 3 and 4), electron transport chain complex activities and calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. DGA was compared with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to determine calcium chelating ability. DGA cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cultured proximal tubule cells. DGA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in HPT cells. In rat kidney mitochondria, DGA decreased State 3 respiration, but did not affect State 4 respiration or the ADP/O ratio. DGA reduced glutamate/malate respiration at lower DGA concentrations (0.5 mmol/L) than succinate respiration (100 mmol/L). DGA inhibited Complex II activity without altering Complex I, III or IV activities. DGA blocked calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, indicating inhibition of the calcium-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition. DGA and EGTA reduced the free calcium concentration in solution in an equimolar manner. DGA toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction occurred as similar concentrations. DGA inhibited mitochondrial respiration, but without uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The more potent effect of DGA on glutamate/malate respiration and the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling was likely due to its chelation of calcium. These results indicate that DGA produces mitochondrial dysfunction by chelating calcium to

  19. Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats

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    Babak Ebadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT, moderate (MIIT, low (LIIT, sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05. Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05. Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT, despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission

  20. Response of mitochondrial function to hypothyroidism in normal and regenerated rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, J; Ventura-Clapier, R; Serrurier, B; Bigard, A X

    2001-01-01

    Although thyroid hormones induce a well known decrease in muscle oxidative capacity, nothing is known concerning their effects on mitochondrial function and regulation in situ. Similarly, the influence of regeneration process is not completely understood. We investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on mitochondrial function in fast gastrocnemius (GS) and slow soleus (SOL) muscles either intact or having undergone a cycle of degeneration/regeneration (Rg SOL) following a local injection of myotoxin. Thyroid hormone deficiency was induced by thyroidectomy and propylthiouracyl via drinking water. Respiration was measured in muscle fibres permeabilised by saponin in order to assess the oxidative capacity of the muscles and the regulation of mitochondria in situ. Oxidative capacities were 8.9 in SOL, 8.5 in Rg SOL and 5.9 micromol O2/min/g dry weight in GS and decreased by 52, 42 and 39% respectively (P hypothyroid rats. Moreover, the Km of mitochondrial respiration for the phosphate acceptor ADP exhibited a two-fold decrease in Rg SOL and intact SOL by hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism markedly altered the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP but not to creatine in SOL muscles, suggesting that mitochondrial regulation could be partially controlled by thyroid hormones. On the other hand, mitochondrial function completely recovered following regeneration/degeneration, suggesting that thyroid hormones are not involved in the regeneration process per se.

  1. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkut, S.

    1978-01-01

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  2. Mitochondrial targeted neuron focused genes in hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pushpa; Su, Yan A; Barry, Erin S; Grunberg, Neil E; Lei, Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a major health problem in civilian populations as well as among the military service members due to (1) lack of effective treatments, and (2) our incomplete understanding about the progression of secondary cell injury cascades resulting in neuronal cell death due to deficient cellular energy metabolism and damaged mitochondria. The aim of this study was to identify and delineate the mitochondrial targeted genes responsible for altered brain energy metabolism in the injured brain. Rats were either grouped into naïve controls or received lateral fluid percussion brain injury (2-2.5 atm) and followed up for 7 days. Rats were either grouped into naïve controls or received lateral fluid percussion brain injury (2-2.5 atm) and followed for 7 days. The severity of brain injury was evaluated by the neurological severity scale-revised (NSS-R) at 3 and 5 days post TBI and immunohistochemical analyses at 7 days post TBI. The expression profiles of mitochondrial-targeted genes across the hippocampus from TBI and naïe rats were also examined by oligo-DNA microarrays. NSS-R scores of TBI rats (5.4 ± 0.5) in comparison to naïe rats (3.9 ± 0.5) and H and E staining of brain sections suggested a mild brain injury. Bioinformatics and systems biology analyses showed 31 dysregulated genes, 10 affected canonical molecular pathways including a number of genes involved in mitochondrial enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation, mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAP), peroxisome proliferator-activated protein (PPAP), apoptosis signaling, and genes responsible for long-term potentiation of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Our results suggest that dysregulated mitochondrial-focused genes in injured brains may have a clinical utility for the development of future therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of TBI.

  3. The antidiabetic drug metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    , and malate, as well as the MCL of the TCA cycle intermediate-derived amino acids glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. In addition to the total molecular 13 C labeling, analysis of the individual isotopomers of TCA cycle intermediates confirmed a severe decline in labeling and a significant lowering in TCA...... tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping 13 C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-13 C]glucose. The presence of metformin did not compromise the viability of cultured...

  4. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    -specific phosphorylation sites were identified in tissue-specific enzymes such as those encoded by HMGCS2, BDH1, PCK2, CPS1, and OTC in liver mitochondria, and CKMT2 and CPT1B in heart and skeletal muscle. Kinase prediction showed an important role for PKA and PKC in all tissues but also for proline-directed kinases......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...... of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including...

  6. Occurrence of the malate-aspartate shuttle in various tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1976-04-01

    The activity of the malate-aspartate shuttle for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by mitochondria was assessed in six lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Krebs II carcinoma, Novikoff hepatoma, AS-30D hepatoma, and L1210 mouse leukemia). All the tumor cells examined showed mitochondrial reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH, as evidenced by the accumulation of pyruvate when the cells were incubated aerobically with L-lactate. Reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH thus generated was completely inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate. The involvement of the respiratory chain in the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH was demonstrated by the action of cyanide, rotenone, and antimycin A, which strongly inhibited the formation of pyruvate from added L-lactate. Compounds that inhibit the carrier-mediated entry of malate into mitochondria, such as butylmalonate, benzenetricarboxylate, and iodobenzylmalonate, also inhibited the accumulation of pyruvate from added L-lactate by the tumor cells. The maximal rate of the malate-aspartate shuttle was established by addtion of arsenite to inhibit the mitochondrial oxidation of the pyruvate formed from added lactate. The capacity of the various tumor lines for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle approaches 20% of the total respiratory rate of the cells and thus appears to be sufficient to account for the mitochondrial reoxidation of that fraction of glycolytic NADH not reoxidized by pyruvate and lactate dehydrognenase in the cytoplasm.

  7. Exercise-Induced Changes in Caveolin-1, Depletion of Mitochondrial Cholesterol, and the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Swelling in Rat Skeletal Muscle but Not in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Jozef Flis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in cholesterol in mitochondria, observed after exercise, is related to the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism and is required by various signalling pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged swimming on the mitochondrial Cav-1 concentration; additionally, we identified the results of these changes as they relate to the induction of changes in the mitochondrial swelling and cholesterol in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sedentary control group and an exercise group. The exercised rats swam for 3 hours and were burdened with an additional 3% of their body weight. After the cessation of exercise, their quadriceps femoris muscles and livers were immediately removed for experimentation. The exercise protocol caused an increase in the Cav-1 concentration in crude muscle mitochondria; this was related to a reduction in the cholesterol level and an inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. There were no changes in rat livers, with the exception of increased markers of oxidative stress in mitochondria. These data indicate the possible role of Cav-1 in the adaptive change in the rat muscle mitochondria following exercise.

  8. Progesterone induces neuroprotection following reperfusion-promoted mitochondrial dysfunction after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Suhail; Parvez, Suhel; Tabassum, Heena

    2017-06-01

    Organelle damage and increases in mitochondrial permeabilization are key events in the development of cerebral ischemic tissue injury because they cause both modifications in ATP turnover and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. Early restoration of blood flow and improvement of mitochondrial function might reverse the situation and help in recovery following an onset of stroke. Mitochondria and related bioenergetic processes can be effectively used as pharmacological targets. Progesterone (P4), one of the promising neurosteroids, has been found to be neuroprotective in various models of neurological diseases, through a number of mechanisms. This influenced us to investigate the possible role of P4 in the mitochondria-mediated neuroprotective mechanism in an ischemic stroke model of rat. In this study, we have shown the positive effect of P4 administration on behavioral deficits and mitochondrial health in an ischemic stroke injury model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). After induction of tMCAO, the rats received an initial intraperitoneal injection of P4 (8 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 1 h post-occlusion followed by subcutaneous injections at 6, 12 and 18 h. Behavioral assessment for functional deficits included grip strength, motor coordination and gait analysis. Findings revealed a significant improvement with P4 treatment in tMCAO animals. Staining of isolated brain slices from P4-treated rats with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) showed a reduction in the infarct area in comparison to the vehicle group, indicating the presence of an increased number of viable mitochondria. P4 treatment was also able to attenuate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as block the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), in the tMCAO injury model. In addition, it was also able to ameliorate the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and respiration ratio in the ischemic animals, thereby suggesting that P4 has

  9. The effects of methylmercury on the mitochondrial energetics of rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Takeo; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Nagashima, Masaru; Igarashi, Hironaka; Yonemochi, Yousuke; Atsumi, Tetsushi; Miyatake, Tadashi

    1989-01-01

    In this report it is shown that methylmercury chloride (MMC) affected the mitochondrial energetics of rat skeletal muscles in case of chronic intoxication. High energy phosphate compounds were measured by 31 P-NMR spectroscopy in the living rat hindleg skeletal muscle. Decreased value of phosphocreatine (PCr)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio was observed in the resting muscle of the MMC intoxicated group, and suspend recovery of the ATP, PCr and intracellular pH after muscle contraction was found in the MMC intoxicated muscle. There was no difference in the ATP levels of the resting muscle between the control and MMC group. These results suggested that the synthesis of ATP was disturbed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration below TCA cycle. (author)

  10. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, May 26 (2016), s. 136 ISSN 1662-5102 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08565S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immature rats * status epilepticus * oxidative stress * mitochondrial dysfunction Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.555, year: 2016

  11. Mitochondrial Morphofunctional Alterations in Smooth Muscle Cells of Aorta in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarán, Mariana; Llorens, Candelaria; Balceda, Ariel; Scribano, María de La Paz; Pons, Patricia; Moya, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of atherogenesis induced by hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), the pharmacological response of vitamin E was studied in order to assess its antioxidant effect on the mitochondrial morphofunctional alterations in aortic smooth muscle cells. Three groups of male rats were used: (Ctr) control, (AI) atherogenesis induced for 120 days, and (AIE) atherogenesis induced for 120 days and treated with vitamin E. HF was induced by adrenalin injection (0.1 mg/day/rat) for 120 days. AIE group was treated with the administration of 3.42 mg/day/rat of vitamin E for 105 days after the first induction. Mitochondria morphology was analyzed by electronic microscopy (EM) and mitochondrial complexes (MC) by spectrophotometry. In group AI the total and mean number of mitochondria reduced significantly, the intermembranous matrix increased, and swelling was observed with respect to Ctr and AIE (P < 0.01). These damages were related to a significant decrease in the activity of citrate synthase and complexes I, II, III, and IV in group AI in comparison to Ctr (P < 0.001). Similar behavior was presented by group AI compared to AIE (P < 0.001). These results show that vitamin E produces a significative regression of inflammatory and oxidative stress process and it resolved the morphofunctional mitochondrial alterations in this experimental model of atherogenic disease. PMID:24653842

  12. Chloroquine inhibits autophagy and deteriorates the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in hypoxic rat neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Hao, Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Yang, Guang-Lu; Mei, Hua; Li, Xiao-Hua; Zhai, Qiong-Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and apoptosis in the neurons are associated with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE). The present study was to explore the influence of autophagy on the induction of MD and apoptosis in the neurons in a neonatal HIE rats and in hypoxia-treated neurons in vitro. Ten-day-old HI rat pups were sacrificed for brain pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The induction of autophagy, apoptosis and MD were also determined in the neurons under hypoxia, with or without autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) treatment. HI treatment caused atrophy and apoptosis of neurons, with a significantly increased levels of apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins, such as cleaved caspase 3 and the B subunit of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-B). in vitro experiments demonstrated that the hypoxia induced autophagy in neurons, as was inhibited by CQ. The hypoxia-induced cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 were aggravated by CQ. Moreover, there were higher levels of reactive oxygen species, more mitochondrial superoxide and less mitochondrial membrane potential in the CQ-treated neurons under hypoxia than in the neurons singularly under hypoxia. Apoptosis and autophagy were induced in HI neonatal rat neurons, autophagy inhibition deteriorates the hypoxia-induced neuron MD and apoptosis. It implies a neuroprotection of autophagy in the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Administration of autophagy inducer agents might be promising in HIE treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huaicai; Lv, Ziquan; Li, Gengqi; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain

  14. Dietary linoleate preserves cardiolipin and attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction in the failing rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher M.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Le, Catherine H.; De Mooy, Anthony B.; Routh, Melissa A.; Holmes, Michael G.; Hickson-Bick, Diane L.; Zarini, Simona; Murphy, Robert C.; Xu, Fred Y.; Hatch, Grant M.; McCune, Sylvia A.; Moore, Russell L.; Chicco, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Cardiolipin (CL) is a tetra-acyl phospholipid that provides structural and functional support to several proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The majority of CL in the healthy mammalian heart contains four linoleic acid acyl chains (L4CL). A selective loss of L4CL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure in humans and animal models. We examined whether supplementing the diet with linoleic acid would preserve cardiac L4CL and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and contractile failure in rats with hypertensive heart failure. Methods and results Male spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats (21 months of age) were administered diets supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil (HLSO) or lard (10% w/w; 28% kilocalorie fat) or without supplemental fat (control) for 4 weeks. HLSO preserved L4CL and total CL to 90% of non-failing levels (vs. 61–75% in control and lard groups), and attenuated 17–22% decreases in state 3 mitochondrial respiration observed in the control and lard groups (P < 0.05). Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly higher in HLSO vs. control (33 ± 2 vs. 29 ± 2%, P < 0.05), while plasma insulin levels were lower (5.4 ± 1.1 vs. 9.1 ± 2.3 ng/mL; P < 0.05), with no significant effect of lard supplementation. HLSO also increased serum concentrations of several eicosanoid species compared with control and lard diets, but had no effect on plasma glucose or blood pressure. Conclusion Moderate consumption of HLSO preserves CL and mitochondrial function in the failing heart and may be a useful adjuvant therapy for this condition. PMID:22411972

  15. Ebselen alters mitochondrial physiology and reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) have been extensively employed as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective compound. However, its glutathione peroxidase activity at the expense of cellular thiols groups could underlie certain deleterious actions of the compound on cell physiology. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular viability, the intracellular free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), the mitochondrial free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m), and mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm) were analyzed. The caspase-3 activity was also assayed. Our results show that cell viability was reduced by treatment of cells with ebselen, depending on the concentration employed. In the presence of ebselen, we observed an initial transient increase in [Ca(2+)]c that was then followed by a progressive increase to an elevated plateau. We also observed a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]m in the presence of ebselen that returned toward a value over the prestimulation level. The compound induced depolarization of ψm and altered the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane. Additionally, a disruption of the mitochondrial network was observed. Finally, we did not detect changes in caspase-3 activation in response to ebselen treatment. Collectively, these data support the likelihood of ebselen, depending on the concentration employed, reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes via its action on the mitochondrial activity. These may be early effects that do not involve caspase-3 activation. We conclude that, depending on the concentration used, ebselen might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise cell function.

  16. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PM 2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM 2.5 -induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM 2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM 2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM 2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM 2.5 -induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  17. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity.

  18. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Paula I.; Custodio, Jose B.A.; Nunes, Elsa; Moreno, Antonio; Seica, Raquel; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Santos, Maria S.

    2007-01-01

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca 2+ delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 μM E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H 2 O 2 in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  20. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  1. Dioxin-induced acute cardiac mitochondrial oxidative damage and increased activity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Susana P.; Pereira, Gonçalo C.; Pereira, Cláudia V.; Carvalho, Filipa S.; Cordeiro, Marília H.; Mota, Paula C.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Moreno, António J.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental dioxin 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen and teratogenic agent. We hypothesize that TCDD-induced oxidative stress may also interfere with mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP), which are known to regulate and to be regulated by mitochondrial redox state. We investigated the effects of an acute treatment of male Wistar rats with TCDD (50 μg/kg i.p.) and measured the regulation of cardiac mitoKATP. While the function of cardiac mitochondria was slightly depressed, mitoKATP activity was 52% higher in animals treated with TCDD. The same effects were not observed in liver mitochondria isolated from the same animals. Our data also shows that regulation of mitochondrial ROS production by mitoKATP activity is different in both groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that TCDD increases mitoKATP activity in the heart, which may counteract the increased oxidative stress caused by the dioxin during acute exposure. -- Highlights: •Acute TCDD treatment of Wistar rats causes cardiac oxidative stress. •Acute TCDD treatment causes cardiac mitochondrial alterations. •Mitochondrial liver vs. heart alterations are distinct. •TCDD treatment resulted in altered activity of cardiac mitochondrial K-ATP channels. -- Dioxin alters the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels and disturbs mitochondrial physiology

  2. Common Deletion (CD) in mitochondrial DNA of irradiated rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Raquel Gomes; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Almeida, Carlos E.V. de, E-mail: raquelgsiqueira@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcanatara Gomes. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Silva, Dayse A. da; Carvalho, Elizeu F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcanatara Gomes. Lab. de Diagnosticos por DNA; Melo, Luiz D.B. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Parasitologia Molecular

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to map the common deletion (CD) area in mtDNA and investigate the levels of this deletion in irradiated heart. The assays were developed in male Wistar rats that were irradiated with three different single doses (5, 10 or 15 Gy) delivered directly to the heart and the analyses were performed at various times post-irradiation (3, 15 or 120 days). The CDs area were sequenced and the CD quantified by real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that the CD levels progressively decreased from the 3rd until the 15th day after irradiation, and then increased thereafter. Additionally, it was observed that the levels of CD are modulated differently according to the different categories of doses (moderate and high). This study demonstrated an immediate response to ionizing radiation, measured by the presence of mutations in the CD area and a decrease in the CD levels. (author)

  3. Adaptations in mitochondrial function parallel, but fail to rescue, the transition to severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia : a study in zucker diabetic fatty rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaers, E.; Feyter, de H.M.M.L.; Hoeks, J.; Schrauwen, P.A.J.; Schaart, G.; Nabben, M.W.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional human studies have associated mitochondrial dysfunction to type 2 diabetes. We chose Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a model of progressive insulin resistance to examine whether intrinsic mitochondrial defects are required for development of type 2 diabetes. Muscle mitochondrial

  4. Mitochondrial activity assessed by cytofluorescence after in-vitro-irradiation of primary rat brain cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Hamdorf, G.

    1993-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in cell homeostasis and are the first cell organells affected by ionizing irradiation, as it was proved by previous electron microscopic investigations. In order to observe functional parameters of mitochondria after low-dose irradiation, primary rat brain cultures (prepared from 15-day-old rat fetuses) were irradiated from a 60 Co-source with 0.5 and 1 Gy at the age of 2 or 7 days in vitro (div). Cytofluorescence measurement was made by a Cytofluor trademark2350 using Rhodamine 123. This fluorescent dye is positively charged and accumulates specifically in the mitochondria of living cells without cytotoxic effect. Since its retention depends on the negative membrane potential as well as the proton gradient that exists across the inner mitochondrial membrane, Rhodamine 123 accumulation reflects the status of mitochondrial activity as a whole. After irradiation with 0.5 and 1 Gy on day 2 in culture there was a decrease in Rhodamine uptake in the irradiated cultures during the first week after the irradiation insult which reached minimum values after 3 days. Rhodamine uptake increased during the following period and finally reached the values of the control cultures. In the second experiment with irradiated cultures on day 7 and the same doses of 0.5 and 1 Gy the accumulation of Rhodamine decreased only initially then increased tremendously. After both doses values of Rhodamine-accumulation were higher than the control level. The results demonstrated that irradiation caused a change in mitochondrial activity depending on the time of irradiation. The dramatic increase over the control levels after irradiation on day 7 in vitro is attributed to the fact that at this time synapses have already developed. Deficiency of mitochondrial activity as well as hyperactivity and the consequent change in energy production may lead to changes in neuronal metabolism including an increase in production of free radicals

  5. Insulin prevents mitochondrial generation of H₂O₂ in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Brochier, Andressa Wigner; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Galina, Antonio; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2013-09-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is a main source of cellular ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). The production of H₂O₂ also involves the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and oxygen consumption. Impaired insulin signaling causes oxidative neuronal damage and places the brain at risk of neurodegeneration. We evaluated whether insulin signaling cross-talks with ETS components (complexes I and F₀F₁ATP synthase) and ΔΨm to regulate mitochondrial H₂O₂ production, in tissue preparations from rat brain. Insulin (50 to 100 ng/mL) decreased H₂O₂ production in synaptosomal preparations in high Na(+) buffer (polarized state), stimulated by glucose and pyruvate, without affecting the oxygen consumption. In addition, insulin (10 to 100 ng/mL) decreased H₂O₂ production induced by succinate in synaptosomes in high K(+) (depolarized state), whereas wortmannin and LY290042, inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, reversed this effect; heated insulin had no effect. Insulin decreased H₂O₂ production when complexes I and F₀F₁ATP synthase were inhibited by rotenone and oligomycin respectively suggesting a target effect on complex III. Also, insulin prevented the generation of maximum level of ∆Ψm induced by succinate. The PI3K inhibitors and heated insulin maintained the maximum level of ∆Ψm induced by succinate in synaptosomes in a depolarized state. Similarly, insulin decreased ROS production in neuronal cultures. In mitochondrial preparations, insulin neither modulated H2O2 production or oxygen consumption. In conclusion, the normal downstream insulin receptor signaling is necessary to regulate complex III of ETS avoiding the generation of maximal ∆Ψm and increased mitochondrial H2O2 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ubiquinol treatment for TBI in male rats: Effects on mitochondrial integrity, injury severity, and neurometabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Janet D; Gupte, Raeesa; Thimmesch, Amanda; Shen, Qiuhua; Hiebert, John B; Brooks, William M; Clancy, Richard L; Diaz, Francisco J; Harris, Janna L

    2018-06-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is significant secondary damage to cerebral tissue from increased free radicals and impaired mitochondrial function. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defenses is termed oxidative stress. Often there are insufficient antioxidants to scavenge ROS, leading to alterations in cerebral structure and function. Attenuating oxidative stress following a TBI by administering an antioxidant may decrease secondary brain injury, and currently many drugs and supplements are being investigated. We explored an over-the-counter supplement called ubiquinol (reduced form of coenzyme Q10), a potent antioxidant naturally produced in brain mitochondria. We administered intra-arterial ubiquinol to rats to determine if it would reduce mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and severity of a contusive TBI. Adult male F344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) Saline-TBI, (2) ubiquinol 30 minutes before TBI (UB-PreTBI), or (3) ubiquinol 30 minutes after TBI (UB-PostTBI). We found when ubiquinol was administered before or after TBI, rats had an acute reduction in brain mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and two serum biomarkers of TBI severity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). However, in vivo neurometabolic assessment with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy did not show attenuated injury-induced changes. These findings are the first to show that ubiquinol preserves mitochondria and reduces cellular injury severity after TBI, and support further study of ubiquinol as a promising adjunct therapy for TBI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C and 1,4- 14 C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4- 14 C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons as compared to 1,4- 14 C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates

  8. Mitochondrial storage form of acetyl CoA carboxylase in fasted and alloxan diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Lopez, C.R.; Allred, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured biotinyl proteins will bind [ 14 C]methyl avidin which remains bound through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method has been used to demonstrate the presence of two high molecular weight subunit forms of acetyl CoA carboxylase in rat liver cytoplasm, both of which are precipitated by antibody to purifed rat liver acetyl CoA carboxylase prepared from sheep serum. Rat liver mitochondria contained five distinct biotinyl protein subunits, the two largest of which have been identified as acetyl CoA carboxylase subunits on the basis of precipitation by anti-acetyl CoA carboxylase antibody. The small quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase associated with rat liver microsomes could be attributed to cytoplasmic contamination. The binding of radioactive avidin is sufficiently tight to use as a measure of the quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase. The quantity and activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme was reduced in fasted and in alloxan diabetic rats compared to that in fed controls but the quantity of the enzyme associated with isolated mitochondria was not reduced. The results indicate that there is a mitochondrial storage form of acetyl CoA carboxylase

  9. Obesity augments the age-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity for H(2) O(2) release in Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jeppesen, Jacob; Madsen, K

    2012-01-01

    determined and related to citrate synthase activity to determine intrinsic mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial-specific super-oxide dismuthase (MnSOD) protein content was determined in isolated mitochondria and muscle homogenate. Catalase protein content was determined in muscle homogenate. Results: Young...... was associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogenperoxide release. MnSOD tended to be higher in the obese strain in the isolated mitochondria. Regardless of age, catalase protein content was significantly lower in the obese rats. Conclusions: This study shows that the augmented increase in obesity and insulin...

  10. Cisplatin impairs rat liver mitochondrial functions by inducing changes on membrane ion permeability: Prevention by thiol group protecting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, Jose B.A.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Santos, Maria S.; Almeida, Leonor M.; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Fernandes, Maria A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20 nmol/mg protein) induced Ca 2+ -dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (ΔΨ), Ca 2+ release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40 nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the ΔΨ, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H 2 O 2 generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca 2+ -induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to

  11. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 evokes chromosomal instability and transforms primary rat skin fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Kashuba, Elena

    2015-05-12

    We have shown earlier that overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts. The derived cells expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, and cellular pathways that control cell proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, cellular respiration, and other redox reactions were activated in the immortalized cells. Here we report that, upon overexpression of S18-2 protein, primary rat skin fibroblasts underwent cell transformation. Cells passed more than 300 population doublings, and two out of three tested clones gave rise to tumors in experimental animals. Transformed cells showed anchorage-independent growth and loss of contact inhibition; they expressed epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and β-catenin. Transformed cells showed increased telomerase activity, disturbance of the cell cycle, and chromosomal instability. Taken together, our data suggest that S18-2 is a newly identified oncoprotein that may be involved in cancerogenesis.

  12. Supercomplexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain decline in the aging rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis A; Monette, Jeffrey S; Chavez, Juan D; Maier, Claudia S; Hagen, Tory M

    2009-10-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) defects is a recognized hallmark of the age-associated decline in cardiac bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. In the present work, we hypothesized that age-related ETC deterioration stemmed partly from disassociation of large solid-state macromolecular assemblies termed "supercomplexes". Mitochondrial proteins from young and old rat hearts were separated by blue native-PAGE, protein bands analyzed by LC-MALDI-MS/MS, and protein levels quantified by densitometry. Results showed that supercomplexes comprised of various stoichiometries of complexes I, III and IV were observed, and declined significantly (p<0.05, n=4) with age. Supercomplexes displaying the highest molecular masses were the most severely affected. Considering that certain diseases (e.g. Barth Syndrome) display similar supercomplex destabilization as our results for aging, the deterioration in ETC supercomplexes may be an important underlying factor for both impaired mitochondrial function and loss of cardiac bioenergetics with age.

  13. Sex-Specific Skeletal Muscle Fatigability and Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity in Adult Rats Exposed to Postnatal Hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Tetri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rats could recapitulate the skeletal and metabolic phenotype of premature birth, and to characterize the subcellular metabolic changes associated with postnatal hyperoxia exposure, with a secondary aim to evaluate sex differences in this model. Compared to control rats, male rats exposed to 14 days of postnatal hyperoxia then aged to 1 year demonstrated higher skeletal muscle fatigability, lower muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, more mitochondrial damage, and higher glycolytic enzyme expression. These differences were not present in female rats with the same postnatal hyperoxia exposure. This study demonstrates detrimental mitochondrial and muscular outcomes in the adult male rat exposed to postnatal hyperoxia. Given that young adults born premature also demonstrate skeletal muscle dysfunction, future studies are merited to determine whether this dysfunction as well as reduced aerobic capacity is due to reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and metabolic dysfunction.

  14. Evaluation of ubiquinone concentration and mitochondrial function relative to cerivastatin-induced skeletal myopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, William H.; Lawrence, Jeffery W.; Loughlin, Amy F.; Stoffregen, Dana A.; Mixson, Lori A.; Dean, Dennis C.; Raab, Conrad E.; Yu, Nathan X.; Lankas, George R.; Frederick, Clay B.

    2004-01-01

    As a class, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors can potentially cause skeletal myopathy. One statin, cerivastatin, has recently been withdrawn from the market due to an unacceptably high incidence of rhabdomyolysis. The mechanism underlying statin-induced myopathy is unknown. This paper sought to investigate the relationship among statin-induced myopathy, mitochondrial function, and muscle ubiquinone levels. Rats were administered cerivastatin at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 (mg/kg)/day or dose vehicle (controls) by oral gavage for 15 days. Samples of type I-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) and type II-predominant skeletal muscle [quadriceps and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)], and blood were collected on study days 5, 10, and 15 for morphological evaluation, clinical chemistry, mitochondrial function tests, and analysis of ubiquinone levels. No histological changes were observed in any of the animals on study days 5 or 10, but on study day 15, mid- and high-dose animals had necrosis and inflammation in type II skeletal muscle. Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in blood (a clinical marker of myopathy) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of myopathy. Ultrastructural characterization of skeletal muscle revealed disruption of the sarcomere and altered mitochondria only in myofibers with degeneration, while adjacent myofibers were unaffected and had normal mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial effects appeared not to precede myofiber degeneration. Mean coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9) levels in all dose groups were slightly decreased relative to controls in type II skeletal muscle, although the difference was not significantly different in most cases. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle was not affected by the changes in ubiquinone levels. The ubiquinone levels in high-dose-treated animals exhibiting myopathy were not significantly different from low-dose animals with no observable toxic effects. Furthermore, ubiquinone levels did not correlate

  15. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  16. Status epilepticus in immature rats is associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava eFolbergrová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of status epilepticus. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following status epilepticus induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. FluoroJade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ~60 % in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. Status epilepticus lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complex II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy

  17. Mitochondrial autophagy involving renal injury and aging is modulated by caloric intake in aged rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Shi, Suozhu; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Hong, Quan; Chen, Xiangmei; Bai, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A high-calorie (HC) diet induces renal injury and promotes aging, and calorie restriction (CR) may ameliorate these responses. However, the effects of long-term HC and CR on renal damage and aging have been not fully determined. Autophagy plays a crucial role in removing protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and function. The role of autophagy in HC-induced renal damage is unknown. We evaluated the expression of LC3/Atg8 as a marker of the autophagosome; p62/SQSTM1; polyubiquitin aggregates as markers of autophagy flux; Ambra1, PINK1, Parkin and Bnip3 as markers of mitophagy; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage; and p16 as a marker of organ aging by western blot and immunohistochemical staining in the kidneys of 24-month-old Fischer 344 rats. We also observed mitochondrial structure and autolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy. Expression of the autophagosome formation marker LC3/Atg8 and markers of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) were markedly decreased in the kidneys of the HC group, and markedly increased in CR kidneys. p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates increased in HC kidneys, and decreased in CR kidneys. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that HC kidneys showed severe abnormal mitochondrial morphology with fewer autolysosomes, while CR kidneys exhibited normal mitochondrial morphology with numerous autolysosomes. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in HC kidneys and decreased in CR kidneys. Markers of aging, such as p16 and senescence-associated-galactosidase, were increased significantly in the HC group and decreased significantly in the CR group. The study firstly suggests that HC diet inhibits renal autophagy and aggravates renal oxidative damage and aging, while CR enhances renal autophagy and ameliorates oxidative damage and aging in the kidneys.

  18. The prevention of curcumin against rat liver mitochondrial swelling induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susilowati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases have been a medical problem which is difficult to manage. Some of the problems in the treatment of these diseases lie in the lack of reliable drug available. Curcumin, an active ingredient of the rhizomes of plant Curcuma has been investigated in the treatment of various disorders incuding liver diseases. The therapeutic effects of curcumin on liver diseases have been thought to be associated to its antioxidative properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on mitochondrial swelling in vitro induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH. Liver mitochondria were homogeneously isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats (the relative specific activity of succinate dehydrogenase was 35.73 ± 2.78. Addition of 90 µM of t-BuOOH caused a typical 2-phase swelling of the mitochondria. The pattern of swelling was influenced by various factors such as buffer composition, concentrations of t-BuOOH, amount of isolation buffer and mitochondrial proteins and incubation temperature.The swelling could be reduced by as much as 85 ± 3% by 2.50 µM of curcumin. At lower (1.25 µM or higher (5.00 µM concentrations, the protection against swelling by curcumin were less effective (respectively were 41 ± 3% and 77 ± 6%. Swelling might occur due to the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. The inhibition of t-BuOOH-induced mitochondrial swelling by curcumin might be because of the antioxidant effects of the compound. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:131-6 Keywords: mitochondria, swelling, tert-butylhydroperoxide, curcumin

  19. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  20. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on liver mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jessica; Mulya, Anny; Fealy, Ciaran E; Huang, Hazel; Mosinski, John D; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Shimizu, Hideharu; Batayyah, Esam; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Kirwan, John P

    2018-02-01

    Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding. We assessed expression of mitochondrial proteins involved in fusion, fission, mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and biogenesis, as well as differences in citrate synthase activity and markers of oxidative stress. Gene expression for mitochondrial fusion genes, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1; P fasting plasma insulin. In the RYGB group, citrate synthase activity was increased (P < 0.02) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was decreased compared to the Sham control group (P < 0.05), although total antioxidant capacity was unchanged between groups. These data are the first to show an association between RYGB surgery and improved markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics. These observed improvements may be related to weight loss and reduced energetic demand on the liver, which could facilitate normalization of glucose homeostasis and protect against hepatic steatosis. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Oxygen Glucose Deprivation in Rat Hippocampal Slice Cultures Results in Alterations in Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thomas F.; Lu, Qing; Sharma, Shruti; Sun, Xutong; Leary, Gregory; Beckman, Matthew L.; Hou, Yali; Wainwright, Mark S.; Kavanaugh, Michael; Poulsen, David J.; Black, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by depolarization of mitochondrial membranes and the initiation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis are pathological responses to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain. Carnitine metabolism directly supports mitochondrial metabolism by shuttling long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for beta-oxidation. Our previous studies have shown that HI disrupts carnitine homeostasis in neonatal rats and that L-carnitine can be neuroprotective. Thus, this study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which HI alters carnitine metabolism and to begin to elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine (LCAR) supplementation. Utilizing neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures we found that oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) decreased the levels of free carnitines (FC) and increased the acylcarnitine (AC): FC ratio. These changes in carnitine homeostasis correlated with decreases in the protein levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1 and 2. LCAR supplementation prevented the decrease in CPT1 and CPT2, enhanced both FC and the AC∶FC ratio and increased slice culture metabolic viability, the mitochondrial membrane potential prior to OGD and prevented the subsequent loss of neurons during later stages of reperfusion through a reduction in apoptotic cell death. Finally, we found that LCAR supplementation preserved the structural integrity and synaptic transmission within the hippocampus after OGD. Thus, we conclude that LCAR supplementation preserves the key enzymes responsible for maintaining carnitine homeostasis and preserves both cell viability and synaptic transmission after OGD. PMID:22984394

  2. Curcumin attenuates skeletal muscle mitochondrial impairment in COPD rats: PGC-1α/SIRT3 pathway involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Jingjing; Li, Yali; Xie, Yingying; Shan, Hu; Chen, Mingxia; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Qiuhong; Yang, Xudong

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin has been widely used to treat numerous diseases due to its antioxidant property. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on skeletal muscle mitochondria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its underlying mechanism. The rat model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure combined with intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Airway inflammation and emphysema were notably ameliorated by the treatment with curcumin. Oral administration of curcumin significantly improved muscle fiber atrophy, myofibril disorganization, interstitial fibrosis and mitochondrial structure damage in the skeletal muscle of COPD rats. Mitochondrial enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, Na + /K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase in skeletal muscle mitochondria from COPD rats were significantly increased after treatment with curcumin. Moreover, curcumin significantly decreased oxidative stress and inflammation by determining the levels of malondialdehyde, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, IL-6 and TNF-α in skeletal muscle of COPD rats. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of PGC-1α and SIRT3 in the skeletal muscle tissues of COPD rats. These results suggested that curcumin can attenuate skeletal muscle mitochondrial impairment in COPD rats possibly by the up-regulation of PGC-1α/SIRT3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired Malate and Fumarate Accumulation Due to the Mutation of the Tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter Has Little Effects on Stomatal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, David B; Barros, Kallyne A; Barros, Jessica Aline S; Omena-Garcia, Rebeca P; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; Detmann, Kelly C; Silva, Willian Batista; Daloso, Danilo M; DaMatta, Fábio M; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-11-01

    Malate is a central metabolite involved in a multiplicity of plant metabolic pathways, being associated with mitochondrial metabolism and playing significant roles in stomatal movements. Vacuolar malate transport has been characterized at the molecular level and is performed by at least one carrier protein and two channels in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) vacuoles. The absence of the Arabidopsis tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter (tDT) in the tdt knockout mutant was associated previously with an impaired accumulation of malate and fumarate in leaves. Here, we investigated the consequences of this lower accumulation on stomatal behavior and photosynthetic capacity as well as its putative metabolic impacts. Neither the stomatal conductance nor the kinetic responses to dark, light, or high CO 2 were highly affected in tdt plants. In addition, we did not observe any impact on stomatal aperture following incubation with abscisic acid, malate, or citrate. Furthermore, an effect on photosynthetic capacity was not observed in the mutant lines. However, leaf mitochondrial metabolism was affected in the tdt plants. Levels of the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were altered, and increases in both light and dark respiration were observed. We conclude that manipulation of the tonoplastic organic acid transporter impacted mitochondrial metabolism, while the overall stomatal and photosynthetic capacity were unaffected. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  5. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  6. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  7. Formation of S-(carboxymethyl)-cysteine in rat liver mitochondrial proteins: effects of caloric and methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Cacabelos, Daniel; Ayala, Victoria; Cabre, Rosanna; Caro, Pilar; Gomez, José; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-02-01

    Maillard reaction contributes to the chemical modification and cross-linking of proteins. This process plays a significant role in the aging process and determination of animal longevity. Oxidative conditions promote the Maillard reaction. Mitochondria are the primary site of oxidants due to the reactive molecular species production. Mitochondrial proteome cysteine residues are targets of oxidative attack due to their specific chemistry and localization. Their chemical, non-enzymatic modification leads to dysfunctional proteins, which entail cellular senescence and organismal aging. Previous studies have consistently shown that caloric and methionine restrictions, nutritional interventions that increase longevity, decrease the rate of mitochondrial oxidant production and the physiological steady-state levels of markers of oxidative damage to macromolecules. In this scenario, we have detected S-(carboxymethyl)-cysteine (CMC) as a new irreversible chemical modification in mitochondrial proteins. CMC content in mitochondrial proteins significantly correlated with that of the lysine-derived analog N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine. The concentration of CMC is, however, one order of magnitude lower compared with CML likely due in part to the lower content of cysteine with respect to lysine of the mitochondrial proteome. CMC concentrations decreases in liver mitochondrial proteins of rats subjected to 8.5 and 25 % caloric restriction, as well as in 40 and 80 % methionine restriction. This is associated with a concomitant and significant increase in the protein content of sulfhydryl groups. Data presented here evidence that CMC, a marker of Cys-AGE formation, could be candidate as a biomarker of mitochondrial damage during aging.

  8. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in epididymal sperm of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Prakash, Seppan

    2013-01-09

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (M. pruriens) is a leguminous plant that has been recognized as an herbal medicine for improving fertility and related disorders in the Indian traditional system of medicine, however without proper scientific validations. To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens on mitochondrial dysfunction and the DNA damage in hyperglycemic rat epididymal spermatozoa. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control (Sham), diabetes induced [streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1M citrate buffer] (STZ), diabetic rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (STZ+MP) and normal rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (Sham+MP). M. pruriens was administered (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. On 60th day animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation sperm were collected from epididymis and subjected various analysis like antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significant reduction in the sperm count, motility, viability and significant increase in the number of abnormal sperm in STZ compared to sham was noticed. STZ rat sperm showed significant increase in LPO and DNA damage. Both the enzymic and non-enzymic were decreased; MMP and the mitochondrial functions were severely affected in STZ group. The diabetic rats supplemented with M. pruriens showed a remarkable recovery in antioxidant levels and reduced LPO with well preserved sperm DNA. MMP and mitochondrial function test were also preserved in STZ+MP rat sperm. The present study has clearly demonstrated the potency of M. pruriens to reduce the diabetic induced sperm damage induced by oxidative stress (OS). These observations are encouraging to perform similar studies in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of myocardial mitochondrial mechanisms during severe polymicrobial sepsis in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Chopra

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that 5-Hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD, a putative mitoK(ATP channel blocker, will reverse sepsis-induced cardiodynamic and adult rat ventricular myocyte (ARVM contractile dysfunction, restore mitochondrial membrane permeability alterations and improve survival.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g were made septic using 400 mg/kg cecal inoculum, ip. Sham animals received 5% dextrose water, ip. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channels (VDAC1, Bax and cytochrome C levels were determined in isolated single ARVMs obtained from sham and septic rat heart. Mitochondria and cytosolic fractions were isolated from ARVMs treated with norepinephrine (NE, 10 µmoles in the presence/absence of 5HD (100 µmoles. A continuous infusion of 5HD using an Alzet pump reversed sepsis-induced mortality when administered at the time of induction of sepsis (-40% and at 6 hr post-sepsis (-20%. Electrocardiography revealed that 5HD reversed sepsis-induced decrease in the average ejection fraction, Simpsons+m Mode (53.5±2.5 in sepsis and 69.2±1.2 at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 79.9±1.5 basal group and cardiac output (63.3±1.2 mL/min sepsis and 79.3±3.9 mL/min at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 85.8±1.5 mL/min basal group. The treatment of ARVMs with 5HD also reversed sepsis-induced depressed contractility in both the vehicle and NE-treated groups. Sepsis produced a significant downregulation of VDAC1, and upregulation of Bax levels, along with mitochondrial membrane potential collapse in ARVMs. Pretreatment of septic ARVMs with 5HD blocked a NE-induced decrease in the VDAC1 and release of cytochrome C.The data suggest that Bax activation is an upstream event that may precede the opening of the mitoK(ATP channels in sepsis. We concluded that mitoK(ATP channel inhibition via decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced release of cytochrome C provided protection against sepsis-induced ARVM and myocardial contractile dysfunction.

  10. Modulation of myocardial mitochondrial mechanisms during severe polymicrobial sepsis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mani; Golden, Honey B; Mullapudi, Srinivas; Dowhan, William; Dostal, David E; Sharma, Avadhesh C

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5-Hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD), a putative mitoK(ATP) channel blocker, will reverse sepsis-induced cardiodynamic and adult rat ventricular myocyte (ARVM) contractile dysfunction, restore mitochondrial membrane permeability alterations and improve survival. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g) were made septic using 400 mg/kg cecal inoculum, ip. Sham animals received 5% dextrose water, ip. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channels (VDAC1), Bax and cytochrome C levels were determined in isolated single ARVMs obtained from sham and septic rat heart. Mitochondria and cytosolic fractions were isolated from ARVMs treated with norepinephrine (NE, 10 µmoles) in the presence/absence of 5HD (100 µmoles). A continuous infusion of 5HD using an Alzet pump reversed sepsis-induced mortality when administered at the time of induction of sepsis (-40%) and at 6 hr post-sepsis (-20%). Electrocardiography revealed that 5HD reversed sepsis-induced decrease in the average ejection fraction, Simpsons+m Mode (53.5±2.5 in sepsis and 69.2±1.2 at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 79.9±1.5 basal group) and cardiac output (63.3±1.2 mL/min sepsis and 79.3±3.9 mL/min at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 85.8±1.5 mL/min basal group). The treatment of ARVMs with 5HD also reversed sepsis-induced depressed contractility in both the vehicle and NE-treated groups. Sepsis produced a significant downregulation of VDAC1, and upregulation of Bax levels, along with mitochondrial membrane potential collapse in ARVMs. Pretreatment of septic ARVMs with 5HD blocked a NE-induced decrease in the VDAC1 and release of cytochrome C. The data suggest that Bax activation is an upstream event that may precede the opening of the mitoK(ATP) channels in sepsis. We concluded that mitoK(ATP) channel inhibition via decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced release of cytochrome C provided protection against sepsis-induced ARVM and myocardial contractile dysfunction.

  11. Rosuvastatin safety: An experimental study of myotoxic effects and mitochondrial alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganainy, Samar O; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Abdallah, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; El-Khatib, Aiman S

    2017-01-04

    Myopathy is the most commonly reported adverse effect of statins. All statins are associated with myopathy, though with different rates. Rosuvastatin is a potent statin reported to induce myopathy comparable to earlier statins. However, in clinical practice most patients could tolerate rosuvastatin over other statins. This study aimed to evaluate the myopathic pattern of rosuvastatin in rats using biochemical, functional and histopathological examinations. The possible deleterious effects of rosuvastatin on muscle mitochondria were also examined. The obtained results were compared to myopathy induced by atorvastatin in equimolar dose. Results showed that rosuvastatin induced a rise in CK, a slight increase in myoglobin level together with mild muscle necrosis. Motor activity, assessed by rotarod, showed that rosuvastatin decreased rats' performance. All these manifestations were obviously mild compared to the prominent effects of atorvastatin. Parallel results were obtained in mitochondrial dysfunction parameters. Rosuvastatin only induced a slight increase in LDH and a minor decrease in ATP (∼14%) and pAkt (∼12%). On the other hand, atorvastatin induced an increase in LDH, lactate/pyruvate ratio and a pronounced decline in ATP (∼80%) and pAkt (∼65%). These findings showed that rosuvastatin was associated with mild myotoxic effects in rats, especially when compared to atorvastatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  13. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Ingrid K; Bruerberg, Simon Gustafson; Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20-22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of mitochondrial complexes also in pancreatic islets

  14. Quininium Malates: Partial Chiral Discrimination via Diastereomeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quinine was employed as a resolving agent for racemic malic acid. The resultant product was a quininium salt containing 75 % of the D-malate anion. Quinine was also crystallized with pure L- and D-malic acids and the structures of the resulting diastereomeric salts were elucidated. The crystal packings were analyzed in ...

  15. Ethanol Influences on Bax Associations with Mitochondrial Membrane Proteins in Neonatal Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Siler-Marsiglio, Kendra; Paiva, Michael; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Kubovec, Stacey; Coursen, Mary; Madorsky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    These studies investigated interactions taking place at the mitochondrial membrane in neonatal rat cerebellum following ethanol exposure, and focused on interactions between pro-apoptotic Bax and proteins of the permeability transition pore (PTP), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to assess the role of these interactions in ethanol neurotoxicity. Analyses were made at the age of maximal cerebellar ethanol vulnerability (P4), compared to the later age of relative resistance (P7), to determine whether differential ethanol sensitivity was mirrored by differences in these molecular interactions. We found that following ethanol exposure, Bax pro-apoptotic associations with both VDAC and ANT were increased, particularly at the age of greater ethanol sensitivity, and these interactions were sustained at this age for at least two hours post-exposure. Since Bax:VDAC interactions disrupt protective VDAC interactions with mitochondrial hexokinase (HXK), we also assessed VDAC:HXK associations following ethanol treatment, and found such interactions were altered by ethanol treatment, but only at two-hours post-exposure, and only in the P4, ethanol-sensitive cerebellum. Ethanol neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal preparations was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of both VDAC and ANT interactions with Bax, but not by a Bax channel blocker. Therefore, we conclude that at this age, within the constraints of our experimental model, a primary mode of Bax-induced initiation of the apoptosis cascade following ethanol insult involves interactions with proteins of the PTP complex, and not channel formation independent of PTP constituents. PMID:22767450

  16. Tang-Luo-Ning Improves Mitochondrial Antioxidase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Diabetic Rats: A Proteomics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taojing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tang-luo-ning (TLN is a traditional Chinese herbal recipe for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial protein profiles in a diabetic rat model and explored the potential protective effect of TLN. Diabetic rats were established by injection of streptozocin (STZ and divided into model, alpha lipoic acid (ALA, and TLN groups. Mitochondrial proteins were isolated from dorsal root ganglia and proteomic analysis was used to quantify the differentially expressed proteins. Tang-luo-ning mitigated STZ-induced diabetic symptoms and blood glucose level, including response time to cold or hot stimulation and nerve conductive velocity. As compared to the normal, there were 388 differentially expressed proteins in the TLN group, 445 in ALA group, and 451 in model group. As compared to the model group, there were 275 differential proteins in TLN group and 251 in ALA group. As compared to model group, mitochondrial complex III was significantly decreased, while glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase were increased in TLN group. When compared with ALA group, the mitochondrial complex III was increased, and mitochondrial complex IV was decreased in TLN group. Together, TLN should have a strong antioxidative activity, which appears to be modulated through regulation of respiratory complexes and antioxidases.

  17. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  18. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  19. Elamipretide (SS-31 Ameliorates Isoflurane-Induced Long-Term Impairments of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Cognition in Developing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are supposed to be involved in the early pathogenesis of general anesthesia (GA-induced neurotoxicity and long-term cognitive deficits in developing brains. However, effective pharmacologic agents targeted on mitochondria during GA exposure are lacking. This study explores the protective effects of mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant elamipretide (SS-31 on mitochondrial morphogenesis and cognition in developing rats exposed to isoflurane. Rat pups at postnatal day (PND 7 were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 6 h following intraperitoneal administration of elamipretide or vehicle with 30 min interval. The hippocampus was immediately removed for biochemical assays. Histopathological studies were conducted at PND 21, and behavioral tests were performed at PND 40 or 60. We found that early exposure to isoflurane caused remarkable reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, mitochondrial deformation and neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. The injury occurrence ultimately gave rise to long-term cognitive deficits in developing rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with elamipretide not only provided protective effect against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damages, but also attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits. Our data support the notion that mitochondrial damage is an early and long lasting event of GA-induced injury and suggest that elamipretide might have clinically therapeutic benefits for pediatric patients undertaking GA.

  20. Effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on mitochondrial energy metabolism in rats of different age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, René G; Pétervári, Erika; Zopf, Michaela; Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Mayr, Johannes A; Kofler, Barbara; Balaskó, Márta

    2017-08-01

    Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats. The activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and citrate synthase were determined and compared to those of age-matched controls. We also quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and measured the expression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The peptide reduced weight gain in juvenile rats to one fifth of that of controls and increased the weight loss in older animals by about five fold. Mitochondrial DNA copy number inversely correlated with changes in body weight in controls, but not in α-MSH-treated animals. The strong increase in body weight in young rats was associated with a low mtDNA copy number and high PPARγ mRNA levels in controls. Expression of PGC-1α and PPARγ declined with age, whereas OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities were unchanged. In contrast, α-MSH treatment suppressed OXPHOS enzyme and citrate synthase activity. In conclusion, our results showed age-related differences in the metabolic effects of α-MSH. In addition, administration of α-MSH suppressed citrate synthase and OXPHOS activities independent of age. These findings suggest that α-MSH exposure may inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  1. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2012-10-05

    Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, metformin significantly attenuated the insulin resistant condition by improving metabolic parameters, decreasing peripheral and brain oxidative stress levels, and improving learning behavior, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, metformin completely prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by long-term HFD consumption. Our findings suggest that metformin effectively improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and completely restores learning behavior, which were all impaired by long-term HFD consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuation of Ca2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions in diabetic rat heart: insulin therapy or aerobic exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Márcia F; Natali, Antônio J; da Silva, Edson; Gomes, Gilton J; Teodoro, Bruno G; Cunha, Daise N Q; Drummond, Lucas R; Drummond, Filipe R; Moura, Anselmo G; Belfort, Felipe G; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Maldonado, Izabel R S C; Alberici, Luciane C

    2015-07-15

    We tested the effects of swimming training and insulin therapy, either alone or in combination, on the intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial functions in diabetic rat hearts. Male Wistar rats were separated into control, diabetic, or diabetic plus insulin groups. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Insulin-treated groups received 1 to 4 UI of insulin daily for 8 wk. Each group was divided into sedentary or exercised rats. Trained groups were submitted to swimming (90 min/day, 5 days/wk, 8 wk). [Ca(2+)]i transient in left ventricular myocytes (LVM), oxidative stress in LV tissue, and mitochondrial functions in the heart were assessed. Diabetes reduced the amplitude and prolonged the times to peak and to half decay of the [Ca(2+)]i transient in LVM, increased NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox-4) expression, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased carbonyl protein contents in LV tissue. In isolated mitochondria, diabetes increased Ca(2+) uptake, susceptibility to permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression, and oxygen consumption but reduced H2O2 release. Swimming training corrected the time course of the [Ca(2+)]i transient, UCP-2 expression, and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Insulin replacement further normalized [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitude, Nox-4 expression, and carbonyl content. Alongside these benefits, the combination of both therapies restored the LV tissue SOD and mitochondrial O2 consumption, H2O2 release, and MPTP opening. In conclusion, the combination of swimming training with insulin replacement was more effective in attenuating intracellular Ca(2+) disruptions, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rat hearts. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  5. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H. [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Burri, Lena [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Nikolaisen, Julie [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Berge, Rolf K. [Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital (Norway); Tronstad, Karl J., E-mail: karl.tronstad@biomed.uib.no [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  6. Effects of discontinuing a high-fat diet on mitochondrial proteins and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Raider, Kayla D; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2015-07-10

    Diet-induced obesity can increase the risk for developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial and proteasomal mechanisms are involved in both insulin resistance and PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether diet intervention could influence mitochondrial or proteasomal protein expression and vulnerability to 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats' nigrostriatal system. After a 3 month high-fat diet regimen, we switched one group of rats to a low-fat diet for 3 months (HF-LF group), while the other half continued with the high-fat diet (HF group). A chow group was included as a control. Three weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, HF rats had higher fasting insulin levels and higher Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating insulin resistance. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in HF-LF rats than HF rats, indicating that insulin resistance was reversed by switching to a low-fat diet. Compared to the Chow group, the HF group exhibited significantly greater DA depletion in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum. DA depletion did not differ between the HF-LF and HF group. Proteins related to mitochondrial function (such as AMPK, PGC-1α), and to proteasomal function (such as TCF11/Nrf1) were influenced by diet intervention, or by 6-OHDA lesion. Our findings suggest that switching to a low-fat diet reverses the effects of a high-fat diet on systemic insulin resistance, and mitochondrial and proteasomal function in the striatum. Conversely, they suggest that the effects of the high-fat diet on nigrostriatal vulnerability to 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion persist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptation of motor unit contractile properties in rat medial gastrocnemius to treadmill endurance training: Relationship to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryściak, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Krutki, Piotr; Gawedzka, Anna; Guzik, Magdalena; Korostynski, Michał; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Pyza, Elżbieta; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG. Moreover, the markers of mitochondria remodeling mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and dynamin-like protein (Opa1) were studied using qPCR. A proportion of FR MUs increased from 37.9% to 50.8% and a proportion of FF units decreased from 44.7% to 26.6% after 8 weeks of training. The increased fatigue resistance, shortened twitch duration, and increased ability to potentiate force were found as early as after 2 weeks of endurance training, predominantly in FR MUs. Moreover, just after 2 weeks of the training an enhancement of the mitochondrial network remodeling was present as judged by an increase in expression of Mfn1, Opa1 and an increase in PGC-1α in the slow part of MG. Interestingly, no signs of intensification of mitochondrial biogenesis assessed by ETC proteins content and mtDNA in slow and fast parts of gastrocnemius were found at this stage of the training. Nevertheless, after 8 weeks of training an increase in the ETC protein content was observed, but mainly in the slow part of gastrocnemius. Concluding, the functional changes in MUs' contractile properties leading to the enhancement of muscle performance accompanied by an activation of signalling that controls the muscle mitochondrial network reorganisation and mitochondrial biogenesis belong to an early muscle adaptive responses that precede an increase in mitochondrial ETC protein content.

  8. Catalytic properties of thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase and halophilic malate dehydrogenase at high temperature and low water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, K; Wrba, A; Jaenicke, R

    1989-07-15

    Thermophilic lactate dehydrogenases from Thermotoga maritima and Bacillus stearothermophilus are stable up to temperature limits close to the optimum growth temperature of their parent organisms. Their catalytic properties are anomalous in that Km shows a drastic increase with increasing temperature. At low temperatures, the effect levels off. Extreme halophilic malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui exhibits a similar anomaly. Increasing salt concentration (NaCl) leads to an optimum curve for Km, oxaloacctate while Km, NADH remains constant. Previous claims that the activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase shows a maximum at 1.25 M NaCl are caused by limiting substrate concentration; at substrate saturation, specific activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase reaches a constant value at ionic strengths I greater than or equal to 1 M. Non-halophilic (mitochondrial) malate dehydrogenase shows Km characteristics similar to those observed for the halophilic enzyme. The drastic decrease in specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme at elevated salt concentrations is caused by the salt-induced increase in rigidity of the enzyme, rather than gross structural changes.

  9. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  10. Changes in mitochondrial perilipin 3 and perilipin 5 protein content in rat skeletal muscle following endurance training and acute stimulated contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S V; Turnbull, P C; MacPherson, R E K; LeBlanc, P J; Ward, W E; Peters, S J

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether mitochondrial protein content of perilipin 3 (PLIN3) and perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is increased following endurance training and whether mitochondrial PLIN5 protein is increased to a greater extent in endurance-trained rats when compared with sedentary rats following acute contraction. What is the main finding and its importance? Mitochondrial PLIN3 but not PLIN5 protein was increased in endurance-trained compared with sedentary rats, suggesting a mitochondrial role for PLIN3 due to chronic exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, acute mitochondrial PLIN5 protein was similar in both sedentary and endurance-trained rats. Endurance training results in an increased association between skeletal muscle lipid droplets and mitochondria. This association is likely to be important for the expected increase in intramuscular fatty acid oxidation that occurs with endurance training. The perilipin family of lipid droplet proteins, PLIN(2-5), are thought to play a role in skeletal muscle lipolysis. Recently, results from our laboratory demonstrated that skeletal muscle mitochondria contain PLIN3 and PLIN5 protein. Furthermore, 30 min of stimulated contraction induces an increased mitochondrial PLIN5 content. To determine whether mitochondrial content of PLIN3 and PLIN5 is altered with endurance training, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sedentary or endurance-trained groups for 8 weeks of treadmill running followed by an acute (30 min) sciatic nerve stimulation to induce lipolysis. Mitochondrial PLIN3 protein was ∼1.5-fold higher in red gastrocnemius of endurance-trained rats compared with sedentary animals, with no change in mitochondrial PLIN5 protein. In addition, there was an increase in plantaris intramuscular lipid storage. Acute electrically stimulated contraction in red gastrocnemius from sedentary and endurance-trained rats resulted in a similar increase of mitochondrial PLIN5 between

  11. Supplementation with Vitamin E and Vitamin C inversely alters mitochondrial copy number and mitochondrial protein in obese, exercising rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...

  12. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl 4 , reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl 4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  13. la phosphoglucoisomerase et la malate deshydrogenase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    dimérique du cycle de Krebs qui catalyse la réaction suivante: Malate + NAD MDH Oxaloacétate +. NADH. Dans les cellules du maïs, les formes cytosoliques sont codées par deux loci, les formes mitochondriales par 3 loci (Newton et. Schwartz, 1980). L'acide ascorbique inhibe préférentiellement les formes du cytosol.

  14. Accumulation of lactate in the rat brain during hyperammonaemia is not associated with impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Anne Møller; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2017-01-01

    In acute liver failure (ALF) cerebral oedema and high intracranial pressure (ICP) are potentially deadly complications. Astrocytes cultured in ammonia have shown mitochondrial dysfunction and in rat models of liver failure, de novo lactate production in the brain has been observed and has led...... to a hypothesis of compromised brain metabolism during ALF. In contrast, normal lactate levels are found in cerebral microdialysate of ALF patients and the oxygen: glucose ratio of cerebral metabolic rates remains normal. To investigate this inconsistency we studied the mitochondrial function in brain tissue...... with respirometry in animal models of hyperammonaemia. Wistar rats with systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide or liver insufficiency induced by 90% hepatectomy were given ammonium or sodium acetate for 120 min. A cerebral cortex homogenate was studied with respirometry and substrates of the citric...

  15. Manganese activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in rat astrocytes by modulating the expression of proteins of the Bcl-2 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura E; Juknat, A Ana; Venosa, Andrea J; Verrengia, Noemi; Kotler, Mónica L

    2008-12-01

    Manganese induces the central nervous system injury leading to manganism, by mechanisms not completely understood. Chronic exposure to manganese generates oxidative stress and induces the mitochondrial permeability transition. In the present study, we characterized apoptotic cell death mechanisms associated with manganese toxicity in rat cortical astrocytes and demonstrated that (i) Mn treatment targets the mitochondria and induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization followed by cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm, (ii) Mn induces both effector caspases 3/7 and 6 as well as PARP-1 cleavage and (iii) Mn shifts the balance of cell death/survival of Bcl-2 family proteins to favor the apoptotic demise of astrocytes. Our model system using cortical rat astrocytes treated with Mn would emerge as a good tool for investigations aimed to elucidate the role of apoptosis in manganism.

  16. In vitro binding of selenium by rat liver mitochondrial selenium-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian, W.R.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Last year the authors reported that upon freezing and thawing mitochondria from rats injected with [ 75 Se]Na 2 SeO 3 ( 75 Se-selenite), a 75 Se-binding protein (SeBP) was released. They have studied further in vitro labelling of SeBP. This matrix protein was labelled in vitro when lysed mitochondria (containing non-matrix material) were incubated with 75 Se-selenite but not when matrix material alone was incubated with 75 Se-selenite. Thus, there are one or more promoters of in vitro SeBP labelling in the non-matrix fraction. SeBP was also labelled in vitro when 75 Se-selenite was added to matrix alone and dialyzed. Dialysis tubing, and not the dialysis process, promoted labelling by affecting SeBP and not by affecting 75 Se-selenite. Labelling did not occur when matrix alone and 75 Se-selenite were incubated (not dialyzed) in a glass test tube but did occur in a polystyrene test tube. They hypothesize that non-covalent interactions occur between SeBP and dialysis tubing or polystyrene that expose Se binding sites on the protein. A similar mechanism involving mitochondrial non-matrix material may function in vivo. Non-denaturing disc gel electrophoresis of partially purified SeBP labelled in vivo or in vitro suggested that the same protein was labelled in both conditions. Using in vitro binding techniques, SeBP was also found in sheep liver mitochondrial matrix. This supports the theory that SeBP is important in Se metabolism

  17. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I in cerebral cortex of immature rats following seizures induced by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, P.; Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Drahota, Zdeněk; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisá, Věra; Pecinová, Alena; Houštěk, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 60-60 ISSN 0141-8955. [Annual Symposium of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism . 02.09.2008-05.09.2008, Lisboa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * immature rats * homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I inhibition Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. [Change in the lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membranes in rat organs during adaptation to heat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubareva, E V; Seferova, R I; Denisova, N A

    1991-01-01

    Under conditions of adaptation to heating lipid composition in mitochondrial membranes of rat inner tissues was altered as follows: an increase in relative concentration of plasmalogenous forms of phospholipids (kidney, heart) and in content of saturated fatty acids (liver tissue), a decrease in the index of fatty acids unsaturation and in the ratio of fatty acids omega-3/omega-6. The alterations observed enabled the membranes to keep sufficient amount of liquidity essential for functional activity of mitochondria in heating.

  19. 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of rat hearts under normal and fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner — the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038. No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4. The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076. The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the

  20. 3D IMAGING OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE OF RAT HEARTS UNDER NORMAL AND FASTING CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zhou, Rong; Moon, Lily; Feng, Min; Li, Lin Z

    2014-03-01

    The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo . Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD + couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH ( p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found ( p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D

  1. Mechanisms of Heshouwuyin in regulating apoptosis of testicular cells in aging rats through mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Wang, Yujuan; Hui, Chenhong; Xi, Yao; Liu, Xiang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Haokun; Wang, Zhenshan; Niu, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    Polygonum multiflorum has important effects on anti-aging and immunity enhancement. Many traditional Chinese medicine preparations based on Polygonum multiflorum are widely used for the clinical prevention and treatment of aging. However the mechanisms of these herb mixtures are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the regulation of testicular cells apoptosis in aging rats. In this study, 18-month-old Wistar rats served as a model of natural aging and 12-month-old rats served as a young control group. Heshouwuyin group 1 and group 2 were comprised 18-month-old rats given Heshouwuyin intragastrically for 60 days and 30 days respectively. Then testes of the young control group were isolated in the age of 12 months, the other three groups were in the age of 18 months. TUNEL assay showed that the rate of testicular cell apoptosis was obviously higher and Flow cytometry analysis showed that the rate of cell proliferation was significantly lower in the natural aging group than in the young control group and that intervention with Heshouwuyin could reverse this phenomenon. Therefore, we further applied microarray analysis to screen out differentially expressed genes regulated by Heshouwuyin and related to cell apoptosis. The expression of these genes was observed by quantitative fluorescence PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot. The results showed that the expression of 14-3-3σ was significantly lower and that the expression of DR6, BAX, caspase-3 and Cytc were significantly higher in the natural aging group than in the young control group, but intervention with Heshouwuyin significantly reversed this phenomenon. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days. Our study suggests that Heshouwuyin has anti-aging effects on the testis by means of inhibiting the occurrence of apoptosis in spermatogenic

  2. Successful amelioration of mitochondrial optic neuropathy using the yeast NDI1 gene in a rat animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Marella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited disorder with point mutations in mitochondrial DNA which result in loss of vision in young adults. The majority of mutations reported to date are within the genes encoding the subunits of the mitochondrial NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, complex I. Establishment of animal models of LHON should help elucidate mechanism of the disease and could be utilized for possible development of therapeutic strategies.We established a rat model which involves injection of rotenone-loaded microspheres into the optic layer of the rat superior colliculus. The animals exhibited the most common features of LHON. Visual loss was observed within 2 weeks of rotenone administration with no apparent effect on retinal ganglion cells. Death of retinal ganglion cells occurred at a later stage. Using our rat model, we investigated the effect of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase, Ndi1. We were able to achieve efficient expression of the Ndi1 protein in the mitochondria of all regions of retinal ganglion cells and axons by delivering the NDI1 gene into the optical layer of the superior colliculus. Remarkably, even after the vision of the rats was severely impaired, treatment of the animals with the NDI1 gene led to a complete restoration of the vision to the normal level. Control groups that received either empty vector or the GFP gene had no effects.The present study reports successful manifestation of LHON-like symptoms in rats and demonstrates the potential of the NDI1 gene therapy on mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Our results indicate a window of opportunity for the gene therapy to be applied successfully after the onset of the disease symptoms.

  3. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tong; Xie Ping; Liu Ying; Li Guangyu; Xiong Qian; Hao Le; Li Huiying

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD 50 (14 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight) and 1LD 50 (87 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD 50 dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD 50 not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil

  4. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  5. Decarboxylation of Malate in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi (Role of NAD-Malic Enzyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. M.; Lindsay, J. G.; Wilkins, M. B.; Nimmo, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi was investigated using preparations of intact and solubilized mitochondria from fully expanded leaves. Intact, coupled mitochondria isolated during the day or night did not differ in their ability to take up [14C]malic acid from the surrounding medium or to respire using malate or succinate as substrate. However, intact mitochondria isolated from plants during the day decarboxylated added malate to pyruvate significantly faster than mitochondria isolated from plants at night. NAD-ME activity in solubilized mitochondrial extracts showed hysteretic kinetics and was stimulated by a number of activators, including acetyl-coenzyme A, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and sulfate ions. In the absence of these effectors, reaction progress curves were nonlinear, with a pronounced acceleration phase. The lag period before a steady-state rate was reached in assays of mitochondrial extracts decreased during the photoperiod and increased slowly during the period of darkness. However, these changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme could not account for the changes in the rate of decarboxylation of malate by intact mitochondria. Gel-filtration experiments showed that mitochondrial extracts contained three forms of NAD-ME with different molecular weights. The relative proportions of the three forms varied somewhat throughout the light/dark cycle, but this did not account for the changes in the kinetics behavior of the enzyme during the diurnal cycle. PMID:12228671

  6. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y; Vorobyeva, Darya A; Carter, Christy S; Anton, Stephen D; Lezza, Angela M S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2010-05-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10) (Q-ter), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+) retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  7. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  8. The role of mitochondrial DNA large deletion for the development of presbycusis in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shankai; Yu, Zhiping; Sockalingam, Ravi; Bance, Manohar; Sun, Genlou; Wang, Jian

    2007-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss, or presbycusis, has been associated with large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in previous studies. However, the role of this mtDNA damage in presbycusis is still not clear because the deletion in inner ears has not been measured quantitatively and analyzed in parallel with the time course of presbycusis. In the present study, the deletion was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in male Fischer 344 rats of different ages. It was found that the deletion increased quickly during young adulthood and reached over 60% at 6 months of age. However, a significant hearing loss was not seen until after 12 months of age. The results suggest that the existence of the deletion per se does not necessarily imply cochlear damage, but rather a critical level of the accumulated deletion seems to precede the hearing loss. The long delay may indicate the involvement of mechanisms other than mtDNA deletion in the development of presbycusis.

  9. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  10. Modulation of mitochondrial biomarkers by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and aerobic exercise after eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Roca, David; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Santos-Alves, Estela; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, Joan Ramon

    2017-07-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption, and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD) in trained rats using 2 recovery protocols based on: (i) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and (ii) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress, and bioenergetics was evaluated. Soleus muscles were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after an EEIMD protocol. The following treatments were applied 1 day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), 4 h daily exposure to passive IHH at 4000 m (PHR) or IHH exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). Citrate synthase activity was reduced at 7 and 14 days after application of the EEIMD protocol. However, this reduction was attenuated in AHR rats at day 14. PGC-1α and Sirt3 and TOM20 levels had decreased after 1 and 3 days, but the AHR group exhibited increased expression of these proteins, as well as of Tfam, by the end of the protocol. Mfn2 greatly reduced during the first 72 h, but returned to basal levels passively. At day 14, AHR rats had higher levels of Mfn2, OPA1, and Drp1 than PNR animals. Both groups exposed to IHH showed a lower p66shc(ser 36 )/p66shc ratio than PNR animals, as well as higher complex IV subunit I and ANT levels. These results suggest that IHH positively modulates key mitochondrial aspects after EEIMD, especially when combined with aerobic exercise.

  11. A mutation in the gene encoding mitochondrial Mg²+ channel MRS2 results in demyelination in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat demyelination (dmy mutation serves as a unique model system to investigate the maintenance of myelin, because it provokes severe myelin breakdown in the central nervous system (CNS after normal postnatal completion of myelination. Here, we report the molecular characterization of this mutation and discuss the possible pathomechanisms underlying demyelination. By positional cloning, we found that a G-to-A transition, 177 bp downstream of exon 3 of the Mrs2 (MRS2 magnesium homeostasis factor (Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, generated a novel splice acceptor site which resulted in functional inactivation of the mutant allele. Transgenic rescue with wild-type Mrs2-cDNA validated our findings. Mrs2 encodes an essential component of the major Mg²+ influx system in mitochondria of yeast as well as human cells. We showed that the dmy/dmy rats have major mitochondrial deficits with a markedly elevated lactic acid concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, a 60% reduction in ATP, and increased numbers of mitochondria in the swollen cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes. MRS2-GFP recombinant BAC transgenic rats showed that MRS2 was dominantly expressed in neurons rather than oligodendrocytes and was ultrastructurally observed in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Our observations led to the conclusion that dmy/dmy rats suffer from a mitochondrial disease and that the maintenance of myelin has a different mechanism from its initial production. They also established that Mg²+ homeostasis in CNS mitochondria is essential for the maintenance of myelin.

  12. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  13. Angiotensin receptor blockade improves cardiac mitochondrial activity in response to an acute glucose load in obese insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Thorwald

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia increases the risk of oxidant overproduction in the heart through activation of a multitude of pathways. Oxidation of mitochondrial enzymes may impair their function resulting in accumulation of intermediates and reverse electron transfer, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS becomes inappropriately activated during metabolic syndrome, increasing oxidant production. To combat excess oxidant production, the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythriod-2- related factor 2 (Nrf2, induces expression of many antioxidant genes. We hypothesized that angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 blockade improves mitochondrial function in response to an acute glucose load via upregulation of Nrf2. To address this hypothesis, an oral glucose challenge was performed in three groups prior to dissection (n = 5–8 animals/group/time point of adult male rats: 1 Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; lean strain-control, 2 insulin resistant, obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF, and 3 OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg olmesartan/kg/d × 6 weeks. Hearts were collected at T0, T60, and T120 minutes post-glucose infusion. ARB increased Nrf2 binding 32% compared to OLETF at T60. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities were increased 45% and 66% respectively in ARB treated animals compared to OLETF. Mitochondrial enzyme activities of aconitase, complex I, and complex II increased by 135%, 33% and 66%, respectively in ARB compared to OLETF. These data demonstrate the protective effects of AT1 blockade on mitochondrial function during the manifestation of insulin resistance suggesting that the inappropriate activation of AT1 during insulin resistance may impair Nrf2 translocation and subsequent antioxidant activities and mitochondrial function. Keywords: Angiotensin II, Mitochondria, Cardiac, Antioxidant enzymes, TCA cycle

  14. Cobalamin Deficiency Results in Increased Production of Formate Secondary to Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidation of One-Carbon Units in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Luke; Tingley, Garrett; Young, Sara K; Clow, Kathy A; Randell, Edward W; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2018-03-01

    Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume either a cobalamin-replete (50 μg cobalamin/kg diet) or -deficient (no added cobalamin) diet for 6 wk. Formate production was measured in vivo and in isolated liver mitochondria from a variety of one-carbon precursors. We also measured the oxidation of [3-14C]-l-serine to 14CO2 in isolated rat liver mitochondria and the expression of hepatic genes involved in one-carbon unit and formate metabolism. Cobalamin-deficient rats produce formate at a rate 55% higher than that of replete rats. Formate production from serine was increased by 60% and from dimethylglycine and sarcosine by ∼200% in liver mitochondria isolated from cobalamin-deficient rats compared with cobalamin-replete rats. There was a 26% decrease in the 14CO2 produced by mitochondria from cobalamin-deficient rats. Gene expression analysis showed that 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cytosolic (Aldh1l1) and mitochondrial (Aldh1l2) expression were decreased by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to control, while 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, mitochondrial, monofunctional (Mthfd1l) expression was unchanged. We propose that a bifurcation in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is a key control mechanism in determining the fate of one-carbon units, to formate or CO2. During cobalamin deficiency in rats the disposition of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate carbon is shifted in favor of formate production. This may represent a mechanism to generate more one-carbon units for the replenishment of the S

  15. Naringin ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and associated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation in rats: Possible mechanism of nephroprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Tatireddy, Srujana [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad 500 037 (India); Koneru, Meghana [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Borkar, Roshan M. [National Centre for Mass Spectrometry, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Kumar, Jerald Mahesh [CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Kuncha, Madhusudana [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Srinivas, R. [National Centre for Mass Spectrometry, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Shyam Sunder, R. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Sistla, Ramakrishna, E-mail: sistla@iict.res.in [Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2014-05-15

    the kidney. - Highlights: • Naringin ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. • Naringin treatment attenuated gentamicin-induced renal apoptosis in rats. • Naringin ameliorated gentamicin-induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. • Naringin decreased NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • U-HPLC-MS data revealed that naringin did not alter the renal uptake of gentamicin.

  16. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM{sub 2.5} exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Cai, Zongwei, E-mail: zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk [State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Dong, Chuan, E-mail: dc@sxu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM{sub 2.5} with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM{sub 2.5} exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM{sub 2.5} exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease.

  17. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: Role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Shimoji, Manami; Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Sunakawa, Hajime; Aniya, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1) is activated by oxidative stress. Although MGST1 is found in mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1), there is no information about the oxidative activation of mtMGST1. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mtMGST1 also undergoes activation and about its function. When rats were treated with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), mtMGST1 activity was significantly increased, and the increased activity was reduced by the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol. In mitochondria from GalN/LPS-treated rats, disulfide-linked mtMGST1 dimer and mixed protein glutathione disulfides (glutathionylation) were detected. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from GalN/LPS-treated rats was observed, and the release was inhibited by anti-MGST1 antibodies. Incubation of mitochondria from control rats with diamide and diamide plus GSH in vitro resulted in dimer- and mixed disulfide bond-mediated activation of mtMGST1, respectively. The activation of mtMGST1 by diamide plus GSH caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and the release was prevented by treatment with anti-MGST1 antibodies. In addition, diamide plus GSH treatment caused mitochondrial swelling accompanied by cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore

  18. [Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channel activators in liver mitochondrial function in rats with different resistance to hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, H M; Kurhaliuk, N M; Vovkanych, L S

    2003-01-01

    Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels opener pinacidil (0.06 mg/kg) and inhibitor glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) in rats with different resistance to hypoxia on indices of ADP-stimulation of mitochondrial respiration by Chance, calcium capacity and processes of lipid peroxidation in liver has been investigated. We used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate. Additional analyses contain the next inhibitors: mitochondrial fermentative complex I-10 mkM rotenone, succinate dehydrogenase 2 mM malonic acid. It was shown that effects of pinacidil induced the increasing of oxidative phosporylation efficacy and ATP synthesis together with lowering of calcium capacity in rats with low resistance to hypoxia. Effects of pinacidil were leveled by glibenclamide. These changes are connected with the increasing of respiratory rate, calcium overload and intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. A conclusion was made about protective effect of pinacidil on mitochondrial functioning by economization of oxygen-dependent processes, adaptive potentialities of organisms with low resistance to hypoxia being increased.

  19. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. © 2013.

  20. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B.; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  1. Mitochondrial toxicity of diclofenac and its metabolites via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation of the inh......Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation...... of the inhibitory effects of diclofenac (Dic) and its phase I [4-hydroxy diclofenac (4'-OH-Dic) and 5-hydroxy diclofenac (5-OH-dic)] and Phase-II [diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DicGluA) and diclofenac glutathione thioester (DicSG)] metabolites, on ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria was carried out. A mechanism...

  2. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  3. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India); Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160 012 (India); Flora, Swaran J.S., E-mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  4. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Symington

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV, aspirin (ASP or vitamin C (VitC co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months. Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail.

  5. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Hamar, Péter; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Giricz, Zoltán; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-10-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V.; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4. High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. PMID:27521417

  7. Possible involvement of mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daicho, Takuya; Yagi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yohei; Ohara, Meiko; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takeo, Satoshi; Tanonaka, Kouichi

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible involvement of alterations in the mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-administered rats. The rats at the 6th week after subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline revealed marked myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, that is, severe cardiac remodeling. The time-course study on the cardiac hemodynamics of the monocrotaline-administered rat by the cannula and echocardiographic methods showed a reduction in cardiac double product, a decrease in cardiac output index, and an increase in the right ventricular Tei index, suggesting that the right ventricular failure was induced at the 6th week after monocrotaline administration in rats. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of the right ventricular muscle isolated from the monocrotaline-administered animal was decreased, which was associated with a reduction in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was inversely related to the increase in the right ventricular Tei index of the monocrotaline-administered rats. These results suggest that impairment of the mitochondrial energy-producing ability is involved in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

  8. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  9. Lactate is oxidized outside of the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric A F; George, Mitchell A J; Brebner, Karen; Holloway, Graham P; Kane, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    The nature and existence of mitochondrial lactate oxidation is debated in the literature. Obscuring the issue are disparate findings in isolated mitochondria, as well as relatively low rates of lactate oxidation observed in permeabilized muscle fibres. However, respiration with lactate has yet to be directly assessed in brain tissue with the mitochondrial reticulum intact. To determine if lactate is oxidized in the matrix of brain mitochondria, oxygen consumption was measured in saponin-permeabilized mouse brain cortex samples, and rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal) subregions. While respiration in the presence of ADP and malate increased with the addition of lactate, respiration was maximized following the addition of exogenous NAD + , suggesting maximal lactate metabolism involves extra-matrix lactate dehydrogenase. This was further supported when NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation was significantly decreased with the addition of either low-concentration α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate or UK-5099, inhibitors of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial respiration was comparable between glutamate, pyruvate, and NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation. Results from the current study demonstrate that permeabilized brain is a feasible model for assessing lactate oxidation, and support the interpretation that lactate oxidation occurs outside the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

  10. Estradiol receptors mediate estradiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca^{2+} efflux in rat caudate nucleus and brain stem

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC, SNJEZANA; MILOSEVIC, MAJA; RISTIC-MEDIC, DANIJELA; VELICKOVIC, NATASA; DRAKULIC, DUNJA; GRKOVIC, IVANA; HORVAT, ANICA

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca^{2+} efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl_2 (0.6?0.75 µCi ^45CaCl_{2}) was used for Ca^{2+} transport monitoring. The results revealed that in the presence of ER antagonist 7\\alpha,17ß-[9[(4,4,5,5,5-...

  11. Diminished superoxide generation is associated with respiratory chain dysfunction and changes in the mitochondrial proteome of sensory neurons from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akude, Eli; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Chowdhury, Subir K Roy; Smith, Darrell R; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Fernyhough, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in mitochondrial function have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in axons of sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes is due to abnormal activity of the respiratory chain and an altered mitochondrial proteome. Proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) determined expression of proteins in mitochondria from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of control, 22-week-old streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. Rates of oxygen consumption and complex activities in mitochondria from DRG were measured. Fluorescence imaging of axons of cultured sensory neurons determined the effect of diabetes on mitochondrial polarization status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial matrix-specific reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proteins associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, ubiquinone biosynthesis, and the citric acid cycle were downregulated in diabetic samples. For example, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV; a complex IV protein) and NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 3 (NDUFS3; a complex I protein) were reduced by 29 and 36% (P neurons exhibited oxidative stress and depolarized mitochondria, an aberrant adaption to oligomycin-induced mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, but reduced levels of intramitochondrial superoxide compared with control. Abnormal mitochondrial function correlated with a downregulation of mitochondrial proteins, with components of the respiratory chain targeted in lumbar DRG in diabetes. The reduced activity of the respiratory chain was associated with diminished superoxide generation within the mitochondrial matrix and did not contribute to oxidative stress in axons of diabetic neurons. Alternative pathways involving polyol pathway activity appear to contribute to raised ROS in axons of diabetic neurons under high glucose concentration.

  12. Protective effects of potassium transport in mitochondria from rat myometrium under activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated using PBFI K+-sensitive fluorescent probe an enhancement of both components of K+-cycle – the ATP-sensitive K+-uptake and quinine-sensitive K+/H+-exchange – under the Ca2+ induced opening­ of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP in rat myometrium mitochondria. Addition of CaCl2 (100 μM to K+-free medium results in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, which was eliminated by cyclosporine A. Addition of CaCl2 to K+-rich medium did not increase the rate of ROS production, but blocking of mitoK+ATP-channels with glybenclamide (10 μM increased production of ROS. We conclude that K+-cycle exerts a protective influence in mitochondria from rat myometrium by regulation of matrix volume and rate of ROS production under the condition of Ca2+-induced MPTP.

  13. Action of sulphite on plant malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I.

    1974-01-01

    SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ acts on NAD- and NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase in several ways. Firstly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ favours the appearance of low MW species (65000 and 39000 daltons) in Sephadex gel chromatography. Secondly, the enzyme from which is obtained by gel chromatography with dithioerythritol plus nucleotide cofactor is changed in the presence of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. This is indicated by the appearance of a linear reaction (instead of curvilinear), and by the abolition of the biphasic sigmoidal kinetics on varying substrate and cofactor concentrations. Thus the inhibition of initial velocity at high substrate or cofactor concentrations is even more marked than at lower ones. Thirdly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ strongly reduces the activity in substrate saturating conditions.

  14. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-01-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m ). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) ΔΨ m , vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity (∼ 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O 2 · (∼ 40%), a significant decrease in ΔΨ m (∼ 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration (∼ 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility

  15. Humanin rescues cultured rat cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity through the alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ai-Ling Cui,1 Ying-Hua Zhang,2 Jian-Zhong Li,3 Tianbin Song,4 Xue-Min Liu,1 Hui Wang,2 Ce Zhang,5 Guo-Lin Ma,6 Hui Zhang,7 Kefeng Li8 1Anatomy Department, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 2Key Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration of Henan Province, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 3Clinical Laboratory of Heji Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 5Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 6Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 7Department of Radiology, First Clinical Medical College, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 8School of Medicine, University of California – San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in a variety of pathological situations such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease. However, no effective treatments for the same have been developed so far. Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide originally cloned from the brain of patients with AD and it prevents stress-induced cell death in many cells/tissues. In our previous study, HN was found to effectively rescue rat cortical neurons. It is still not clear whether HN protects the neurons through the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, excitatory toxicity was induced by NMDA, which binds the NMDA receptor in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that NMDA (100 µmol/L dramatically induced the decrease of cell viability and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the neurons with HN (1 µmol/L led to significant increases of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity and membrane potential. In addition, HN pretreatment significantly reduced the excessive production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric

  16. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hui Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED, MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate

  17. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Hui; Li, Tao; Ai, Jing-Yi; Sun, Lei; Min, Zhu; Duan, Rui; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yan-Ying; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED), MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio) in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical

  18. Life-stage and organ specific changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identical ...

  19. Regorafenib impairs mitochondrial functions, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, induces autophagy, and causes rat hepatocyte necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James J; Li, Haibo; Xie, Liming; Mattes, William B; Shi, Qiang

    2015-01-02

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1h, and triggered MPT at 3h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7h and 24h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7h. This effect was not seen at 24h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Borengasser

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND21. In the current study, we examined systemic and hepatic adaptations in male Sprague-Dawley offspring from lean and obese dams at PND21. Indirect calorimetry revealed decreases in energy expenditure (p<0.001 and increases in RER values (p<0.001, which were further exacerbated by high fat diet (45% kcals from fat consumption indicating an impaired ability to utilize fatty acids in offspring of obese dams as analyzed by PRCF. Mitochondrial function is known to be associated with fatty acid oxidation (FAO in the liver. Several markers of hepatic mitochondrial function were reduced in offspring of obese dams. These included SIRT3 mRNA (p = 0.012 and mitochondrial protein content (p = 0.002, electron transport chain complexes (II, III, and ATPase, and fasting PGC-1α mRNA expression (p<0.001. Moreover, hepatic LCAD, a SIRT3 target, was not only reduced 2-fold (p<0.001 but was also hyperacetylated in offspring of obese dams (p<0.005 suggesting decreased hepatic FAO. In conclusion, exposure to maternal obesity contributes to early perturbations in whole body and liver energy metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an underlying event that reduces hepatic fatty acid oxidation and precedes the development of detrimental obesity associated co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and NAFLD.

  1. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  2. [Effect of L-arginine and the nitric oxide synthase blocker L-NNA on calcium capacity in rat liver mitochondria with differing resistance to hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Ikkert, O V; Vovkanych, L S; Horyn', O V; Hal'kiv, M O; Hordiĭ, S K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of L-arginine and blockator of nitric oxide synthase L-NNA on processes of calcium mitochondrial capacity in liver with different resistance to hypoxia in the experiments with Wistar rats has been studied using the followrng substrates of energy support: succinic, alpha-ketoglutaric acids, alpha-ketolutarate and inhibitor succinatedehydrogenase malonate. As well we used substrates mixtures combination providing for activation of aminotransferase mechanism: glutamate and piruvate, glutamate and malate. It has been shown that L-arginine injection increases calcium mitochondrial capacity of low resistant rats using as substrates the succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of donors nitric oxide on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  3. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua

    2018-03-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  4. Properties of the ATPase activity associated with peroxisome-enriched fractions from rat liver: comparison with mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolvetang, E. J.; Wanders, R. J.; Schutgens, R. B.; Berden, J. A.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Highly purified peroxisomal fractions from rat liver contain ATPase activity (18.8 +/- 0.1 nmol/min per mg, n = 6). This activity is about 2% of that found in purified mitochondrial fractions. Measurement of marker enzyme activities and immunoblotting of the peroxisomal fraction with an antiserum

  5. High-dose fasudil preserves postconditioning against myocardial infarction under hyperglycemia in rats: role of mitochondrial KATP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichinomiya Taiga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to determine whether fasudil hydrochloride (fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, has myocardial postconditioning (PostC activity under hyperglycemia as well as normoglycemia, and if so, whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (m-KATP channels. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. After opening the chest, all rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received low-dose (0.15 mg/kg or high-dose (0.5 mg/kg fasudil or diazoxide, an m-KATP channel opener, at 10 mg/kg, just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions. In another group, rats received 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD, an m-KATP channel blocker, at 10 mg/kg, before high-dose fasudil. Myocardial infarct size was expressed as a percentage of area at risk (AAR. Results Under normoglycemia, low-dose and high-dose fasudil and diazoxide reduced myocardial infarct size (23 ± 8%, 21 ± 9% and 21 ± 10% of AAR, respectively compared with that in the control (42 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, low-dose fasudil (40 ± 11% and diazoxide (44 ± 14% could not exert this beneficial effect, but high-dose fasudil reduced myocardial infarct size in the same manner as under normoglycemia (21 ± 13%. 5HD prevented fasudil-induced reduction of myocardial infarct size (42 ± 13%. Conclusion Fasudil induces PostC against myocardial infarction via activation of m-KATP channels in the rat. Although hyperglycemia attenuates the PostC, high-dose fasudil can restore cardioprotection.

  6. Structure of halophilic malate dehydrogenase in multimolar KCl solutions from neutron scattering and ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmettes, P.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and solvent interactions of malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui in multimolar KCl solvents are found to be similar to those in multimolar NaCl solvents reported previously (G. Zaccai, E. Wachtel and H. Eisenberg, J. Mol. Biol. 190 (1986) 97). KCl rather than NaCl is predominant in physiological medium. At salt concentrations up to about 3.0 M, the protein (a dimer of M 87000 g/mol) can be considered to occupy an invariant volume in which it is associated with about 4100 molecules of water and about 520 molecules of salt. At very low resolution, the enzyme particle appears to have a compact protein core and protruding protein parts in interaction with the water and salt components, structural features that are not observed in non-halophilic mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. The above conclusions were drawn from the analysis of neutron scattering and ultracentrifugation data, and the complementarity of these approaches is discussed extensively. 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Ketogenesis in isolated rat liver mitochondria I. Relationships with the citric acid cycle and with the mitochondrial energy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1972-01-01

    1. A method is described to calculate the distribution of acetyl-CoA over the citric acid cycle and ketogenesis during the oxidation of fatty acids in the presence of added malate. 2. Increasing concentrations of added Krebs cycle intermediates lower the rate of ketogenesis both in the low-energy

  8. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the groups when evaluating the more physiol. complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM...

  9. Impairment of mitochondrial function of rat hepatocytes by high fat diet and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garnol, T.; Endlicher, R.; Kučera, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 271-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK P37/02 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hepatocytes * high fat diet * mitochondrial activities * ROS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  10. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellu...

  11. Immobilization of malate dehydrogenase on carbon nanotubes for development of malate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, A; Rana, J S; Kumar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-12-22

    An amperometric malic acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing malate dehydrogenase on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) coated on screen printed carbon electrode. The screen printed carbon electrode is made up of three electrodes viz., carbon as working, platinum as counter and silver as reference electrode. Detection of L-malic acid concentration provides important information about the ripening and shelf life of the fruits. The NADP specific malate dehydrogenase was immobilized on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using cross linker EDC [1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] on screen printed carbon electrode. An amperometric current was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) which increases with increasing concentrations of malic acid at fixed concentration of NADP. Enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The detection limit of malic acid by the sensor was 60 - 120 μM and sensitivity of the sensor was 60 μM with a response time of 60s. The usual detection methods of malic acid are nonspecific, time consuming and less sensitive. However, an amperometric malic acid nanosensor is quick, specific and more sensitive for detection of malic acid in test samples.

  12. Taurine Supplementation Alleviates Puromycin Aminonucleoside Damage by Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (TAU is a sulfur-containing beta amino acid that is not involved in protein composition and anabolism, conditionally essential in mammals provided through diet. Growing evidence supports a protective role of TAU supply in osmoregulation, calcium flux, and reduction of inflammation and oxidant damage in renal diseases like diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, due to abnormal proteostasis, is a contributor to nephrotic syndrome and related renal damage. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary TAU (1.5% in drinking water for 15 days in an established rat model that mimics human minimal change nephrosis, consisting of a single puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN injection (intraperitoneally 15 mg/100 g body weight, with sacrifice after eight days. TAU limited proteinuria and podocytes foot processes effacement, and balanced slit diaphragm nephrin and glomerular claudin 1 expressions. In cortical proximal tubules, TAU improved lysosomal density, ER perimeter, restored proper ER-mitochondria tethering and mitochondrial cristae, and decreased inflammation. Remarkably, TAU downregulated glomerular ER stress markers (GRP78, GRP94, pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein, activated caspase 3, tubular caspase1, and mitochondrial chaperone GRP75, but maintained anti-apoptotic HSP25. In conclusion, TAU, by targeting upstream ER stress separate from mitochondria dysfunctions at crucial renal sites, might be a promising dietary supplement in the treatment of the drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

  13. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  14. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  15. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  16. Dietary fat types differently modulate the activity and expression of mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Paola; Stanca, Eleonora; Gnoni, Gabriele Vincenzo; Siculella, Luisa

    2012-10-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT), an integral protein of the mitochondrial inner membrane, belongs to the carnitine-dependent system of fatty acid transport into mitochondria, where beta-oxidation occurs. CACT exchanges cytosolic acylcarnitine or free carnitine for carnitine in the mitochondrial matrix. The object of this study was to investigate in rat liver the effect, if any, of diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (beef tallow, BT, the control), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (fish oil, FO), n-6 PUFA (safflower oil, SO), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (olive oil, OO) on the activity and expression of CACT. Translocase exchange rates increased, in parallel with CACT mRNA abundance, upon FO-feeding, whereas OO-dietary treatment induced a decrease in both CACT activity and expression. No changes were observed upon SO-feeding. Nuclear run-on assay revealed that FO-treatment increased the transcriptional rate of CACT mRNA. On the other hand, only in the nuclei of hepatocytes from OO-fed rats splicing of the last intron of CACT pre-mRNA and the rate of formation of the 3'-end were affected. Overall, these findings suggest that compared to the BT-enriched diet, the SO-enriched diet did not influence CACT activity and expression, whereas FO- and OO-feeding alters CACT activity in an opposite fashion, i.e. modulating its expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  18. Enzymatic removal of O6-ethylguanine from mitochondrial DNA in rat tissues exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, M.S.; Huh, N.; Rajewsky, M.F.; Kuroki, T.

    1988-01-01

    DNA repair is essential for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material, and a number of DNA repair mechanisms have been fairly well characterized for the nuclear DNA of eukaryotic cells as well as prokaryotes. However, little is know about DNA repair in mitochondria. Using highly sensitive immunoanalytical methods to detect specific DNA alkylation products, the authors found active removal of O 6 -ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O 6 -EtdGuo) from rat liver mitochondrial DNA after pulse-exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in vivo. In the kidney, O 6 -EtdGuo was removed from mitochondrial DNA with moderate efficiency, but nearly no removal was observed from the DNA of brain mitochondria. Among the rat tissues examined, the kinetics of O 6 -EtdGuo elimination from mitochondrial DNA was very similar to the kinetics of removal from nuclear DNA. O 4 -Ethyl-2'-deoxythymidine, another premutagenic DNA ethylation product, was stable in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of rat liver

  19. Mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes differently to rat pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory defects after prolonged culture in a low non-stimulating glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, L P; Pascal, S M; Duprez, J; Jonas, J-C

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatic beta cells chronically exposed to low glucose concentrations show signs of oxidative stress, loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and increased apoptosis. Our aim was to confirm the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in rat islet cell apoptosis under these culture conditions and to evaluate whether its reduction similarly improves survival and GSIS. Apoptosis, oxidative stress-response gene mRNA expression and glucose-induced stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and insulin secretion were measured in male Wistar rat islets cultured for 1 week in RPMI medium containing 5-10 mmol/l glucose with or without manganese(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) or N-acetyl-L-: cysteine (NAC). Oxidative stress was measured in islet cell clusters cultured under similar conditions using cytosolic and mitochondrial redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1/mt-roGFP1). Prolonged culture in 5 vs 10 mmol/l glucose increased mt-roGFP1 (but not roGFP1) oxidation followed by beta cell apoptosis and loss of GSIS resulting from reduced insulin content, mitochondrial metabolism, Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+)-induced secretion. Tolbutamide-induced, but not high K(+)-induced, Ca(2+) influx was also suppressed. Under these conditions, MnTBAP, but not NAC, triggered parallel ~50-70% reductions in mt-roGFP1 oxidation and beta cell apoptosis, but failed to protect against the loss of GSIS despite significant improvement in glucose-induced and tolbutamide-induced Ca(2+) influx. Mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes differently to rat pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory defects during culture in a low glucose concentration. Thus, targeting beta cell survival may not be sufficient to restore insulin secretion when beta cells suffer from prolonged mitochondrial oxidative stress, e.g. in the context of reduced glucose metabolism.

  20. Glucose acutely reduces cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 in rat pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglasse, Jean-Philippe; Roma, Leticia Prates; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Gilon, Patrick; Dick, Tobias P; Jonas, Jean-Christophe

    2018-05-14

    Whether H2O2 contributes to the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is highly controversial. We used two H2O2-sensitive probes, roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer with its pH-control SypHer, to test the acute effects of glucose, monomethylsuccinate, leucine with glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate, on β-cell cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 concentrations. We then tested the effects of low H2O2 and menadione concentrations on insulin secretion. RoGFP2-Orp1 was more sensitive than HyPer to H2O2 (response at 2-5 vs. 10µM) and less pH-sensitive. Under control conditions, stimulation with glucose reduced mitochondrial roGFP2-Orp1 oxidation without affecting cytosolic roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer fluorescence ratios, except for the pH-dependent effects on HyPer. However, stimulation with glucose decreased the oxidation of both cytosolic probes by 15µM exogenous H2O2. The glucose effects were not affected by overexpression of catalase, mitochondrial catalase or superoxide dismutase 1 and 2. They followed the increase in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, were maximal at 5mM glucose in the cytosol and 10mM glucose in the mitochondria, and were partly mimicked by the other nutrients. Exogenous H2O2 (1-15µM) did not affect insulin secretion. By contrast, menadione (1-5µM) did not increase basal insulin secretion but reduced the stimulation of insulin secretion by 20mM glucose. Subcellular changes in β-cell H2O2 levels are better monitored with roGFP2-Orp1 than HyPer/SypHer. Nutrients acutely lower mitochondrial H2O2 levels in β-cells and promote degradation of exogenously supplied H2O2 in both cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. The glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion occurs independently of a detectable increase in β-cell cytosolic or mitochondrial H2O2 levels.

  1. Effects of trace elements and mono- and dithiols on mitochondrial monoamine oxidase of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.; Horton, C.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of several trace elements on mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) were studied. Elements were studied at a concentration of 1 mM; only mercury, cadmium, and copper were significantly effective in reducing the activity of this enzyme. Of several thiols tested, only dithiothreitol could reverse the inhibition of MAO by these elements. Evidence is also presented in this report to show that cysteine, homocysteine, and reduced glutathione inhibit this MAO, whereas dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol evoke stimulatory responses.

  2. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S.; Wada, H.; Horio, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP PM ) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP PM have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP PM reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of [ 3 H]oleate but not that of [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein or [ 14 C]taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP PM can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP PM and mGOT are closely related

  3. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA)); Wada, H.; Horio, Y. (Univ. of Osaka (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP{sub PM}) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP{sub PM} have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP{sub PM} reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of ({sup 3}H)oleate but not that of ({sup 35}S)sulfobromophthalein or ({sup 14}C)taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP{sub PM} can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP{sub PM} and mGOT are closely related.

  4. Mitochondrial toxicity of selective COX-2 inhibitors via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) designed to selectively inhibit COX-2. However, drugs of this therapeutic class are associated with drug induced liver injury (DILI) and mitochondrial injury is likely to play a role. The effects...... of selective COX-2 inhibitors on inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria were investigated. The order of potency of inhibition of ATP synthesis was: lumiracoxib (IC50: 6.48 ± 2.74 μM)>celecoxib (IC50: 14.92 ± 6.40 μM)>valdecoxib (IC50: 161.4 ± 28.6 μM)>rofecoxib (IC50...... correlation (with r(2)=0.921) was observed between the potency of inhibition of ATP synthesis and the log P values. The in vitro metabolism of coxibs in rat liver mitochondria yielded for each drug substance a major single metabolite and identified a hydroxy metabolite with each of the coxibs...

  5. The role of hepatic mitochondria in the regulation of glucose metabolism in BHE rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The interacting effects of dietary fat source and thyroxine treatment on the hepatic mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism were studied. In the first study, three different sources of dietary fatty acids and thyroxine treatment were used to investigate the hepatic mitochondrial thermotropic behavior in two strains of rat. The NIDDM BHE and Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Feeding coconut oil increased serum T 4 levels and T 4 treatment increased serum T 3 levels in the BHE rats. In the mitochondria from BHE rats fed coconut oil and treated with T 4 , the transition temperature disappeared due to a decoupling of succinate supported respiration. This was not observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the second study, two different sources of dietary fat and T 4 treatment were used to investigate hepatic mitochondrial function. Coconut oil feeding increased Ca ++ Mg ++ ATPase and Mg ++ ATPase. T 4 treatment had potentiated this effect. T 4 increased the malate-aspartate shuttle and α-glycerophosphate shuttle activities. In the third study, the glucose turnover rate from D-[ 14 C-U]/[6- 3 H]-glucose and gluconeogeneis from L-[ 14 C-U]-alanine was examined. Dietary fat or T 4 did not affect the glucose mass. T 4 increased the irreversible fractional glucose turnover rate

  6. Shilajit attenuates behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapaneni, Dinesh Kumar; Adapa, Sree Rama Shiva Shanker; Preeti, Kumari; Teja, Gangineni Ravi; Veeraragavan, Muruganandam; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2012-08-30

    Shilajit has been used as a rejuvenator for ages in Indian ancient traditional medicine and has been validated for a number of pharmacological activities. The effect of processed shilajit which was standardized to dibenzo-α-pyrones (DBPs;0.43% w/w), DBP-chromoproteins (DCPs; 20.45% w/w) and fulvic acids (56.75% w/w) was evaluated in a rat model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The mitochondrial bioenergetics and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated for the plausible mechanism of action of shilajit. CFS was induced by forcing the rats to swim for 15mins for 21 consecutive days. The rats were treated with shilajit (25, 50 and 100mg/kg) for 21 days before exposure to stress procedure. The behavioral consequence of CFS was measured in terms of immobility and the climbing period. The post-CFS anxiety level was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Plasma corticosterone and adrenal gland weight were estimated as indices of HPA axis activity. Analysis of mitochondrial complex chain enzymes (Complex I, II, IV and V) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) were performed to evaluate the mitochondrial bioenergetics and integrity respectively. Shilajit reversed the CFS-induced increase in immobility period and decrease in climbing behavior as well as attenuated anxiety in the EPM test. Shilajit reversed CFS-induced decrease in plasma corticosterone level and loss of adrenal gland weight indicating modulation of HPA axis. Shilajit prevented CFS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by stabilizing the complex enzyme activities and the loss of MMP. Shilajit reversed CFS-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress in terms of NO concentration and, LPO, SOD and catalase activities. The results indicate that shilajit mitigates the effects of CFS in this model possibly through the modulation of HPA axis and preservation of mitochondrial function and integrity. The reversal of CFS-induced behavioral symptoms and

  7. Substrate specific effects of calcium on metabolism of rat heart mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A V; Scaduto, R C

    1996-04-01

    Oxidative metabolism in the heart is tightly coupled to mechanical work. Because this coupling process is believed to involve Ca2+, the roles of mitochondrial Ca2+ in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation was studied in isolated rat heart mitochondria. The electrical component of the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi) and the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides were determined during the oxidation of various substrates under different metabolic states. In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, the NADP+ redox couple was almost completely reduced, regardless of the specific substrate and the presence of Ca2+, whereas NAD+ couple redox state was highly dependent on the substrate type and the presence of Ca2+. Titration of respiration with ADP, in the presence of excess hexokinase and glucose, showed that both respiration and NAD(P)+ reduction were very sensitive to ADP. The maximal enzyme reaction rate of ADP-stimulated respiration Michaelis constants (Km) for ADP were dependent on the particular substrate employed. delta psi was much less sensitive to ADP. With either alpha-ketoglutarate or glutamate as substrate, Ca2+ significantly increased reduction of NAD(P)+.Ca2+ did not influence NAD(P)+ reduction with either acetylcarnitine or pyruvate as substrate. In the presence of ADP, delta psi was increased by Ca2+ at all metabolic states with glutamate plus malate, 0.5 mM alpha-ketoglutarate plus malate, or pyruvate plus malate as substrates. The data presented support the hypothesis that cardiac respiration is controlled by the availability of both Ca2+ and ADP to mitochondria. The data indicate that an increase in substrate supply to mitochondria can increase mitochondrial respiration at given level of ADP. This effect can be produced by Ca2+ with substrates such as glutamate, which utilize alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity for oxidation. Increases in respiration by Ca2+ may mitigate an increase in ADP during periods of increased

  8. Mitochondrial defects associated with β-alanine toxicity: relevance to hyper-beta-alaninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetewy, Aza; Shimada-Takaura, Kayoko; Warner, Danielle; Jong, Chian Ju; Mehdi, Abu-Bakr Al; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Takahashi, Kyoko; Schaffer, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β-alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has been proposed that at least some of the symptoms are caused by oxidative stress; however, only limited information is available on the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation. The present study examines the hypothesis that β-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function; cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation. To test the taurine hypothesis, isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts were incubated with medium lacking or containing β-alanine. β-alanine treatment led to mitochondrial superoxide accumulation in conjunction with a decrease in oxygen consumption. The defect in β-alanine-mediated respiratory function was detected in permeabilized cells exposed to glutamate/malate but not in cells utilizing succinate, suggesting that β-alanine leads to impaired complex I activity. Taurine treatment limited mitochondrial superoxide generation, supporting a role for taurine in maintaining complex I activity. Also affected by taurine is mitochondrial morphology, as β-alanine-treated fibroblasts undergo fragmentation, a sign of unhealthy mitochondria that is reversed by taurine treatment. If left unaltered, β-alanine-treated fibroblasts also undergo mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of caspases 3 and 9 and the initiation of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Together, these data show that β-alanine mediates changes that reduce ATP generation and enhance oxidative stress, factors that contribute to heart failure. PMID:27023909

  9. Evidence that metformin exerts its anti-diabetic effects through inhibition of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M R; Doran, E; Halestrap, A P

    2000-06-15

    Although metformin is widely used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, its mode of action remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that its primary site of action is through a direct inhibition of complex 1 of the respiratory chain. Metformin(50 microM) inhibited mitochondrial oxidation of glutamate+malate in hepatoma cells by 13 and 30% after 24 and 60 h exposure respectively, but succinate oxidation was unaffected. Metformin also caused time-dependent inhibition of complex 1 in isolated mitochondria, whereas in sub-mitochondrial particles inhibition was immediate but required very high metformin concentrations (K(0.5),79 mM). These data are compatible with the slow membrane-potential-driven accumulation of the positively charged drug within the mitochondrial matrix leading to inhibition of complex 1. Metformin inhibition of gluconeogenesis from L-lactate in isolated rat hepatocytes was also time- and concentration-dependent, and accompanied by changes in metabolite levels similar to those induced by other inhibitors of gluconeogenesis acting on complex 1. Freeze-clamped livers from metformin-treated rats exhibited similar changes in metabolite concentrations. We conclude that the drug's pharmacological effects are mediated, at least in part, through a time-dependent, self-limiting inhibition of the respiratory chain that restrains hepatic gluconeogenesis while increasing glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Lactic acidosis, an occasional side effect, canal so be explained in this way.

  10. A perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats treated with silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Pazin, Murilo; Franco-Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Pereira, Márcio Cesar; Mesquita, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Barbosa, Fernando; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys. This situation has increased environmental and occupational exposure to AgNPs and TiNPs, which has placed demand for the risk assessment of NPs. Indeed, the same properties that make nanomaterials so attractive could also prove deleterious to biological systems. Of particular concern is the effect of NPs on mitochondria because these organelles play an essential role in cellular homeostasis. In this scenario, this work aimed to study how AgNPs and TiNPs interact with the mitochondrial respiration chain and to analyze how this interaction interferes in the bioenergetics and oxidative state of the organelles after sub-chronic exposure. Mitochondria were exposed to the NPs by gavage treatment for 21 days to check whether co-exposure of the organelles to the two types of NPs elicited any mitochondrion-NP interaction. More specifically, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV received mineral oil, TiNPs (100 μg/kg/day), AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), and TiNPs + AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), respectively, by gavage. The liver was immediately removed, and the mitochondria were isolated and used within 3 h. Exposure of mitochondria to TiNPs + AgNPs lowered the respiratory control ratio, causing an uncoupling effect in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Moreover, both types of NPs induced mitochondrial swelling. Extended exposure of mitochondria to the NPs maintained increased ROS levels and

  11. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  12. Enzymatic urea adaptation: lactate and malate dehydrogenase in elasmobranchs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagana, G.; Bellocco, E.; Mannucci, C.; Leuzzi, U.; Tellone, E.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2006), s. 675-688 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : elasmobranchs * lactate dehydrogenase * malate dehydrogenase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  13. Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporters Can Facilitate GABA Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kamran, Muhammad; Sullivan, Wendy; Chirkova, Larissa; Okamoto, Mamoru; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Michael; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2018-05-01

    Plant aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) are currently classified as anion channels; they are also known to be regulated by diverse signals, leading to a range of physiological responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs that shares similarity with a GABA binding site in mammalian GABA A receptors. Here, we explore why TaALMT1 activation leads to a negative correlation between malate efflux and endogenous GABA concentrations ([GABA] i ) in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) root tips and in heterologous expression systems. We show that TaALMT1 activation reduces [GABA] i because TaALMT1 facilitates GABA efflux but GABA does not complex Al 3+ TaALMT1 also leads to GABA transport into cells, demonstrated by a yeast complementation assay and via 14 C-GABA uptake into TaALMT1 -expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes; this was found to be a general feature of all ALMTs we examined. Mutation of the GABA motif (TaALMT1 F213C ) prevented both GABA influx and efflux, and resulted in no correlation between malate efflux and [GABA] i We conclude that ALMTs are likely to act as both GABA and anion transporters in planta. GABA and malate appear to interact with ALMTs in a complex manner to regulate each other's transport, suggestive of a role for ALMTs in communicating metabolic status. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity in individual fibre types in hypo- and hyperthyroid rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Turnbull, D M

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative cytochemical and biochemical techniques have been used in combination to study the response of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes in individual muscle fibre types to hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (L-GPDH), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (D-HBDH) in all fibre types of both slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.) muscles. In hyperthyroidism, only L-GPDH activity increased in e.d.l. but more marked increases were seen in soleus muscles, which also showed increased SDH activity. In addition to these alterations in the enzyme activity in individual fibre types the metabolic profile of the muscle is further modified by the hormone-induced interconversion of slow- to fast-twitch fibres and vice versa.

  15. Epigenetic effects of low perinatal doses of flame retardant BDE-47 on mitochondrial and nuclear genes in rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Benachour, Nora; Zalko, Daniel; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Colicino, Elena; Takser, Larissa; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are known endocrine disrupting chemicals used commonly as flame retardants in everything from electronics to furniture. Exposure to PBDEs during early development has been linked to neurodevelopmental delays. Despite mounting evidence of neurological harm from PBDE exposure, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects on brain function remain unknown. We examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BDE-47, the most biologically active and prevalent BDE congener in North America, on epigenetic patterns in the frontal lobe of Wistar rats. Dams were gavaged with BDE-47 (0.002 and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) at gestation days 9 and 16, and postnatal days 1, 8, and 15. Frontal lobes from offspring at postnatal day 41 were collected to measure 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase genes (Mt-co1, Mt-co2, and Mt-co3), global nuclear 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content, 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn, and 5mC in nuclear genes (Bdnf, Crhr1, Mc2r, Nr3c1, and Snca) related to behavioral and brain functions in the nuclear genome. We observed a significant decrease in %5mC in Mt-co2 (difference from control = −0.68%, p = 0.01 at the 0.2 mg/kg BDE-47). 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn decreased at 0.002 mg/kg BDE-47 (difference = −1.23%, p = 0.02). Decreased nuclear 5mC was observed in Bdnf and Nr3c1 in BDE-47 exposed rats. However, we did not observe significant effects of PBDE toxicity on DNA methylation patterns for the majority of genes in the brain

  16. Epigenetic effects of low perinatal doses of flame retardant BDE-47 on mitochondrial and nuclear genes in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Benachour, Nora; Zalko, Daniel; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Colicino, Elena; Takser, Larissa; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-02-03

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are known endocrine disrupting chemicals used commonly as flame retardants in everything from electronics to furniture. Exposure to PBDEs during early development has been linked to neurodevelopmental delays. Despite mounting evidence of neurological harm from PBDE exposure, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects on brain function remain unknown. We examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BDE-47, the most biologically active and prevalent BDE congener in North America, on epigenetic patterns in the frontal lobe of Wistar rats. Dams were gavaged with BDE-47 (0.002 and 0.2mg/kg body weight) at gestation days 9 and 16, and postnatal days 1, 8, and 15. Frontal lobes from offspring at postnatal day 41 were collected to measure 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase genes (Mt-co1, Mt-co2, and Mt-co3), global nuclear 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content, 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn, and 5mC in nuclear genes (Bdnf, Crhr1, Mc2r, Nr3c1, and Snca) related to behavioral and brain functions in the nuclear genome. We observed a significant decrease in %5mC in Mt-co2 (difference from control=-0.68%, p=0.01 at the 0.2mg/kg BDE-47). 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn decreased at 0.002 mg/kg BDE-47 (difference=-1.23%, p=0.02). Decreased nuclear 5mC was observed in Bdnf and Nr3c1 in BDE-47 exposed rats. However, we did not observe significant effects of PBDE toxicity on DNA methylation patterns for the majority of genes in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Tainá CC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8 from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  19. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Tainá C C; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Novaes, Clodoaldo F; Thiengo, Silvana C; Silva, Alexandre J; Estrela, Pedro C; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2012-11-06

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode's main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  20. An InDel in the Promoter of Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 Selected during Tomato Domestication Determines Fruit Malate Contents and Aluminum Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hu, Tixu; Zhang, Fengxia; Wang, Bing; Li, Changxin; Yang, Tianxia; Li, Hanxia; Lu, Yongen; Ye, Zhibiao

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we integrated a metabolite-based genome-wide association study with linkage mapping and gene functional studies to characterize the genetics of malate accumulation in a global collection of tomato accessions with broad genetic diversity. We report that TFM6 (tomato fruit malate 6), which corresponds to Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 (Sl-ALMT9 in tomato), is the major quantitative trait locus responsible for variation in fruit malate accumulation among tomato genotypes. A 3-bp indel in the promoter region of Sl-ALMT9 was linked to high fruit malate content. Further analysis indicated that this indel disrupts a W-box binding site in the Sl-ALMT9 promoter, which prevents binding of the WRKY transcription repressor Sl-WRKY42, thereby alleviating the repression of Sl-ALMT9 expression and promoting high fruit malate accumulation. Evolutionary analysis revealed that this highly expressed Sl-ALMT9 allele was selected for during tomato domestication. Furthermore, vacuole membrane-localized Sl-ALMT9 increases in abundance following Al treatment, thereby elevating malate transport and enhancing Al resistance. PMID:28814642

  1. Insulin Resistance Is Not Associated with an Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Contracting Gastrocnemius Muscle of Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Macia

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle would play a major role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM development, but the causal relationships between these events remain conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a non-obese T2DM model developing peripheral insulin resistant without abnormal level of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Wistar rats were used as controls. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Compared with control group, plasma insulin and glucose were respectively lower and higher in GK rats, but plasma NEFA level was normal. In resting GK muscle, phosphocreatine content was reduced whereas glucose content and intracellular pH were both higher. However, there were not differences between both groups for basal oxidative ATP synthesis rate, citrate synthase activity, and intramyocellular contents for lipids, glycogen, ATP and ADP (an important in vivo mitochondrial regulator. During a standardized fatiguing protocol (6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, mechanical performance and glycolytic ATP production rate were reduced in diabetic animals whereas oxidative ATP production rate, maximal mitochondrial capacity and ATP cost of contraction were not changed. These findings provide in vivo evidence that insulin resistance is not caused by an impairment of mitochondrial function in this diabetic model.

  2. Nicotinic receptors modulate the onset of reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction evoked by glutamate uptake block in the rat hypoglossal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Maria; Corsini, Silvia; Nistri, Andrea

    2017-02-03

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is considered to be a major process to initiate cell degeneration. Indeed, subsequent to excessive glutamate receptor stimulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are regarded as two major gateways leading to neuron death. These processes are mimicked in an in vitro model of rat brainstem slice when excitotoxicity is induced by DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), a specific glutamate-uptake blocker that increases extracellular glutamate. Our recent study has demonstrated that brainstem hypoglossal motoneurons, which are very vulnerable to this damage, were neuroprotected from excitotoxicity with nicotine application through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and subsequent inhibition of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study examined if endogenous cholinergic activity exerted any protective effect in this pathophysiological model and how ROS production (estimated with rhodamine fluorescence) and mitochondrial dysfunction (measured as methyltetrazolium reduction) were time-related during the early phase of excitotoxicity (0-4h). nAChR antagonists did not modify TBOA-evoked ROS production (that was nearly doubled over control) or mitochondrial impairment (25% decline), suggesting that intrinsic nAChR activity was insufficient to contrast excitotoxicity and needed further stimulation with nicotine to become effective. ROS production always preceded mitochondrial dysfunction by about 2h. Nicotine prevented both ROS production and mitochondrial metabolic depression with a delayed action that alluded to a complex chain of events targeting these two lesional processes. The present data indicate a relatively wide time frame during which strong nAChR activation can arrest a runaway neurotoxic process leading to cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glia Maturation Factor Dependent Inhibition of Mitochondrial PGC-1α Triggers Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in N27 Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi; Iyer, Shankar S; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Raju, Murugesan; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Saeed, Daniyal; Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Zahoor, Harris; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

    2018-01-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting over five million individuals worldwide. The exact molecular events underlying PD pathogenesis are still not clearly known. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a neuroinflammatory protein in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress trigger apoptosis leading to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α or PPARGC-α) acts as a transcriptional co-regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism by controlling oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant activity, and autophagy. In this study, we found that incubation of immortalized rat dopaminergic (N27) neurons with GMF influences the expression of peroxisome PGC-1α and increases oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death. We show that incubation with GMF reduces the expression of PGC-1α with concomitant decreases in the mitochondrial complexes. Besides, there is increased oxidative stress and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in these cells. Further, GMF reduces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and shifts Bax/Bcl-2 expression resulting in release of cytochrome-c and increased activations of effector caspase expressions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed alteration in the mitochondrial architecture. Our results show that GMF acts as an important upstream regulator of PGC-1α in promoting dopaminergic neuronal death through its effect on oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Our current data suggest that GMF is a critical risk factor for PD and suggest that it could be explored as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit PD progression.

  4. The Arabidopsis vacuolar malate channel is a member of the ALMT family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovermann, Peter; Meyer, Stefan; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Picco, Cristiana; Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Ravera, Silvia; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2007-12-01

    In plants, malate is a central metabolite and fulfills a large number of functions. Vacuolar malate may reach very high concentrations and fluctuate rapidly, whereas cytosolic malate is kept at a constant level allowing optimal metabolism. Recently, a vacuolar malate transporter (Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter, AttDT) was identified that did not correspond to the well-characterized vacuolar malate channel. We therefore hypothesized that a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) gene family could code for a vacuolar malate channel. Using GFP fusion constructs, we could show that AtALMT9 (A. thaliana ALMT9) is targeted to the vacuole. Promoter-GUS fusion constructs demonstrated that this gene is expressed in all organs, but is cell-type specific as GUS activity in leaves was detected nearly exclusively in mesophyll cells. Patch-clamp analysis of an Atalmt9 T-DNA insertion mutant exhibited strongly reduced vacuolar malate channel activity. In order to functionally characterize AtALMT9 as a malate channel, we heterologously expressed this gene in tobacco and in oocytes. Overexpression of AtALMT9-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves strongly enhanced the malate current densities across the mesophyll tonoplasts. Functional expression of AtALMT9 in Xenopus oocytes induced anion currents, which were clearly distinguishable from endogenous oocyte currents. Our results demonstrate that AtALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel. Deletion mutants for AtALMT9 exhibit only slightly reduced malate content in mesophyll protoplasts and no visible phenotype, indicating that AttDT and the residual malate channel activity are sufficient to sustain the transport activity necessary to regulate the cytosolic malate homeostasis.

  5. In situ Raman study of redox state changes of mitochondrial cytochromes in a perfused rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Treiman, Marek; Faricelli, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Raman spectroscopy-based approach for simultaneous study of redox changes in c-and b-type cytochromes and for a semiquantitative estimation of the amount of oxygenated myoglobin in a perfused rat heart. Excitation at 532 nm was used to obtain Raman scattering of the myocardial...... surface of the isolated heart at normal and hypoxic conditions. Raman spectra of the heart under normal pO2 demonstrate unique peaks attributable to reduced c-and b-type cytochromes and oxymyoglobin (oMb). The cytochrome peaks decreased in intensity upon FCCP treatment, as predicted from uncoupling...

  6. Hyperthyroidism stimulates mitochondrial proton leak and ATP turnover in rat hepatocytes but does not change the overall kinetics of substrate oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M E; Brand, M D

    1994-08-01

    Thyroid hormones have well-known effects on oxidative phosphorylation, but there is little quantitative information on their important sites of action. We have used top-down elasticity analysis, an extension of metabolic control analysis, to identify the sites of action of thyroid hormones on oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes. We divided the oxidative phosphorylation system into three blocks of reactions: the substrate oxidation subsystem, the phosphorylating subsystem, and the mitochondrial proton leak subsystem and have identified those blocks of reactions whose kinetics are significantly changed by hyperthyroidism. Our results show significant effects on the kinetics of the proton leak and the phosphorylating subsystems. Quantitative analyses revealed that 43% of the increase in resting respiration rate in hyperthyroid hepatocytes compared with euthyroid hepatocytes was due to differences in the proton leak and 59% was due to differences in the activity of the phosphorylating subsystem. There were no significant effects on the substrate oxidation subsystem. Changes in nonmitochondrial oxygen consumption accounted for -2% of the change in respiration rate. Top-down control analysis revealed that the distribution of control over the rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis and consumption, and proton leak and over mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) was similar in hepatocytes from hyperthyroid and littermate-paired euthyroid controls. The results of this study include the first complete top-down elasticity and control analyses of oxidative phosphorylation in hepatocytes from hyperthyroid rats.

  7. Physiological Levels of Nitric Oxide Diminish Mitochondrial Superoxide. Potential Role of Mitochondrial Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes and Nitrosothiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dikalov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of “antioxidant” effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In order to test this hypothesis we analyzed effect of low physiological fluxes of nitric oxide (20 nM/min on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by ESR spin probes and Amplex Red in isolated rat brain mitochondria. Indeed, low levels of nitric oxide substantially attenuated both basal and antimycin A-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of succinate or glutamate/malate as mitochondrial substrates. Furthermore, slow releasing NO donor DPTA-NONOate (100 μM did not change oxygen consumption in State 4 and State 3. However, the NO-donor strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in the presence of uncoupling agent CCCP, which is likely associated with inhibition of the over-reduced complex IV in uncoupled mitochondria. We have examined accumulation of dinitrosyl iron complexes and nitrosothiols in mitochondria treated with fast-releasing NO donor MAHMA NONOate (10 μM for 30 min until complete release of NO. Following treatment with NO donor, mitochondria were frozen for direct detection of dinitrosyl iron complexes using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR while accumulation of nitrosothiols was measured by ferrous-N-Methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate complex, Fe(MGD2, in lysed mitochondria. Treatment of mitochondria with NO-donor gave rise to ESR signal of dinitrosyl iron complexes while ESR

  8. The mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid, induces extracellular Zn2+ accumulation in rat hippocampus slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Hough, Christopher J; Sarvey, John M

    2004-11-11

    3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a suicide inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; complex II), has been used to provide useful experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) and "chemical hypoxia" in rodents. The trace ion Zn2+ has been shown to cause neurodegeneration. Employing real-time Newport Green fluorescence imaging of extracellular Zn2+, we found that 3-NPA (10-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in the concentration of extracellular Zn2+ ([Zn2+]o) in acute rat hippocampus slices. This increase in [Zn2+]o was abolished by 10 mM CaEDTA. The increase of [Zn2+]o was also accompanied by a rapid increase of cytoplasmic-free Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+]i). The induction of Zn2+ release by 3-MPA in hippocampus slices points to a potential mechanism by which 3-NPA might induce neurodegeneration.

  9. An InDel in the promoter of Al-activated malate transporter 9 selected during tomato domestication determines fruit malate content and aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in cro...

  10. Acute and perinatal-programming effects of a fat-rich diet on rat muscle mitochondrial function and hepatic lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Jensen, Runa I.; Waterstradt, Michelle S. G.

    2014-01-01

    respiratory control ratio with pyruvate, increased post weaning (p hepatic steatosis......Objective. Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy may have long-term consequences in the offspring. Since this might relate to the capacity of mitochondrial metabolic adaptation and hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated how maternal high-fat intake affected mitochondrial function and hepatic...... steatosis in the offspring. Design. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (20% w/w) or a control diet (chow, C) from 10 days before pregnancy and throughout lactation. At weaning the litters were split into two groups; one was continued on the maternal diet and the other was fed low-fat chow. Sample...

  11. Rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway and L-malate transport pathway of Aspergillus oryzae for overproduction of L-malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Xie, Zhipeng; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2017-07-10

    Aspergillus oryzae finds wide application in the food, feed, and wine industries, and is an excellent cell factory platform for production of organic acids. In this work, we achieved the overproduction of L-malate by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway and L-malate transport pathway of A. oryzae NRRL 3488. First, overexpression of native pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in the rTCA pathway improved the L-malate titer from 26.1gL -1 to 42.3gL -1 in shake flask culture. Then, the oxaloacetate anaplerotic reaction was constructed by heterologous expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli, increasing the L-malate titer to 58.5gL -1 . Next, the export of L-malate from the cytoplasm to the external medium was strengthened by overexpression of a C4-dicarboxylate transporter gene from A. oryzae and an L-malate permease gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, improving the L-malate titer from 58.5gL -1 to 89.5gL -1 . Lastly, guided by transcription analysis of the expression profile of key genes related to L-malate synthesis, the 6-phosphofructokinase encoded by the pfk gene was identified as a potential limiting step for L-malate synthesis. Overexpression of pfk with the strong sodM promoter increased the L-malate titer to 93.2gL -1 . The final engineered A. oryzae strain produced 165gL -1 L-malate with a productivity of 1.38gL -1 h -1 in 3-L fed-batch culture. Overall, we constructed an efficient L-malate producer by rewiring the rTCA pathway and L-malate transport pathway of A. oryzae NRRL 3488, and the engineering strategy adopted here may be useful for the construction of A. oryzae cell factories to produce other organic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-related decrease in the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase Sirt3 expression associated with ROS accumulation in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingling; Yang, Yang; Hu, Yujuan; Sun, Yu; Du, Zhengde; Xie, Zhen; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Weijia

    2014-01-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, also known as central presbycusis, can affect speech perception and sound localization. Understanding the pathogenesis of central presbycusis will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, the mechanisms of central presbycusis were investigated using a mimetic aging rat model induced by chronic injection of D-galactose (D-Gal). We showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) activity was reduced in the auditory cortex in natural aging and D-Gal-induced mimetic aging rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 4834 bp deletion, abnormal ultrastructure and cell apoptosis in the auditory cortex were also found in natural aging and D-Gal mimetic aging rats. Sirt3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. However, the role of Sirt3 in the pathogenesis of age-related central auditory cortex deterioration is still unclear. Here, we showed that decreased Sirt3 expression might be associated with increased SOD2 acetylation, which negatively regulates SOD2 activity. Oxidative stress accumulation was likely the result of low SOD2 activity and a decline in ROS clearance. Our findings indicate that Sirt3 might play an essential role, via the mediation of SOD2, in central presbycusis and that manipulation of Sirt3 expression might provide a new approach to combat aging and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  13. [State of mitochondrial respiration and calcium capacity in livers of rats with different resistance to hypoxia after injections of L-arginine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaliuk, N M

    2001-01-01

    In experiments on rats with different resistance to hypoxia are investigated processes of mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation and calcium capacity in liver under precursor nitric oxide L-arginine (600 mg/kg) and blockator nitric oxide synthase L-NNA (35 mg/kg) injections. We are used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate and 2 mM malonic acid. Increasing of ADP-stimulation respiration states under exogenous L-arginine injection, decreasing efficacy of respiration processes (respiration control on Chance and ADP/O) under such substrates oxidation, testify to oxide energy support decreasing and reversing nitric oxide inhibit in such conditions. This will be used as mechanism cell regulation succinate dehydrogenase activity. It has shown that L-arginine injection increase calcium mitochondrial capacity low resistance to hypoxia rats using substrates of oxidation succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of nitric oxide precursor influence on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  14. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  15. Expression of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase and α-keto-acid dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neurotransmitter metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey T.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The BCATs are thought to participate in a α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC) catalyzes the second, irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron. PMID:22654736

  16. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

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    Qingqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70% warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.

  17. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes from Hypoxia/Ischemia Induced Apoptosis and Inhibits Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

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    Xu Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1 on hypoxia/ischemia (H/I injury in cardiomyocytes in vitro and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated mechanism. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs for the H/I groups were kept in DMEM without glucose and serum, and were placed into a hypoxic jar for 24 h. GS-Rb1 at concentrations from 2.5 to 40 µM was given during hypoxic period for 24 h. NRCMs injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay. Cell apoptosis, ROS accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and Bcl-2 family proteins were determined by Western blot. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were determined by the assay kit. Results. GS-Rb1 significantly reduced cell death and LDH leakage induced by H/I. It also reduced H/I induced NRCMs apoptosis induced by H/I, in accordance with a minimal reactive oxygen species (ROS burst. Moreover, GS-Rb1 markedly decreased the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, increased the Bcl-2/ Bax ratio, and preserved mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm. Its administration also inhibited activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Conclusion. Administration of GS-Rb1 during H/I in vitro is involved in cardioprotection by inhibiting apoptosis, which may be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  18. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  19. Induction of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in hypoxic mice

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    Lelli A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurelia Lelli,1,2,* Karen A Nolan,1,2,* Sara Santambrogio,1,2 Ana Filipa Gonçalves,1,2 Miriam J Schönenberger,1,2 Anna Guinot,1,2 Ian J Frew,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs,1,2,4 Roland H Wenger1,2 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2National Center of Competence in Research "Kidney.CH", Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Long thought to be “junk DNA”, in recent years it has become clear that a substantial fraction of intergenic genomic DNA is actually transcribed, forming long noncoding RNA (lncRNA. Like mRNA, lncRNA can also be spliced, capped, and polyadenylated, affecting a multitude of biological processes. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of lncRNAs have just begun to be elucidated, the conditional regulation of lncRNAs remains largely unexplored. In genome-wide studies our group and others recently found hypoxic transcriptional induction of a subset of lncRNAs, whereof nuclear-enriched abundant/autosomal transcript 1 (NEAT1 and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1 appear to be the lncRNAs most ubiquitously and most strongly induced by hypoxia in cultured cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2 rather than HIF-1 seems to be the preferred transcriptional activator of these lncRNAs. For the first time, we also found strong induction primarily of MALAT1 in organs of mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia. Most abundant hypoxic levels of MALAT1 lncRNA were found in kidney and testis. In situ hybridization revealed that the hypoxic induction in the kidney was confined to proximal rather than distal tubular epithelial cells. Direct oxygen-dependent regulation of MALAT1 lncRNA was confirmed using isolated primary

  20. Bee Pollen Improves Muscle Protein and Energy Metabolism in Malnourished Old Rats through Interfering with the Mtor Signaling Pathway and Mitochondrial Activity

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    Jérôme Salles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the management of malnutrition is a priority in older people, this population shows a resistance to refeeding. Fresh bee pollen contains nutritional substances of interest for malnourished people. The aim was to evaluate the effect of fresh bee pollen supplementation on refeeding efficiency in old malnourished rats. Male 22-month-old Wistar rats were undernourished by reducing food intake for 12 weeks. The animals were then renourished for three weeks with the same diet supplemented with 0%, 5% or 10% of fresh monofloral bee pollen. Due to changes in both lean mass and fat mass, body weight decreased during malnutrition and increased after refeeding with no between-group differences (p < 0.0001. Rats refed with the fresh bee pollen-enriched diets showed a significant increase in muscle mass compared to restricted rats (p < 0.05. The malnutrition period reduced the muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR/p70S6kinase/4eBP1 activation, and only the 10%-pollen diet was able to restore these parameters. Mitochondrial activity was depressed with food restriction and was only improved by refeeding with the fresh bee pollen-containing diets. In conclusion, refeeding diets that contain fresh monofloral bee pollen improve muscle mass and metabolism in old, undernourished rats.

  1. The plant homolog to the human sodium/dicarboxylic cotransporter is the vacuolar malate carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerlich, Vera; Linka, Nicole; Reinhold, Thomas; Hurth, Marco A; Traub, Michaela; Martinoia, Enrico; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2003-09-16

    Malate plays a central role in plant metabolism. It is an intermediate in the Krebs and glyoxylate cycles, it is the store for CO2 in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, it protects plants from aluminum toxicity, it is essential for maintaining the osmotic pressure and charge balance, and it is therefore involved in regulation of stomatal aperture. To fulfil many of these roles, malate has to be accumulated within the large central vacuole. Many unsuccessful efforts have been made in the past to identify the vacuolar malate transporter; here, we describe the identification of the vacuolar malate transporter [A. thaliana tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter (AttDT)]. This transporter exhibits highest sequence similarity to the human sodium/dicarboxylate cotransporter. Independent T-DNA [portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] Arabidopsis mutants exhibit substantially reduced levels of leaf malate, but respire exogenously applied [14C]malate faster than the WT. An AttDT-GFP fusion protein was localized to vacuole. Vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis WT leaves exhibited carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and citrate inhibitable malate transport, which was not stimulated by sodium. Vacuoles isolated from mutant plants import [14C]-malate at strongly reduced rates, confirming that this protein is the vacuolar malate transporter.

  2. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  3. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-11-14

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly.

  4. Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Kurt; Turgut Topal

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major energy source of cells. Mitochondrial disease occurs due to a defect in mitochondrial energy production. A valuable energy production in mitochondria depend a healthy interconnection between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. A mutation in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may cause abnormalities in ATP production and single or multiple organ dysfunctions, secondarily. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial physiology, mitochondrial genetics, and clinical expression and ...

  5. Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa Kappel; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; da Silva Dornelles, Arethuza; Nery, Laura Roesler; Falavigna, Lucio; Ferreira, Rafael Dal Ponte; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Schröder, Nadja

    2014-02-01

    We have recently shown that chronic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) was able to recover memory deficits induced by brain iron loading in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Brain iron accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and has been related to cognitive deficits in animals and human subjects. Deficits in synaptic energy supply have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, evidencing the key role played by mitochondria in maintaining viable neural cells and functional circuits. It has also been shown that brains of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have increased expression of apoptosisrelated proteins and specific DNA fragmentation. Here, we have analyzed the expression level of brain proteins involved with mitochondrial fusion and fission mechanisms (DNM1L and OPA1), the main integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles (synaptophysin), and caspase 3, an apoptosis-related protein, to gain a better understanding of the potential of CBD in restoring the damage caused by iron loading in rats. We found that CBD rescued iron-induced effects, bringing hippocampal DNM1L, caspase 3, and synaptophysin levels back to values comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that iron affects mitochondrial dynamics, possibly trigging synaptic loss and apoptotic cell death and indicate that CBD should be considered as a potential molecule with memory-rescuing and neuroprotective properties to be used in the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Streptozotocin-Induced Adaptive Modification of Mitochondrial Supercomplexes in Liver of Wistar Rats and the Protective Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz, María; Valdez-Solana, Mónica Andrea; Campos-Almazán, Mara Ibeth; Flores-Herrera, Óscar; Esparza-Perusquía, Mercedes; Olvera-Sánchez, Sofia; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Avitia-Domínguez, Claudia; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Sierra-Campos, Erick

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in diabetic group. However, the levels were decreased in Moringa -treated diabetic rats. Analysis of in-gel activity showed an increase in all complex activities in the diabetic group, but spectrophotometric determinations of complex II and IV activities were unaffected in this treatment. However, we found an oxygen consumption abolition through complex I-III-IV pathway in the diabetic group treated with Moringa . While respiration with succinate feeding into complex II-III-IV was increased in the diabetic group. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia modifies oxygen consumption, supercomplexes formation, and increases ROS levels in mitochondria from the liver of STZ-diabetic rats, whereas M. oleifera may have a protective role against some alterations.

  7. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

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    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  8. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  9. Increased 3-nitrotyrosine levels in mitochondrial membranes and impaired respiratory chain activity in brain regions of adult female rats submitted to daily vitamin A supplementation for 2 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Morrone, Maurílio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-10-10

    Vitamin A supplementation among women is a common habit worldwide in an attempt to slow aging progression due to the antioxidant potential attributed to retinoids. Nonetheless, vitamin A elicits a myriad of side effects that result from either therapeutic or inadvertent intake at varying doses for different periods. The mechanism behind such effects remains to be elucidated. In this regard, we performed the present work aiming to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation at 100, 200, or 500IU/kgday(-1) for 2 months on female rat brain, analyzing tissue lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities (both Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase - SOD - and Mn-SOD); glutathione S-transferase (GST) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme activity; mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and redox parameters in mitochondrial membranes, as well as quantifying α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein/78kDa glucose-regulated protein (BiP/GRP78), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), D2 receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. We observed increased lipid peroxidation marker levels, altered Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD enzyme activities, mitochondrial nitrosative stress, and impaired respiratory chain activity in such brain regions. On the other hand, we did not find any change in MAO and GST enzyme activities, and on α- and β-synucleins, β-amyloid peptide(1-40), GRP78/BiP, RAGE, D2 receptor, and TNF-α contents. Importantly, we did not observed any evidence regarding an antioxidant effect of such vitamin at low doses in this experimental model. The use of vitamin A as an antioxidant therapy among women needs to be reexamined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cortex of neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

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    L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing and mechanisms of protection by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD have only been partially elucidated. We monitored the effect of HBO on the mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats after HIBD. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (total of 360 of both genders were randomly divided into normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+HBO groups. The HBO treatment began immediately after hypoxia-ischemia (HI and continued once a day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were euthanized 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h post-HI to monitor the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm occurring soon after a single dose of HBO treatment, as well as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days post-HI to study ΔΨm changes after a series of HBO treatments. Fluctuations in ΔΨm were observed in the ipsilateral cortex in both HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups. Within 2 to 12 h after HI insult, the ΔΨm of the HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups recovered to some extent. A secondary drop in ΔΨm was observed in both groups during the 1-4 days post-HI period, but was more severe in the HIBD+HBO group. There was a secondary recovery of ΔΨm observed in the HIBD+HBO group, but not in the HIBD group, during the 5-7 days period after HI insult. HBO therapy may not lead to improvement of neural cell mitochondrial function in the cerebral cortex in the early stage post-HI, but may improve it in the sub-acute stage post-HI.

  11. Melatonin limits paclitaxel‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and protects against paclitaxel‐induced neuropathic pain in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Galley, Helen F.; McCormick, Barry; Wilson, Kirsten L.; Lowes, Damon A.; Colvin, Lesley; Torsney, Carole

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is a debilitating and common side effect of cancer treatment. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress in peripheral nerves has been implicated in the underlying mechanism. We investigated the potential of melatonin, a potent antioxidant that preferentially acts within mitochondria, to reduce mitochondrial damage and neuropathic pain resulting from the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel. In vitro, paclitaxel caused a 50% reduction of mitoc...

  12. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  13. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  14. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Age-related decrease in the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase Sirt3 expression associated with ROS accumulation in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zeng

    Full Text Available Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, also known as central presbycusis, can affect speech perception and sound localization. Understanding the pathogenesis of central presbycusis will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, the mechanisms of central presbycusis were investigated using a mimetic aging rat model induced by chronic injection of D-galactose (D-Gal. We showed that malondialdehyde (MDA levels were increased and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 activity was reduced in the auditory cortex in natural aging and D-Gal-induced mimetic aging rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA 4834 bp deletion, abnormal ultrastructure and cell apoptosis in the auditory cortex were also found in natural aging and D-Gal mimetic aging rats. Sirt3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis. However, the role of Sirt3 in the pathogenesis of age-related central auditory cortex deterioration is still unclear. Here, we showed that decreased Sirt3 expression might be associated with increased SOD2 acetylation, which negatively regulates SOD2 activity. Oxidative stress accumulation was likely the result of low SOD2 activity and a decline in ROS clearance. Our findings indicate that Sirt3 might play an essential role, via the mediation of SOD2, in central presbycusis and that manipulation of Sirt3 expression might provide a new approach to combat aging and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. Development of antimigraine transdermal delivery systems of pizotifen malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Jiménez, C E; del Rio-Sancho, S; Calatayud-Pascual, M A; Balaguer-Fernández, C; Femenía-Font, A; López-Castellano, A; Merino, V

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of pizotifen malate. Pizotifen is frequently used in the preventive treatment of migraine, but is also indicated in eating disorders. In the course of the project, the effects of chemical enhancers such as ethanol, 1,8-cineole, limonene, azone and different fatty acids (decanoic, decenoic, dodecanoic, linoleic and oleic acids) were determined, first using a pizotifen solution. Steady state flux, diffusion and partition parameters were estimated by fitting the Scheuplein equation to the data obtained. Among the chemical enhancers studied, decenoic acid showed the highest enhancement activity, which seemed to be due to the length of its alkyl chain and unsaturation at the 9th carbon. The influence of iontophoresis and the involvement of electrotransport in said process was determined. The absorption profile obtained with iontophoresis was similar to that obtained with fatty acids and terpenes, though skin deposition of the drug was lower with the former. Transdermal delivery systems (TDS) of pizotifen were manufactured by including chemical enhancers, decenoic acid or oleic acid, and were subsequently characterized. When the results obtained with solutions were compared with those obtained with the TDS, a positive enhancement effect was observed with the latter with respect to the partitioning and diffusion of the drug across the skin. Our findings endorse the suitability of our TDS for delivering therapeutic amounts of pizotifen malate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [A case of respiratory dyskinesia due to clebopride malate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, H; Yamamoto, M; Okayasu, H; Wakayama, Y

    1991-08-01

    Clebopride malate is therapeutically used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. This drug has potent antidopaminergic activity that causes acute dystonic reaction, parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia as adverse effects. Here, we have reported an 86-year-old man who developed abnormal involuntary movement of respiratory muscles and lower limb muscles after this drug had been given for four months. This involuntary movement appeared spontaneously at resting state and disappeared during sleep. Surface EMG demonstrated a synchronous grouping discharge in m. orbicularis oris, m. sternocleidomastoideus and m. interstales which synchronized with diaphragmatic movement on cinefluorography. Involuntary movement of the lower limbs was synchronous bilaterally and had little relationship with diaphragmatic movement. This involuntary movement was irregular not only in rhythm but also in duration. According to this irregular nature, we diagnosed this involuntary movement as respiratory dyskinesia with limb dyskinesia that belongs to tardive dyskinesia. After cessation of clebopride malate limb dyskinesia disappeared rapidly and respiratory dyskinesia markedly decreased. We emphasize that respiratory dyskinesia should be differentiated from psychogenic hyperventilation as easily misdiagnosed on initial examination.

  18. Unacylated ghrelin does not alter mitochondrial function, redox state and triglyceride content in rat liver in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gortan Cappellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in liver mitochondrial function with more oxidized redox state and enhanced inflammation may contribute to the onset of obesity- and insulin resistance-associated hepatic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steato-hepatitis. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG is a gastric hormone reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress in different cell types, but its potential effects on liver mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation in vivo remains undetermined. We investigated the impact of chronic UnAG overexpression (Tg Myh6/Ghrl leading to systemic upregulation of circulating hormone on mitochondrial ATP production, redox state (oxidized-to-total glutathione and inflammation markers in lean mice. Compared to wild-type animals (wt, Tg Myh6/Ghrl had superimposable liver weight, triglyceride content and plasma lipid profile. Liver mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production as well as oxidized-to-total glutathione were also similar in the two groups. In addition, no differences were observed in tissue inflammation marker TNF-alpha between wild-type and Tg Myh6/Ghrl animals. Thus, chronic systemic UnAG upregulation does not alter liver triglyceride content, mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation markers in lean mice. These findings do not support a major role of UnAG as a physiological modulator of in vivo liver oxidative-lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  19. The Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Mitochondrial Function: Influence on Blood Pressure and Baroreflex in Transgenic Rat Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nautiyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and may be associated with an overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Angiotensin (Ang II, a potent vasoconstrictor hormone of the RAS, also impairs baroreflex and mitochondrial function. Most deleterious cardiovascular actions of Ang II are thought to be mediated by NADPH-oxidase- (NOX- derived reactive oxygen species (ROS that may also stimulate mitochondrial oxidant release and alter redox-sensitive signaling pathways in the brain. Within the RAS, the actions of Ang II are counterbalanced by Ang-(1–7, a vasodilatory peptide known to mitigate against increased oxidant stress. A balance between Ang II and Ang-(1–7 within the brain dorsal medulla contributes to maintenance of normal blood pressure and proper functioning of the arterial baroreceptor reflex for control of heart rate. We propose that Ang-(1–7 may negatively regulate the redox signaling pathways activated by Ang II to maintain normal blood pressure, baroreflex, and mitochondrial function through attenuating ROS (NOX-generated and/or mitochondrial.

  20. Selective replacement of mitochondrial DNA increases the cardioprotective effect of chronic continuous hypoxia in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neckář, Jan; Svatoňová, Anna; Weissová, Romana; Drahota, Zdeněk; Zajíčková, Pavlína; Brabcová, I.; Kolář, D.; Alánová, Petra; Vašinová, Jana; Šilhavý, Jan; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Tauchmannová, Kateřina; Milerová, Marie; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Červenka, L.; Žurmanová, J.; Kalous, M.; Nováková, Olga; Novotný, J.; Pravenec, Michal; Kolář, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 9 (2017), s. 865-881 ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * heart * hypertension * ischaemia–reperfusion injury * mitochondrial genome * mitochondrial permeability transition pore Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2016

  1. Modeling the vacuolar storage of malate shed lights on pre- and post-harvest fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Lobit, Philippe; Bugaud, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Malate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. Several studies suggest that malate accumulation in fruit cells is controlled at the level of vacuolar storage. However, the regulation of vacuolar malate storage throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the malate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we adapted the mechanistic model of vacuolar storage proposed by Lobit et al. in order to study the accumulation of malate in pre and postharvest fruits. The main adaptation concerned the variation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis during fruit development. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having separate growth and post-harvest ripening stages, during which malate concentration undergoes substantial changes. Moreover, the concentration of malate in banana pulp varies greatly among cultivars which make possible to use the model as a tool to analyze the genotypic variability. The model was calibrated and validated using data sets from three cultivars with contrasting malate accumulation, grown under different fruit loads and potassium supplies, and harvested at different stages. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of malate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars (mean RRMSE = 0.25-0.42). The sensitivity of the model to parameters and input variables was analyzed. According to the model, vacuolar composition, in particular potassium and organic acid concentrations, had an important effect on malate accumulation. The model suggested that rising temperatures depressed malate accumulation. The model also helped distinguish differences in malate concentration among the three cultivars and between the pre and post-harvest stages by highlighting the probable importance of proton pump activity and particularly of the free

  2. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  3. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect Rat Corneal Epithelial Cells against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Attenuating the Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibiting JNK Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs have been shown to play a key role in protecting the eyes by reducing the apoptosis induced by certain types of damage. However, it is not known whether LBPs can protect damaged corneal cells from apoptosis. Moreover, no reports have focused on the role of LBPs in guarding against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of LBPs against UVB-induced apoptosis in rat corneal epithelial (RCE cells. The results showed that LBPs significantly prevented the loss of cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis induced by UVB in RCE cells. LBPs also inhibited UVB-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2, and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3. Finally, LBPs attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK triggered by UVB. In summary, LBPs protect RCE cells against UVB-induced damage and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism involves the attenuation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation.

  4. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H 2 O 2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  6. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate...

  7. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  8. Low-dose, Chronic Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Causes Mild Mitochondrial Alterations in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-10

    of Sprague-Dawley rat CARLOS PALMEIRA CENTRO DE NEUROCIENCIAS E BIOLOGIA CELULAR (CNC) DEPARTAMENTO DE ZOOLOGIA COIMBRA 3000 - 329...CENTRO DE NEUROCIENCIAS E BIOLOGIA CELULAR (CNC) DEPARTAMENTO DE ZOOLOGIA COIMBRA 3000 - 329 PORTUGAL 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  9. Photosynthetic metabolism of malate and aspartate in Flaveria trinervia a C4 dicot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    C 4 species are known to vary in their apparent relative use of malate and aspartate to mediate carbon flux through the C 4 cycle. These studies investigate some of the adjustments in photosynthetic carbon metabolism that occur during a dark to light transition and during expansion of leaves of Flaveria trinervia, a C 4 dicot. Enzyme localization studies with isolated leaf mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts, indicated that both C 4 acids are formed in the mesophyll chloroplast, and that aspartate is metabolized to malate in the bundle sheath chloroplast prior to decaroxylation there. During photosynthetic induction, the partitioning of 14 CO 2 between malate and aspartate showed a single oscillation of increased aspartate labelling after 5 min of illumination. Turnover of [4-14C] (malate plus aspartate) was slow initially during illumination, prior to establishment of active pools of C 4 cycle metabolites

  10. The plant homolog to the human sodium/dicarboxylic cotransporter is the vacuolar malate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerlich, Vera; Linka, Nicole; Reinhold, Thomas; Hurth, Marco A.; Traub, Michaela; Martinoia, Enrico; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

    2003-01-01

    Malate plays a central role in plant metabolism. It is an intermediate in the Krebs and glyoxylate cycles, it is the store for CO2 in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, it protects plants from aluminum toxicity, it is essential for maintaining the osmotic pressure and charge balance, and it is therefore involved in regulation of stomatal aperture. To fulfil many of these roles, malate has to be accumulated within the large central vacuole. Many unsuccessful efforts have been made in ...

  11. Processes of malate catabolism during the anaerobic metabolism of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanzy, C.; Andre, P.; Buret, M.; Chambroy, Y.; Garcia, P.

    1976-01-01

    In order to precise malate fate during the anaerobic metabolism of grape, malate- 3 - 14 C was injected into Carignan berries kept in darkness at 35 0 C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. The injection of labelled malate was effected in presence or not of non-labelled oxalate which inhibits malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40). The analyses of the samples fixed after 3 and 7 days anaerobiosis concerned the titration of various substrates, organic acids, amino-acids and glycolysis products, and the measuring of the NADP + -malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40) and malate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.40). Radioactivity is mainly observed in ethanol, amino-butyrate the non-separated group glycerate-shikimate and succinate. Malic enzyme acts in the first sequence of a process leading from malate to ethanol. Alanin synthesis seems to be stimulated in presence of oxalate. The results obtained and some hypotheses presented in the literature induce to suggest a utilization scheme for malate in the anaerobic metabolism of grape [fr

  12. Prognostic value of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihua; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jinming; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Honghe; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was identified to be the first long non-coding RNA as a biomarker of independent prognostic value for early stage non-small cell lung cancer patient survival. In recent years, the association between upregulated tissue MALAT1 level and incidence of various cancers including bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, and renal cancer has been widely discussed. The aim of our present study was to assess the potential prognostic value of MALAT1 in various human cancers. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched, and eligible studies evaluating the prognostic value of MALAT1 in various cancers were included. Finally, 11 studies encompassing 1216 participants reporting with sufficient data were enrolled in the current meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 2.05 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.64-2.55, p < 0.01) for overall survival (OS) and 2.66 (95 % CI 1.86-3.80, p < 0.01) for disease-free survival (DFS). In conclusion, high tissue MALAT1 level was associated with an inferior clinical outcome in various cancers, suggesting that MALAT1 might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for various cancers.

  13. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Pozdzik

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ inhibition in a rat model of AAN.Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11 and its control isotype (13C4 were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p. at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc was injected daily.At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro.The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation.

  14. Physical fitness and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in horse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique-Marie Votion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0-2.5 mg permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacity (pmol O(2 • s(-1 • mg(-1 wet weight with combined Complex I and II (CI+II substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate increased from 77 ± 18 in overweight horses to 103 ± 18, 122 ± 15, and 129 ± 12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N = 3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively. Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85 ± 0.10 (N = 32 of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119 ± 12 to 134 ± 37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ~78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased

  15. Effect of Prolonged Simulated Microgravity on Metabolic Proteins in Rat Hippocampus: Steps toward Safe Space Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Javed, Iqbal; Liu, Yahui; Lu, Song; Peng, Guang; Zhang, Yongqian; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2016-01-04

    Mitochondria are not only the main source of energy in cells but also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which result in oxidative stress when in space. This oxidative stress is responsible for energy imbalances and cellular damage. In this study, a rat tail suspension model was used in individual experiments for 7 and 21 days to explore the effect of simulated microgravity (SM) on metabolic proteins in the hippocampus, a vital brain region involved in learning, memory, and navigation. A comparative (18)O-labeled quantitative proteomic strategy was used to observe the differential expression of metabolic proteins. Forty-two and sixty-seven mitochondrial metabolic proteins were differentially expressed after 21 and 7 days of SM, respectively. Mitochondrial Complex I, III, and IV, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were down-regulated. Moreover, DJ-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, which defend against oxidative damage, were up-regulated in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis of proteins DJ-1 and COX 5A confirmed the mass spectrometry results. Despite these changes in mitochondrial protein expression, no obvious cell apoptosis was observed after 21 days of SM. The results of this study indicate that the oxidative stress induced by SM has profound effects on metabolic proteins.

  16. Mitochondrial dynamics in the hippocampus is influenced by antidepressant treatment in a genetic rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, F.; Wegener, Gregers; Madsen, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem, genetic, brain imaging, and peripheral cell studies showed that mitochondria may play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and effects of antidepressant therapy. Here we investigated whether chronic antidepressant treatment on rats induce changes of the mitochondria...

  17. Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring’s risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND) 21. In the current s...

  18. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine prevents liver hypoxia and dysregulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function in a rat model of alcohol-induced fatty liver disease

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    Adrienne L. King

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that the hepato-protective effects of SAM against alcohol toxicity are mediated, in part, through a mitochondrial mechanism involving preservation of key mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and the attenuation of hypoxic stress.

  19. Impaired barrier function by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS in rats is accompanied by increased colonic mitochondrial gene expression

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    Kramer Evelien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates stimulate the gut microflora and are therefore presumed to improve host resistance to intestinal infections. However, several strictly controlled rat infection studies showed that non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS increase, rather than decrease, translocation of Salmonella towards extra-intestinal sites. In addition, it was shown that FOS increases intestinal permeability already before infection. The mechanism responsible for this adverse effect of FOS is unclear. Possible explanations are altered mucosal integrity due to changes in tight junctions or changes in expression of defense molecules such as antimicrobials and mucins. To examine the mechanisms underlying weakening of the intestinal barrier by FOS, a controlled dietary intervention study was performed. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted to a diet with or without FOS. mRNA was collected from colonic mucosa and changes in gene expression were assessed for each individual rat using Agilent rat whole genome microarrays. Results Among the 997 FOS induced genes we observed less mucosal integrity related genes than expected with the clear permeability changes. FOS did not induce changes in tight junction genes and only 8 genes related to mucosal defense were induced by FOS. These small effects are unlikely the cause for the clear increase in intestinal permeability that is observed. FOS significantly increased expression of 177 mitochondria-related genes. More specifically, induced expression of genes involved in all five OXPHOS complexes and the TCA cycle was observed. These results indicate that dietary FOS influences intestinal mucosal energy metabolism. Furthermore, increased expression of 113 genes related to protein turnover, including proteasome genes, ribosomal genes and protein maturation related genes, was seen. FOS upregulated expression of the peptide hormone proglucagon gene, in agreement with previous studies, as

  20. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 as a potential novel biomarker in digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Run J; Zou, Shu B

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a newly discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, the clinical value of MALAT1 in digestive system cancers is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the potential value of MALAT1 as a prognostic biomarker in digestive system cancers. We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. All studies that explored the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors were selected. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed for the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors. Five studies were eligible for analysis, which included 547 patients. Meta-analysis showed that high expression of MALAT1 could predict poor overall survival (OS) in digestive system cancers (pooled HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.41-2.43, Pdigestive system cancers.

  1. Modulation of methylmercury uptake by methionine: Prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver slices by a mimicry mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Daniel Henrique; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Bohrer, Denise; Rocha, Joao Batista T.; Vargas Barbosa, Nilda B. de

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which is transported into the mammalian cells when present as the methylmercury-cysteine conjugate (MeHg-Cys). With special emphasis on hepatic cells, due to their particular propensity to accumulate an appreciable amount of Hg after exposure to MeHg, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of methionine (Met) on Hg uptake, reactive species (RS) formation, oxygen consumption and mitochondrial function/cellular viability in both liver slices and mitochondria isolated from these slices, after exposure to MeHg or the MeHg-Cys complex. The liver slices were pre-treated with Met (250 μM) 15 min before being exposed to MeHg (25 μM) or MeHg-Cys (25 μM each) for 30 min at 37 o C. The treatment with MeHg caused a significant increase in the Hg concentration in both liver slices and mitochondria isolated from liver slices. Moreover, the Hg uptake was higher in the group exposed to the MeHg-Cys complex. In the DCF (dichlorofluorescein) assay, the exposure to MeHg and MeHg-Cys produced a significant increase in DFC reactive species (DFC-RS) formation only in the mitochondria isolated from liver slices. As observed with Hg uptake, DFC-RS levels were significantly higher in the mitochondria treated with the MeHg-Cys complex compared to MeHg alone. MeHg exposure also caused a marked decrease in the oxygen consumption of liver slices when compared to the control group, and this effect was more pronounced in the liver slices treated with the MeHg-Cys complex. Similarly, the loss of mitochondrial activity/cell viability was greater in liver slices exposed to the MeHg-Cys complex when compared to slices treated only with MeHg. In all studied parameters, Met pre-treatment was effective in preventing the MeHg- and/or MeHg-Cys-induced toxicity in both liver slices and mitochondria. Part of the protection afforded by Met against MeHg may be related to a direct interaction with MeHg or to the competition of Met with

  2. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  3. The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis

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    Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated that the expression levels of MALAT-1 were higher in cancerous tissues than matched histologically normal tissues. And, to some extent, overexpression of MALAT-1 was inclined to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between MALAT-1 expression levels and lymph node metastasis. We searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and OVID to address the level of MALAT-1 expression in cancer cases and noncancerous controls (accessed February 2015. And 8 studies comprising 696 multiple cancer patients were included to assess this association. The odds ratio (OR and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to assess the strength of the association using Stata 12.0 version software. The results revealed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high MALAT-1 expression group and low MALAT-1 expression group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15–3.28, P=0.013 random-effects model. Subgroup analysis indicated that MALAT-1 high expression had an unfavorable impact on lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.01–2.46. This study demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high MALAT-1 expression was higher than that in patients with low MALAT-1 expression in China.

  4. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats

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    Junhwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  5. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Villarroel, José Paul Perales; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W; Becker, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  6. Phosphorylation of rat brain purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 modifies open-channel noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-09-02

    The drift kinetic energy of ionic flow through single ion channels cause vibrations of the pore walls which are observed as open-state current fluctuations (open-channel noise) during single-channel recordings. Vibration of the pore wall leads to transitions among different conformational sub-states of the channel protein in the open-state. Open-channel noise analysis can provide important information about the different conformational sub-state transitions and how biochemical modifications of ion channels would affect their transport properties. It has been shown that c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3) becomes activated by phosphorylation in various neurodegenerative diseases and phosphorylates outer mitochondrion associated proteins leading to neuronal apoptosis. In our earlier work, JNK3 has been reported to phosphorylate purified rat brain mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in vitro and modify its conductance and opening probability. In this article we have compared the open-state noise profile of the native and the JNK3 phosphorylated VDAC using Power Spectral Density vs frequency plots. Power spectral density analysis of open-state noise indicated power law with average slope value α ≈1 for native VDAC at both positive and negative voltage whereas average α value open-state noise arises due to coupling of ionic transport and conformational sub-states transitions in open-state and this coupling is perturbed as a result of channel phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

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    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  8. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman W. El-Hattab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA while more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA. Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular noncompaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain (ETC complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial tRNAs, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, and translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  9. Brain energy metabolism is activated after acute and chronic administration of fenproporex in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Jeremias, Isabela C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Morais, Meline O S; Gomes, Lara M; Martinello, Otaviana B; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of multiple etiologies, including genetic, metabolic, environmental, social, and other factors. Pharmaceutical strategies in the treatment of obesity include drugs that regulate food intake, thermo genesis, fat absorption, and fat metabolism. Fenproporex is the second most commonly consumed amphetamine-based anorectic worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted in vivo into amphetamine. Studies suggest that amphetamine induces neurotoxicity through generation of free radicals and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by cytochrome c release, accompanied by a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that play a crucial role in ATP production. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the activities of some enzymes of Krebs cycle, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase in the brain of young rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex. In the acute administration, the animals received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg i.p.) or tween. In the chronic administration, the animals received a single injection daily for 14 days of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/Kg i.p.). Two hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of biochemical parameters. Our results showed that the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase were increased by acute and chronic administration of fenproporex. Complexes I, II, II-III and IV and creatine kinase activities were also increased after acute and chronic administration of the drug. Our results are consistent with others reports that showed that some psychostimulant drugs increased brain energy metabolism in young rats. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct Effects of (−-Epicatechin and Procyanidin B2 on the Respiration of Rat Heart Mitochondria

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    Dalia M. Kopustinskiene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonol (−-epicatechin and its derived dimer procyanidin B2, present in high amounts in cocoa products, have been shown to exert beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system; however, their mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. We studied effects of (−-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 on the oxidative phosphorylation of isolated rat heart mitochondria. (−-Epicatechin and procyanidin B2 had stimulating effect (up to 30% compared to control on substrate-driven (State 2 mitochondrial respiration. Their effect was dependent on the respiratory substrates used. (−-Epicatechin at higher concentrations (from 0.27 µg/mL significantly decreased (up to 15% substrate- and ADP-driven (State 3 mitochondrial respiration in case of pyruvate and malate oxidation only. Procyanidin B2 (0.7–17.9 ng/mL inhibited State 3 respiration rate up to 19%, the most profound effect being expressed with succinate as the substrate. (−-Epicatechin at concentrations of 0.23 µg/mL and 0.46 µg/mL prevented loss of the cytochrome c from mitochondria when substrate was succinate, supporting the evidence of membrane stabilizing properties of this flavonol. Thus, both (−-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 directly influenced mitochondrial functions and the observed effects could help to explain cardiometabolic risk reduction ascribed to the consumption of modest amounts of cocoa products.

  11. Mutation in the peroxin-coding gene PEX22 contributing to high malate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Mitsuru; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Hata, Yoji

    2018-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces organic acids such as succinate, acetate, and malate during alcoholic fermentation. Since malate contributes to the pleasant taste of sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage), various methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeast strains have been developed. Here, a high-malate-producing yeast strain F-701H was isolated. This mutant was sensitive to dimethyl succinate (DMS) and harbored a nonsense mutation in the peroxin gene PEX22, which was identified as the cause of high malate production by comparative genome analysis. This mutation, which appeared to cause Pex22p dysfunction, was sufficient to confer increased malate productivity and DMS sensitivity to yeast cells. Next, we investigated the mechanism by which this mutation led to high malate production in yeast cells. Peroxins, such as Pex22p, maintain peroxisomal biogenesis. Analysis of 29 PEX disruptants revealed an increased malate production by deletion of the genes encoding peroxins responsible for importing proteins (containing peroxisomal targeting signal 1, PTS1) into the peroxisomal matrix, and those responsible for the assembly of peroxins themselves in the peroxisomal membrane. A defect in peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase (Mdh3p), harboring endogenous PTS1, inhibited the high malate-producing phenotype in the PEX22 mutant. Moreover, Mdh3p, which was normally sorted to the peroxisomal matrix, was potentially mislocalized to the cytosol in the PEX22 mutant. This suggested that an increase in malate production resulted from the mislocalization of Mdh3p from the peroxisome to the cytoplasm due to the loss of peroxin-mediated transportation. Thus, the present study revealed a novel mechanism for organic acid productions in yeast during sake brewing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Li, Xiao-Mei; Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Chen, Qing-Jie; Liao, Wu; Lai, Hong-Mei; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    MALAT1, a newly discovered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential prognostic value in digestive system malignancies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies from inception to Apr. 25, 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Five studies were included in the study, with a total of 527 patients. A significant association was observed between MALAT1 abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 7.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.32-13.66, Pdigestive system malignancies.

  13. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  14. Systemic Sunitinib Malate Treatment for Advanced Juxtapapillary Retinal Hemangioblastomas Associated with von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickelbein, Jared E; Jacobs-El, Naima; Wong, Wai T; Wiley, Henry E; Cukras, Catherine A; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-01-01

    To describe the clinical course of advanced juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioblastomas (RCH) associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease treated with systemic sunitinib malate, an agent that inhibits both anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-platelet-derived growth factor signaling. Observational case review. Three patients with advanced VHL-related juxtapapillary RCH treated with systemic sunitinib malate. Patient 1 was followed routinely every 4 months while on systemic sunitinib prescribed by her oncologist for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine and kidney tumors. Patients 2 and 3 were part of a prospective clinical trial evaluating the use of systemic sunitinib for ocular VHL lesions during a period of 9 months. Visual acuity, size of RCH, and degree of exudation were recorded at each visit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography were also obtained at some visits. Visual acuity, size of RCH, and degree of exudation. Three patients with advanced VHL-associated juxtapapillary RCH were treated with systemic sunitinib malate. While none of the patients lost vision during therapy, treatment with sunitinib malate did not improve visual acuity or reduce the size of RCH. Improvements in RCH-associated retinal edema were observed in two patients. All patients experienced multiple adverse effects, including thyroid toxicity, thrombocytopenia, nausea, fatigue, jaundice, and muscle aches. Two of the three patients had to discontinue treatment prematurely and the third required dose reduction. Systemic sunitinib malate may be useful in slowing progression of ocular disease from VHL-associated RCH. However, significant systemic adverse effects limited its use in this small series, and systemic sunitinib malate may not be safe for treatment of RCH when used at the doses described in this report. Further studies are required to determine if this medication used at lower doses with different treatment strategies, other

  15. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI,40 mg/kg bwt administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  16. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  17. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced Zn2+ signaling and neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seon; Perveen, Shazia; Ha, Tae Joung; Kim, Seong Yun; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2015-05-05

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is a potent natural antioxidant. However, effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and neuronal cell death remain unknown. We studied the effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons from embryonic day 17 maternal Sprague-Dawley rats using digital imaging methods for Zn(2+), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and a MTT assay for cell survival. Treatment with glutamate (100 µM) for 7 min induces reproducible [Zn(2+)]i increase at 35 min interval in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The intracellular Zn(2+)-chelator TPEN markedly blocked glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase, but the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator CaEDTA did not affect glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase. C3G inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 14.1 ± 1.1 µg/ml). C3G also significantly inhibited glutamate-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. Two antioxidants such as Trolox and DTT significantly inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response, but they did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i responses. C3G blocked glutamate-induced formation of ROS. Trolox and DTT also inhibited the formation of ROS. C3G significantly inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization. However, TPEN, Trolox and DTT did not affect the mitochondrial depolarization. C3G, Trolox and DTT attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase through a release of Zn(2+) from intracellular sources in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of ROS, which is involved in neuroprotection against glutamate-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. microRNA-9 targets the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 for degradation in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, Eleonora; Patella, Francesca; Waage, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -coding RNAs. Here we report that microRNA-9 (miR-9) regulates the expression of the Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT-1), one of the most abundant and conserved long non-coding RNAs. Intriguingly, we find that miR-9 targets AGO2-mediated regulation of MALAT1 in the nucleus. Our...

  19. Mutational analysis of the N-terminal topogenic signal of watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase using the heterologous host Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietl, Christine; Faber, Klaas Nico; Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the significance of the N-terminal presequence of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase [gMDH; (S)-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37] in microbody targeting. The yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as heterologous host for the in vivo expression of

  20. Permeabilization and lysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes cells by triton X-100 for efficient production of D-malate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Hartmans, S.; Tweel, W.J.J. van den

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes can only form d-malate from maleate after incubation of the cells with a solvent or a detergent. The effect of the detergent Triton X-100 on d-malate production was studied in more detail. The longer the cells were incubated with Triton X-100, the higher was the

  1. Fumarate to Malate Conversion in Infarcted Porcine Heart – a Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Nielsen, Per Mose

    2017-01-01

    Hyperpolarized MR may be a key tool for investigation cardiac metabolism and cardiac treatment response. [1,4- 13C2]Fumarate is an emerging and interesting candidate for measuring and visualizing cardiac injury after ischemia. In this study we showed an initial step for imaging cardiac cell death...... in a large animal model with [1,4- 13C2]malate. The [1,4- 13C2]malate signal correlated well with increased 13C-lactate signal and 13C-alanine absence. Overall, this shows increased metabolism in the infarcted area and ongoing necrosis....

  2. Evidence for catabolite degradation in the glucose-dependent inactivation of yeast cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, J.; Haegele, E.; Nauhaus, J.; Heer, U.; Mecke, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was radioactively labeled during its synthesis on a glucose-free derepression medium. After purification a sensitive radioimmunoassay for this enzyme could be developed. The assay showed that after the physiological, glucose-dependent 'catabolite inactivation' of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase an inactive enzyme protein is immunologically not detectable. Together with the irreversibility of this reaction in vivo this finding strongly suggests a proteolytic mechanism of enzyme inactivation. For this process the term 'catabolite degradation' is used. (orig.) [de

  3. Metabolic engineering of Aspergillus oryzae for efficient production of l-malate directly from corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2017-11-20

    l-Malate, an important chemical building block, has been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In previous work, we engineered Aspergillus oryzae by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway to produce l-malate from glucose. To decrease the production cost, here, we further engineered A. oryzae to efficiently produce l-malate directly from corn starch with simultaneous liquefaction-saccharification and fermentation. First, a promoter PN5 was constructed by quintuple tandem of the 97-bp fragment containing the cis-element of the glucoamylase gene promoter (PglaA), and with the promoter PN5, the transcriptional level of glaA gene increased by 25-45%. Then, by co-overexpression of glaA, a-amylase (amyB) and a-glucosidase (agdA) genes with the promoter PN5, the l-malate titer increased from 55.5g/L to 72.0g/L with 100g/L corn starch in shake flask. In addition, to reduce the concentration of byproducts succinate and fumarate, a fumarase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which facilitated the transformation of fumarate to l-malate, was overexpressed. As a result, the concentration of succinate and fumarate decreased from 12.6 and 1.29g/L to 7.8 and 0.59g/L, and the l-malate titer increased from 72.0g/L to 78.5g/L. Finally, we found that the addition of glucose at the initial fermentation stage facilitated the cell growth and l-malate synthesis, and the l-malate titer further increased to 82.3g/L by co-fermentation of 30g/L glucose and 70g/L corn starch, with a productivity of 1.18g/L/h and a yield of 0.82g/g total carbon sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... noting “soft signs” in unaffected relatives. These include deaf- ness, short stature, migraine headaches and PEO. Muscle ... mitochondrial defects and provide valuable information for family planning. Perhaps most important, knowing the genetic defects that ...

  5. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  6. Catestatin exerts direct protective effects on rat cardiomyocytes undergoing ischemia/reperfusion by stimulating PI3K-Akt-GSK3β pathway and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bassino

    Full Text Available Catestatin (Cst is a 21-amino acid peptide deriving from Chromogranin A. Cst exerts an overall protective effect against an excessive sympathetic stimulation of cardiovascular system, being able to antagonize catecholamine secretion and to reduce their positive inotropic effect, by stimulating the release of nitric oxide (NO from endothelial cells. Moreover, Cst reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, improving post-ischemic cardiac function and cardiomyocyte survival. To define the cardioprotective signaling pathways activated by Cst (5 nM we used isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes undergoing simulated I/R. We evaluated cell viability rate with propidium iodide labeling and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP with the fluorescent probe JC-1. The involvement of Akt, GSK3β, eNOS and phospholamban (PLN cascade was studied by immunofluorescence. The role of PI3K-Akt/NO/cGMP pathway was also investigated by using the pharmacological blockers wortmannin (Wm, L-NMMA and ODQ. Our experiments revealed that Cst increased cell viability rate by 65% and reduced cell contracture in I/R cardiomyocytes. Wm, L-NMMA and ODQ limited the protective effect of Cst. The protective outcome of Cst was related to its ability to maintain MMP and to increase AktSer473, GSK3βSer9, PLNThr17 and eNOSSer1179 phosphorylation, while treatment with Wm abolished these effects. Thus, the present results show that Cst is able to exert a direct action on cardiomyocytes and give new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in its protective effect, highlighting the PI3K/NO/cGMP pathway as the trigger and the MMP preservation as the end point of its action.

  7. Mitochondrial toxicity of diclofenac and its metabolites via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria: Possible role in drug induced liver injury (DILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-03-01

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation of the inhibitory effects of diclofenac (Dic) and its phase I [4-hydroxy diclofenac (4'-OH-Dic) and 5-hydroxy diclofenac (5-OH-dic)] and Phase-II [diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DicGluA) and diclofenac glutathione thioester (DicSG)] metabolites, on ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria was carried out. A mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis is exerted by diclofenac and its metabolites. Phase-I metabolite (4'-OH-Dic) and Phase-II metabolites (DicGluA and DicSG) showed potent inhibition (2-5 fold) of ATP synthesis, where as 5-OH-Dic, one of the Phase-I metabolite, was a less potent inhibitor as compared to Dic. The calculated kinetic constants of mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis by Dic showed maximal rate of inactivation (Kinact) of 2.64 ± 0.15 min(-1) and half maximal rate of inactivation (KI) of 7.69 ± 2.48 μM with Kinact/KI ratio of 0.343 min(-1) μM(-1). Co-incubation of mitochondria with Dic and reduced GSH exhibited a protective effect on Dic mediated inhibition of ATP synthesis. Our data from this study strongly indicate that Dic as well as its metabolites could be involved in the hepato-toxic action through inhibition of ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Prisco, Marina; Chun, Jong Tai; Penna, Eduardo; Negri, Rossella; Muredda, Laura; Demurtas, Andrea; Banni, Sebastiano; Berni-Canani, Roberto; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria; Greco, Luigi; Crispino, Marianna; Mollica, Maria P

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM), DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention. Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of mitochondrial function

  9. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trinchese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM and donkey milk (DM are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM, DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention.Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA, a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation.Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of

  10. Hypoxia-induced decrease of UCP3 gene expression in rat heart parallels metabolic gene switching but fails to affect mitochondrial respiratory coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essop, M Faadiel; Razeghi, Peter; McLeod, Chris; Young, Martin E; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Sack, Michael N

    2004-02-06

    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) are postulated to contribute to antioxidant defense, nutrient partitioning, and energy efficiency in the heart. To distinguish isotype function in response to metabolic stress we measured cardiac mitochondrial function and cardiac UCP gene expression following chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Isolated mitochondrial O(2) consumption and ATP synthesis rate were reduced but respiratory coupling was unchanged compared to normoxic groups. Concurrently, left ventricular UCP3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased with hypoxia (pheart as opposed to uncoupling of mitochondria. Moreover, the divergent hypoxia-induced regulation of UCP2 and UCP3 supports distinct mitochondrial regulatory functions of these inner mitochondrial membrane proteins in the heart in response to metabolic stress.

  11. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Inst. fuer Bakterielle Tierseuchenforschung)

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with /sup 14/C- and /sup 3/H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle.

  12. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with 14 C- and 3 H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle. (author)

  13. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector

  14. Sodium thiosulfate protects brain in rat model of adenine induced vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, N; Sriram, R; Kurian, Gino A

    2015-11-01

    Vascular bed calcification is a common feature of ends stage renal disease that may lead to a complication in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular beds, which is a promoting cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, dementia and aneurysms. Sodium thiosulfate (STS) due to its multiple properties such as antioxidant and calcium chelation has been reported to prevent vascular calcification in uremic rats, without mentioning its impact on cerebral function. Moreover, the previous studies have not explored the effect of STS on the mitochondrial dysfunction, one of the main pathophysiological features associated with the disease and the main site for STS metabolism. The present study addresses this limitation by using a rat model where 0.75% adenine was administered to induce vascular calcification and 400 mg/kg b wt. of STS was given as preventive and curative agent. The blood and urine chemistries along with histopathology of aorta confirms the renal protective effect of STS in two modes of administration. The brain oxidative stress assessment was made through TBARS level, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, found to be in the near normal level. STS administration not only reduced the mitochondrial oxidative stress (measured by TBARS, SOD, GPx and CAT) but also preserved the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities (NADH dehydrogenase, Succinate dehydrogenase and Malate dehydrogenase) and its physiology (measured by P/O ratio and RCR). In fact, the protective effect of STS was prominent, when it was administered as a curative agent, where low H2S and high thiosulfate level was observed along with low cystathionine β synthase activity, confirms thiosulfate mediated renal protection. In conclusion, STS when given after induction of calcification is protective to the brain by preserving its mitochondria, compared to the treatment given concomitantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters–much more than aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J.; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. PMID:27284052

  16. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters-much more than aluminium resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Analysis of copper and uranyl malates by potentiometry, polarimetry and spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, I; Petit-Ramel, M M; Chapelet-Barbier, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)

    1978-07-15

    The stability and optical constants of the copper malates (CuH/sub 2/Mal)/sup +/, (CuHMal), (CuH/sub 2/Mal/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/, (CuMal)/sup -/, (Cu/sub 2/Mal/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/, and (CuHsub(-1)Mal)/sup 2 -/ have been fitted by a pit-mapping method, which also gives their confidence limits, from potentiometric, visible spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements.

  18. Post-irradiation inactivation, protection, and repair of the sulfhydryl enzyme malate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durchschlag, H.; Zipper, P.

    1985-01-01

    Malate synthase from baker's yeast, a trimeric sulfhydryl enzyme with one essential sulfhydryl group per subunit, was inactivated by 2 kGy X-irradiation in air-saturated aqueous solution (enzyme concentration: 0.5 mg/ml). The radiation induced changes of enzymic activity were registered at about 0,30,60 h after irradiation. To elucidate the role of OH - , O 2 , and H 2 O 2 in the X-ray inactivation of the enzyme, experiments were performed in the absence of presence of different concentrations of specific additives (formate, superoxide dismutase, catalase). These additives were added to malate synthase solutions before or after X-irradiation. Moreover, repairs of inactivated malate synthase were initiated at about 0 or 30 h after irradiation by means of the sulfhydryl agent dithiothreitol. Experiments yielded the following results: 1. Irradiation of malate synthase in the absence of additives inactivated the enzyme immediately to a residual activity Asub(r)=3% (corresponding to a D 37 =0.6 kGy), and led to further slow inactivation in the post-irradiation phase. Repairs, initiated at different times after irradiation, restored enzymic activity considerably. The repair initiated at t=0 led to Asub(r)=21%; repairs started later on resulted in somewhat lower activities. The decay of reparability, however, was found to progress more slowly than post-irradiation inactivation itself. After completion of repair the activities of repaired samples did not decrease significantly. 2. The presence of specific additives during irradiation caused significant protective effects against primary inactivation. The protection by formate was very pronounced (e.g., Asub(r)=72% and D 37 =6 kGy for 100 mM formate). The presence of catalytic amounts of superoxide dismutase and/or catalase exhibited only minor effects, depending on the presence and concentration of formate. (orig.)

  19. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Jeong [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Dong Ryun [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Su Hyun [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun Ha [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seoung Hoon, E-mail: leesh2@wku.ac.kr [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Wonkwang Institute of Biomaterials and Implant, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-17

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  20. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Jeong; Gu, Dong Ryun; Jin, Su Hyun; Park, Keun Ha; Lee, Seoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  1. Genes Encoding Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter II and their Association with Fruit Acidity in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiquan Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT was previously reported as a candidate for the locus controlling acidity in apple ( × Borkh.. In this study, we found that apple genes can be divided into three families and the gene belongs to the family. Duplication of genes in apple is related to the polyploid origin of the apple genome. Divergence in expression has occurred between the gene and its homologs in the family and only the gene is significantly associated with malic acid content. The locus consists of two alleles, and . resides in the tonoplast and its ectopic expression in yeast was found to increase the influx of malic acid into yeast cells significantly, suggesting it may function as a vacuolar malate channel. In contrast, encodes a truncated protein because of a single nucleotide substitution of G with A in the last exon. As this truncated protein resides within the cell membrane, it is deemed to be nonfunctional as a vacuolar malate channel. The frequency of the genotype is very low in apple cultivars but is high in wild relatives, which suggests that apple domestication may be accompanied by selection for the gene. In addition, variations in the malic acid content of mature fruits were also observed between accessions with the same genotype in the locus. This suggests that the gene is not the only genetic determinant of fruit acidity in apple.

  2. Dependence of mitochondrial coenzyme A uptake on the membrane electrical gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahiliani, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) transport was studied in isolated rat heart mitochondria. Uptake of CoA was assayed by determining [3H]CoA associated with mitochondria under various conditions. Various oxidizable substrates including alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, or malate stimulated CoA uptake. The membrane proton (delta pH) and electrical (delta psi) gradients, which dissipated with time in the absence of substrate, were maintained at their initial levels throughout the incubation in the presence of substrate. Addition of phosphate caused a concentration-dependent decrease of both delta pH and CoA uptake. Nigericin also dissipated the proton gradient and prevented CoA uptake. Valinomycin also prevented CoA uptake into mitochondria. Although the proton gradient was unaffected, the electrical gradient was completely abolished in the presence of valinomycin. Addition of 5 mM phosphate 10 min after the start of incubation prevented further uptake of CoA into mitochondria. A rapid dissipation of the proton gradient upon addition of phosphate was observed. Addition of nigericin or valinomycin 10 min after the start of incubation also resulted in no further uptake of CoA into with mitochondria; valinomycin caused an apparent efflux of CoA from mitochondria. Uptake was found to be sensitive to external pH displaying a pH optimum at pHext 8.0. Although nigericin significantly inhibited CoA uptake over the pHext range of 6.75-8, maximal transport was observed around pHext 8.0-8.25. Valinomycin, on the other hand, abolished transport over the entire pH range. The results suggest that mitochondrial CoA transport is determined by the membrane electrical gradient. The apparent dependence of CoA uptake on an intact membrane pH gradient is probably the result of modulation of CoA transport by matrix pH

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  4. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  5. Alleviating exercise-induced muscular stress using neat and processed bee pollen: oxidative markers, mitochondrial enzymes, and myostatin expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Ketkar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The study establishes the antioxidant, mitochondrial upregulatory, and myostatin inhibitory effects of both MIMBP and PMIMBP in exercise-induced oxidative stress conditions, suggesting their usefulness in effective management of exercise-induced muscular stress. Further, processing of MIMBP with an edible lipid-surfactant mixture was found to improve the therapeutic efficiency of pollen.

  6. Akkumulation von L-Malat und D-Lactat in Arabidopsis thaliana und Laccase/HBT-vermittelte Delignifizierung von Spartina alterniflora und Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Heil, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The current work contains two projects "Accumulation of L-malate and D-lactate in Arabidopsis thaliana" (A) "Laccase/HBT mediated delignification of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis" (B). In project A, L-malate and D-lactate accumulated in A. thaliana plants. The accumulation of L-malate is carried out by modification of the plant metabolism with the enzymes PEPC, MDH and the tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter (TDT). Gene pepci2 (Hydrilla verticillata), mdh5 (Zea mays) and tdt ...

  7. Fluoxetine effects on mitochondrial ultrastructure of right ventricle in rats exposed to cold stress Efeitos da fluoxetina sobre a ultraestrutura mitocondrial no ventrículo direito de ratos expostos ao estresse pelo frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda V. Daud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoxetine effects on mitochondrial structure of the right ventricle in rats exposed to cold stress. METHODS: The experimental study procedures were performed in 250-300g male EPM-Wistar rats. Rats (n=40 were divided into four groups: 1 Control group (CON; 2 Fluoxetine (FLU; 3 Induced hypothermia (IH and; 4 Induced hypothermia treated with fluoxetine (IHF. Animals of FLU group were treated by the administration of gavages containing 0.75 mg/kg/day fluoxetine during 40 days. The induced hypothermia was obtained by maintaining the groups 3 and 4 in a freezer at -8ºC for 4 hours. The animals were sacrificed and fragments of the right ventricle (RV were removed and processed prior to performing electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: The ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes were quantified through the number of mitochondrial cristae pattern (cristolysis. The CON (3.85%, FLU (4.47% and IHF (8.4% groups showed a normal cellular structure aspect with preserved cardiomyocytes cytoarchitecture and continuous sarcoplasmic membrane integrity. On the other hand, the IH (34.4% group showed mitochondrial edema and lysis in cristae. CONCLUSION: The ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoxetine strongly prevents mitochondrial cristolysis in rat heart, suggesting a protector effect under cold stress condition.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da fluoxetina sobre a estrutura mitocondrial do ventrículo direito de ratos expostos ao estresse pelo frio. MÉTODOS: Os procedimentos do estudo foram realizados em ratos Wistar-EPM (250-300g machos. Os ratos (n=40 foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1 Controle (CON; 2 Fluoxetina (FLU; 3 Induzidos à hipotermia (IH e; 4 Induzidos à hipotermia tratados com fluoxetina (IHF. O grupo FLU foi tratado com gavagem contendo 0,75 mg/kg/dia de fluoxetina durante 40 dias. O estresse induzido pelo frio foi realizado mantendo os grupos 3 e 4 em um freezer (-8ºC por quatro horas. Os animais foram sacrificados

  8. Mitochondrial Profiles and the Anticonvulsant Effect of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD in adolescent rats, at Emory University and other centers, found that the hippocampus responds by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing metabolic gene expression, and increasing energy reserves.

  9. Altered Expression of a Malate-Permeable Anion Channel, OsALMT4, Disrupts Mineral Nutrition1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a family of anion channels in plants, but little is known about most of its members. This study examined the function of OsALMT4 from rice (Oryza sativa). We show that OsALMT4 is expressed in roots and shoots and that the OsALMT4 protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing (OX) OsALMT4 released malate from the roots constitutively and had 2-fold higher malate concentrations in the xylem sap than nulls, indicating greater concentrations of malate in the apoplast. OX lines developed brown necrotic spots on the leaves that did not appear on nulls. These symptoms were not associated with altered concentrations of any mineral element in the leaves, although the OX lines had higher concentrations of Mn and B in their grain compared with nulls. While total leaf Mn concentrations were not different between the OX and null lines, Mn concentrations in the apoplast were greater in the OX plants. The OX lines also displayed increased expression of Mn transporters and were more sensitive to Mn toxicity than null plants. We showed that the growth of wild-type rice was unaffected by 100 µm Mn in hydroponics but, when combined with 1 mm malate, this concentration inhibited growth. We conclude that increasing OsALMT4 expression affected malate efflux and compartmentation within the tissues, which increased Mn concentrations in the apoplast of leaves and induced the toxicity symptoms. This study reveals new links between malate transport and mineral nutrition. PMID:29101278

  10. Critical role of mitochondrial ROS is dependent on their site of production on the electron transport chain in ischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; Zilberstein, Netanel F; Feng, Yansheng; Bopassa, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Using amplex red to measure ROS production, we found that mitochondria isolated from hearts after I/R produced more ROS than non-ischemic when complex I substrate (glutamate/malate) was used. Interestingly, the substrates of complex II (succinate) and ubiquinone (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, G3P) produced less ROS in mitochondria from I/R hearts compared to normal healthy hearts. The inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and complex III (antimycin A) increased ROS production when glutamate/malate and G3P were used; in contrast, they reduced ROS production when the complex II substrate was used. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity required to induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was measured using calcium green fluorescence and was found to be higher when mitochondria were treated with G3P and succinate compared to glutamate/malate. Furthermore, Langendorff hearts treated with glutamate/malate exhibited reduced cardiac functional recovery and increased myocardial infarct size compared to hearts treated with G3P. Thus, ROS production by the stimulated respiratory chain complexes I and III has opposite roles: cardio-deleterious when produced in complex I and cardio-protective when produced in complex III. The mechanism of these ROS involves the inhibition of the mPTP opening, a key event in cell death following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  11. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Mediates Transforming Growth Factor Beta1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    Full Text Available To study the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA MALAT1 in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells.ARPE-19 cells were cultured and exposed to TGF-β1. The EMT of APRE-19 cells is confirmed by morphological change, as well as the increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA and fibronectin, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in RPE cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Knockdown of MALAT1 was achieved by transfecting a small interfering RNA (SiRNA. The effect of inhibition of MALAT1 on EMT, migration, proliferation, and TGFβ signalings were observed. MALAT1 expression was also detected in primary RPE cells incubated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR vitreous samples.The expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased in RPE cells incubated with TGFβ1. MALAT1 silencing attenuates TGFβ1-induced EMT, migration, and proliferation of RPE cells, at least partially through activating Smad2/3 signaling. MALAT1 is also significantly increased in primary RPE cells incubated with PVR vitreous samples.LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in TGFβ1-induced EMT of human RPE cells and provides new understandings for the pathogenesis of PVR.

  12. Assessing competence of broccoli consumption on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways in restraint-induced models: estimation in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Leila; Nejad, Sara Chavoshi; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Sarraf Zadeh, Sadaf; Pour, Marieh Hossein; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence advocated the protective and therapeutic potential of natural compounds and phytochemicals used in diets against pathological conditions. Herein, the outcome of dietary whole broccoli consumption prior to restraint stress has been investigated in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of male rats, two important regions involved in the processing of responses to stressful events. Interestingly, a region-specific effect was detected regarding some of antioxidant defense system factors: nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) antioxidant pathway, mitochondrial prosurvival proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and apoptotic cell death proteins. Dietary broccoli supplementation modulated the restraint-induced changes towards a consistent overall protection in the hippocampus. In the prefrontal cortex, however, despite activation of most of the protective factors, presumably as an attempt to save the system against the stress insult, some detrimental outcomes such as induced malate dehydrogenase (MDA) level and cleaved form of caspase-3 were detectable. Such diversity may be attributed in one hand to the different basic levels and/or availability of defensive mechanisms within the two studied cerebral regions, and on the other hand to the probable dose-dependent and hormetic effects of whole broccoli. More experiments are essential to demonstrate these assumptions.

  13. Assessing Competence of Broccoli Consumption on Inflammatory and Antioxidant Pathways in Restraint-Induced Models: Estimation in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence advocated the protective and therapeutic potential of natural compounds and phytochemicals used in diets against pathological conditions. Herein, the outcome of dietary whole broccoli consumption prior to restraint stress has been investigated in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of male rats, two important regions involved in the processing of responses to stressful events. Interestingly, a region-specific effect was detected regarding some of antioxidant defense system factors: nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway, mitochondrial prosurvival proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and apoptotic cell death proteins. Dietary broccoli supplementation modulated the restraint-induced changes towards a consistent overall protection in the hippocampus. In the prefrontal cortex, however, despite activation of most of the protective factors, presumably as an attempt to save the system against the stress insult, some detrimental outcomes such as induced malate dehydrogenase (MDA level and cleaved form of caspase-3 were detectable. Such diversity may be attributed in one hand to the different basic levels and/or availability of defensive mechanisms within the two studied cerebral regions, and on the other hand to the probable dose-dependent and hormetic effects of whole broccoli. More experiments are essential to demonstrate these assumptions.

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F

    2002-01-01

    The presence of lactate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle mitochondria was investigated to clarify whether lactate is a possible substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were prepared from 100 mg samples of human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle. All fractions from the preparation...... procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit approximately 0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated...... as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore...

  15. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104 was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea. BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, or copper (Cu. Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H+ flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H+ under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance.

  17. Imaging micro-glial/macrophage activation in spinal cords of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats by Positron Emission Tomography using the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein radioligand [18F]DPA-714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourbeh, Galith; Theze, Benoit; Dubois, Albertine; Tavitian, Bertrand; Boisgard, Raphael; Maroy, Renaud; Brulon, Vincent; Fontyn, Yoann; Dolle, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Activated micro-glia/macrophages play a key role in the immuno-pathogenesis of MS and its corresponding animal models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Micro-glia activation begins at early stages of the disease and is associated with elevated expression of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). Thus, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of micro-glial activation using TSPO-specific radioligands could be valuable for monitoring disease-associated neuro-inflammatory processes. EAE was induced in rats using a fragment of myelin basic protein, yielding acute clinical disease that reflects extensive spinal cord inflammation. Enhanced TSPO expression in spinal cords of EAE rats versus those of controls was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies in control and EAE rats were performed using the TSPO radioligand [ 18 F]DPA-714 [N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide]. At 1 h after injection, almost fivefold higher levels of [ 18 F]DPA-714 were measured in spinal cords of EAE rats versus controls. The specific binding of [ 18 F]DPA-714 to TSPO in spinal cords was confirmed in competition studies, using unlabeled (R,S)-PK11195 [(R,S)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl) - isoquinoline-3-carboxamide)] or DPA-714 in excess. MicroPET studies affirm that this differential radioactivity uptake in spinal cords of EAE versus control rats could be detected and quantified. Using [ 18 F]DPA-714, neuro-inflammation in spinal cords of EAE-induced rats could be visualized by PET, offering a sensitive technique for monitoring neuro-inflammatory lesions in the CNS and particularly in the spinal cord. In addition to current MRI protocols, this approach could provide molecular images of neuro-inflammation for detection, monitoring, and research in MS. (authors)

  18. Sustained deficiency of mitochondrial complex I activity during long periods of survival after seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisý, Václav; Houštěk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 394-403 ISSN 0197-0186 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I activity * persisting decrease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2010

  19. Targeted overexpression of mitochondrial catalase protects against cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Laura A A; Lark, Daniel S; Reese, Lauren R; Torres, Maria J; Ryan, Terence E; Lin, Chien-Te; Cathey, Brook L; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-08-01

    The loss of strength in combination with constant fatigue is a burden on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapy drug used in the clinic, causes skeletal muscle dysfunction and increases mitochondrial H2O2 We hypothesized that the combined effect of cancer and chemotherapy in an immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model (E0771) would compromise skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function, leading to an increase in H2O2-emitting potential and impaired muscle function. Here, we demonstrate that cancer chemotherapy decreases mitochondrial respiratory capacity supported with complex I (pyruvate/glutamate/malate) and complex II (succinate) substrates. Mitochondrial H2O2-emitting potential was altered in skeletal muscle, and global protein oxidation was elevated with cancer chemotherapy. Muscle contractile function was impaired following exposure to cancer chemotherapy. Genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle attenuated mitochondrial H2O2 emission and protein oxidation, preserving mitochondrial and whole muscle function despite cancer chemotherapy. These findings suggest mitochondrial oxidants as a mediator of cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  1. Tingkat Kerentanan Aedes aegypti (Linn. terhadap Malation di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi P. Ambarita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDengue vector control program in Indonesia and also South Sumatera Province has been using malathion quite long enough. The extensive use of chemical in dengue vector control can lead to development of resistance. This study aims to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti against malathion in 11 district of South Sumatera Province. Larva or pupae were collected with entomology survey kit and colonized until first generation (F1 that were used for bioassay. This test was conducted according to WHO adult susceptibility bioassay procedure.Twenty five blood-fed mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide impregnated paper in each of 4 WHO test kits and 1 control tube. Aedes aegypti from all study sites were still susceptible to operational dose of malathion (5%after 1 hour exposure. The estimated resistance ratio (ERR of knockdown time (KT to operasional dose of malathion is about 1,02 – 1,27 for KT50 and 0,96 – 1,24 for KT95. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dose (0,8% of malathion showed a variety of susceptibility after 24 hours. Strain of 7 districts showed resistance, 3 districts toleran and 1 district still susceptible. The detection of resistance can actually help public health personnel to formulate appropriate steps in encountering the reduction in effectiveness of vector control efforts.Keywords : Aedes aegypti, Malathion, Susceptibility, South SumateraAbstrakProgram pengendalian vektor DBD di Indonesia termasuk di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan telah cukup lama menggunakan malation dengan konsentrasi 5%. Penggunaan satu jenis insektisida kimiawi secara ekstensif dapat memicu perkembangan resistensi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan status kerentanan Aedes aegypti terhadap malation dari 11 kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. Larva atau pupa dikumpulkan menggunakan alat survei entomologi dan selanjutnyadipelihara hingga mendapatkan generasi pertama (F1 yang akan digunakan pada uji

  2. Cutaneous respirometry by dynamic measurement of mitochondrial oxygen tension for monitoring mitochondrial function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Floor A; Voorbeijtel, Wilhelmina J; Bodmer, Sander I A; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Mik, Egbert G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic and acute disease could greatly benefit from techniques for monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo respirometry in skin. Mitochondrial oxygen measurements by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX are shown to provide a robust basis for measurement of local oxygen disappearance rate (ODR). The fundamental principles behind the technology are described, together with an analysis method for retrievel of respirometry data. The feasibility and reproducibility of this clinically useful approach are demonstrated in a series of rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  4. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. PREVENTION OF PHOSPHATE - INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro

    1962-01-01

    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  6. Serum long non coding RNA MALAT-1 protected by exosomes is up-regulated and promotes cell proliferation and migration in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xia, Yuhong; Wang, Zhixin; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Yafei; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Yu; Ming, Huaikun

    2017-08-19

    Circulating lncRNAs have been defined as a novel biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), MALAT-1 was first identified lncRNA that was related to lung cancer metastasis. However, the relationship between exosomal lncRNAs and the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC was poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of serum exosomal MALAT-1 as a biomarker in the metastasis of NSCLC. In this study, we firstly isolated the exosomes from healthy subjects and NSCLC patients. Then we measured the expression levels of MALAT-1 contained in exosomes, and found that exosomal MALAT-1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients, more importantly, the levels of exosomal MALAT-1 were positively associated with tumor stage and lymphatic metastasis. In addition, we decreased MALAT-1 expression by short hairpin RNA and conducted a series of assays including MTT, cell cycle, colony formation, wound-healing scratch and Annexin/V PI by flow cytometry in human lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro studies demonstrated that serum exosome-derived long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 promoted the tumor growth and migration, and prevented tumor cells from apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, this study shed a light on utilizing MALAT-1 in exosomes as a non-invasive serum-based tumor biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of malate-production and increase in sensitivity to dimethyl succinate by mutation of the VID24 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji

    2016-06-01

    Malate in sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage) is an important component for taste that is produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. To date, many researchers have developed methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeasts; however, genes responsible for the high-acidity phenotype are not known. We determined the mutated gene involved in high malate production in yeast, isolated as a sensitive mutant to dimethyl succinate. In the comparative whole genome analysis between high-malate-producing strain and its parent strain, one of the non-synonymous substitutions was identified in the VID24 gene. The mutation of VID24 resulted in enhancement of malate-productivity and sensitivity to dimethyl succinate. The mutation appeared to lead to a deficiency in Vid24p function. Furthermore, disruption of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2p) gene in the VID24 mutant inhibited the high-malate-producing phenotype. Vid24p is known as a component of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase and participates in the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes such as Mdh2p. We suggest that the enhancement of malate-productivity results from an accumulation of Mdh2p due to the loss of Vid24p function. These findings propose a novel mechanism for the regulation of organic acid production in yeast cells by the component of ubiquitin ligase, Vid24p. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The BnALMT1 Protein That is an Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter is Localized in the Plasma Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Katsuhara, Maki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported that Al-induces citrate and malate efflux from P-sufficient and P-deficient plants of rape (Brassica napus L.) and that P-deficiency alone could not induce this response. Further investigation showed that the transcript of two genes designated BnALMT1 and BnALMT2 is accumulated in roots by Al-treatment. Transgenic tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum) and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the BnALMT1 and BnALMT2 proteins released more malate than control cells in the p...

  9. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Jinfang; Qi, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Gongle; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xingsheng; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104) was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent catio...

  10. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH 4 )SO 4 , glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl 2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32 P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  11. Real-Time Fluorescence Measurements of ROS and [Ca2+] in Ischemic / Reperfused Rat Hearts: Detectable Increases Occur only after Mitochondrial Pore Opening and Are Attenuated by Ischemic Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, Tatyana; Pasdois, Philippe; Rossbach, Andreas; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function. Potential interference by motion artefacts and internal filtering was assessed and minimised. Re-oxidation of NAD(P)H and flavoproteins on reperfusion (detected using autofluorescence) was rapid (t0.5 ROS increases during early reperfusion. However, two different fluorescent cytosolic ROS probes did detect ROS increases after 2-3 min of reperfusion, which was shown to be after initiation of mPTP opening. Cyclosporin A (CsA) and IP attenuated these responses and reduced infarct size. [Ca2+]i (monitored with Indo-1) increased progressively during ischemia, but dropped rapidly within 90 s of reperfusion when total mitochondrial [Ca2+] was shown to be increased. These early changes in [Ca2+] were not attenuated by IP, but substantial [Ca2+] increases were observed after 2-3 min reperfusion and these were prevented by both IP and CsA. Our data suggest that the major increases in ROS and [Ca2+] detected later in reperfusion are secondary to mPTP opening. If earlier IP-sensitive changes occur that might trigger initial mPTP opening they are below our limit of detection. Rather, we suggest that IP may inhibit initial mPTP opening by alternative mechanisms such as prevention of hexokinase 2 dissociation from mitochondria during ischemia.

  12. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Lipotoxic Hearts Induce Post-Translational Modifications of AKAP121, DRP1, and OPA1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Kensuke; Bugger, Heiko; Wende, Adam R; Soto, Jamie; Jenson, Gregory A; Tor, Austin R; McGlauflin, Rose; Kenny, Helena C; Zhang, Yuan; Souvenir, Rhonda; Hu, Xiao X; Sloan, Crystal L; Pereira, Renata O; Lira, Vitor A; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Sharp, Terry L; Shoghi, Kooresh I; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Rog-Zielinska, Eva A; Kohl, Peter; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Schaffer, Jean E; Abel, E Dale

    2018-01-05

    Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation, and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood. To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo. Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing ACSL1 (long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1) in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial morphological changes and elevated ROS generation are also observed in palmitate-treated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Palmitate exposure to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes initially activates mitochondrial respiration, coupled with increased mitochondrial polarization and ATP synthesis. However, long-term exposure to palmitate (>8 hours) enhances ROS generation, which is accompanied by loss of the mitochondrial reticulum and a pattern suggesting increased mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, lipid-induced changes in mitochondrial redox status increased mitochondrial fission by increased ubiquitination of AKAP121 (A-kinase anchor protein 121) leading to reduced phosphorylation of DRP1 (dynamin-related protein 1) at Ser637 and altered proteolytic processing of OPA1 (optic atrophy 1). Scavenging mitochondrial ROS restored mitochondrial morphology in vivo and in vitro. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism by which lipid overload-induced mitochondrial ROS generation causes mitochondrial dysfunction by inducing post-translational modifications of mitochondrial proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics. These findings provide a

  13. Are phloem-derived amino acids the origin of the elevated malate concentration in the xylem sap following mineral N starvation in soybean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Simone C; do Amarante, Luciano; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2018-05-16

    A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N 2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants. Evidence was obtained that the elevated malate concentration of the xylem was derived from amino acids supplied by the phloem. Aspartate was a prominent component of the phloem sap amino acids and, therefore, a potential source of malate. Supplying the roots of intact plants with 13 C-aspartate revealed that malate of the xylem sap was readily labelled under N starvation. A hypothetical scheme is proposed whereby aspartate supplied by the phloem is metabolised in the roots and the products of this metabolism cycled back to the shoot. Under N starvation, aspartate metabolism is diverted from asparagine synthesis to supply N for the synthesis of other amino acids via transaminase activity. The by-product of aspartate transaminase activity, oxaloacetate, is transformed to malate and its export accounts for much of the elevated concentration of malate found in the xylem sap. This mechanism represents a new additional role for malate during mineral N starvation of soybean, beyond that of charge balance.

  14. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H., E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu

    2012-01-15

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  15. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  16. Fluctuations in Cytosolic Calcium Regulate the Neuronal Malate-Aspartate NADH Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satrústegui, Jorgina; Bak, Lasse K

    2015-01-01

    that MAS is regulated by fluctuations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and that this regulation is required to maintain a tight coupling between neuronal activity and mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. At cytosolic Ca(2+) fluctuations below the threshold of the mitochondrial calcium...

  17. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The mitochondrial toxicity of cysteine-S-conjugates: Studies with pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nephrotoxic cysteine conjugates, arising from mercapturate biosynthesis, can perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium homeostasis in renal epithelial cells. Activation of these cysteine conjugates to reactive species by mitochondrial β-lyases results in covalent binding and mitochondrial damage. PCBC and related cysteine conjugates inhibit ADP-stimulated respiration in mitochondria respiring on alpha-ketoglutrate/malate and succinate indicating that both dehydrogenases may be targets. The respiratory inhibition is blocked by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of the β-lyase. Hence, metabolic activation is required implying that covalent binding of reactive intermediates may be important to the mitochondrial injury. Binding of 35 S-fragments has been found for 5 conjugates with varying degrees of mitochondrial toxicity. PCBC is more lipophilic and has a higher affinity for cellular membranes than other cysteine conjugates. PCBC rapidly depolarizes the inner membrane potential resulting in an inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium upon sequestration. Consequently, mitochondria and renal epithelial cells exposed to PCBC show a sudden release of calcium upon exposure to PCBC which is followed by a later increase in state 4 respiration leading to an inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. The primary effect of other cysteine conjugates is an inhibition of the dehydrogenases, thus inhibiting state 3 respiration

  19. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquim A F; Madeira, Vítor M C; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2004-12-01

    Dehydrogenase activities of potato tuber mitochondria and corresponding phosphorylation rates were measured for the dependence on external and mitochondrial matrix Mg2+. Magnesium stimulated state 3 and state 4 respiration, with significantly different concentrations of matrix Mg2+ required for optimal activities of the several substrates. Maximal stimulation of respiration with all substrates was obtained at 2-mM external Mg2+. However, respiration of malate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate requires at least 4-mM Mg2+ inside mitochondria for maximization of dehydrogenase activities. The phosphorylation system, requires a low level of internal Mg2+ (0.25 mM) to reach high activity, as judged by succinate-dependent respiration. However, mitochondria respiring on citrate or alpha-ketoglutarate only sustain high levels of phosphorylation with at least 4-mM matrix Mg2+. Respiration of succinate is active without external and matrix Mg2+, although stimulated by the cation. Respiration of alpha-ketoglutarate was strictly dependent on external Mg2+ required for substrate transport into mitochondria, and internal Mg2+ is required for dehydrogenase activity. Respiration of citrate and malate also depend on internal Mg2+ but, unlike alpha-ketoglutarate, some activity still remains without external Mg2+. All the substrates revealed insensitive to external and internal mitochondrial Ca2+, except the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, which requires either external Ca2+ or Mg2+ for detectable activity. Calcium is more efficient than Mg2+, both having cumulative stimulation. Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+.

  20. Tributyltin (TBT) and mitochondrial respiration in mussel digestive gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    The toxicity of organotins and especially tri-n-butyltin (TBT) on mitochondria is well known. However as far as we are aware, effects on mitochondrial respiration are unexplored in mollusks. In this work mitochondria isolated from the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis and susceptive to the classical respiratory chain inhibitors, were assayed in the presence of micromolar TBT concentrations to investigate mitochondrial respiratory activities. Intact and freeze-thawed mitochondria were used. TBT significantly inhibited oxygen consumption in the presence of glutamate/malate or succinate as substrates. Conversely cytochrome c oxidase activity (complex IV), assayed both polarographically and spectrophotometrically, was unaffected. The addition of 1,4-dithioerythritol (DTE) decreased the TBT-driven inhibition of complexes I and III. The TBT capability of covalent binding to thiol groups of mitochondrial proteins in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed by the aid of Ellman's reagent. Data strongly suggests that TBT may prevent the electron transfer from complexes I and III to downhill respiratory chain complexes by binding to critical SH residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel-mediated PKC-ε in delayed protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of sevoflurane-preconditioned rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Hu, S.M. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Xie, H.; Qiao, S.G. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, H. [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System, Davis, CA (United States); Liu, C.F. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2015-03-27

    This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK{sub ATP}) channels and protein kinase C (PKC)-ε in the delayed protective effects of sevoflurane preconditioning using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion models. Fifty-four isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=9). The rats were exposed for 60 min to 2.5% sevoflurane (the second window of protection group, SWOP group) or 33% oxygen inhalation (I/R group) 24 h before coronary occlusion. The control group (CON) and the sevoflurane group (SEVO) group were exposed to 33% oxygen and 2.5% sevoflurane for 60 min, respectively, without coronary occlusion. The mitoK{sub ATP} channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was given 30 min before sevoflurane preconditioning (5-HD+SWOP group). Cardiac function indices, infarct sizes, serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, and the expression levels of phosphorylated PKC-ε (p-PKC-ε) and caspase-8 were measured. Cardiac function was unchanged, p-PKC-ε expression was upregulated, caspase-8 expression was downregulated, cTnI concentrations were decreased, and the infarcts were significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the SWOP group compared with the I/R group. Cardiac function was worse, p-PKC-ε expression was downregulated, caspase-8 expression was upregulated, cTnI concentration was increased and infarcts were larger in the 5-HD+SWOP group (P<0.05) compared with the SWOP group. The results suggest that mitoK{sub ATP} channels are involved in the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in preconditioning against I/R injury, by regulating PKC-ε phosphorylation before ischemia, and by downregulating caspase-8 during reperfusion.

  2. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon V

    2009-02-01

    Aluminum-activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in plant Al tolerance. This paper characterizes AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al-tolerance genes, shown here to encode an Al-activated citrate transporter in Arabidopsis. Together with the previously characterized Al-activated malate transporter, AtALMT1, this discovery allowed us to examine the relationship in the same species between members of the two gene families for which Al-tolerance genes have been identified. AtMATE is expressed primarily in roots and is induced by Al. An AtMATE T-DNA knockdown line exhibited very low AtMATE expression and Al-activated root citrate exudation was abolished. The AtALMT1 AtMATE double mutant lacked both Al-activated root malate and citrate exudation and showed greater Al sensitivity than the AtALMT1 mutant. Therefore, although AtALMT1 is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance, AtMATE also makes a significant but smaller contribution. The expression patterns of AtALMT1 and AtMATE and the profiles of Al-activated root citrate and malate exudation are not affected by the presence or absence of the other gene. These results suggest that AtALMT1-mediated malate exudation and AtMATE-mediated citrate exudation evolved independently to confer Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. However, a link between regulation of expression of the two transporters in response to Al was identified through work on STOP1, a transcription factor that was previously shown to be necessary for AtALMT1 expression. Here we show that STOP1 is also required for AtMATE expression and Al-activated citrate exudation.

  3. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  4. Isoform expression in the multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aquino-Silva

    Full Text Available Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Hoplias malabaricus liver and skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to further study the possible sMDH-A* locus duplication evolved from a recent tandem duplication. Both A (A1 and A2 and B isoforms had similar optima pH (7.5-8.0. While Hoplias A isoform could not be characterized as thermostable, B could as thermolabile. A isoforms differed from B isoform in having higher Km values for oxaloacetate. The possibly duplicated A2 isoform showed higher substrate affinity than the A1. Hoplias duplicated A isoforms may influence the direction of carbon flow between glycolisis and gluconeogenesis.

  5. Isoform expression in the multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Silva M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Hoplias malabaricus liver and skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to further study the possible sMDH-A* locus duplication evolved from a recent tandem duplication. Both A (A1 and A2 and B isoforms had similar optima pH (7.5-8.0. While Hoplias A isoform could not be characterized as thermostable, B could as thermolabile. A isoforms differed from B isoform in having higher Km values for oxaloacetate. The possibly duplicated A2 isoform showed higher substrate affinity than the A1. Hoplias duplicated A isoforms may influence the direction of carbon flow between glycolisis and gluconeogenesis.

  6. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  7. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  8. Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Mori, Izumi C; Furuichi, Takuya; Munemasa, Shintaro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-03-01

    Plant stomata limit both carbon dioxide uptake and water loss; hence, stomatal aperture is carefully set as the environment fluctuates. Aperture area is known to be regulated in part by ion transport, but few of the transporters have been characterized. Here we report that AtALMT12 (At4g17970), a homolog of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) of wheat, is expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in AtALMT12 impair stomatal closure induced by ABA, calcium and darkness, but do not abolish either the rapidly activated or the slowly activated anion currents previously identified as being important for stomatal closure. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, AtALMT12 facilitates chloride and nitrate currents, but not those of organic solutes. Therefore, we conclude that AtALMT12 is a novel class of anion transporter involved in stomatal closure.

  9. The lncRNA Malat1 Is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide studies have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs lacking protein-coding capacity. However, most lncRNAs are expressed at a very low level, and in most cases there is no genetic evidence to support their in vivo function. Malat1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 is among the most abundant and highly conserved lncRNAs, and it exhibits an uncommon 3′-end processing mechanism. In addition, its specific nuclear localization, developmental regulation, and dysregulation in cancer are suggestive of it having a critical biological function. We have characterized a Malat1 loss-of-function genetic model that indicates that Malat1 is not essential for mouse pre- and postnatal development. Furthermore, depletion of Malat1 does not affect global gene expression, splicing factor level and phosphorylation status, or alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, among a small number of genes that were dysregulated in adult Malat1 knockout mice, many were Malat1 neighboring genes, thus indicating a potential cis-regulatory role of Malat1 gene transcription.

  10. D-malate production by permeabilized Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes; optimization of conversion and biocatalyst productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M J; Frielink, C; Wijffels, R H; Tramper, J; Beeftink, H H

    2000-04-14

    For the development of a continuous process for the production of solid D-malate from a Ca-maleate suspension by permeabilized Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, it is important to understand the effect of appropriate process parameters on the stability and activity of the biocatalyst. Previously, we quantified the effect of product (D-malate2 -) concentration on both the first-order biocatalyst inactivation rate and on the biocatalytic conversion rate. The effects of the remaining process parameters (ionic strength, and substrate and Ca2 + concentration) on biocatalyst activity are reported here. At (common) ionic strengths below 2 M, biocatalyst activity was unaffected. At high substrate concentrations, inhibition occurred. Ca2+ concentration did not affect biocatalyst activity. The kinetic parameters (both for conversion and inactivation) were determined as a function of temperature by fitting the complete kinetic model, featuring substrate inhibition, competitive product inhibition and first-order irreversible biocatalyst inactivation, at different temperatures simultaneously through three extended data sets of substrate concentration versus time. Temperature affected both the conversion and inactivation parameters. The final model was used to calculate the substrate and biocatalyst costs per mmol of product in a continuous system with biocatalyst replenishment and biocatalyst recycling. Despite the effect of temperature on each kinetic parameter separately, the overall effect of temperature on the costs was found to be negligible (between 293 and 308 K). Within pertinent ranges, the sum of the substrate and biocatalyst costs per mmol of product was calculated to decrease with the influent substrate concentration and the residence time. The sum of the costs showed a minimum as a function of the influent biocatalyst concentration.

  11. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-08-25

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by (14C)iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two (14C)carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated (14C)carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15.

  12. Heat inactivation of leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Protection by aspartate and malate in C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnam, C K

    1978-01-01

    The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase EC 4.1.1.31 in leaf extracts of Eleusine indica L. Gaertn., a C4 plant, exhibited a temperature optimum of 35-37° C with a complete loss of activity at 50° C. However, the enzyme was protected effectively from heat inactivation up to 55° C by L-aspartate. Activation energies (Ea) for the enzyme in the presence of aspartate were 2.5 times lower than that of the control enzyme. Arrhenius plots of PEP carboxylase activity (±aspartate) showed a break in the slope around 17-20° C with a 3-fold increase in the Ea below the break. The discontinuity in the slopes was abolished by treating the enzyme extracts with Triton X-100, suggesting that PEP carboxylase in C4 plants is associated with lipid and may be a membrane bound enzyme. Depending upon the species, the major C4 acid formed during photosynthesis (malate or aspartate) was found to be more protective than the minor C4 acid against the heat inactivation of their PEP carboxylase. Oxaloacetate, the reaction product, was less effective compared to malate or aspartate. Several allosteric inhibitors of PEP carboxylase were found to be moderately to highly effective in protecting the C4 enzyme while its activators showed no significant effect. PEP carboxylase from C3 species was not protected from thermal inactivation by the C4 acids. The physiological significance of these results is discussed in relation to the high temperature tolerance of C4 plants.

  13. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-01-01

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by [14C]iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two [14C]carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated [14C]carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15

  14. Maize ZmALMT2 is a root anion transporter that mediates constitutive root malate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Maron, Lyza; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, not up-regulated by Al, and higher in sensitive versus tolerance maize lines) also led us to question ZmALMT2's role in Al tolerance. The functional properties of the ZmALMT2 transporter presented here, along with the gene expression data, suggest that ZmALMT2 is not involved in maize Al tolerance but, rather, may play a role in mineral nutrient acquisition and transport. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  16. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20–120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ► DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. ► DSL inhibits pancreatic β-cells apoptosis

  17. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  18. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-12-08

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30-35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. © 2016 Authors.

  19. The enhancement of tolerance to salt and cold stresses by modifying the redox state and salicylic acid content via the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hong; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Tian-Yu; Jin, Zhong-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin; Yao, Yu-Xin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we characterized the role of an apple cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene (MdcyMDH) in the tolerance to salt and cold stresses and investigated its regulation mechanism in stress tolerance. The MdcyMDH transcript was induced by mild cold and salt treatments, and MdcyMDH-overexpressing apple plants possessed improved cold and salt tolerance compared to wild-type (WT) plants. A digital gene expression tag profiling analysis revealed that MdcyMDH overexpression largely altered some biological processes, including hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, citrate cycle and oxidation-reduction. Further experiments verified that MdcyMDH overexpression modified the mitochondrial and chloroplast metabolisms and elevated the level of reducing power, primarily caused by increased ascorbate and glutathione, as well as the increased ratios of ascorbate/dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide, under normal and especially stress conditions. Concurrently, the transgenic plants produced a high H2 O2 content, but a low O2·- production rate was observed compared to the WT plants. On the other hand, the transgenic plants accumulated more free and total salicylic acid (SA) than the WT plants under normal and stress conditions. Taken together, MdcyMDH conferred the transgenic apple plants a higher stress tolerance by producing more reductive redox states and increasing the SA level; MdcyMDH could serve as a target gene to genetically engineer salt- and cold-tolerant trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nkx6.1 decline accompanies mitochondrial DNA reduction but subtle nucleoid size decrease in pancreatic islet beta-cells of diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Tomáš; Pavluch, Vojtěch; Alán, Lukáš; Capková, Nikola; Engstová, Hana; Dlasková, Andrea; Berková, Z.; Saudek, F.; Ježek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Nov 15 (2017), č. článku 15674. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02033S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : GK rat * superresolution fluorescence * microscopy reveals * binding-protein * insulin -release Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Real-Time Fluorescence Measurements of ROS and [Ca2+] in Ischemic / Reperfused Rat Hearts: Detectable Increases Occur only after Mitochondrial Pore Opening and Are Attenuated by Ischemic Preconditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Andrienko

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function. Potential interference by motion artefacts and internal filtering was assessed and minimised. Re-oxidation of NAD(PH and flavoproteins on reperfusion (detected using autofluorescence was rapid (t0.5 < 15 s and significantly slower following ischemic preconditioning (IP. This argues against superoxide production from reduced Complex 1 being a critical mediator of initial mPTP opening during early reperfusion. Furthermore, MitoPY1 (a mitochondria-targeted H2O2-sensitive fluorescent probe and aconitase activity measurements failed to detect matrix ROS increases during early reperfusion. However, two different fluorescent cytosolic ROS probes did detect ROS increases after 2-3 min of reperfusion, which was shown to be after initiation of mPTP opening. Cyclosporin A (CsA and IP attenuated these responses and reduced infarct size. [Ca2+]i (monitored with Indo-1 increased progressively during ischemia, but dropped rapidly within 90 s of reperfusion when total mitochondrial [Ca2+] was shown to be increased. These early changes in [Ca2+] were not attenuated by IP, but substantial [Ca2+] increases were observed after 2-3 min reperfusion and these were prevented by both IP and CsA. Our data suggest that the major increases in ROS and [Ca2+] detected later in reperfusion are secondary to mPTP opening. If earlier IP-sensitive changes occur that might trigger initial mPTP opening they are below our limit of detection. Rather, we suggest that

  2. Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a skeletal muscle cell line model of mitochondrial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial toxicity is increasingly being implicated as a contributing factor to many xenobiotic-induced organ toxicities, including skeletal muscle toxicity. This has necessitated the need for predictive in vitro models that are able to sensitively detect mitochondrial toxicity of chemical entities early in the research and development process. One such cell model involves substituting galactose for glucose in the culture media. Since cells cultured in galactose are unable to generate sufficient ATP from glycolysis they are forced to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation and consequently are more sensitive to mitochondrial perturbation than cells grown in glucose. The aim of this study was to characterise cellular growth, bioenergetics and mitochondrial toxicity of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line cultured in either high glucose or galactose media. L6 myoblasts proliferated more slowly when cultured in galactose media, although they maintained similar levels of ATP. Galactose cultured L6 cells were significantly more sensitive to classical mitochondrial toxicants than glucose-cultured cells, confirming the cells had adapted to galactose media. Analysis of bioenergetic function with the XF Seahorse extracellular flux analyser demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR was significantly increased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measure of glycolysis, was decreased in cells grown in galactose. Mitochondria operated closer to state 3 respiration and had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial O2·– level compared to cells in the glucose model. An antimycin A (AA dose response revealed that there was no difference in the sensitivity of OCR to AA inhibition between glucose and galactose cells. Importantly, cells in glucose were able to up-regulate glycolysis, while galactose cells were not. These results confirm that L6 cells are able to adapt to growth in a

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  4. Evaluation of mitochondrial activity by two-photon absorption with near-field multioptical fiber probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazashi, Yasuaki; Takara, Naoshi; Iwami, Kentaro; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2018-04-01

    pH measurements enable the direct monitoring and evaluation of mitochondrial activity. We constructed a scanning near-field optical microscopy system with multioptical fiber probes using the two-photon absorption of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, SNARF-4F, to measure the activity difference of mitochondrial aggregates. pH can be monitored through the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) of SNARF-4F. We derived a calibration curve of the FIR as a function of pH. The FIR dynamic responses were measured by adding hydrochloric acid to the buffer solution. Using the developed system, we simultaneously measured the pH changes at two different locations in the SNARF-4F solution. Mitochondrial samples were prepared using optical tweezers to control the number and position of mitochondria. Mitochondrial pH changes (ΔpH) between 0.05 and 0.57 were observed after adding a nutritional supplement (malate and glutamate). In addition, in the comparative experiment on the activities of two mitochondrial populations, the obtained result suggested that the activity differs depending on the difference in the number of mitochondria.

  5. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  6. Heterology of mitochondrial DNA from mammals detected by electron microscopic heteroduplex analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C

    1983-01-01

    Heteroduplex analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from evolutionary closely related mammals (rat vs. mouse, man vs. monkey) are analyzed and compared to heteroduplex analysis of mt-DNA from more distantly related mammals (rat vs. man, rat vs. monkey, mouse vs. man, mouse vs. monkey and man vs. c...

  7. Interaction of butylated hydroxyanisole with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, F; Sgaragli, G; Murphy, M P

    1992-03-17

    The antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), has a number of effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In this study we apply the novel approach developed by Brand (Brand MD, Biochim Biophys Acta 1018: 128-133, 1990) to investigate the site of action of BHA on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. Using this approach we show that BHA increases the proton leak through the mitochondrial inner membrane and that it also inhibits the delta p (proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane) generating system, but has no effect on the phosphorylation system. This demonstrates that compounds having pleiotypic effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vitro can be analysed and their many effects distinguished. This approach is of general use in analysing many other compounds of pharmacological interest which interact with mitochondria. The implications of these results for the mechanism of interaction of BHA with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are discussed.

  8. The purification and steady-state kinetic behaviour of rabbit heart mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Davisson, V J; Schulz, A R

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme [EC 1.1.1.39, L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)] was purified from rabbit heart to a specific activity of 7 units (mumol/min)/mg at 23 degrees C. A study of the reductive carboxylation reaction indicates that this enzymic reaction is reversible. The rate of the reductive carboxylation reaction appears to be completely inhibited at an NADH concentration of 0.92 mM. A substrate saturation curve of this reaction with NADH as the varied substrat...

  9. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  10. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  11. Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95% Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts. The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95% was con­ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti­cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters. The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil­ariasis vector. Result of the evaluation was revealed that dosages of 500 and 625 ml/ha were effective against both tested mosquito species indoor and outdoor.Key Word: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, insecticide Piretroid (Malation 95%, thermal fogging.

  12. Long Non-Coding RNA Malat-1 Is Dispensable during Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Failure in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Peters

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a class of RNA molecules with diverse regulatory functions during embryonic development, normal life, and disease in higher organisms. However, research on the role of lncRNAs in cardiovascular diseases and in particular heart failure is still in its infancy. The exceptionally well conserved nuclear lncRNA Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat-1 is a regulator of mRNA splicing and highly expressed in the heart. Malat-1 modulates hypoxia-induced vessel growth, activates ERK/MAPK signaling, and scavenges the anti-hypertrophic microRNA-133. We therefore hypothesized that Malat-1 may act as regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and failure during cardiac pressure overload induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC in mice.Absence of Malat-1 did not affect cardiac hypertrophy upon pressure overload: Heart weight to tibia length ratio significantly increased in WT mice (sham: 5.78±0.55, TAC 9.79±1.82 g/mm; p<0.001 but to a similar extend also in Malat-1 knockout (KO mice (sham: 6.21±1.12, TAC 8.91±1.74 g/mm; p<0.01 with no significant difference between genotypes. As expected, TAC significantly reduced left ventricular fractional shortening in WT (sham: 38.81±6.53%, TAC: 23.14±11.99%; p<0.01 but to a comparable degree also in KO mice (sham: 37.01±4.19%, TAC: 25.98±9.75%; p<0.05. Histological hallmarks of myocardial remodeling, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis, reduced capillary density, and immune cell infiltration, did not differ significantly between WT and KO mice after TAC. In line, the absence of Malat-1 did not significantly affect angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and overall remodeling. Above that, pressure overload by TAC significantly induced mRNA levels of the hypertrophy marker genes Nppa, Nppb and Acta1, to a similar extend in both genotypes. Alternative splicing of Ndrg2 after TAC was apparent in WT (isoform ratio

  13. Hypothalamic Energy Metabolism Is Impaired By Doxorubicin Independently Of Inflammation In Non-tumour-bearing Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Barbara M M; Lira, Fabio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa Neto, José Cesar; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Rodrigues, Bruno; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to explore the effects of doxorubicin on inflammatory profiles and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats. To investigate these effects, we formed two groups: a control (C) group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control (C) or DOXO groups. The hypothalamus was collected. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and energy metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, complex I and III activities) were analysed in the hypothala...

  14. Ischemic preconditioning improves mitochondrial tolerance to experimental calcium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestanello, Juan A; Doliba, Nicolai M; Babsky, Andriy M; Doliba, Natalia M; Niibori, Koki; Whitman, Glenn J R; Osbakken, Mary D

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) overload leads to mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased ATP synthesis, and myocardial dysfunction. Pharmacologically opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, improving mitochondrial function during Ca(2+) overload. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), by activating mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, may attenuate mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and improve mitochondrial function during reperfusion. The purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of IPC (1) on mitochondrial function and (2) on mitochondrial tolerance to experimental Ca(2+) overload. Rat hearts (n = 6/group) were subjected to (a) 30 min of equilibration, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (Control) or (b) two 5-min episodes of ischemic preconditioning, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (IPC). Developed pressure (DP) was measured. Heart mitochondria were isolated at end-Equilibration (end-EQ) and at end-Reperfusion (end-RP). Mitochondrial respiratory function (state 2, oxygen consumption with substrate only; state 3, oxygen consumption stimulated by ADP; state 4, oxygen consumption after cessation of ADP phosphorylation; respiratory control index (RCI, state 3/state 4); rate of oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/Deltat), and ADP:O ratio) was measured with polarography using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate in the presence of different Ca(2+) concentrations (0 to 5 x 10(-7) M) to simulate Ca(2+) overload. IPC improved DP at end-RP. IPC did not improve preischemic mitochondrial respiratory function or preischemic mitochondrial response to Ca(2+) loading. IPC improved state 3, ADP/Deltat, and RCI during RP. Low Ca(2+) levels (0.5 and 1 x 10(-7) M) stimulated mitochondrial function in both groups predominantly in IPC. The Control group showed evidence of mitochondrial uncoupling at lower Ca(2+) concentrations (1 x 10(-7) M). IPC preserved state 3 at high Ca(2+) concentrations. The cardioprotective effect of IPC results, in part, from

  15. The Membrane Topology of ALMT1, an Aluminum-Activated Malate Transport Protein in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hirotoshi; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kano, Yoshio; Ryan, Peter R; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The wheat ALMT1 gene encodes an aluminum (Al)-activated malate transport protein which confers Al-resistance. We investigated the membrane topology of this plasma-membrane localized protein with immunocytochemical techniques. Several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused and histidine (His)-tagged chimeras of ALMT1 were prepared based on a computer-predicted secondary structure and transiently expressed in cultured mammalian cells. Antibodies raised to polypeptide epitopes of ALMT1 were used ...

  16. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by sponging miR-204 and releasing SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhouhua; Xu, Xuwen; Zhou, Ledu; Fu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Shuhui; Zhou, Jiebin; Tan, Deming; Liu, Shuiping

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the significance of long non-coding RNA in cancer development. Several recent studies suggest the oncogenic activity of long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which MALAT1 modulates hepatocellular carcinoma biological behaviors. We found that microRNA-204 was significantly downregulated in sh-MALAT1 HepG2 cell and 15 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Through bioinformatic screening, luciferase reporter assay, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down assay, we identified microRNA-204 as a potential interacting partner for MALAT1. Functionally, wound-healing and transwell assays revealed that microRNA-204 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Notably, sirtuin 1 was recognized as a direct downstream target of microRNA-204 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, si-SIRT1 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration process. These data elucidated, by sponging and competitive binding to microRNA-204, MALAT1 releases the suppression on sirtuin 1, which in turn promotes hepatocellular carcinoma migration and invasion. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which MALAT1 stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma progression and justifies targeting metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 acts as a competing endogenous RNA to promote malignant melanoma growth and metastasis by sponging miR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Wenkang; Li, Lubo; Shi, Yan; Bu, Xuefeng; Xia, Yun; Wang, Jinlong; Djangmah, Henry Siaw; Liu, Xiaohui; You, Yongping; Xu, Bin

    2016-09-27

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), an lncRNAs, is associated with the growth and metastasis of many human tumors, but its biological roles in malignant melanoma remain unclear. In this study, the aberrant up-regulation of MALAT1 was detected in melanoma. We determined that MALAT1 promotes melanoma cells proliferation, invasion and migration by sponging miR-22. MiR-22 was decreased and acted as a tumor suppressor in melanoma, and MMP14 and Snail were the functional targets of miR-22. Furthermore, MALAT1 could modulate MMP14 and Snail by operating as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-22. The effects of MALAT1 in malignant melanoma is verified using a xenograft model. This finding elucidates a new mechanism for MALAT1 in melanoma development and provides a potential target for melanoma therapeutic intervention.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA depletion by ethidium bromide decreases neuronal mitochondrial creatine kinase: Implications for striatal energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Emily Booth; Aicher, Aidan Edward; Fessel, Joshua Patrick; Konradi, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the discrete genome which encodes subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is present at highly variable copy numbers across cell types. Though severe mtDNA depletion dramatically reduces mitochondrial function, the impact of tissue-specific mtDNA reduction remains debated. Previously, our lab identified reduced mtDNA quantity in the putamen of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients who had developed L-DOPA Induced Dyskinesia (LID), compared to PD patients who had not developed LID and healthy subjects. Here, we present the consequences of mtDNA depletion by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment on the bioenergetic function of primary cultured neurons, astrocytes and neuron-enriched cocultures from rat striatum. We report that EtBr inhibition of mtDNA replication and transcription consistently reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and that neurons are significantly more sensitive to EtBr than astrocytes. EtBr also increases glycolytic activity in astrocytes, whereas in neurons it reduces the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA and levels of phosphocreatine. Further, we show that mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA is similarly downregulated in dyskinetic PD patients, compared to both non-dyskinetic PD patients and healthy subjects. Our data support a hypothesis that reduced striatal mtDNA contributes to energetic dysregulation in the dyskinetic striatum by destabilizing the energy buffering system of the phosphocreatine/creatine shuttle.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA depletion by ethidium bromide decreases neuronal mitochondrial creatine kinase: Implications for striatal energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Booth Warren

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, the discrete genome which encodes subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is present at highly variable copy numbers across cell types. Though severe mtDNA depletion dramatically reduces mitochondrial function, the impact of tissue-specific mtDNA reduction remains debated. Previously, our lab identified reduced mtDNA quantity in the putamen of Parkinson's Disease (PD patients who had developed L-DOPA Induced Dyskinesia (LID, compared to PD patients who had not developed LID and healthy subjects. Here, we present the consequences of mtDNA depletion by ethidium bromide (EtBr treatment on the bioenergetic function of primary cultured neurons, astrocytes and neuron-enriched cocultures from rat striatum. We report that EtBr inhibition of mtDNA replication and transcription consistently reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and that neurons are significantly more sensitive to EtBr than astrocytes. EtBr also increases glycolytic activity in astrocytes, whereas in neurons it reduces the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA and levels of phosphocreatine. Further, we show that mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA is similarly downregulated in dyskinetic PD patients, compared to both non-dyskinetic PD patients and healthy subjects. Our data support a hypothesis that reduced striatal mtDNA contributes to energetic dysregulation in the dyskinetic striatum by destabilizing the energy buffering system of the phosphocreatine/creatine shuttle.

  20. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L. [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bal, Amanjit [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gill, Kiran Dip, E-mail: kdgill2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  1. Immunological response and protection of mice immunized with plasmid encoding Toxoplasma gondii glycolytic enzyme malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Wang, S; Xu, L; Yan, R; Song, X; XiangRui, L

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) plays an important role as part of the energy production cycle. In this investigation, immunological changes and protection efficiency of this protein delivered as a DNA vaccine have been evaluated. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with pTgMDH, followed by challenge with virulent T. gondii RH strain, 2 weeks after the booster immunization. Compared to the control groups, the results showed that pTgMDH has stimulated specific humoral response as demonstrated by significant high titers of total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a , beside IgA and IgM, but not IgE. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, while no significant changes were detected in TGF-β1. In cell-mediated response, both T lymphocytes subpopulations CD4(+) and CD8(+) were positively recruited as significant percentages were recorded in response to immunization with TgMDH. Significant long survival rate, 17 days, has been observed in the TgMDH vaccinated group, in contrast with control groups which died within 8-9 days after challenge. These results demonstrated that TgMDH could induce significant immunological responses leading to a considerable level of protection against acute toxoplasmosis infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Almotriptan Malate in Bulk and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Bala Sekaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A simple RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of almotriptan malate (ATM in bulk and tablets. Methods: Chromatographic separation of ATM was achieved by using a Thermo Scientific C18 column. A Mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol, water and acetic acid (4:8:0.1 v/v was pumped at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was performed at 227 nm. According to ICH guidelines, the method was validated. Results: The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range 5–60 μg/mL for the ATM with regression coefficient 0.9999. The method was precise with RSD <1.2%. Excellent recoveries of 99.60 - 100.80% proved the accuracy of the method. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.025 and 0.075 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The method was successfully applied for the quantification of ATM in tablets with acceptable accuracy and precision.

  3. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013.

  4. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a...

  5. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  6. Mitochondrial matrix delivery using MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier that specifies fusion with mitochondrial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are the principal producers of energy in cells of higher organisms. It was recently reported that mutations and defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with various mitochondrial diseases including a variety of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Therefore, an effective mitochondrial gene therapy and diagnosis would be expected to have great medical benefits. To achieve this, therapeutic agents need to be delivered into the innermost mitochondrial space (mitochondrial matrix), which contains the mtDNA pool. We previously reported on the development of MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier that introduces macromolecular cargos into mitochondria via membrane fusion. In this study, we provide a demonstration of mitochondrial matrix delivery and the visualization of mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) in living cells using the MITO-Porter. We first prepared MITO-Porter containing encapsulated propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent dye used to stain nucleic acids to detect mtDNA. We then confirmed the emission of red-fluorescence from PI by conjugation with mtDNA, when the carriers were incubated in the presence of isolated rat liver mitochondria. Finally, intracellular observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy clearly verified that the MITO-Porter delivered PI to the mitochondrial matrix.

  7. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial shaping cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A broad range of cellular processes are regulated by proteolytic events. Proteolysis has now also been established to control mitochondrial morphology which results from the balanced action of fusion and fission. Two out of three known core components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery are under proteolytic control. The GTPase Fzo1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria is degraded along two independent proteolytic pathways. One controls mitochondrial fusion in vegetatively growing cells, the other one acts upon mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Fusion also depends on proteolytic processing of the GTPase Mgm1 by the rhomboid protease Pcp1 in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional links of AAA proteases or other proteolytic components to mitochondrial dynamics are just emerging. This review summarises the current understanding of regulatory roles of proteolytic processes for mitochondrial plasticity.

  9. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  10. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Haiyan; Huh, Jin; Wang, Huihua; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi; Xu, Zhelong

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine reduced

  11. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Haiyan [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Huh, Jin [Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Medical College, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon City (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Huihua [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi [Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Xu, Zhelong, E-mail: zxu@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine

  12. Direct Regulation of Mitochondrial RNA Synthesis by Thyroid Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, José A.; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Garrido-Pérez, Nuria; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Montoya, Julio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the influence of in vivo treatment and in vitro addition of thyroid hormone on in organello mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and, in parallel, on the in organello footprinting patterns at the mtDNA regions involved in the regulation of transcription. We found that thyroid hormone modulates mitochondrial RNA levels and the mRNA/rRNA ratio by influencing the transcriptional rate. In addition, we found conspicuous differences between the mtDNA dimethyl sulfate footprinting patterns of mitochondria derived from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats at the transcription initiation sites but not at the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) binding region. Furthermore, direct addition of thyroid hormone to the incubation medium of mitochondria isolated from hypothyroid rats restored the mRNA/rRNA ratio found in euthyroid rats as well as the mtDNA footprinting patterns at the transcription initiation area. Therefore, we conclude that the regulatory effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial transcription is partially exerted by a direct influence of the hormone on the mitochondrial transcription machinery. Particularly, the influence on the mRNA/rRNA ratio is achieved by selective modulation of the alternative H-strand transcription initiation sites and does not require the previous activation of nuclear genes. These results provide the first functional demonstration that regulatory signals, such as thyroid hormone, that modify the expression of nuclear genes can also act as primary signals for the transcriptional apparatus of mitochondria. PMID:9858589

  13. Effect of organic synthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F G; Valim, M F; Vercesi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Eleven organic synthetic dyes, currently or formerly used as food colours in Brazil, were tested to determine their effect on mitochondrial respiration in mitochondria isolated from rat liver and kidney. The compounds tested were: Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Blue, Fast Red E, Orange GGN and Scarlet GN. All food colours tested inhibited mitochondrial respiration (State III respiration, uncoupled) supported either by alpha-ketoglutarate or succinate. This inhibition varied largely, e.g. from 100% to 16% for Erythrosine and Tartrazine respectively, at a concentration of 0.1 mg food colour per mitochondrial protein. Both rat liver and kidney mitochondria showed similar patterns of inhibition among the food colours tested. This effect was dose related and the concentration to give 50% inhibition was determined for some of the dyes. The xanthene dye Erythrosine, which showed the strongest effect, was selected for further investigation on mitochondria in vivo.

  14. Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95% Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95% was con-ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti-cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters. The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil-ariasis vector. Result of the evaluation was revealed that dosages of 500 and 625 ml/ha were effective against both tested mosquito species indoor and outdoor.

  15. Actin and myosin contribute to mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A.; He, J.; Mao, C. C.; Bailey, L. J.; Di Re, M.; Sembongi, H.; Kazak, L.; Dzionek, K.; Holmes, J. B.; Cluett, T. J.; Harbour, M. E.; Fearnley, I. M.; Crouch, R. J.; Conti, M. A.; Adelstein, R. S.; Walker, J. E.; Holt, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA maintenance and segregation are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast. We found two cytoskeletal proteins among six proteins tightly associated with rat liver mitochondrial DNA: non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and β-actin. In human cells, transient gene silencing of MYH9 (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA), or the closely related MYH10 gene (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB), altered the topology and increased the copy number of mitochondrial DNA; and the latter effect was enhanced when both genes were targeted simultaneously. In contrast, genetic ablation of non-muscle myosin IIB was associated with a 60% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, compared to control cells. Gene silencing of β-actin also affected mitochondrial DNA copy number and organization. Protease-protection experiments and iodixanol gradient analysis suggest some β-actin and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA reside within human mitochondria and confirm that they are associated with mitochondrial DNA. Collectively, these results strongly implicate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PMID:21398640

  16. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  17. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca 2+ -mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1

  18. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  19. Mitochondrial signaling in health and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orrenius, Sten; Packer, Lester; Cadenas, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    .... The text covers themes essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial activity, including electron transport and energy production, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, mitochondrial signaling...

  20. Obstructive jaundice induces early depression of mitochondrial respiration in rat hepatocytes A icterícia obstrutiva induz depressão precoce da respiração mitocondrial em hepatócitos de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Naim Younes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction of hepatocyte mitochondria is involved in the pathophysiology of organ dysfunction following obstructive jaundice (OJ. However the time period from biliary occlusion to the occurrence of the dysfunction has not been determined decisively. PURPOSE: To evaluate the early effects (1 d and 7 d of OJ on liver mitochondria respiratory function in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: laparotomy plus OJ for 24 h (1d group (n = 10; laparotomy plus OJ for 7 d (7d group (n = 10; sham control procedure (CTR group (n = 12. At the end of OJ periods, total serum bilirubin level, hepatic enzyme activity levels (GOT, GTP, Gama-GT, ALP, mitochondrial respiration phases S3 and S4, as well as the respiratory control ratio (RC = S3/S4, and ADP consumption/oxygen consumption (ADP/O ratio, were determined. RESULTS: Total serum bilirubin, activity of most hepatic enzymes, and O2 consumption during basal (S4 respiration were increased in the 1d and 7d groups (ANOVA, p = 0.05 vs. CTR. After ADP addition, the O2 consumption rate (S3 in the 1d group remained similar to the CTR rate (ANOVA p > .05, while the RC rate was reduced (ANOVA, p = 0.001 vs. CTR. The effects observed on mitochondrial respiration in the 1d group were exacerbated in the 7d group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that OJ induces early (24 h depression of liver mitochondria respiration, and thus may lead to early reduction in the production of high energy bonds.INTRODUÇÃO: A disfunção da fosforilação oxidativa das mitocôndrias do hepatócito está envolvida na fisiopatologia da disfunção orgânica subseqüente à icterícia obstrutiva (IO. Entretanto, a precocidade da ocorrência desta disfunção permanece obscura. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito precoce da IO na função respiratória mitocondrial em ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (200 a 250g foram randomizados em 3 grupos que foram

  1. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Protective effects of physical exercise on MDMA-induced cognitive and mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Pourahmad, Jalal; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shariatmadari, Reyhaneh; Gholami, Mahdi; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Debate continues about the effect of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cognitive and mitochondrial function through the CNS. It has been shown that physical exercise has an important protective effect on cellular damage and death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical exercise on MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as MDMA effects on brain mitochondrial function in rats. Male wistar rats underwent short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (4 weeks) treadmill exercise. After completion of exercise duration, acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Rats were intraperitoneally (I.P) injected with MDMA (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) 30min before the first training trial in 4 training days of MWM. Different parameters of brain mitochondrial function were measured including the level of ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial outermembrane damage, the amount of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and ADP/ATP ratio. MDMA damaged the spatial learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Brain mitochondria isolated from the rats treated with MDMA showed significant increase in ROS formation, collapse of MMP, mitochondrial swelling, and outer membrane damage, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and finally increased ADP/ATP ratio. This study also found that physical exercise significantly decreased the MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and also mitochondrial dysfunction. The results indicated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity leads to brain mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress is followed by cognitive impairments. However, physical exercise could reduce these deleterious effects of MDMA through protective effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered Expression of the Malate-Permeable Anion Channel OsALMT4 Reduces the Growth of Rice Under Low Radiance

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Jie Liu; Muyun Xu; Gonzalo M. Estavillo; Emmanuel Delhaize; Rosemary G. White; Meixue Zhou; Peter R. Ryan

    2018-01-01

    We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ...

  4. AtALMT1, which encodes a malate transporter, is identified as one of several genes critical for aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekenga, Owen A.; Maron, Lyza G.; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Cançado, Geraldo M. A.; Shaff, Jon; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ryan, Peter R.; Dong, Bei; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kochian, Leon V.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) tolerance in Arabidopsis is a genetically complex trait, yet it is mediated by a single physiological mechanism based on Al-activated root malate efflux. We investigated a possible molecular determinant for Al tolerance involving a homolog of the wheat Al-activated malate transporter, ALMT1. This gene, named AtALMT1 (At1g08430), was the best candidate from the 14-memberAtALMT family to be involved with Al tolerance based on expression patterns and genomic location. Physiological...

  5. Systematic replacement of lysine with glutamine and alanine in Escherichia coli malate synthase G: effect on crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstrom, David M.; Colip, Leslie; Moshofsky, Brian; Hatcher, Eric; Remington, S. James

    2005-01-01

    Alanine and glutamine mutations were made to the same 15 lysine positions on the surface of E. coli malate synthase G and the impact on crystallization observed. The results support lysine replacement for improvement of crystallization and provide insight into site selection and type of amino-acid replacement. Two proposals recommend substitution of surface lysine residues as a means to improve the quality of protein crystals. In proposal I, substitution of lysine by alanine has been suggested to improve crystallization by reducing the entropic cost of ordering flexible side chains at crystal contacts. In proposal II, substitution of lysine by residues more commonly found in crystal contacts, such as glutamine, has been proposed to improve crystallization. 15 lysine residues on the surface of Escherichia coli malate synthase G, distributed over a variety of secondary structures, were individually mutated to both alanine and glutamine. For 28 variants, detailed studies of the effect on enzymatic activity and crystallization were conducted. This has permitted direct comparison of the relative effects of the two types of mutations. While none of the variants produced crystals suitable for X-ray structural determination, small crystals were obtained in a wide variety of conditions, in support of the general approach. Glutamine substitutions were found to be more effective than alanine in producing crystals, in support of proposal II. Secondary structure at the site of mutation does not appear to play a major role in determining the rate of success

  6. Ammonium intensifies CAM photosynthesis and counteracts drought effects by increasing malate transport and antioxidant capacity in Guzmania monostachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paula Natália; Gaspar, Marília; Smith, J Andrew C; Mercier, Helenice

    2018-04-09

    Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) is a tropical epiphyte capable of up-regulating crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in its photosynthetic tissues in response to changing nutrient and water availability. Previous studies have shown that under drought there is a gradient of increasing CAM expression from the basal (youngest) to the apical (oldest) portion of the leaves, and additionally that nitrogen deficiency can further increase CAM intensity in the leaf apex of this bromeliad. The present study investigated the inter-relationships between nitrogen source (nitrate and/or ammonium) and water deficit in regulating CAM expression in G. monostachia leaves. The highest CAM activity was observed under ammonium nutrition in combination with water deficit. This was associated with enhanced activity of the key enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, elevated rates of ATP- and PPi-dependent proton transport at the vacuolar membrane in the presence of malate, and increased transcript levels of the vacuolar malate channel-encoding gene, ALMT. Water deficit was consistently associated with higher levels of total soluble sugars, which were maximal under ammonium nutrition, as were the activities of several antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). Thus, ammonium nutrition, whilst associated with the highest degree of CAM induction in G. monostachia, also mitigates the effects of water deficit by osmotic adjustment and can limit oxidative damage in the leaves of this bromeliad under conditions that may be typical of its epiphytic habitat.

  7. Gemfibrozil pretreatment resulted in a sexually dimorphic outcome in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion via modulation of mitochondrial pro-survival and apoptotic cell death factors as well as MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Rahmani, Behrouz; Moradi, Fatemeh; Romond, Nathalie; Khalaj, Leila

    2013-07-01

    Inducers of mitochondrial biogenesis are widely under investigation for use in a novel therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative disorders. The ability of Gemfibrozil, a fibrate, is investigated for the first time to modulate mitochondrial pro-survival factors involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor (NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the brain. Gemfibozil is clinically administered to control hyperlipidemia. It secondarily prevents cardiovascular events such as cardiac arrest in susceptible patients. In this study, pretreatment of animals with gemfibrozil prior to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) resulted in a sexually dimorphic outcome. While the expression of NRF-1 and TFAM were induced in gemfibrozil-pretreated met-estrous females, they were suppressed in males. Gemfibrozil also proved to be neuroprotective in met-estrous females, as it inhibited caspase-dependent apoptosis while in males it led to hippocampal neurodegeneration via activation of both the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. In the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) pathway, gemfibrozil pretreatment induced the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in met-estrous females and reduced it in males. These findings correlatively point to the sexual-dimorphic effects of gemfibrozil in global cerebral I/R context by affecting important factors involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis, MAPKs, and apoptotic cell death pathways.

  8. Characterization of mitochondrial respiratory chain energetics in the vestibular nucleus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John C; Khalessi, Amirala; Kapoor, Mohit; Clarkson, Andrew; Sammut, Ivan A; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2005-04-01

    Despite having very high neuronal firing rates, the VNC does not have unusually high mitochondrial activity in vitro. This study is the first in which functionally active mitochondria from the hindbrain have been isolated and characterized. Neurons in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) have exceptionally high spontaneous firing rates. Neuronal mitochondria generate adenosine triphosphate critical for maintaining the membrane potentials required for axon firing. We therefore hypothesized a high rate of mitochondrial activity in the VNC. To test this hypothesis, we compared mitochondrial activity in the VNC with mitochondrial activity from another area of the hindbrain, the cerebellum. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was assessed by measuring oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complex activity. Assay results were not significantly different in the VNC compared to those obtained with the cerebellum or with rat brain mitochondria in previous studies.

  9. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  10. Interstrain polymorphisms of isoenzyme profiles and mitochondrial DNA fingerprints among seven strains assigned to Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H H; Park, J H; Chung, D I

    1995-12-01

    Interstrain polymorphisms of isoenzyme profiles and mitochondrial (Mt) DNA fingerprints were observed among seven strains of Acanthamoeba isolated from different sources and morphologically assigned to A. polyphaga. Mt DNA fingerprints by eight restriction endonucleases (Bgl II, Sca I, Cla I, EcoR I, Xba I, Kpn I, Sal I, and Sst I) revealed considerable interstrain polymorphisms. Isoenzyme profiles revealed considerable interstrain polymorphisms for acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase while those for glucose phosphate isomerase, leucine aminopeptidase, and malate dehydrogenase showed similarity. Despite of the interstrain polymorphisms, the isoenzyme profiles and Mt DNA fingerprints of the strain Ap were found to be identical with those of the strain Jones. Mt DNA fingerprinting was found to be highly applicable for the strain identification, characterization, and differentiation.

  11. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  14. Modulation of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and volume changes by temperature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onukwufor, John O.; Kibenge, Fred; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of Cd and temperature exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction and enhance Cd accumulation. • Cd uptake by mitochondria occurs through the Ca uniporter. • Temperature exacerbates Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes. • Low concentrations of Cd inhibit mitochondrial swelling. - Abstract: We investigated how temperature modulates cadmium (Cd)-induced mitochondrial bioenergetic disturbances, metal accumulation and volume changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first set of experiments, rainbow trout liver mitochondrial function and Cd content were measured in the presence of complex I substrates, malate and glutamate, following exposure to Cd (0–100 μM) at three (5, 13 and 25 °C) temperatures. The second set of experiments assessed the effect of temperature on Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes, including the underlying mechanisms, at 15 and 25 °C. Although temperature stimulated both state 3 and 4 rates of respiration, the coupling efficiency was reduced at temperature extremes due to greater inhibition of state 3 at low temperature and greater stimulation of state 4 at the high temperature. Cadmium exposure reduced the stimulatory effect of temperature on state 3 respiration but increased that on state 4, consequently exacerbating mitochondrial uncoupling. The interaction of Cd and temperature yielded different responses on thermal sensitivity of state 3 and 4 respiration; the Q 10 values for state 3 respiration increased at low temperature (5–13 °C) while those for state 4 increased at high temperature (13–25 °C). Importantly, the mitochondria accumulated more Cd at high temperature suggesting that the observed greater impairment of oxidative phosphorylation with temperature was due, at least in part, to a higher metal burden. Cadmium-induced mitochondrial volume changes were characterized by an early phase of contraction followed by swelling, with temperature changing the kinetics and intensifying

  15. Modulation of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and volume changes by temperature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onukwufor, John O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kibenge, Fred [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Stevens, Don [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Interactions of Cd and temperature exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction and enhance Cd accumulation. • Cd uptake by mitochondria occurs through the Ca uniporter. • Temperature exacerbates Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes. • Low concentrations of Cd inhibit mitochondrial swelling. - Abstract: We investigated how temperature modulates cadmium (Cd)-induced mitochondrial bioenergetic disturbances, metal accumulation and volume changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first set of experiments, rainbow trout liver mitochondrial function and Cd content were measured in the presence of complex I substrates, malate and glutamate, following exposure to Cd (0–100 μM) at three (5, 13 and 25 °C) temperatures. The second set of experiments assessed the effect of temperature on Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes, including the underlying mechanisms, at 15 and 25 °C. Although temperature stimulated both state 3 and 4 rates of respiration, the coupling efficiency was reduced at temperature extremes due to greater inhibition of state 3 at low temperature and greater stimulation of state 4 at the high temperature. Cadmium exposure reduced the stimulatory effect of temperature on state 3 respiration but increased that on state 4, consequently exacerbating mitochondrial uncoupling. The interaction of Cd and temperature yielded different responses on thermal sensitivity of state 3 and 4 respiration; the Q{sub 10} values for state 3 respiration increased at low temperature (5–13 °C) while those for state 4 increased at high temperature (13–25 °C). Importantly, the mitochondria accumulated more Cd at high temperature suggesting that the observed greater impairment of oxidative phosphorylation with temperature was due, at least in part, to a higher metal burden. Cadmium-induced mitochondrial volume changes were characterized by an early phase of contraction followed by swelling, with temperature changing the kinetics and

  16. Validation of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique for mitochondrial oxygen measurements in the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); S.I.A. Bodmer (Sander I. A.); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMitochondrial oxygen tension can be measured in vivo by means of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) can be measured in the skin of a rat after topical application of the PpIX precursor

  17. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Posttranscriptional silencing of the lncRNA MALAT1 by miR-217 inhibits the epithelial–mesenchymal transition via enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Luo, Fei; Liu, Yi; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for