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Sample records for rat lungworm infection

  1. The potential danger of eating wild lettuce: a brief review of human rat lungworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Evan C; Anisowicz, Sarah K

    2014-11-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of human rat lungworm disease, is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide and is endemic throughout Asia Pacific. It is acquired through the consumption of infected freshwater mollusks or contaminated produce. Human angiostrongyliasis is usually a self-limited disease presenting with headache and various neurologic sequelae varying from cranial nerve palsies to radiculitis and/or paresthesias. Fatal cases are rare, and manifest as fulminant meningomyeloencephalitis. The diagnosis is made through the use of clinical history, exam, and laboratory data including peripheral blood counts, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations, and serologic or molecular diagnostic techniques. Medical therapy is largely focused on symptomatic relief, and includes analgesics, lumbar puncture, and corticosteroids. In resource-limited settings, prevention is key, and the use of analgesics can provide symptomatic relief after infection. Efforts to increase disease awareness have been made in endemic areas, as evidenced by the recent Rat Lungworm Disease Scientific Workshop which was held in Honolulu in 2011. The proceedings of the workshop were published in a supplement to this journal (Hawaii J Med Public Health. Jun 2013;72(6):Supp 2). However, wilderness medicine and travel medicine specialists must also be aware of the disease, how it is contracted, its presentation, and treatment options should they encounter a patient who is in or has returned from an endemic area. This brief review highlights eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis, including an example case, an overview of its clinical presentation, treatment options, and prevention.

  2. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  3. Respiratory distress associated with lungworm infection in a kitten

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    Melissa M Hawley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-month-old feral kitten developed worsening respiratory signs, including tachypnea, coughing and wheezing after standard anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole at a local shelter. The kitten was referred to the University of California, Davis, William R Pritchard Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for further evaluation. Thoracic radiographs revealed a severe diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern with bronchial cuffing, ill-defined nodules and lymphadenomegaly. Differentials included infectious etiologies such as toxoplasmosis, feline infectious peritonitis and cryptococcosis. Parasitic infection was considered less likely, owing to previous anthelmintic treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed marked neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation, and parasitic larvae were observed in a swab of trachea mucus. PCR confirmed the larvae as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus . The kitten recovered with two more rounds of anthelmintic treatment. Relevance and novel information Parasitic pneumonia should be considered as a cause of respiratory distress in kittens and cats. Lungworm infections have been more commonly reported in free-roaming young and adult cats, but cannot be excluded as a differential diagnosis in cats from varied environments and in kittens. Kittens appear to be especially sensitive to lungworm infections, manifested by the development of more severe clinical signs; thus lungworm infection should always be considered when presented with a kitten in respiratory distress. In the absence of cytologic confirmation of infection via bronchoalveolar lavage or oropharyngeal swab, PCR provides a valuable means for identification of lungworms, such as A abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior .

  4. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  5. Spread of the Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Giant African Land Snails (Lissachatina fulica) in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Sanders, Lakyn R; Schill, W Bane; Xayavong, Maniphet V; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Smith, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a parasitic nematode that causes rat lungworm disease. It is the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis and is a zoonotic health risk. We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis using species-specific, quantitative PCR in 18 of 50 (36%) giant African land snails (Lissachatina fulica) collected from Miami, Florida, US in May 2013. These snails were collected from seven of 21 core areas that the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services monitor weekly. Rat lungworms have not previously been identified in these areas. Duplicate DNA extractions of foot muscle tissue from each snail were tested. Of the seven core areas we examined, six were positive for A. cantonensis and prevalence of infection ranged from 27% to 100%. Of the 18 positive snails, only five were positive in both extractions. Our results confirm an increase in the range and prevalence of rat lungworm infection in Miami. We also emphasize the importance of extracting sufficient host tissue to minimize false negatives.

  6. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  7. Lungworm (Crenosoma vulpis) infection in dogs on Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihr, T; Conboy, G A

    1999-01-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm that is highly prevalent in the red fox population of Atlantic Canada. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily of a chronic cough. A recent report of C. vulpis infection in 3 dogs on Prince Edward Island prompted an investigation into the importance of this parasite as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in Island dogs. A general prevalence was determined through the necropsy of dogs euthanized at the local humane society. Lungs were removed and examined for parasites using a lung flush technique. Rectal feces was collected and examined for first-stage larvae using the Baermann technique and zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation. Ten of 310 dogs (3.2%) were positive with 0-35 worms (mean = 11.0 +/- 13.4) recovered. First-stage larvae of C. vulpis were recovered in the rectal feces of the one animal in which no worms were recovered on lung flush. A second survey was conducted examining fecal samples with the Baermann technique from afebrile dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough that had no history of recent anthelmintic treatment and showed no signs of cardiac disease, based on physical examination. Fifteen of 55 dogs examined (27.3%) were definitively diagnosed as C. vulpis-positive. All of the infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. q24 h for 3-7 days). Clinical signs resolved in all of the dogs and fecal samples were negative 2-4 weeks posttreatment. It was concluded that C. vulpis infection was a significant cause of upper respiratory disease in dogs on Prince Edward Island and should be considered in all dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:12001335

  8. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  9. Lungworm Infections in German dairy cattle herds--seroprevalence and GIS-supported risk factor analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Schunn

    Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

  10. Lungworm Infections in German Dairy Cattle Herds — Seroprevalence and GIS-Supported Risk Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J.; Staubach, Christoph; Fröhlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Strube, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures. PMID:24040243

  11. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  12. A retrospective study of 11 cases of lungworm (Didelphostrongylus hayesi) infection in opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberski, Nadine; Reader, J Rachel; Cook, Lizette F; Johnson, Eileen M; Baker, David G; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2002-06-01

    A juvenile, female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) died of verminous pneumonia caused by Didelphostrongylus haysei despite aggressive treatment with oral fenbendazole, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. This prompted a retrospective study of lungworm infection in opossums, during which 19 additional necropsy reports from opossums were reviewed. Including the subject of this report, a total of 11 (55%) of these cases included a diagnosis of lungworm infection. This diagnosis was considered to have contributed to death in eight out of the 11 cases (73%). Histologically, 10 of the 11 (91%) opossums had granulomatous bronchopneumonia with small to moderate numbers of adult nematodes in the airways and parenchyma. Four of the 11 (36%) opossums had free larvae within the parenchyma or terminal airways. Inflammation was usually associated with larvae, degenerating parasites, and nonintact adult nematodes. Superimposed bacterial pneumonia was evident in three animals, and sections of lung examined from all the opossums were characterized by moderate to severe smooth-muscle hyperplasia in airways, including terminal respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts. Nine animals had prominent medial smooth-muscle hyperplasia in small- and medium-sized arterioles. Lesions in other organs, particularly in liver, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, were frequently identified. Three animals had concomitant septicemia or bacterial bronchopneumonia (or both), which contributed to the cause of death. Seven animals had gastric nematodosis (Physaloptera sp.), although three of them had been treated with a 14-day course of fenbendazole.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

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    Monte Tainá CC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8 from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  15. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Tainá C C; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Novaes, Clodoaldo F; Thiengo, Silvana C; Silva, Alexandre J; Estrela, Pedro C; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2012-11-06

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode's main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  16. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  17. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  18. Infection with Crenosoma vulpis lungworm in a dog in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Husník, R.; Sloboda, M.; Kovaříková, S.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2011), 56-58 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Crenosoma vulpis * fox lungworm * larvoscopy * chronic cough * bronchoscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.773, year: 2011

  19. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies.

  20. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  1. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Martha F; Fenton, Heather; Cleveland, Christopher A; Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis , the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) and one Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a "squash prep" method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp) from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  3. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha F. Dalton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and one Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a “squash prep” method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  4. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  5. Failure to eradicate the lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus on dairy farms by a single mass-treatment before turnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, H W; Holzhauer, M

    2012-04-30

    On two dairy farms it was attempted to eradicate lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, by means of a single mass-treatment of all cattle that had been grazed the previous year(s), before turnout in the spring. Both farms experienced two years of lungworm outbreaks in the adult dairy herd prior to this study. Following confirmation that both herds contained lungworm carriers, all animals older than approximately 6 months were treated with eprinomectin in March 2007. One week after treatment none of the animals were shedding lungworm larvae. Subsequently, animals were pastured according to normal farm routine. From August to November all first-calving heifers were coprologically and serologically monitored for lungworm infection. During 2007 both farms remained lungworm-negative and did not report any clinical sign indicative for a lungworm infection. The following year, on one of the farms replacements grazing on cow pastures, started showing signs of parasitic bronchitis which was serologically confirmed. The other herd remained free of parasitic bronchitis until at least the fourth year after the mass treatment, although some coughing was noticed in 2008 among first-lactation heifers. It was concluded that a single mass-treatment before the grazing season may be useful to break a series of annual lungworm outbreaks. However, it is not a secure method to prevent parasitic bronchitis for more than one year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Host–parasite interactions during a biological invasion: The fate of lungworms (Rhabdias spp. inside native and novel anuran hosts

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    Felicity B.L. Nelson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cane toad invasion in Australia provides a robust opportunity to clarify the infection process in co-evolved versus de novo host–parasite interactions. We investigated these infection dynamics through histological examination following experimental infections of metamorphs of native frogs (Cyclorana australis and cane toads (Rhinella marina with Rhabdias hylae (the lungworm found in native frogs and Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala (the lungworm found in cane toads. Cane toads reared under continuous exposure to infective larvae of the frog lungworm were examined after periods of 2, 6, 10 and 15 days. Additionally, both toads and frogs were exposed for 24 h to larvae of either the toad or the frog lungworm, and examined 2, 5, 10 and 20 days post-treatment. R. hylae (frog lungworms entered cane toads and migrated through the body but were not found in the target tissue, the lungs. Larvae of both lungworm species induced inflammation in both types of hosts, although the immune response (relative numbers of different cell types differed between hosts and between parasite species. Co-evolution has modified the immune response elicited by infection and (perhaps for that reason has enhanced the parasite's ability to survive and to reach the host's lungs.

  7. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  8. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giannelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host.Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior. Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior.Results of this study

  9. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II. In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI, and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  10. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus) by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I; Pitt, William C; Farias, Margaret E; Shiels, Laura; Severino, Michael G; Howe, Kathleen M; Jacquier, Steven H; Shiels, Aaron B; Amano, Karis K; Luiz, Blaine C; Maher, Daisy E; Allison, Maureen L; Holtquist, Zachariah C; Scheibelhut, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW) disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II). In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD) group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD) group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI), and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  11. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  12. Recent studies on Dictyocaulus filaria and other lungworms of sheep and goats in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Additional areas of the country were surveyed for lungworm infections in sheep and goats. More sheep than goats and more sheep of the private breeders in comparison to Government flocks were found infected. Infection with Dictyocaulus filaria and un-identified species of Varestrongylus and Protostrongylus were reported from sheep and goats and Muellerius spp, only from sheep. About 0.36 million lambs have been successfully immunized against D. filaria in the endemic areas with the radiation-attenuated vaccine produced at the Srinagar laboratory. It has been shown that lambs infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination develop a poor protection following vaccination in comparison to lambs free from the infection. This has posed a problem in the field of stimulating a satisfactory protection in lambs found infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination. In consequence, very young lambs, aged 6-10 week have been effectively protected against D. filaria by vaccination under field conditions. Goats are more succeptible hosts to D. filaria than sheep. Laboratory studies have shown that young kids, like lambs, can be effectively immunized against D. filaria by double vaccination with 50 Krad gamma irradiated larvae. (author)

  13. Classical clinical signs in rats experimemtally infected with Trypanosoma brucei

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    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate clinical signs in Trypanosoma brucei infection in albino rats. Methods: Fourteen rats grouped into 2 with 7 rats in each group were used to determine classical clinical manifestation of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats. Group A rats were uninfected control and Group B rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results: Parasitaemia was recorded in Group B by (3.86±0.34 d and the peak of parasitaemia was observed at Day 5 post infection. Classical signs observed included squint eyes, raised whiskers, lethargy, no weight loss, pyrexia, isolation from the other rats, and starry hair coat. Conclusions: These signs could be diagnostic or aid in diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats.

  14. Immune responses induced by co-infection with Capillaria hepatica in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E-K; Lee, S-H; Goo, T W; Quan, F-S

    2018-07-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria hepatica are zoonotic parasites that mainly infect the liver and cause serious liver disorders. However, immunological parameters induced by co-infection with these parasites remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, we investigated immunological profiles induced by co-infection with C. hepatica (CH) in C. sinensis (CS)-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were infected primarily with 50 metacercariae of C. sinensis; 4 weeks later, they were subsequently infected with 1000 infective C. hepatica eggs. Significantly higher levels of C. sinensis- or C. hepatica-specific IgG antibodies were found in the sera of rats. Interestingly, no cross-reacting antibody was observed between C. sinensis and C. hepatica infections. Significantly raised eosinophil levels were found in the blood of C. sinensis/C. hepatica co-infected rats (CS + CH) compared to the blood of rats infected singly with C. sinensis. Co-infected rats showed significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production compared to a single C. sinensis infection. The worm burden of C. sinensis was significantly reduced in co-infected rats compared to the single C. sinensis infection. These results indicate that the eosinophils, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production induced by subsequent infection with C. hepatica in C. sinensis-infected rats might contribute to the observed C. sinensis worm reduction.

  15. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  16. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  17. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  18. PULMONARY LESIONS CAUSED BY THE LUNGWORM (DIDELPHOSTRONGYLUS HAYESI) IN THE OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA) IN COLIMA, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Crespo, Rubén A; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso; Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Martínez-Burnes, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; García-Márquez, Luis J

    2017-06-01

    Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites. The left lung was fixed and cut serially for subgross microscopic examination and sections of lung were cut and stained for histopathologic examination. The most remarkable gross change in parasitized lungs was a poorly collapsible pulmonary parenchyma and mild emphysema. The right lung tested positive for lungworms on gross examination in 20/44, and 11/44 (25%) of the left lungs showed tan nodules on the pleural surface. Microscopically, the bronchi of 20/44 animals harbored adult and larval stages of D. hayesi (left lung), the same 20 opossums from which nematodes were grossly evident at necropsy (right lung). Adults and larvae were present in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli mixed with desquamated cells and many eosinophils, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, alveolar macrophages, and giant cells. Bronchi and bronchioles exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia respectively, and infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the interstitium and lamina propria. The tan nodules consisted of focal alveolar endogenous lipidosis, which likely resulted from parasitic airway obstruction. The lungs of 3/20 parasitized opossums also showed alveolar bronchiolization (Lambertosis). The absence of Eucoleus aerophilus or bacterial pneumonia incriminates D. hayesi as the putative cause of

  19. Lungworm outbreaks in adult dairy cows: estimating economic losses and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; van Schaik, G; Saatkamp, H W; Ploeger, H W

    2011-11-05

    Two lungworm outbreaks in dairy herds were investigated in order to estimate the resulting economic costs. On the two farms, with 110 and 95 cows, total costs were estimated at €159 and €167 per cow, respectively. Overall, milk production reduced by 15 to 20 per cent during the outbreaks. Five cows died on one farm, while on the other farm seven cows died as a result of the lungworm outbreak. On one farm, 51.7 per cent of the total costs was due to reduced milk production and 33.1 per cent was due to disposal of dead animals. On the other farm, it was 36.3 and 50.9 per cent, respectively. The remaining 13 to 15 per cent of the total costs were due to extra inseminations, laboratory diagnosis and treatments. The history and development of the outbreaks are described. One lesson from these outbreaks is that recognising that potentially lungworm-naïve animals are to be introduced into the adult herd allows for timely measures (for example, vaccination) to prevent a lungworm outbreak.

  20. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...

  1. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-01-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat

  2. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  4. Aerosol Infection Model of Tuberculosis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshagiri Gaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  5. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  6. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  7. Antibody Maturation in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcipar, Iván S.; Risso, Marikena G.; Silber, Ariel M.; Revelli, Silvia; Marcipar, Alberto J.

    2001-01-01

    The study of antibody avidity changes during infection has improved the understanding of the pathologic processes involved in several infectious diseases. In some infections, like toxoplasmosis, this information is being used for diagnostic purposes. Results of the evolution of antibody avidity for different specific antigens in Trypanosome cruzi-infected rats are presented. A Western blotting technique, combined with avidity analysis to identify antigens that elicit high-avidity antibodies, is suggested. In this system, antibodies showed high avidity values only during the chronic phase of infection and only in relation to antibodies against 21-, 33-, 41-, 42-, 56-, 58-, 66-, and 72-kDa antigens. Finally, a 97-kDa T. cruzi antigen, which was recognized by high-avidity antibodies and occurred in noninfected rats, was identified. These results allow us to evaluate the different antigens in chagasic infection. Our results show that with the correct choice of antigen it is possible to detect differences in maturation of antibodies and to discriminate, in an experimental model, between recent (acute) and chronic infections. PMID:11427430

  8. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  9. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

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    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  11. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  12. Genes of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus associated with transition from pasture to parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, C; Buschbaum, S; Schnieder, T

    2012-08-01

    Genes necessary to enable nematode parasitic life after free-living larval life are of substantial interest to understand parasitism. We investigated transcriptional changes during transition to parasitism in the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, one of the most important parasites in cattle farming due to substantial economic losses. Upregulated transcripts in either free-living, developmentally arrested L3 or parasitic immature L5 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) followed by differential screening and subsequent virtual Northern blot verification. From 400 sequenced clones of parasitic L5, 372 (93.0%) upregulated high quality ESTs were obtained clustering into 30 contigs and 38 singletons. Most conceptual translated peptides were SCP/TAPS "family" members also known as pathogenesis-related protein (PRP) superfamily (28.5% of total ESTs), cysteine proteases (24.5%), and H-gal-GP orthologues (9.9%). These proteins are predicted to play key roles in fundamental biological processes such as nutrition and development but also parasite-host interactions and immune defense mechanisms. Increased energy requirement of the rapidly developing L5 lungworm stage was obvious in a proportion of 12.2% upregulated ESTs being components of the respiratory chain. From the developmentally arrested L3 stage sequencing of 200 clones resulted in 195 high quality ESTs (97.0%) clustering into 7 contigs and 3 singletons only. Besides a hypothetical protein (70.1% of total ESTs) most transcripts encoded the cleavage stimulation factor subunit 2 (17.5%), which is a component of the poly(A(+)) machinery and found to be involved in gene silencing. Obtained data provide the basis for future fundamental research into genes associated with parasitic lifestyle but also applied research like vaccine and/or drug development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of rats infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in an edge habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muul, I; Chai, K S

    1978-12-01

    No focalization of rats (Rattus tiomanicus and R. argentiventer) infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi could be discerned over a 500 m trapping transect at the border between a forest and lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica). R. tiomanicus appeared to occupy 250 m of the transect on the average and had periods during which infections were observed which averaged 97 days. Calulations indicated that more than 50% of individuals become infected over their life-time. The high rate of infection in this and other areas described in earlier publications and the habits of the rats suggest that infected mites are densely and widely dispersed in the areas studied in Malaysia.

  14. Enhanced protection against Clonorchis sinensis induced by co-infection with Trichinella spiralis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, K-B; Kim, S-S; Lee, S-H; Lee, H-S; Joo, K-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, Y-S; Zheng, S; Quan, F-S

    2014-10-01

    Although co-infection with multiple parasites is a frequent occurrence, changes in the humoral immune response against a pre-existing parasite induced as a result of a subsequent parasitic infection remain undetermined. Here, we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate antibody responses, cytokine production and enhanced resistance in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley) upon Trichinella spiralis infection. Higher levels of C. sinensis-specific IgG and IgA were elicited upon T. spiralis infection, and these levels remained higher than in rats infected with C. sinensis alone. Upon subsequent infection with T. spiralis, IgG antibodies against C. sinensis appeared to be rapidly boosted at day 3, and IgA antibodies were boosted at day 7. Challenge infection of C. sinensis-infected rats with T. spiralis induced substantial mucosal IgG and IgA responses in the liver and intestine and increases in antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow. Subsequent infection also appeared to confer effective control of liver C. sinensis loads, resulting in enhanced resistance. Memory B cells generated in response to C. sinensis infection were rapidly amplified into antibody-secreting cells upon T. spiralis infection. These results indicate that enhanced C. sinensis clearance induced by co-infection is associated with systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  16. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

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    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  17. Radiolabeling of gemifloxacin with technetium-99m and biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation complexation of the gemifloxacin (GIN) with technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) and its biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infected rats was assessed as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-GIN complex was further analyzed in terms of stability in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae (living and heat killed) infected rats. The complex was found 97.25 ± 0.25% radiochemically stable in saline at 30 min after reconstitution. The stability of the 99m Tc-GIN complex was decreased to 90.50 ± 0.20% within 240 min after reconstitution. In serum the 99m Tc-GIN complex showed stable profile with the appearance of 18.85% free tracer within 16 h of incubation. The 99m Tc-GIN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae after different intervals. Almost five fold uptake was observed in living S. pneumoniae infected muscle of the rats as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in the uptake of heat killed S. pneumoniae infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the rats. The high RCP yield in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with living S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae infected rats we recommend the 99m Tc-GIN as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. (author)

  18. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  19. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum (T.vitulorum) is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) oil has used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine for several complaints. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical, parasitological, histopathological and hematological changes in Toxocara vitulorum-infected rat after treatment with Thymus vulgaris oil. In the present study, 50 rats divided into 4 groups. The first group: normal control, the second group :animals given with thyme oil, the third group: rats infected with 1500 T.vitulorum eggs/rat, the fourth group: rats treated with (42.5 mg/kg body weight ) thyme oil for 7 consecutive days pre-infection with T.vitulorum eggs, the fifth group: infected with T.vitulorum and treated with thyme orally for 7 days starting 1hour from infection. Rats were scarified at 7th and 14th days after last treatment. Blood were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver, kidney and heart were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Larvae of Toxocara were counted in a part of the studied organs tissues. In the present study, Toxocara infection resulted in decrease in RBCs count and Hb %, lymphocyte %, and MCHC% while a remarkable increase was observed in WBCs count and monocytes % and granulocytes %. Also, there was increase in lipid peroxidation concentration as malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in organs tissue. Serum biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the activities, Asparta amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, albumin and globulin of untreated infected rats in untreated infected rats compared to normal control. Administration of thyme pre , or after infection ameliorate the observed changes occurred by

  20. Increased number of anaerobic bacteria in the infected root canal in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Akihiro; Morimoto, Taisuke; Tsuji, Masahito; Nakamura, Koki; Higuchi, Naoya; Imaizumi, Ichiro; Shibata, Naoki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and anaerobic bacteria detected in infected root canals. Normal Wistar rats (control) received a standard laboratory diet with water (group A), and GK rats (type 2 diabetes mellitus rats) a normal laboratory diet with water (group B) or a 30% sucrose solution (group C). Chemotaxis assay was conducted on polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the 3 groups, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals were determined. In the chemotaxis assay on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the chemotactic response of cells in group C was lower than that for groups A and B (P obligate anaerobic bacteria which stained gram negative, were significantly more numerous in group C (P < .01) than in groups A and B. The metabolic condition produced by type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats might lower the general host resistance against bacterial infection.

  1. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

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    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  2. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyani, Endang; Martini, Martini; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012-0.769) with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola Mixed Microbial Infection in a Rat Model of Periodontal Disease

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    Raj K. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are periodontal pathogens that express virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are synergistic in terms of virulence; using a model of mixed microbial infection in rats. Groups of rats were orally infected with either P. gingivalis or T. denticola or mixed microbial infections for 7 and 12 weeks. P. gingivalis genomic DNA was detected more frequently by PCR than T. denticola. Both bacteria induced significantly high IgG, IgG2b, IgG1, IgG2a antibody levels indicating a stimulation of Th1 and Th2 immune response. Radiographic and morphometric measurements demonstrated that rats infected with the mixed infection exhibited significantly more alveolar bone loss than shaminfected control rats. Histology revealed apical migration of junctional epithelium, rete ridge elongation, and crestal alveolar bone resorption; resembling periodontal disease lesion. These results showed that P. gingivalis and T. denticola exhibit no synergistic virulence in a rat model of periodontal disease.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces predator aversion in rats through epigenetic modulation in the host medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Dass, Shantala Arundhati; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-12-01

    Male rats (Rattus novergicus) infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii relinquish their innate aversion to the cat odours. This behavioural change is postulated to increase transmission of the parasite to its definitive felid hosts. Here, we show that the Toxoplasma gondii infection institutes an epigenetic change in the DNA methylation of the arginine vasopressin promoter in the medial amygdala of male rats. Infected animals exhibit hypomethylation of arginine vasopressin promoter, leading to greater expression of this nonapeptide. The infection also results in the greater activation of the vasopressinergic neurons after exposure to the cat odour. Furthermore, we show that loss of fear in the infected animals can be rescued by the systemic hypermethylation and recapitulated by directed hypomethylation in the medial amygdala. These results demonstrate an epigenetic proximate mechanism underlying the extended phenotype in the Rattus novergicus-Toxoplasma gondii association. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

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    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  6. [Giardia muris infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) and treatment with metronidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of metronidazole for treatment of Giardia muris infection in laboratory rats. The feces of rats was yellow watery diarrhea and brought to the surgery research center of University of Ondokuz Mayis in order to be a study. Stool samples were examined by native examination, evaluation of infection rates was done with an X40 lens, and results were recorded as positive from 1 to 4. Metronidazole was administered to infected animals orally for 5 days with a 20 mg/kg dose. As a result of fecal examination of 64 rats held in groups of four in cages, 15 of the cages (60 rats) were found to be infected with G. muris. While agents were not observed in collected stool samples following 5, 7, and 14 days of drug administration of 14 groups, trophozoite density in one cage was decreased (75%), and adverse effects were not seen in rats. Metronidazole was found to be an effective drug for the treatment of giardiasis.

  7. Antibacterial properties and healing effects of Melipona scutellaris honey in MRSA-infected wounds of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Vanessa de Fátima Lima Paiva; Azevedo, Ítalo Medeiros; Rêgo, Amália Cínthia Meneses; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do; Araújo-Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial, immunological and healing effects of Melipona scutellaris honey on infected wounds of rat skin. Twenty four Wistar rats were distributed in four groups (6-each). The uninfected skin wounds of group I rats were treated daily with saline for 7 days. Uninfected wounds (group II) rats were treated with honey. In group III (treated with saline) and group IV (treated with honey) wounds were inoculated with MRSA ATTC43300. The first bacterial culture was performed 24 hours later. In the 7th day new culture was done, and wound biopsies were used for cytokines dosage and histopathology. In group I and III rats the CFU/g count of S. aureus in wounds was zero. In group II rats the CFU/g counts in the wound tissue were significantly higher than in wounds of group IV rats. The density histopathological parameters and the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, Il-6 were significantly higher on wounds of group IV then in the other groups. Honey of Melipona scutellaris was effective in the management of infected wounds, by significant bacterial growth inhibition, enhancement of cytokine expression, and positively influenced the wound repair.

  8. Graft-versus-host disease and sialodacryoadenitis viral infection in bone marrow transplanted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, K.M.; Sheridan, J.F.; Barthold, S.W.; Tutschka, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a localized viral infection on the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) was examined in allogeneic rat bone marrow chimeras (ACI/LEW). Animals without clinical evidence of GVHD, 62 days after bone marrow transplant, were infected in salivary and lacrimal glands with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), and sacrificed 8-25 days postinfection. Using established histologic criteria, GVHD was found more frequently in salivary and lacrimal glands of SDAV-infected chimeras than uninfected chimeras. Skin and oral mucosa, tissues not infected by the virus, showed no differences in occurrence of GVHD, suggesting that the viral infection induced only local and not systemic GVHD. GVHD and SDAV infection, which are histologically similar, were differentiated by examining tissues for SDAV antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. Histologic changes were present for at least 1 week longer than viral antigen, suggesting they represented GVHD rather than viral infection. GVHD and SDAV infection were also differentiated by looking for a histologic feature characteristic of GVHD and not found in SDAV infection (periductal lymphocytic infiltrate). This was found in SDAV-infected chimeras more frequently than uninfected chimeras, suggesting that the viral infection somehow induced GVHD. Results showed a localized increase in the occurrence of GVHD subsequent to localized viral infection

  9. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  10. Effects of Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection on Rat Islet Allograft Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, M. J.; Faas, M. M.; Melgert, B. N.; de Vos, P.; de Haan, Bart; de Haan, Aalzen

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is a promising therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, long-term islet graft survival rates are still unsatisfactory low. In this study we investigated the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in islet allograft failure. STZ-diabetic rats

  11. Eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies using ivermectin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Vadlejch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2005), s. 185-185 ISSN 0440-6605. [Helminthological Days /13./. 09.05.2005-19.05.2005, Ředkovec] Keywords : Syphacia muris * Aspiculuris tetraptera * laboratory rat * ivermectin Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  12. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  13. Rotavirus Viremia and Extraintestinal Viral Infection in the Neonatal Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Patel, Dinesh G.; Cheng, Elly; Berkova, Zuzana; Hyser, Joseph M.; Ciarlet, Max; Finegold, Milton J.; Conner, Margaret E.; Estes, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    Rotaviruses infect mature, differentiated enterocytes of the small intestine and, by an unknown mechanism, escape the gastrointestinal tract and cause viremia. The neonatal rat model of rotavirus infection was used to determine the kinetics of viremia, spread, and pathology of rotavirus in extraintestinal organs. Five-day-old rat pups were inoculated intragastrically with an animal (RRV) or human (HAL1166) rotavirus or phosphate-buffered saline. Blood was collected from a subset of rat pups, and following perfusion to remove residual blood, organs were removed and homogenized to analyze rotavirus-specific antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and infectious rotavirus by fluorescent focus assay or fixed in formalin for histology and immunohistochemistry. Viremia was detected following rotavirus infection with RRV and HAL1166. The RRV 50% antigenemia dose was 1.8 × 103 PFU, and the 50% diarrhea dose was 7.7 × 105 PFU, indicating that infection and viremia occurred in the absence of diarrhea and that detecting rotavirus antigen in the blood was a more sensitive measure of infection than diarrhea. Rotavirus antigens and infectious virus were detected in multiple organs (stomach, intestines, liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, thymus, and bladder). Histopathological changes due to rotavirus infection included acute inflammation of the portal tract and bile duct, microsteatosis, necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltrates in the parenchymas of the liver and lungs. Colocalization of structural and nonstructural proteins with histopathology in the liver and lungs indicated that the histological changes observed were due to rotavirus infection and replication. Replicating rotavirus was also detected in macrophages in the lungs and blood vessels, indicating a possible mechanism of rotavirus dissemination. Extraintestinal infectious rotavirus, but not diarrhea, was observed in the presence of passively or actively acquired rotavirus-specific antibody. These

  14. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyani Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection. The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261 and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769 with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  15. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in rats experimental infected by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ruchel, Jader B; Rezer, João F P; França, Raqueli T; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Leal, Daniela B R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Lopes, Sonia T A; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Santurio, Janio M

    2014-11-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by C. neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3-B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (PADA activity had a significant reduction (PADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (PADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Capparis Spinosa Honey on the Immune Response of Rats Infected with Toxoplasma Gundii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaffer Hegazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an intracellular opportunistic protozoan parasite that infects approximately one-third of the human population worldwide. Honey has long been used for treatment of many diseases in folk medicine. Honey has exhibited significant anthelmintic, nematicidal and anti-protozoal activities. This study was conducted to investigate the immunological patterns in rats infected with T. gondii who were treated orally with supplemented 15% Capparis spinosa honey (Saudi Arabia for a period of 28 days. Methods: Immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, and cytokines were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. In addition, the mortality and the morbidity rates were assessed. Results: Oral administration of Capparis spinosa honey as a natural food additive was experimentally shown to increase the antibody titer; furthermore, compared with the rats in the control group,

  19. Cytomegalovirus-enhanced development of transplant arteriosclerosis in the rat; effect of timing of infection and recipient responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van Dam, JG; Onuta, G; Klatter, FA; Grauls, G; Bruggeman, CA; Rozing, J

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is put forward as a risk factor for transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). In this article, we studied CMV-enhanced development of TA in rats in different donor/recipient combinations in relation to the timing of infection. Recipient rats transplanted with an aortic allograft (BN to

  20. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  1. [Infections after bite wounds : For example rat bite fever due to Streptobacillus moniliformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Herbert; Binder, Rudolf; Schäfer, Christian; Stuber, Madeleine; Licht, Andreas; Bozenhardt-Stavrakidis, Iris; Bode, Konrad

    2018-04-11

    Rat bite fever due to Streptobacillus moniliformis induces typical but not pathognomonic clinical signs, such as local purulent wound infection followed by maculopapular exanthema, myalgia as well as purulent joint infections. Severe complications, such as osteomyelitis and endocarditis are possible. it seems that this infection is rarely diagnosed but this infection could be much more common because the final diagnostic proof is difficult to achieve. Firstly, the culture of these bacteria is critical because the bacteria are fastidious and secondly the exact differentiation of the isolates is hardly possible by standard laboratory methods. Modern techniques such as mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF) and molecular biology allow a precise clarification. Surgical cleansing of infection sites in combination with a rational antibiotic therapy, for example with beta-lactam antibiotics, are generally able to cure the infection if treatment is started early enough. In addition, vaccinations, for example against tetanus and rabies have to be considered in this situation as for all other bite wound infections.

  2. Determination of the Minimum Effective Dosages of Praziquantel, Albendazole, and Mebendazole Against Clonorchis Sinensis Infection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the minimum effective dosages of praziquantel, albendazole, and mebendazole against Clonorchis sinensis infection in Sprague-Dawley rats, each rat was infected with 30 metacercariae and treated with one of three drugs. The rats were killed and examined 25 days after praziquantel treatment or 11 days after albendazole or mebendazole treatment. The minimum effective dosages were a single dose of praziquantel 375 mg/kg, albendazole 150 mg/kg, and mebendazole 150 mg/kg. Trials are required to determine whether these dosages are useful in the treatment of human clonorchiasis.

  3. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  4. Dissociation between learning and memory impairment and other sickness behaviours during simulated Mycoplasma infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Tanya; Harvey, Brian H; Harden, Lois M; Laburn, Helen P; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    To investigate potential consequences for learning and memory, we have simulated the effects of Mycoplasma infection, in rats, by administering fibroblast-stimulating lipopepide-1 (FSL-1), a pyrogenic moiety of Mycoplasma salivarium. We measured the effects on body temperature, cage activity, food intake, and on spatial learning and memory in a Morris Water Maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had radio transponders implanted to measure abdominal temperature and cage activity. After recovery, rats were assigned randomly to receive intraperitoneal (I.P.) injections of FSL-1 (500 or 1000 μg kg(-1) in 1 ml kg(-1) phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) or vehicle (PBS, 1 ml kg(-1)). Body mass and food intake were measured daily. Training in the Maze commenced 18 h after injections and continued daily for four days. Spatial memory was assessed on the fifth day. In other rats, we measured concentrations of brain pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, at 3 and 18 h after injections. FSL-1 administration induced a dose-dependent fever (∼1°C) for two days, lethargy (∼78%) for four days, anorexia (∼65%) for three days and body mass stunting (∼6%) for at least four days. Eighteen hours after FSL-1 administration, when concentrations of IL-1β, but not that of IL-6, were elevated in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus, and when rats were febrile, lethargic and anorexic, learning in the Maze was unaffected. There also was no memory impairment. Our results support emerging evidence that impaired learning and memory is not inevitable during simulated infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  6. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-Pheophorbide-a use in infection imaging: A rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim [Advanced Technologies Research and Application Center, Mersin University, TR 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Bayrak, Elif; Onursal, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Osman [Department of Animal Research Center, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma, E-mail: fatma.yurt.lambrecht@ege.edu.tr [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Holzwarth, Alfred R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bioanorganische Chemie, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This study aims to prepare {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide-a ({sup 99m}Tc-PH-A) complex and evaluate its efficiency as an infection imaging agent. First, PH-A was obtained from Spirulina maxima algae, and the product compound was confirmed using {sup 1}H NMR and MS (ESI) methods. The PH-A was then labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using the tin chloride method and its biological efficacy as a potential radiotracer for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection was evaluated in bacterially infected and sterile inflamed rats. The radiochemical stability of the {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A in human serum was determined by thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC). The radiochemical purity was 87{+-}3.2% and remained constant at more than 80{+-}0.1% even in serum for 120 min after radiolabeling. These experiments indicated that the ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A uptake in bacterially infected muscle, as compared to normal muscle, [target/non-target (T/NT)=5.6 at 1 h] was over four times higher than that in sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT=1.29 at 1 h). Disappearance of activity from the kidney and liver indicated that the urinary and hepatobiliary systems were the normal routes of excretion of the complex. {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide prepared with high yield is able to localize well in the bacterially infected muscle of the rats and {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A may be developed as a radiopharmaceutical agent to distinguish infection from inflammation by nuclear imaging.

  7. Cronobacter sakazakii infection alters serotonin transporter and improved fear memory retention in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram eSivamaruthi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that Cronobacter sakazakii infection cause septicemia, necrotizingenterocolitis (NEC and meningitis. In the present study, we tested whether the C. sakazakii infection alter the learning and memory through serotonin transporter (SERT. To investigate the possible effect on SERT, on postnatal day (PND-15, wistar rat pups were administered with single dose of C. sakazakii culture (Infected group: IF; 107 CFU or 100μL of Luria-Bertani broth (LB; Medium Control: MC or without any treatment (Naïve control: NC. All the individuals were subjected to passive avoidance test on PND-30 to test their fear memory. We show that single dose of C. sakazakii infection improved fear memory retention. Subsequently, we show that C. sakazakii infection induced the activation of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3 and heat-shock proteins-90 (Hsp-90. On the other hand, level of serotonin (5-HT and SERT protein was down-regulated. Furthermore, we show that C. sakazakii infection up-regulate microRNA (miR-16 expression. The observed results highlight that C. sakazakii infections was responsible for improved fear memory retention and may have reduced the level of SERT protein, which is possibly associated with the interaction of up-regulated Hsp-90 with SERT protein or miR-16 with SERT mRNA. Taken together, observed results suggest that C. sakazakkii infection alter the fear memory possibly through SERT. Hence, this model may be effective to test the C. sakazakii infection induced changes in synaptic plasticity through SERT and effect of other pharmacological agents against pathogen induced memory disorder.

  8. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczyńska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue.

  9. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  10. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  11. Effects of quorum-sensing on immunoglobulin G responses in a rat model of chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WU, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2004-01-01

    Levels of serum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were observed for 106 days in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Significantly weaker responses of serum IgG and IgG1 and a lower ratio of IgGI/IgG2a were found in the rats infected with the quorum-signal-deficient mutant, PAO1 (rhl......I, lasI), compared with the wild-type PAO1. Four out of 15 rats infected with wild-type PAO1 contained bacteria in the lungs on day 106, whereas no bacteria were found in the mutant PAO1 group. The results indicate that quorum signals contribute to the persistence of the infection and influence...

  12. Vitamin E Phosphate Coating Stimulates Bone Deposition in Implant-related Infections in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B; Bottagisio, Marta; Maraldi, Susanna; Violatto, Martina B; Bortolin, Monica; De Vecchi, Elena; Bigini, Paolo; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanò, Carlo L

    2018-06-01

    Implant-related infections are associated with impaired bone healing and osseointegration. In vitro antiadhesive and antibacterial properties and in vivo antiinflammatory effects protecting against bone loss of various formulations of vitamin E have been demonstrated in animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge, no in vivo studies have demonstrated the synergistic activity of vitamin E in preventing bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implants, thus supporting the bone-implant integration. The purpose of this study was to test whether a vitamin E phosphate coating on titanium implants may be able to reduce (1) the bacterial colonization of prosthetic implants and (2) bone resorption and osteomyelitis in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced implant-related infection. Twelve rats were bilaterally injected in the femurs with S aureus UAMS-1-Xen40 and implanted with uncoated or vitamin E phosphate-coated titanium Kirschner wires without local or systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Eight rats represented the uninfected control group. A few hours after surgery, two control and three infected animals died as a result of unexpected complications. With the remaining rats, we assessed the presence of bacterial contamination with qualitative bioluminescence imaging and Gram-positive staining and with quantitative bacterial count. Bone changes in terms of resorption and osteomyelitis were quantitatively analyzed through micro-CT (bone mineral density) and semiquantitatively through histologic scoring systems. Six weeks after implantation, we found only a mild decrease in bacterial count in coated versus uncoated implants (Ti versus controls: mean difference [MD], -3.705; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.416 to -2.994; p E-treated group compared with uncoated implants (knee joint: MD, -11.88; 95% CI, -16.100 to -7.664; p E-coated nails compared with the uncoated nails. These preliminary findings indicate that vitamin E phosphate implant coatings can exert a

  13. Effect of lung resection and sham surgery on the frequency of infection in alloxan-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Seidel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to determine the effect of lung resection on the frequency of infections in alloxan-diabetic rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected with alloxan (40 mg/kg, iv to induce diabetes mellitus (group D; N = 45 or with vehicle (1.0 ml/kg, iv to be used as controls (group C; N = 45. Thirty-six days after receiving alloxan both groups were randomly divided into three subgroups: no operation (NO; N = 15, sham operation (SO; N = 15, and left pneumonectomy (PE; N = 15. The rats were sacrificed 36 days after surgery and their lungs were examined microscopically and macroscopically. The occurrence of thoracic wall infection, thoracic wall abscess, lung abscess and pleural empyema was similar in groups D and C. In contrast, the overall infection rate was higher (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats (SO-D and PE-D subgroups, but not in the NO-D subgroup. Considering that the overall infection rate was similar in the SO-D and PE-D subgroups, we suggest that surgery but not pneumonectomy was related to the higher prevalence of infection in diabetic rats.

  14. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataranovski, M; Mirkov, I; Belij, S; Popov, A; Petrovic, Z; Gaci, Z; Kataranovski, D

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muns and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5 %). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  15. Naloxone-induced seizures in rats infected with Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, M V; Koob, G F; Lipkin, W I

    1996-04-01

    The opioid antagonist naloxone is widely used in the emergency treatment of nontraumatic coma. Although it is uncommon for serious side effects to result from administration of opiate antagonists, we report that naloxone can have epileptogenic effects in the context of encephalitis. In an experimental model of viral encephalitis, rats infected with Borna disease virus developed myoclonic, generalized clonic, or atonic seizures; behavior arrest; and staring spells when treated with naloxone. These findings suggest a novel neuropharmacologic link, through opioid peptide systems, between epilepsy and encephalitis and disclose a potential contraindication to use of opioid antagonists in nontraumatic coma.

  16. Transfer of primed CD4+OX40- T lymphocytes induces increased immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1997-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen non-adherent mononuclear cells were is......-specific memory T cells that have returned to a resting state....

  17. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  18. Chlorhexidine-releasing implant coating on intramedullary nail reduces infection in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Shiels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of internal intramedullary nails for long bone fracture fixation is a common practice among surgeons. Bacteria naturally attach to these devices, increasing the risk for wound infection, which can result in non- or malunion, additional surgical procedures and extended hospital stays. Intramedullary nail surface properties can be modified to reduce bacterial colonisation and potentially infectious complications. In the current study, a coating combining a non-fouling property with leaching chlorhexidine for orthopaedic implantation was tested. Coating stability and chlorhexidine release were evaluated in vitro. Using a rat model of intramedullary fixation and infection, the effect of the coating on microbial colonisation and fracture healing was evaluated in vivo by quantitative microbiology, micro-computed tomography, plain radiography, three-point bending and/or histology. Low dose systemic cefazolin was administered to increase the similarities to clinical practice, without overshadowing the effect of the anti-infective coating. When introduced into a contaminated wound, the non-fouling chlorhexidine-coated implant reduced the overall bacteria colonisation within the bone and on the implant, reduced the osteolysis and increased the radiographic union, confirming its potential for reducing complications in wounds at high risk of infection. However, when implanted into a sterile wound, non-union increased. Further studies are required to best optimise the anti-microbial effectiveness, while not sacrificing fracture union.

  19. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

    1996-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable.

  20. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'donell, L J; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), and IL-1beta. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues.

  1. Rat Strains Differ in Susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Struvite Stone Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'Donell, L. J.; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and IL-1β. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:16982825

  2. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... from immunized thymus grafted animals provided only limited protective effect, and treatment with cells from athymic animals had no effect. The study shows that although isogeneic thymus-grafted nude rats become resistent to reinfection with S. typhimurium, only large doses of spleen cells from...

  3. Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Rat Developing Brain In Utero Prominently Targets Immune Cells and Promotes Early Microglial Activation.

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    Robin Cloarec

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in human and represent a major health care and socio-economical burden. In contrast with this medical importance, the pathophysiological events remain poorly known. Murine models of brain cytomegalovirus infection, mostly neonatal, have brought recent insights into the possible pathogenesis, with convergent evidence for the alteration and possible involvement of brain immune cells.In order to confirm and expand those findings, particularly concerning the early developmental stages following infection of the fetal brain, we have created a model of in utero cytomegalovirus infection in the developing rat brain. Rat cytomegalovirus was injected intraventricularly at embryonic day 15 (E15 and the brains analyzed at various stages until the first postnatal day, using a combination of gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry and multicolor flow cytometry experiments.Rat cytomegalovirus infection was increasingly seen in various brain areas including the choroid plexi and the ventricular and subventricular areas and was prominently detected in CD45low/int, CD11b+ microglial cells, in CD45high, CD11b+ cells of the myeloid lineage including macrophages, and in CD45+, CD11b- lymphocytes and non-B non-T cells. In parallel, rat cytomegalovirus infection of the developing rat brain rapidly triggered a cascade of pathophysiological events comprising: chemokines upregulation, including CCL2-4, 7 and 12; infiltration by peripheral cells including B-cells and monocytes at E17 and P1, and T-cells at P1; and microglia activation at E17 and P1.In line with previous findings in neonatal murine models and in human specimen, our study further suggests that neuroimmune alterations might play critical roles in the early stages following cytomegalovirus infection of the brain in utero. Further studies are now needed to determine which role, whether favorable or detrimental

  4. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

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    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group, Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serial No. GN: 10023338. Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05 was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions: T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  5. Infection of male rats with Toxoplasma gondii induces effort-aversion in a T-maze decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Donna; Vyas, Ajai

    2016-03-01

    Rats chronically infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii exhibit greater delay aversion in an inter-temporal task. Moreover T. gondii infection also results in dendritic atrophy of basolateral amygdala neurons. Basolateral amygdala is reported to bias decision making towards greater effortful alternatives. In this context, we report that T. gondii increases effort aversion in infected male rats. This host-parasite association has been widely studied in the context of loss of innate fear in the infected males. It is suggested that reduced fear towards predators reflects a parasitic behavioral manipulation to enhance trophic transmission of T. gondii. Observations reported here extend this paradigm away from a monolithic change in fear and towards a multi-dimensional change in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of caspase-3 expression to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.

  7. A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, I. M.; Shkutin, M. F.; Terenina, N. B.; Gustafsson, M. K. S.

    2006-06-01

    The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor- Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat.

  8. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

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    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  9. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

  11. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  12. Esmolol reduces apoptosis and inflammation in early sepsis rats with abdominal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Yang, Yang; He, Xin; Dong, Shangwen; Wang, Wanhua; Wang, Donghao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Esmolol is a highly selective beta 1 receptor blocker with various effects such as slowing heart rate, lowering blood pressure and reducing myocardial oxygen consumption. However, few studies have reported the use of beta blockers in sepsis with multiple organ dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of esmolol on reducing apoptosis and inflammation in early sepsis rats with abdominal infection. Rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, sepsis group, antibiotic group, Esmolol + antibiotic group with low, median and high dose Esmolol (L group, M group and H group). Values between two or more groups were compared by independent t-tests. In the liver and kidney, we found inflammatory infiltration in sepsis group while pathological aspects reduced in L, M and H groups. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels increased while Bax mRNA and protein levels decreased in the liver and kidney of L, M and H groups. Serum IL-6, HMGB-1 and TNF-α levels decreased but IL-10 level increased in L, M and H groups, compared to sepsis group. Compared to sepsis and antibiotic groups, the levels of myocardial enzymes were lower in L, M and H groups. The administration of esmolol in early sepsis may reduce inflammation, inhibit apoptosis and protect key organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of Human CD4 and chemokine receptors in cotton rat cells confers permissiveness for productive HIV infection

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    Broder Christopher C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current small animal models for studying HIV-1 infection are very limited, and this continues to be a major obstacle for studying HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis, as well as for the urgent development and evaluation of effective anti-HIV-1 therapies and vaccines. Previously, it was shown that HIV-1 can infect cotton rats as indicated by development of antibodies against all major proteins of the virus, the detection of viral cDNA in spleen and brain of challenged animals, the transmission of infectious virus, albeit with low efficiency, from animal to animal by blood, and an additional increase in the mortality in the infected groups. Results Using in vitro experiments, we now show that cotton rat cell lines engineered to express human receptor complexes for HIV-1 (hCD4 along with hCXCR4 or hCCR5 support virus entry, viral cDNA integration, and the production of infectious virus. Conclusion These results further suggest that the development of transgenic cotton rats expressing human HIV-1 receptors may prove to be useful small animal model for HIV infection.

  14. Methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera improves the survivability rate, weight gain and histopathological changes of Wister rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aremu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a major disease of Man and animals. This study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the survivability rate, weight gain and histopathological changes of Wister rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. A total of thirty (30 rats randomly divided into six groups (A-F. Rats in group A remain untreated and uninfected while rates in group F were infected and untreated. Rats in groups B and C were treated with Moringa oleifera leave extract orally at 200 mg/kg for 14 days pre-infection and the treatment continued in B but not in C. Rats in groups D and E were treated with the extract orally for ninety days at 200 mg/kg (pre-infection and the treatment continued in D but not in E. The weight changes in all rats were monitored weekly. Rats in B-F groups were infected with 3 × 106 of Trypanosoma brucei per mL of blood. The results showed that all the infected rats died but the treated group survived extra two days when compared with the untreated group. The percentage weight gain of rats in groups B and C was high (23.9% and 21.1% respectively as against negative control (17.2%. The groups with chronic administration of the extract (D and E had a lower percentage weight gains (64.3% and 60.3% respectively when compared with negative control (71.8%. The histopathology results showed that the extract was a potent ameliorative agent that reduced neuronal degeneration and congestion in the brain and the spleen of the infected rats respectively. In conclusion, Moringa Oleifera leave extract has mitigative effects on the pathogenesis of trypanosomosis. Keywords: Histopathology, Moringa, Survivability, Trypanosoma, Weight, Wister rats

  15. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  16. Transcriptome markers of viral persistence in naturally-infected andes virus (bunyaviridae seropositive long-tailed pygmy rice rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey L Campbell

    Full Text Available Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV (Bunyaviridae, which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV. One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1 variations in viral load, 2 dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3 factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous

  17. Relation of type-C RNA virus infectivity and leukemogenesis in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kenji; Ito, Takaaki; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1976-01-01

    Observation was made as to movement of type-C RNA virus infectivity in the process of leukemogensis induced by Gross virus, N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), or, x-ray. Total dose of 680 R in 4 times was given to the whole body or parts of the body at intervals of 5 days. Thymic leukemia occurred in 100% or rats which were inoculated with type-C RNA virus at the period of newborn 64 days after, on the average. Infectious titer of virus rose only in thymus toward leukemogenesis. Thymic leukemia was induced 100% in mice by NEU 122 days after, but its incidence was 9% of mice of which thymus was extracted. Leukemia virus was not detected in non-extracted thymus of mice, and pattern of virus infectivity in other organs did not show any difference with that of mice of which thymus was extracted. Virus showed high infectious titer in uterus of mice of both groups. Leukemia occurred 87% in the whole body irradiated mice, 15% in partially irradiated mice, and 39% in mice of which thymus was extracted and the whole body was irradiated. Virus did not show any homeostatic infectious titer in three kinds of leukemia, but it showed high infectious titer in uterus. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Seasonal dynamics of endoparasitic infections at an organic goat farm and the impact of detected infections on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriánová, Iveta A; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Kopecký, Oldřich; Langrová, Iva

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated patterns and species composition of parasitic infections detected over a 1-year period at an organic goat farm. As a result of coprological examination, the overall prevalence of observed strongylids (99%), coccidia of the genus Eimeria (98%), and Muellerius capillaris lungworms (93%) was calculated. The most prevalent strongylids recovered from incubated fecal samples were Haemonchus contortus (42%), genera Trichostrongylus (23%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (13%), and Teladorsagia circumcincta (11%). A maximum intensity of coccidia infection 5150 oocysts per gram, strongylids infection 9900 eggs per gram and lungworm infection 867.26 larvae per gram were detected. The various effects (including environment, host, and parasites) on milk yield, lactose, protein, and fat were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Milk yield (P goat. With the intensity of infection detected in our study, only protein content was affected (P goat itself can substantially decrease protein content but has much less of an effect on fat, milk yield, and lactose. Based on our results, we can conclude that a low intensity of parasitic infections does not significantly affect milk yield and the qualitative parameters of milk.

  19. Experimental chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in rats. Non-specific stimulation with LPS reduces lethality as efficiently as specific immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Hougen, H P; Høiby, N

    1995-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis, we investigated the possibility of preventing chronic lung inflammation or decreasing the progression of the infection. We compared the lethality, pathology, bacterial clearance, and immunogenicity after...... with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Four and two weeks prior to challenge other rats were vaccinated with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Controls did not receive any stimulation or vaccination. The lethality after challenge was lower in rats stimulated with E. coli LPS (p = 0...... but not to prevent the chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection and inflammation caused by alginate-embedded bacteria....

  20. Influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric mucosa histological changes of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, José Carlos Ribeiro DE; Carvalho, Jorge José DE; Serra, Humberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the influence of Duodenal reflux in histological changes of the gastric mucosa of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. after two weeks of acclimation, we infected 30 male Wistar rats with Helicobacter pylori. We randomly divided them into three groups: one submitted to pyloroplasty, another to partial gastrectomy and the third, only infected, was not operated. After six months of surgery, euthanasia was carried out. Gastric fragments were studied by light microscopy to count the number of H. pylori, and to observe the histological changes (gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia). We confirmed these changes by immunohistochemistry using the molecular markers PCNA and TGF-beta. the animals submitted to pyloroplasty had higher percentage of colonization by H. pylori (median=58.5; gastrectomy=16.5; control=14.5). There was a positive correlation between the amount of H. pylori and the occurrence of chronic gastritis present in the antral fragments. Neoplasia occurred in 40% of rats from the group submitted to pyloroplasty. The staining with PCNA and TGF-ß confirmed the histopathological changes visualized by optical microscopy. the antral region was the one with the highest concentration of H. pylori, regardless of the group. There was a positive correlation between the appearance of benign disorders (chronic gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia) and cancer in mice infected with H. pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. avaliar a influência do refluxo duodenogástrico nas alterações histológicas da mucosa gástrica de ratos, infectados por Helicobacter pylori, submetidos à piloroplastia. após duas semanas de aclimatação, 30 ratos machos da raça Wistar, foram infectados com o microorganismo patogênico H. pylori. De forma aleatória, foram divididos em três grupos: um submetido à piloroplastia, outro à gastrectomia parcial e o terceiro, apenas infectados, não foi operado. Após seis meses de operados, procedeu-se a

  1. Enterovirus D-68 Infection, Prophylaxis, and Vaccination in a Novel Permissive Animal Model, the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira C Patel

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus. Thus, we hypothesized that cotton rats could be a potential model for EV-D68 infection. Here, we evaluated the ability of two recently isolated EV-D68 strains (VANBT/1 and MO/14/49, along with the historical prototype Fermon strain (ATCC, to infect cotton rats. We found that cotton rats are permissive to EV-D68 infection without virus adaptation. The different strains of EV-D68 showed variable infection profiles and the ability to produce neutralizing antibody (NA upon intranasal infection or intramuscular immunization. Infection with the VANBT/1 resulted in significant induction of pulmonary cytokine gene expression and lung pathology. Intramuscular immunization with live VANBT/1 or MO/14/49 induced strong homologous antibody responses, but a moderate heterologous NA response. We showed that passive prophylactic administration of serum with high content of NA against VANBT/1 resulted in an efficient antiviral therapy. VANBT/1-immunized animals showed complete protection from VANBT/1 challenge, but induced strong pulmonary Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and enhanced lung pathology, indicating the generation of exacerbated immune response by immunization. In conclusion, our data illustrate that the cotton rat is a powerful animal model that provides an experimental platform to investigate pathogenesis, immune response, anti-viral therapies and vaccines

  2. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  3. Loss of predator aversion in female rats after Toxoplasma gondii infection is not dependent on ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai-Saiku, Samira; Vyas, Ajai

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odors in male rats. Relevant proximate mechanisms include interaction of gonadal testosterone and brain nonapeptide arginine-vasopressin. Both of these substrates are sexually dimorphic with preferential expression in males; suggesting either absence of behavioral change in females or mediation by analogous neuroendocrine substrates. Here we demonstrate that Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odor in female rats. This change is not accompanied by altered steroid hormones; cannot be rescued by gonadal removal; and, does not depend on arginine-vasopressin. Thus behavioral change in males and female occur through non-analogous mechanisms that remain hitherto unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of ceftazidime dose regimen on the selection of resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestinal flora of rats treated for an experimental pulmonary infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); A.J. Bijl; A. Ott (Alewijn); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The effect of ceftazidime dosing increments and frequency of dosing on the selection of ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae in the intestine was studied in rats, during treatment of a pulmonary infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Rats with pulmonary

  5. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-01-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [ 35 S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35 S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  6. Metabolic response to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in an experimental rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangcong Dong

    Full Text Available Bacteremia, the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream, is often associated with several clinical conditions. Bacteremia can lead to multiple organ failure if managed incorrectly, which makes providing suitable nutritional support vital for reducing bacteremia-associated mortality. In order to provide such information, we investigated the metabolic consequences of a Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae infection in vivo by employing a combination of (1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. K. pneumoniae was intravenously infused in rats; urine and plasma samples were collected at different time intervals. We found that K. pneumoniae-induced bacteremia stimulated glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle and also promoted oxidation of fatty acids and creatine phosphate to facilitate the energy-demanding host response. In addition, K. pneumoniae bacteremia also induced anti-endotoxin, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidization responses in the host. Furthermore, bacteremia could cause a disturbance in the gut microbiotal functions as suggested by alterations in a range of amines and bacteria-host co-metabolites. Our results suggest that supplementation with glucose and a high-fat and choline-rich diet could ameliorate the burdens associated with bacteremia. Our research provides underlying pathological processes of bacteremia and a better understanding of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of bacteremia.

  7. Assessment of Radiation-Attenuated Vaccine or Thyme Oil Treatment on Controlling DNA Damage and Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Brain of Rat Infected with Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; Hafez, E.N.; Abd Raboo, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a worldwide zoonotic roundworm that infects a number of hosts including humans. It exhibits marked affinity to the nervous tissues. This study deals with the changes in the brain of Toxocara canis infected rats regarding parasitological, nitric oxide (NO) level and DNA damage compared to the effect of vaccination with gamma radiation-attenuated embryonated egg or thyme oil treatment. Eighty rats were classified into four groups (twenty each): GI (normal control); GII infected with 2500 T. canis infective eggs/ml/rat (infected control); GIII vaccinated with 800 Gy gamma-attenuated embryonated eggs (vaccinated group) and GIV infected with 2500 T. canis eggs and treated with thyme oil (thyme treated group). At the 14th day post-infection, ten rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining were re-infected (challenged) with the same number of eggs. At the 14th days post challenge, brain tissues were taken for larval recovery, nitric oxide level evaluation and DNA damage using fragmentation and comet assay. The results exhibited a significant decrease in larval count and nitric oxide level with less damage in brain cells in thyme treated and gamma radiation-attenuated vaccinated groups compared to control infected group. It is also, concluded that vaccination using γ- rays is more effective in protection compared to using thyme oil.

  8. Permanent catheterization of the carotid artery induces kidney infection and inflammation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Uno Nicolas Kjærup; Nielsen, Sanne Gram; Hau, Jann

    2010-01-01

    Catheterization of the carotid artery and the jugular vein is one of the most commonly applied techniques used to gain intravascular access in pharmacology studies on rodents. We catheterized 10 rats by conventional clean techniques, 10 rats by aseptic techniques and 10 rats by conventional clean...

  9. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with γ-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with γ-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with γ-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given γ-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy. (author)

  10. Effect of auto-skin grafting on bacterial infection of wound in rats inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Wei Shuqing

    1992-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 6 Gy whole body γ-ray irradiation from a 60 Co source followed by light radiation burn (15% TBSA, full thickness burn) from a 5 kw bromo-tungsten lamp. The effect of auto-skin grafting on invasive bacterial infection of wound in the rats with combined radiation-burn injury was studied, In the control group inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury but without skin grafting, bacteria were found on and in the eschars at 24th hour after injury, and in the subeschar tissue on 3rd day. Tremendous bacterial multiplication occurred from 7th to 15th day, and the amount of bacteria in the internal organs increased along with the increase of subeschar infection. At the same time, no bacterial infection was found in internal organs in auto-skin grafted group at 24th hour after injury. The results show that skin grafting can decrease or prevent bacterial infection in both subeschar tissue and internal organs

  11. Passive transfer of resistance and the site of immune-dependent elimination of the challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Andrews, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The immune-dependent elimination of a challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni was analysed by passive transfer of serum, recovery of the challenge from the lungs and livers and by transferring lung-stage schistosomula. Recipients of serum from rats immunized with either unirradiated, 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae, were equally resistant if the serum was injected on the day of infection or 5-7 days after infection. Vaccinated rat serum transferred to mice and vaccinated rabbit serum transferred to rats conferred comparable protection when injected on day 0 or 5 days after infection of the recipients. This apparent susceptibility of the lung schistosomula to immune attack was confirmed by challenging 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae vaccinated rats with lung-stage schistosomula derived from mice or rats. All the detectable attrition of a cercarial challenge in vaccinated rats occurred between 7 and 10 days post-challenge, before the parasites reached the liver. Since there was no evidence of damage or attrition in the skin or lungs before day 7 it was concluded that immune-dependent elimination occurred rapidly following a 'window of sensitivity' coinciding with the migration of the parasites from the lungs to the liver. (author)

  12. CSA-90 Promotes Bone Formation and Mitigates Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rat Open Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rebecca; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Isaacs, David; Genberg, Carl; Savage, Paul B; Little, David G; Schindeler, Aaron

    2018-06-01

    Infection of open fractures remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality to patients worldwide. Early administration of prophylactic antibiotics is known to improve outcomes; however, increasing concern regarding antimicrobial resistance makes finding new compounds for use in such cases a pressing area for further research. CSA-90, a synthetic peptidomimetic compound, has previously demonstrated promising antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus in rat open fractures. However, its efficacy against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, its potential as a therapeutic agent in addition to its prophylactic effects, and its proosteogenic properties all require further investigation. (1) Does prophylactic treatment with CSA-90 reduce infection rates in a rat open fracture model inoculated with S aureus, methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) as measured by survival, radiographic union, and deep tissue swab cultures? (2) Does CSA-90 reduce infection rates when administered later in the management of an open fracture as measured by survival, radiographic union, and deep tissue swab cultures? (3) Does CSA-90 demonstrate a synergistic proosteogenic effect with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in a noninfected rat ectopic bone formation assay as assessed by micro-CT bone volume measurement? (4) Can CSA-90 elute and retain its antimicrobial efficacy in vitro when delivered using clinically relevant agents measured using a Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay? All in vivo studies were approved by the local animal ethics committee. In the open fracture studies, 12-week-old male Wistar rats underwent open midshaft femoral fractures stabilized with a 1.1-mm Kirschner wire and 10 µg BMP-2 ± 500 µg CSA-90 was applied to the fracture site using a collagen sponge along with 1 x 10 colony-forming units of bacteria (S aureus/MRSA/MRSE; n = 10 per group). In the delayed treatment study, débridement and

  13. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  14. 99mTc(CO)3-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate synthesis and biological evolution in rats infected with multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc(CO) 3 -Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND) complex was synthesized and biologically characterized in rats artificially infected with multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC). The characteristics of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND complex was assessed in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with live and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC and biodistribution in rats artificially infected with MDRSA and PRSC. The complex showed maximum radiochemical stability at 30 min and remained more than 90% stable up to 240 min in normal saline after reconstitution. The complex was found stable in serum at 37 deg C up to 16 h. The complex showed in vitro saturated binding with living MDRSA and PRSC. In rats infected with living MDRSA and PRSC the complex showed five higher up take in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in uptake of the complex in rats infected with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC was observed. The disappearance of the complex from the blood and appearance in the urinary system confirm the normal biological route of biodistribution and excretion. The high values of the radiochemical stability in normal saline, serum, saturated in vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC and significant infected to normal muscles ratios, the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -GXND complex is recommended for the localization of soft tissue infection caused by living MDRSA and PRSC. (author)

  15. Cethromycin-mediated protection against the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis in a rat model of infection and comparison with levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Jason A; Brackman, Sheri M; Kirtley, Michelle L; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Yeager, Linsey A; Peterson, Johnny W; Xu, Ze-Qi; Chopra, Ashok K

    2011-11-01

    The Gram-negative plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, has historically been regarded as one of the deadliest pathogens known to mankind, having caused three major pandemics. After being transmitted by the bite of an infected flea arthropod vector, Y. pestis can cause three forms of human plague: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic, with the latter two having very high mortality rates. With increased threats of bioterrorism, it is likely that a multidrug-resistant Y. pestis strain would be employed, and, as such, conventional antibiotics typically used to treat Y. pestis (e.g., streptomycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin) would be ineffective. In this study, cethromycin (a ketolide antibiotic which inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and is currently in clinical trials for respiratory tract infections) was evaluated for antiplague activity in a rat model of pneumonic infection and compared with levofloxacin, which operates via inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase and DNA gyrase. Following a respiratory challenge of 24 to 30 times the 50% lethal dose of the highly virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain, 70 mg of cethromycin per kg of body weight (orally administered twice daily 24 h postinfection for a period of 7 days) provided complete protection to animals against mortality without any toxic effects. Further, no detectable plague bacilli were cultured from infected animals' blood and spleens following cethromycin treatment. The antibiotic was most effective when administered to rats 24 h postinfection, as the animals succumbed to infection if treatment was further delayed. All cethromycin-treated survivors tolerated 2 subsequent exposures to even higher lethal Y. pestis doses without further antibiotic treatment, which was related, in part, to the development of specific antibodies to the capsular and low-calcium-response V antigens of Y. pestis. These data demonstrate that cethromycin is a potent antiplague drug that can be used to treat pneumonic plague.

  16. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Infection in a rat model reactivates attenuated virulence after long-term axenic culture of Acanthamoeba spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina De Marco Verissimo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged culturing of many microorganisms leads to the loss of virulence and a reduction of their infective capacity. However, little is known about the changes in the pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba after long culture periods. Our study evaluated the effect of prolonged culturing on the invasiveness of different isolates of Acanthamoeba in an in vivo rat model. ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba, isolates from the environment and clinical cases were evaluated. The in vivo model was effective in establishing the infection and differentiating the pathogenicity of the isolates and re-isolates. The amoebae cultured in the laboratory for long periods were less virulent than those that were recently isolated, confirming the importance of passing Acanthamoeba strains in animal models.

  18. Halofuginone ameliorates inflammation in severe acute hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected SD rats through AMPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan WL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weili Zhan, Yanhong Kang, Ning Chen, Chongshan Mao, Yi Kang, Jia Shang Department of Infectious Diseases, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV has caused acute and chronic liver diseases in ~350 million infected people worldwide. Halofuginone (HF is a plant alkaloid which has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in immune regulation. Our present study explored the function of HF in the immune response of HBV-infected Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Plasmid containing pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 was injected in SD rats for the construction of an acute HBV-infected animal model. Our data showed that HF reduced the high concentrations of serum hepatitis B e-antigen, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HBV DNA induced by HBV infection. HF also reduced the number of T helper (Th17 cells and the expression of interleukin (IL-17 compared with the pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 group. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-17, IL-23, interferon-γ, and IL-2 were downregulated and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-4 and IL-13 were upregulated by HF. Through further research we found that the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and IKBA which suppressed NF-κB activation was increased while the expression of p-NF-κB P65 was decreased in pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3+HF group compared with pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 group, indicating that HF may work through the activation of AMPK. Finally, our conjecture was further verified by using the AMPK inhibitor compound C, which counteracted the anti-inflammation effect of HF, resulting in the decreased expression of AMPK, IKBA and increased expression of p-NF-κB P65 and reduced number of Th17 cells. In our present study, HF was considered as an anti-inflammatory factor in acute HBV-infected SD rats and worked through AMPK-mediated NF-κB p65 inactivation. This study implicated HF as a potential therapeutic strategy for hepatitis B. Keywords: halofuginone, hepatitis B virus

  19. Synthesis, biological evaluation and biodistribution of the 99mTc-Garenoxacin complex in artificially infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    The labeling of garenoxacin (GXN) with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) using different concentrations of GXN, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) at different pH was investigated and evaluated in terms of in-vitro stability in saline, serum, binding with multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) and its biodistribution in artificially MDRSA and PRSC infected rats. 99m Tc-GXN complex with 97.45 ± 0.18% radiochemical stability was prepared by mixing 3 mg of GXN with 3 mCi of Na 99m TcO 4 in the presence of 150 μL of SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6. The radiochemical stability of the complex was evaluated in normal saline up to 240 min of reconstitution. It was observed that the complex showed maximum RCP values after 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% up to 240 min. The complex showed radiochemical stability in normal saline at 37 deg C up to 16 h with a 17.80% de-tagging. The complex showed saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC as compared to the insignificant binding with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC. Biodistribution behavior of the complex was assessed in artificially infected with living and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC rats. It was observed that the accumulation of the complex in the infected (live MDRSA and PRSC) tissue of the rats was almost five fold than in the inflamed and normal tissue. The high radiochemical stability in normal saline at room temperature, promising in-vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, specific biodistribution behavior and high infected (target) to normal (non-target) tissue and low inflamed (non-target) to normal (non-target) tissue ratios we recommend 99m Tc-GXN complex for in-vivo localization of infection caused by MDRSA and PRSC effective stains. (author)

  20. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and Tetracycline on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyarefe, Oghenemega D; Idowu, Aderayo; Afolabi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-20

    The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 mg/kg) and Group C, n = 6, Sterile water (control). Six millimetres diameter nape wound, created on each rat under 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg) and 5% ketamine (35 mg/kg), was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (108 Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Following infection, treatment was commenced with daily oral dose of test preparations and the wounds were evaluated every other day i.e., day 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 for wetness (wound exudation), wound edge oedema, hyperaemia, granulation tissues and contraction (diameter). Severe wound exudation existed in all the groups between days 0-3 (p = 1.00). A significantly less wound exudation was observed at days 3-5 (p = 0.000) and 5-9 (p = 0.003) (ControlMoringa). Wound edge oedema was significantly less on days 5-9 (p = 0.000) and 9-15 (p = 0.001) (ControlMoringaMoringa Moringa> Tetracycline). Differences in wound diameter was not significant except at days 5-9 (p = 0.013) (Control> Moringa >Tetracycline). Oral doses of Moringa oleifera extract (300mg/kg) and tetracycline (9.4mg/kg) are not effective as antimicrobial or immune-boosting agents to enhance healing of wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus and hence not recommended for rapid clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds.

  1. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody......-induced increase in CD45RC+ cells is most likely due to generation of antigen-specific memory T cells....

  2. Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made after the patient died. The transmitting animal was a pet rat. Leptospirosis has to be considered in case of rapid multi-organ failure presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage.

  3. Effects of burn with and without Escherichia coli infection in rats on intestinal vs. splenic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, T; Al-Ghoul, W; Namak, S; Fazal, N; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Choudhry, M; Sayeed, M M

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of burn injury with and without an Escherichia coliseptic complication on T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and Ca(2+) signaling responses in intestinal Peyer's patch and splenic T cells. Prospective, randomized, sham-controlled animal study. University medical center research laboratory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were subjected to a 30% total body surface area, full skin thickness burn. Infection in rats was induced via intraperitoneal inoculation of E. coli, 10(9) colony forming units/kg, with or without a prior burn. Rat Peyer's patch and splenic T lymphocytes were isolated by using a nylon wool cell purification protocol. T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and Ca(2+) signaling responses were measured after stimulation of cells with the mitogen, concanavalin A. T-cell proliferation was determined by measuring incorporation of (3)H-thymidine into T-cell cultures. Interleukin-2 production by T-cell cultures was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular T-cell Ca2(+ )concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), was measured by the use of Ca(2+)-specific fluorescent label, fura-2, and its fluorometric quantification. [Ca(2+)](i) was also evaluated by the use of digital video imaging of fura-2 loaded individual T cells. T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production were suppressed substantially in both Peyer's patch and splenic T cells 3 days after either the initial burn alone or burn followed by the E. coli inoculation at 24 hrs after the initial burn. There seemed to be no demonstrable additive effects of E. coli infection on the effects produced by burn injury alone. The T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production suppressions with burn or burn-plus-infection insults were correlated with attenuated Ca(2+) signaling. E. coli infection alone suppressed T-cell proliferation in Peyer's patch but not in splenic T cells at 2 days postbacterial inoculation; E. coli infection had no effect on

  4. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Apis mellifera honey on the Helicobacter pylori infection of Wistar rats gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamamoto AMARAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain. Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1. Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.

  5. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  6. Historical biogeography among species of Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ungulates: episodic expansion and host colonization linking Eurasia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P

    2018-05-03

    Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V. pneumonicus is basal and a result of an independent host colonization event; (4) secondary diversification, linked to sequential and independent host colonization events, occurred within cervids (V. sagittatus + V. tuvae; V. alpenae; and V. capreoli, V. alces + V. eleguneniensis); (5) at least two additional host colonization events into caprines occurred, followed or not by diversification (V. qinghaiensis + V. longispiculatus; V. capricola, respectively); (6) two independent events of geographic expansion into North America from Eurasia with cervids in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene are postulated (V. alpenae, V. eleguneniensis). Comparisons based on phylogenetic hypotheses derived from comparative morphology and molecular inference for these nematodes are consistent with the postulated history for coevolutionary and biogeographic history. Episodes of geographic and host colonization, often in relation to rapid shifts in climate and habitat perturbation, have dominated the history of diversification of Varestrongylus.

  7. Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Toxocara infection using a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Vachel Gay V; Besana, Cyrelle M; Valdez, Isabel Kristine M

    2017-12-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease usually caused by dog and cat roundworms, Toxocara canis and T. cati. Detection and diagnosis is difficult in paratenic and accidental hosts, including humans, as they cannot be detected through conventional methods such as fecal examination. Diagnosis therefore relies on immunological methods and molecular methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blot, which are both time-consuming and requires sophisticated equipment. In the Philippines, only a few studies are available on Toxocara seroprevalence. Therefore, there is a need to adapt methods for serodiagnosis of Toxocara infection in humans for the Philippine setting. A dot enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) was standardized using T. canis excretory-secretory antigens. Test sera were collected from laboratory rats (Sprague-Dawley strain) experimentally infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis and Ascaris suum as well as rice field rats naturally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis and Nippostrongylus sp. Optimum conditions used were 20 µg/ml antigen concentration and 1:10 serum dilution. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were 90% (95% CI 55.5-99.7%), 100% (95% CI 69.2-100.0%), 100% (95% CI 66.4-100%), and 90.9% (95% CI 58.7-99.8%), respectively. Dot-ELISA has the potential to be developed as a cheaper, simpler, and more practical method for detection of anti- Toxocara antibodies on accidental hosts. This is a preliminary study conducted on experimental animals before optimization and standardization for human serum samples.

  8. The influence of thyroxine and propyl thiouracil on Parastrongylus malaysiensis infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Chang, J S; Ambu, S

    1994-01-01

    Daily intramuscular injection with thyroxine (T4) at a dose of 2.5 micrograms/100 g body weight decreased the larvae and adult worm burden of Parastrongylus malaysiensis in the brain and pulmonary arteries of male Sprague-Dawley albino rats. In contrast, rats treated with propyl thiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, at a dose of 3.75 mg/100 g body weight retained greater numbers of larvae and adult worms. The results may reflect the contrasting immunomodulatory effects of T4 and PTU that influence the susceptibility of the host.

  9. Radiocharacterization of the 99mTc-rufloxacin complex and biological evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus infected rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc-rufloxacin ( 99m Tc-RUN) complex was prepared by reaction of different amounts of reduced sodium pertechnetate with different amount of Rufloxacin (RUN) antibiotic for the in vivo scintigraphic localization of the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infectious foci in Male Wister Rats (MWR) model. The 99m Tc-RUN complex was radiochemically and biologically characterized in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MWR. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed stability more than 90% up to 240 min in normal saline with a maximum stability value of 98.10 ± 0.18% at 30 min after reconstitution. At 37 deg C the complex showed in vitro permanence in serum up to 16 h with 13.90% side products during incubation. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus at different intervals with a maximum uptake value of 71.50%. Infected to normal muscle, infected to inflamed and inflamed to normal muscles ratios were approximately 6.04, 4.31 and 1.40. Based on the stability of the complex in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution results, the 99m Tc-RUN complex is recommended for in vivo scintigraphic localization of the S. aureus in vivo infectious foci in human. (author)

  10. A comparative study of histopathological effects of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with sulfadiazine on skin burn wound healing in rats infected with Pseudomonas aeuroginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Valilou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, is the most common infective agent of burn wounds. The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological effect of a mixture of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with silver sulfadiazine on the healing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected second grade skin burn wounds in rats. To this end, 60 male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (15 rats in each group. After inducing anesthesia, second grade burn wound with the diameter of 12 mm was created in the dorsal region of rats. Then, 1.5×108 cfu/ml P. aeruginosa PA01was equally bestrewed on the wound of all rats. Every 12 hours, silver sulfadiazine (group 1, honey (group 2 and aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey (group 3 were applied to the wounds and group 4 was kept as control. On days 7, 14, and 21, five rats were selected from each group at each time point and after inducing anesthesia and measuring the diameter of the wound by coliseum, microbial and histopathological samples were taken from the wounds. Microbial studies showed that in all groups except the control group, the growth of the microbe was stopped. Histopathological observations regarding wound healing and diameter showed that there was a significant difference between treatment groups and the control group on days 7, 14 and 21 (p

  11. Altered glucose kinetics in diabetic rats during Gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, C.H.; Dobrescu, C.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined the purported exacerbating effect of sepsis on glucose metabolism in diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intravenous injection of 70 or 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. The higher dose produced severe diabetes, whereas the lower dose of streptozotocin produced a miler, latent diabetes. After a chronic diabetic state had developed for 4 wk, rats had catheters implanted and sepsis induced by intraperitoneal injections of live Escherichia coli. After 24 h of sepsis the blood glucose concentration was unchanged in nondiabetics and latent diabetics, but glucose decreased from 15 to 8 mM in the septic severe diabetic group. This decrease in blood glucose was not accompanied by alterations in the plasma insulin concentration. Glucose turnover, assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose, was elevated in the severe diabetic group, compared with either latent diabetics or nondiabetics. Sepsis increased the rate of glucose disappearance in nondiabetic rats but had no effect in either group of diabetic animals. Sepsis also failed to alter the insulinogenic index, used to estimate the insulin secretory capacity, in diabetic rats. Thus the present study suggests that the imposition of nonlethal Gram-negative sepsis on severe diabetic animals does not further impair glucose homeostasis and that the milder latent diabetes was not converted to a more severe diabetic state by the septic challenge

  12. Drinking water ivermectin treatment for eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Lachout, Josef; Vadlejch, J.; Fučíková, A.; Jankovská, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2010), s. 233-237 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Syphacia muris * Aspiculuris tetraptera * ivermectin * laboratory rat * pinworm Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2010

  13. [Endoparasitic infections in sheep from the Swabian Alb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Winter, R

    1998-11-01

    The endoparasite fauna of 59 slaughtered sheep (30 lambs, 29 ewes) from the Swabian Alb, Germany, was examined. One species of trematodes, 3 species of cestodes, 29 species of nematodes (23 species of gastro-intestinal and 6 species of lung nematodes), 1 species of arthropodes and 1 species of protozoa were recorded. All animals were infected with Dicrocoelium dentriticum as well as gastro-intestinal and lung nematodes, 45.8% with Moniezia spp., 15.3% with Cysticercus tenuicollis, 55.9% with Oestrus ovis and 11.9% with Sarcocystis gigantea. The most important gastro-intestinal nematodes were Ostertagia circumcincta and Cooperia curticei, which were recorded in all sheep, Ostertagia trifurcata and Chabertia ovine (98.3% each), Oesophagostumum venulosum (96.6%), Nematodirus filicollis (81.4% each), Ostertagia pinnata (78.0%), Trichuris ovis and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (76.3% each). The ewes harboured more abomasal and small intestinal nematodes (1819 and 3702) than the lambs (695 and 1730), which haboured more large intestinal nematodes (177) than those (56). The most often recorded lungworms were Cystocaulus ocreatus (74.6%) and Muellerius capillaris (72.9%), followed by Neostrongylus linearis (57.6%), Dictyocaulus filaria (50.8%), Protostrongylus brevispiculum (37.3%) and Protostrongylus rufescens (28.8%). The ewes carried higher lungworm burdens than the lambs.

  14. Factors affecting carriage and intensity of infection of Calodium hepaticum within Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from an urban slum environment in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F

    2017-01-01

    Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.

  15. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  16. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  17. Syphacia muris infection delays the onset of hyperglycemia in WBN/Kob-Leprfa rats, a new type 2 diabetes mellitus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders and its continuous global increase is due to factors as population growth, urbanization, aging, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The effect of pinworm infection on the development of hyperglycemia was examined in WBN/K-Lepf (fa/fa rats, a new model of the obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with pancreatitis. The rats were orally administered Syphacia muris eggs (infected group and distilled water (control group. Hyperglycemia onset in the infected group was significantly delayed compared to the control group. Neither body weight nor intake of food and water were affected by S. muris infection. This study demonstrated that S. muris infection delayed the onset of T2DM in fa/fa rats and suggested that elucidation of the underlying mechanism and relevant pathways in the helminth-mediated protection may lead to the development of a new strategy to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  18. Prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rats by an oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei I-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Rieko; Goto, Shingo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Kuboki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Michikatsu

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-alpha production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.

  19. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  20. Induction of Severe Chronic Hyperplastic Candidiasis in Rat by Opportunistic Infection of C. albicans through Combination of Diabetes and Intermittent Prednisolone Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis progresses from squamous cell hyperplasia to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, the oncogenic mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to induce opportunistic Candida albicans infection and establish chronic hyperplastic candidiasis in rats by combining diabetic condition and prednisolone administration, followed by analysis of the inflammatory cells involved in the disease progression. Female Wistar Bunn/Kobori (WBN/Kob) rats were divided into 3 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats (A group) along with diabetic (AP group) and nondiabetic (P group) rats intermittently treated with prednisolone. Animals were euthanized at 42 weeks of age. Squamous cell hyperplasia following C. albicans infection in the forestomach was observed in almost all AP and A group rats. The lesions in the AP group were significantly more severe than those in the A group. In addition, SCC was detected in 1 AP group animal. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4-positive T cell and CD68-positive macrophage infiltration in the AP group was significantly stronger than that in the A group. These findings suggest that the combination of diabetes and intermittent prednisolone administration could induce chronic hyperplastic candidiasis without direct C. albicans inoculation and that CD4-positive T cells and CD68-positive macrophages may be highly involved in the pathogenesis of these hyperplastic lesions.

  1. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites, liver flukes and lungworm in feces from dairy cattle in the high tropics of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny J. Chaparro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in dairy cattle in the high tropics of Colombia. A total of 1003 rectal samples were collected from dairy cows at 29 farms between May and June 2014 to represent the number of farms, age groups, and size of the 65,000-cow population in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros. Coprological techniques were used to detect gastrointestinal nematodes, liver flukes, coccidian oocysts, and first larval stage counts of Dictyocaulus viviparus. In order of decreasing prevalence, the following parasites were detected: coccidial oocyst (36.7%; 95% CIs, 31.6–42.7, strongyle nematodes (31.6%, 27.8–35.4, liver flukes (30.9%, 21.5–37.5, cestodes (8.4%, 7.1–9.7, and D. viviparus (5.4%, 3.4–7.5. Co-infections by all possible combinations of the three most predominant groups occurred in 11 to 15% of the animals. There were significant differences in infection rates between age groups, with higher risk of liver fluke infection in animals older than 1 year of age (odds ratio (OR = 3.2, but lower presence for coccidia and strongyles (OR = 0.19 and 0.51, respectively. For Fasciola hepatica, within-herd prevalences of >25% in 16 farms and 94 of 281 (33.5% animals with >5 eggs per gram (epg indicate that significant production losses are likely occurring. The variation in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes, together with the level of infection among age groups, could be used in integrated management programs to establish selective anthelmintic treatments and select for heritable traits of host resistance. These results serve as a baseline for future studies to determine the success of control measures and should increase awareness that subclinical parasitism is widespread in the livestock sector.

  2. An Assay of RNA Synthesis in Hepatic Nuclei from Control and Streptococcus pneumoniae-Infected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-22

    26) as modified by pended in 2.0 ml of 1.0 N KOH and incu- McNamara et al. (27). Nuclei (about 0.25 mg bated for 20 hr at 370 to hydrolyze RNA (28...containing hydrolyzed RNA was ml yeast RNA, 18 units pyruvate kinase, I counted in Scintisol. The pellet was solubi- mM cytidine triphosphate (CTP), I mM...WC. Lecithin biosynthesis in liver mi- 16. Blobel G, Potter VR. Nuclei from rat liver, isolation tochondrial fractions. Biochem Biophys Res Coin

  3. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  4. Results of Survey Regarding Prevalence of Adventitial Infections in Mice and Rats at Biomedical Research Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, James O; Gaertner, Diane J; Smith, Abigail L

    2017-09-01

    Control of rodent adventitial infections in biomedical research facilities is of extreme importance in assuring both animal welfare and high-quality research results. Sixty-three U.S. institutions participated in a survey reporting the methods used to detect and control these infections and the prevalence of outbreaks from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. These results were then compared with the results of 2 similar surveys published in 1998 and 2008. The results of the current survey demonstrated that the rate of viral outbreaks in mouse colonies was decreasing, particularly in barrier facilities, whereas the prevalence of parasitic outbreaks has remained constant. These results will help our profession focus its efforts in the control of adventitial rodent disease outbreaks to the areas of the greatest needs.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum) Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Paulo César; Raimundo Figueroba, Sidney; Dias Nani, Bruno; Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Luiz; Vilela Muniz, Bruno; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Sartoratto, Adilson; Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo; Carlos Groppo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa) and Allium tuberosum (Atu) against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 33592). Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 10 8 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 - Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 - Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 - amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 - Asa 400mg/kg; G7 - amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  6. Scintigraphic imaging with technetium-99M-labelled ceftizoxime is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of deep sternal wound infection in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Henrique Nogueira; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Tarabal, Bernardo; Takenaka, Isabella; Braga, Otavio; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Araujo, Ivana Duval, E-mail: phnc@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. Methods: twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: no animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of {sup 99m}Tc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW).Conclusion: scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus (author)

  7. The calcitonin receptor gene is a candidate for regulation of susceptibility to herpes simplex type 1 neuronal infection leading to encephalitis in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a fatal infection of the central nervous system (CNS predominantly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1. Factors regulating the susceptibility to HSE are still largely unknown. To identify host gene(s regulating HSE susceptibility we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in an intercross between the susceptible DA and the resistant PVG rat. We found one major quantitative trait locus (QTL, Hse1, on rat chromosome 4 (confidence interval 24.3-31 Mb; LOD score 29.5 governing disease susceptibility. Fine mapping of Hse1 using recombinants, haplotype mapping and sequencing, as well as expression analysis of all genes in the interval identified the calcitonin receptor gene (Calcr as the main candidate, which also is supported by functional studies. Thus, using unbiased genetic approach variability in Calcr was identified as potentially critical for infection and viral spread to the CNS and subsequent HSE development.

  8. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio V Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is a common feline parasite transmitted by the ingestion of embryonated eggs, by the transmammary route or by predation of paratenic hosts harbouring third-stage larvae in their bodies. In the present study, the larval distribution of T. cati in tissues and organs of Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with 300 embryonated eggs was analysed. Third-stage larvae were recovered from livers, lungs, kidneys, eyes, brains and carcasses of infected rats, following tissue digestion with HCl 0.5% for 24 h at 37°C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found.

  9. Synthesis of the 99mTc(CO)3-trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological characterization in artificially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND) complex and biological characterization in artificially Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infected rats model was assessed. The suitability of the complex was evaluated and compared with 99m TcN-TVND, in terms of radiochemical immovability in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in Male Sprague-Dawley rats (MSDR). After 30 min of the reconstitution both the complexes showed maximum radiochemical stabilities in saline and remain more than 90% stable up to 120 min. However the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND showed to some extent higher stability than 99m TcN-TVND complex. In serum 1.75% less de-tagging was observed than 99m TcN-TVND complex. Both the complexes showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus and no significant difference were observed between the uptakes. Six fold uptakes were noted in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles of the MDSR. The uptake of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND in infected muscle of the MSDR was 2.25% high as compared to the 99m TcN-TVND complex. Based on radiochemical stabilities in saline, serum, in vitro binding with MRSA and significantly higher uptake in the infected muscle, we recommend both the complexes for in vivo investigation of the MRSA infection in human. (author)

  10. The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a novel vector of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its introduction, spread, and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-Bao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2013-06-01

    The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail.

  11. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ashleigh L; Solowij, Nadia; Babic, Ilijana; Huang, Xu-Feng; Weston-Green, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C) (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12 per group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12 per group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory, and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (psocial interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.

  12. Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals has met with mixed success. Examples are presented ranging from the highly effective and much used commercial vaccine against cattle lungworm to the almost completely unsuccessful attempts to immunize sheep against liver fluke. The results presented emphasize that this approach is likely to be successful only if there is evidence of a strong degree of acquired immunity to the natural infection. The extension of immunological control to those systems where the parasite provokes only a modest resistance by the host will probably depend on a much greater understanding of the mechanism of the immune response. Such fundamental studies are likely to rely heavily on nuclear techniques, e.g. in the labelling of antigens, antibodies and parasites with radioactive isotopes. (author)

  13. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Herve; Platteau, Bernadette; Bakour, Rabah; Janssens, Michele; Wauters, Georges

    1982-01-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10 7 isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge [fr

  14. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, H.; Platteau, B.; Bakour, R.; Janssens, M.; Wauters, G. (Universite de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium))

    1982-07-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10/sup 7/ isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge.

  15. The influence of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the healing of infected dental alveoli: a histological study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Orofino Kreuger

    Full Text Available The plant Melaleuca alternifolia is native to Australia. The distillation of its leaves produces an essential oil, commonly known as oil of Melaleuca, or Tea tree oil, which present antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the action of this oil on the repair process of infected dental alveoli. 48 rats were used (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar. After tooth extraction and posterior infection of the dental alveoli with Staphylococcus aureus, the animals were separated into three groups: Group I: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution; Group II: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of rifamycin diethylamide B 25 mg; and Group III: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of oil of Melaleuca 20%. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days after the treatment with powder and the repair process of the dental alveoli was analyzed using an optical microscope. The results were submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis and it was concluded that tea tree oil at 20% caused a delay in the repair process of infected dental alveoli in rats, as demonstrated by the presence of more necrosis area and less osteogenesis.

  16. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in lymphocytes associated with the immune response of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Ruchel, Jader B; Rezer, João F P; Camillo, Giovana; Faccio, Luciana; França, Raqueli T; Leal, Daniela B R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Vogel, Fernada F; de la Rue, Mario L; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2013-10-01

    An investigation of E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in lymphocytes from rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii was carried out in this study. For this purpose, twenty four adult male Wistar rats were divided in two groups/four subgroups (A1 and A2; B1 and B2-6 animal/each group), with "A" as uninfected and "B" inoculated with T. gondii (RH strain). Sampling was performed on days 5 and 10 post-infection (p.i.), with evaluation of hemogram, immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG) and activity of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in lymphocytes. Enzymes essays showed ATP hydrolysis increased on days 5 (PADA activity on lymphocytes was also increased in both evaluated periods (PADA increased activities observed on lymphocytes, it is possible to suggest their involvement in an anti-inflammatory response, consisting of a modulatory response, preventing excessive tissue damage caused by the infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Localization of extracellular matrix laminin and fibronectin in male rats infected by candida albicans, with the property expected as facilitator molecules and treated by pomegranate extract and nystatin as antifungal substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumolosasi, E.S.; Barlian, A.; Sukandar, E.Y.

    1998-12-16

    Candida albicans is one of the parasitic fungi that often infects the tissue's surface in human. Nystatin has been long known as the most potent antifungal drug. One of natural products, Punica granatum, was shown to have antifungal effect as the result of ten years' investigation. In this research, male rats that were infected by C. albicans orally for 24 hours were cured by P. granatum extract with a dose of 50 mg/200 g body weight and by Nystatin 9.10{sup 3} IU/200 g body weight. Fifteen hours later, the rats were sacrificed and the small intestines were prepared for histology with semithin sectioning method. Microscopic observations showed that the inflammation occurred in the small intestines of the infected rats without any medication. However, for the rats that were treated with P. granatum extract, the small intestine area was almost in the similar condition with nin-infected rats. The small intestine of the rats treated by Nystatin showed minor inflammation. The immunocytochemistry procedure in this research still need modification to be able to detect Laminin and Fibronectin and clarify their roles in the invasion of C. albicans. (author)

  18. Effect of Salmonella typhimurium infection on rat ’s cell oxidation and in vivo antioxidant activity of Vitellaria paradoxa and Ludwigia abyssinica aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of bacterial infection on cell oxidation and to study the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Ludwigia abyssinica and Vitellaria paradoxa. Methods: The Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats (1.5伊108 CFU concurrently received either different doses of plant extract (55, 110, 220 and 440 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (vitamin C 100 mg/ kg daily for 18 d. The parameters like, lipid profile, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and bilirubin were assessed. Results: Infection has resulted in an increase of heart reduced glutathione, heart and kidneys malondihaldehyde and liver superoxide dismutase activity followed by decreases of that of heart. The administration of the extract at 55, 110, 220 and 440 mg/kg body has resulted in the correction of some of these injuries. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extract of Ludwigia abyssinica and Vitellaria paradoxa can fight against bacterial infection and cell oxidation induced by infection with Salmonella typhimurium.

  19. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  20. Natural infection by gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes in mouflons (Ovis musimon) and their response to netobimin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Luzón-Peña, M; Santiago-Moreno, J; De Bulnes, A; Gómez-Bautista, M

    1996-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematode infections and the efficacy of netobimin (Hapasil) were analyzed by way of fecal examination in 10 female mouflons (Ovis musimon), in central Spain, February 1993. Before treatment all 10 mouflons had Trichostrongylus axei, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia spp.; sic had Nematodirus spp., two had Trichuris sp., one had Capillaria sp., seven had bronchopulmonary Dictyocaulus filaria and 10 mouflons had protostrongylid lungworms (Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Cystocaulus ocreatus or Neostrongylus linearis). Netobimin (7.5 mg/kg) was 100% effective against T. axei, T. circumcincta, Marshallagia spp., and D. filaria infections whereas one animal continued eliminating Nematodirus spp. eggs. The drug also was effective against Capillaria spp. but not against Trichuris spp. or protostrongylid infections.

  1. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Dan R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1. Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approaching those in infected primary human T-cells. hCycT1 expression was necessary, but not sufficient, to enhance HIV transcription in T-cells from individual transgenic animals, indicating that endogenous cellular factors are critical co-regulators of HIV gene expression in rats. T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5/hCycT1-transgenic rats did not support productive infection of prototypic wild-type R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo, suggesting one or more significant limitation in the late phase of the replication cycle in this primary rodent cell type. Remarkably, we identify a replication-competent HIV-1 GFP reporter strain (R7/3 YU-2 Env that displays characteristics of a spreading, primarily cell-to-cell-mediated infection in primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats. Moreover, the replication of this recombinant HIV-1 strain was significantly enhanced by hCycT1 transgenesis. The viral determinants of this so far unique replicative ability are currently unknown. Conclusion Thus, hCycT1 expression is beneficial to de novo HIV infection in a transgenic rat model, but additional genetic manipulations of the host or virus are required to achieve full permissivity.

  2. Synthesis of 99mTcV ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological evaluation in Wister rats artificially infected with Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN) complex was synthesized through the [ 99m Tc ≡ N] 2+ core and its aptness was radiochemically and biologically evaluated in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) in saline, in vitro stability in serum, in vitro bacterial uptake and percent in vivo uptake in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with alive and heat killed Escherichia coli (E. coli). The 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN complex showed more than 90% RCP up to 4 h after reconstitution in normal saline at room temperature with a maximum RCP value of 98.40 ± 0.28% (at 30 min). At 37 deg C in serum the complex showed stable behaviour up to 4 h with the appearance of 15.95% undesirable by products within 16 h of the incubation. The complex showed saturated in vitro binding with E. coli with a maximum uptake of 74.25 ± 0.50% (at 90 min). Normal biodistribution behaviour was noted with a sixfold higher accumulation in the muscle of the MWR, artificially infected with live E. coli as compared to the MWR infected with heat killed E. coli, inflamed and normal muscle. The high RCP in saline, elevated in vitro stability in serum, saturated in vitro binding with E. coli and the sixfold higher accumulation in the infected (live) muscle of the MWR as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle, recognized the aptness of the 99m Tc ≡ N-PZND complex as a prospective E. coli in vivo infection radiotracer. (author)

  3. Efficacy of Soiled Bedding Transfer for Transmission of Mouse and Rat Infections to Sentinels: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, W.C. de; Ven, E.M. van de; Hooijmans, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This systematic review was conducted to gain insight into the efficacy of transmission of infectious agents to colony sentinels by soiled bedding transfer based on publications studying this subject in mice and rats. This information is essential to establish recommendations for the design

  4. [Antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Zhou, H; Cui, Z C; Wang, L; Luo, P F; Ji, S Z; Hu, X Y; Ma, B; Wang, G Y; Zhu, S H; Xia, Z F

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To study the antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Methods: (1) Each one standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were selected. Each 20 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected from those isolated from wound exudates of burn patients hospitalized in our wards from January 2014 to December 2016 according to the random number table. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of compound lysostaphin disinfectant to above-mentioned strains were detected. The experiment was repeated 3 times. Compared with the corresponding standard strain, the clinical strain with higher MIC and/or MBC was considered as having decreased sensitivity to the disinfectant. The percentage of strains of each of the three kinds of bacteria with decreased sensitivity was calculated. (2) Artificial dermis pieces were soaked in compound lysostaphin disinfectant for 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h, respectively, with 21 pieces at each time point. After standing for 0 (immediately), 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h (with 3 pieces at each time point), respectively, the diameters of their inhibition zones to standard strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The experiment was repeated 3 times. The shortest soaking time corresponding to the longest standing time, after which the disinfectant-soaked artificial dermis could form an effective inhibition zone (with diameter more than 7 mm), was the sufficient soaking time of the disinfectant to the artificial dermis. (3) Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21 sampling groups according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. A full-thickness skin

  5. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos, C e D (camundongos. Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7 tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade constantes (25°C e 80% UR, sendo realizados esfregaços sanguíneos diários para identificar o período pré-patente e a evolução do parasita na circulação. Nos grupos A e B, o período pré-patente variou de 19 a 25 dias, e o período entre a detecção dos parasitas e a morte dos animais foi em média de 12,7 dias. Os camundongos do grupo C e D não apresentaram infecção pelo parasita, sendo estes avaliados por 60 dias. Os ratos foram susceptíveis a infecção por T. evansi pela via oral; entretanto, os camundongos não se contaminaram com o protozoário por via digestiva.In this research, Trypanosoma evansi infection was tested in rats and mice by oral ingestion of contaminated blood. Groups of ten rats and ten mice were disposed in four experimental groups: A and B (rats, C and D (mice. The groups A and C were contaminated by rat-contaminated blood; B and C groups by mouse-contaminated blood. The blood was given using a probe filled with 0.2ml of contaminated blood with 10(7 trypanosomes ml-1. These animals were maintained at constant temperature and humidity (25°C and 80% UR. Dairy blood smear were done to identify the prepatent period and evolution of parasite in the circulation. In the A and B groups, the pre latency period varied from 19 to 25 days and the period of parasite detection and animals death was an average of 12.7 days. The C and D groups did not present infection by the parasite even when evaluated for 60 days

  6. Cardiac markers: profile in rats experimentally infected with Toxocara canis Marcadores cardíacos: perfil em ratos infectados experimentalmente com Toxocara canis

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    Cecília Braga Laposy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in Wistar rats infected with 250 (GI, n = 24 or 1000 (GII, n = 24 Toxocara canis eggs. Animals were evaluated on days 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 post-infection (DPI. Only the GI rats showed an increase in CK and CK-MB, at 15 and 30 DPI, respectively. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in infected animals. Despite of the presence of eosinophilic infiltrate in the heart of three infected animals, none larva was recovered from the organ neither by acid digestion nor by Baermann procedure. Eosinophilia was observed in both groups but there was no significant difference in the eosinophil counts between GI and GII (p = 0.2239. It is possible to consider that cardiac lesion is an eventual finding in murine model for toxocariasis.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o perfil das enzimas creatinoquinase (CK, creatinoquinase-MB (CK-MB e lactato desidrogenase (LDH em ratos Wistar infectados com 250 (GI, n = 24 ou 1000 (GII, n = 24 ovos de Toxocara canis. Os animais foram avaliados nos dias 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 e 180 pós-infecção (DPI. Observou-se que apenas os animais do GI apresentaram aumento da atividade de CK e CK-MB aos 15 e 30 DPI, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-T. canis foram detectados por ELISA nos animais infectados. Apesar da presença de infiltrado eosinofílico em três animais infectados, nenhuma larva foi recuperada do coração pela digestão ácida ou pela técnica de Baermann. Eosinofilia foi observada em todos os momentos em GI e GII, sem diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,2239. Pode-se considerar que as lesões cardíacas foram um achado eventual no modelo murino para toxocaríase.

  7. Evaluation of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate, hepcidin and cardiovascular damage biomarkers (cardiac troponin I and homocysteine) in rats infected with brucellosis and vaccinated (Rev-1, RB-51).

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    Azimzadeh, Kaveh; Nasrollahi Nargesabad, Reza; Vousooghi, Nasim

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis is known as one of important zoonosis. Studying the histological and biochemical effects of the disease could help to increase our knowledge about it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes of plasma parameters after intraperitoneal injection of two species of Brucella (Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus) and two vaccines (Rev-1, RB-51) in the rat. Forty male rats were divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group). Two groups received suspensions of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis and two other groups were injected intraperitoneally with two mentioned vaccines and the last group received only distilled water. The results showed a significant increase in sphingosine 1-phosphate, Malondialdehyde, hepcidin, homocysteine, cardiac troponin I and copper levels and a considerable decrease in the levels of iron and zinc (P ≤ 0.01) in infected groups compared to the control animals. In vaccinated groups, hepcidin was increased but other parameters were not changed in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that increase of homocysteine and cardiac troponin I in brucellosis could be a warning for cardiac adverse effects. Besides, increase of sphingosine 1-phosphate probably indicates its stimulant and modulatory effects in anti- Brucellosis biochemical pathways of the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nippostronglylus brasiliensis infection in the rat: effect of iron and protein deficiency and dexamethasone on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics.

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    Duncombe, V M; Bolin, T D; Davis, A E; Kelly, J D

    1977-01-01

    Malnutrition, anaemia, and gut parasites are commonly interrelated. Using the Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-rat model, the effect of iron and protein deficiency on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics was studied. It was demonstrated that the anthelmintics mebendazole and fenbendazole were significantly less effective in eradicating parasites when animals were deficient in iron and protein. This decreased efficacy of anthelmintics in iron and protein deficiency could not be overcome by intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Since nutritional deficiencies may act via impairment of the immune response, anthelmintic efficacy was determined in adequately nourished rats treated with the immunosuppressive drug dexamethasone. A similar decrease in efficacy of mebendazole was shown when these animals were treated with dexamethasone. Thus it is possible that lowered anthelmintic efficacy in iron and protein deficient animals is mediated by immune deficiency. These findings may be relevant to anthelmintic programmes in malnourished communities. PMID:590849

  9. Exploring the Anti-quorum Sensing and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Phytol against Serratia marcescens Associated Acute Pyelonephritis Infection in Wistar Rats

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    Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Mohankumar, Ramar; Kannappan, Arunachalam; Karthick Raja, Veeramani; Archunan, Govindaraju; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanism, a bacterial density-dependent gene expression system, governs the Serratia marcescens pathogenesis through the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. The present study demonstrates the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS), antibiofilm potential and in vivo protective effect of phytol, a diterpene alcohol broadly utilized as food additive and in therapeutics fields. In vitro treatment of phytol (5 and 10 μg/ml) showed decreasing level of biofilm formation, lipase and hemolysin production in S. marcescens compared to their respective controls. More, microscopic analyses confirmed the antibiofilm potential of phytol. The biofilm related phenomenons such as swarming motility and exopolysccharide productions were also inhibited by phytol. Furthermore, the real-time analysis elucidated the molecular mechanism of phytol which showed downregulation of fimA, fimC, flhC, flhD, bsmB, pigP, and shlA gene expressions. On the other hand, the in vivo rescue effect of phytol was assessed against S. marcescens associated acute pyelonephritis in Wistar rat. Compared to the infected and vehicle controls, the phytol treated groups (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed decreased level of bacterial counts in kidney, bladder tissues and urine samples on the 5th post infection day. As well, the phytol treatment showed reduced level of virulence enzymes such as lipase and protease productions compared to the infected and vehicle controls. Further, the infected and vehicle controls showed increasing level of inflammatory markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) productions. In contrast, the phytol treatment showed decreasing level of inflammatory markers. In histopathology, the uninfected animal showed normal kidney and bladder structure, wherein, the infected animals showed extensive infiltration of neutrophils in kidney and bladder tissues. In contrast, the phytol treatment showed normal kidney and bladder tissues

  10. Crenosoma vulpis infection in a four-month old puppy

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    Matos B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a diagnostic and treatment challenge in a four-month old dog from England, presented with one-month history of unproductive cough. Antigen blood test for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection was negative. Thoracic radiographs revealed a generalised bronchointerstitial pattern and bronchoscopy showed moving nematodes in the mucus of the bronchial wall. Additionally, Baermann technique revealed a high burden of larvae per gram of faeces. Morphological and molecular analyses confirmed that they were first stage larvae of Crenosoma vulpis. The infection was firstly treated with a spot-on solution containing 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin, but the dog was still positive after 13 days. Therefore, a seven-day course of fenbendazole was prescribed. This represents one of the youngest dogs ever reported naturally infected by C. vulpis. The scant number of reported cases of crenosomosis has led practitioners to consider it as a rare parasitic disease in dogs, delaying a correct and targeted on-time diagnosis. Further studies are needed to perceive the real prevalence of this lungworm and to understand if it is a rare parasite or just rarely diagnosed.

  11. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  12. Repression of tax expression is associated both with resistance of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected T cells to killing by tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and with impaired tumorigenicity in a rat model.

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    Nomura, Machiko; Ohashi, Takashi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Furuta, Rika A; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hanabuchi, Shino; Harashima, Nanae; Masuda, Takao; Kannagi, Mari

    2004-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Although the viral transactivation factor, Tax, has been known to have apparent transforming ability, the exact function of Tax in ATL development is still not clear. To understand the role of Tax in ATL development, we introduced short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Tax in a rat HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. Our results demonstrated that expression of siRNA targeting Tax successfully downregulated Tax expression. Repression of Tax expression was associated with resistance of the HTLV-1-infected T cells to Tax-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte killing. This may be due to the direct effect of decreased Tax expression, because the Tax siRNA did not alter the expression of MHC-I, CD80, or CD86. Furthermore, T cells with Tax downregulation appeared to lose the ability to develop tumors in T-cell-deficient nude rats, in which the parental HTLV-1-infected cells induce ATL-like lymphoproliferative disease. These results indicated the importance of Tax both for activating host immune response against the virus and for maintaining the growth ability of infected cells in vivo. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms how the host immune system can survey and inhibit the growth of HTLV-1-infected cells during the long latent period before the onset of ATL.

  13. AtlA Mediates Extracellular DNA Release, Which Contributes to Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation in an Experimental Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis.

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    Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chia, Jean-San

    2017-09-01

    Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (Δ atlA ) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S. mutans GS5 floes during biofilm formation on damaged heart valves, but an Δ atlA strain could not form bacterial aggregates. Semiquantification of eDNA by PCR with bacterial 16S rRNA primers demonstrated that the Δ atlA mutant strain produced dramatically less eDNA than the wild type. Similar results were observed with in vitro biofilm models. The addition of polyanethol sulfonate, a chemical lysis inhibitor, revealed that eDNA release mediated by bacterial cell lysis is required for biofilm initiation and maturation in the wild-type strain. Supplementation of cultures with calcium ions reduced wild-type growth but increased eDNA release and biofilm mass. The effect of calcium ions on biofilm formation was abolished in Δ atlA cultures and by the addition of polyanethol sulfonate. The VicK sensor, but not CiaH, was found to be required for the induction of eDNA release or the stimulation of biofilm formation by calcium ions. These data suggest that calcium ion-regulated AtlA maturation mediates the release of eDNA by S. mutans , which contributes to biofilm formation in infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection

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    Mukesh K. Yadav

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM. During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation.Methods:Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39ΔluxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively. Biofilm structures and colonization and epithelial damage were evaluated at the ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Microarrays were used to investigate the global genes that were regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during biofilm formation.Results: The biofilm biomass and density of D39ΔluxS were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than those of D39 wild-type. SEM and confocal microscopy revealed that D39ΔluxS formed thin biofilms in vitro compared with D39 wild-type. The in vivo model of middle ear infection showed that D39ΔluxS resulted in ~60% less (p < 0.05 bacterial colonization than the wild-type. SEM analysis of the rat middle ears revealed dense biofilm-like cell debris deposited on the cilia in wild-type D39-infected rats. However, little cell debris was deposited in the middle ears of the D39ΔluxS-inoculated rats, and the cilia were visible. cDNA-microarray analysis revealed 117 differentially expressed genes in D39ΔluxS compared with D39 wild-type. Among the 66 genes encoding putative proteins and previously characterized proteins, 60 were significantly downregulated, whereas 6 were upregulated. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in

  15. GIS-based environmental analysis of fox and canine lungworm distribution: an epidemiological study of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes from Slovakia.

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    Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Druga, Michal; Hurníková, Zuzana; Valentová, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study. Models for A. vasorum revealed some weak influence of environmental variables, as it tends to occur in drier areas with lower proportion of forest. Moreover, A. vasorum shows a typical spatial clustering and occurs in endemic foci identified mainly in the eastern part of Slovakia. A cluster of A. vasorum infection foci was also found in the north-eastern region, where the average winter air temperature regularly falls below - 10 °C.

  16. Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat α2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae

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    Ogata Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1. The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi- bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin

  17. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model.

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    Boukhvalova, Marina; McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C G; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-10-01

    Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the recent failure of GSK

  18. Resposta eritropoética de ratos em diferentes graus de parasitemia por Trypanosoma evansi Erithropoietic response in Trypanosoma evansi infected rats with different parasitaemia intensity

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    Patrícia Wolkmer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Trypanosoma evansi é um protozoário hemoflagelado que causa, em várias espécies, uma doença caracterizada por altos níveis de parasitemia, com rápido desenvolvimento de anemia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a relação entre o grau de parasitemia e a alteração na eritropoese de ratos (Rattus norvegicus da linhagem Wistar infectados experimentalmente com T. evansi. Foram utilizados 42 ratos, dos quais 36 foram inoculados pela via intraperitoneal com 0,2ml de sangue, contendo 2,5 x 104 parasitas. Seis ratos não-inoculados foram utilizados como controles. Após inoculação, a parasitemia foi avaliada a cada 12h. Os grupos para análise foram estipulados de acordo com a média de tripanossomas em 10 campos homogêneos focados aleatoriamente, sendo: A, controle; B, animais que apresentaram um grau de parasitemia entre 1-10 tripanossomas/campo; C, ratos com 11-20 tripanossomas/campo; D, ratos com 21-30 tripanossomas/campo; E, ratos com 31-40 tripanossomas/campo; F, 41-50 tripanossomas/campo; e G, ratos com mais de 51 tripanossomas/campo. Quando os animais apresentaram o número de protozoários equivalente ao grupo, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para realização de hemograma e dosagem de ferro, e foi realizada citologia de medula óssea para avaliação da relação mielóide:eritróide. A análise estatística mostrou redução significativa das hemácias e do hematócrito a partir de 31 tripanossomas/campo (grupos E, F e G; PTrypanosoma evansi is a flagellate protozoan that causes a disease characterized by high parasitemia and acute anemia in various species. This study was aimed at evaluating and establishing a relationship between different parasitemia levels and eritropoyesis in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by T. evansi. Forty two animals were used. In 36 animals parasites were inoculated by intraperitoneal blood injection of 0.2ml containing 2.5x104 parasites. Six non-inoculated animals

  19. Fosfomycin Addition to Poly(D,L-Lactide Coating Does Not Affect Prophylaxis Efficacy in Rat Implant-Related Infection Model, But That of Gentamicin Does.

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    Anil Gulcu

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is the preferred antimicrobial agent used in implant coating for the prevention of implant-related infections (IRI. However, the present heavy local and systemic administration of gentamicin can lead to increased resistance, which has made its future use uncertain, together with related preventive technologies. Fosfomycin is an alternative antimicrobial agent that lacks the cross-resistance presented by other classes of antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis of 10% fosfomycin-containing poly(D,L-lactide (PDL coated K-wires in a rat IRI model and compared it with uncoated (Control 1, PDL-coated (Control 2, and 10% gentamicin-containing PDL-coated groups with a single layer of coating. Stainless steel K-wires were implanted and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300 suspensions (103 CFU/10 μl were injected into a cavity in the left tibiae. Thereafter, K-wires were removed and cultured in tryptic soy broth and then 5% sheep blood agar mediums. Sliced sections were removed from the tibiae, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and semi-quantitatively evaluated with X-rays. The addition of fosfomycin into PDL did not affect the X-ray and histopathological evaluation scores; however, the addition of gentamicin lowered them. The addition of gentamicin showed a protective effect after the 28th day of X-ray evaluations. PDL-only coating provided no protection, while adding fosfomycin to PDL offered a 20% level protection and adding gentamicin offered 80%. Furthermore, there were 103 CFU level growths in the gentamicin-added group, while the other groups had 105. Thus, the addition of fosfomycin to PDL does not affect the efficacy of prophylaxis, but the addition of gentamicin does. We therefore do not advise the use of fosfomycin as a single antimicrobial agent in coating for IRI prophylaxis.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine on the proliferative responses of splenocytes from T. cruzi-infected rats Efeito imunomodulatório da cimetidina sobre a resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos de ratos infectados por T. cruzi

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    M.N. Sato

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine (CIM, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in respect to the blastogenic response to Con A of Wistar Furth (WF rats infected by the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Enhancement of blastogenesis of normal splenocytes was observed at a concentration of 10-3M. However, the splenocytes from infected animals responded to concentrations of CIM ranging from 10-8 to 10-3M. The mitogenic response to Con A of cells from infected animals was restored in the presence of CIM. The results show that CIM modulates the "in vitro" proliferative response of cells from T. cruzi-infected rats and suggest an immunoregulatory role of histamine and/or of cells that express H2 receptors in this infection.O efeito imunomodulatório da Cimetidine (CIM, um antagonista do receptor de histamina-tipo 2, foi avaliado na resposta blastogênica a Con A em células de ratos Wistar Furth (WF infectados pela cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Foi observado que apenas na concentração de 10-3M de Cimetidine houve amplificação da resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos normais a Con A. Entretanto, a capacidade mitogênica de esplenócitos de animais infectados foi restaurada na presença de molaridades da droga que variaram entre 10-8 a 10-3. Os resultados demonstraram que a CIM tem o potencial de modular a resposta mitogênica de células de animais infectados pelo T. cruzi, sugerindo um papel imunoregulatório da histamina e/ou células que expressam receptores H2 nesta infecção.

  1. Efecto de la reinfección sobre la evolución de ratas infectadas con Trypanosoma cruzi Effect of reinfection on the evolution of rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Revelli

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comprobar si una de las variables medio-ambientales, la reinfección, puede modificar el comportamiento observado en un modelo de rata a nivel de parasitemia, anticuerpos séricos, manifestaciones electrocardiográficas y/o lesión miocárdica. Los grupos experimentales fueron: GI: ratas infectadas al destete con 1 x 10(6 T. cruzi; GR: igual a GI más reinfecciones cada 30 días hasta los 150 días post-infección inicial (p.i.i.; GI1 ratas de 51 días infectadas; GT: testigos. Se detectó parasitemia alta en GI y GR hasta los 20 días p.i.i. tendiendo a negativizarse al día 30. En GR no se observaron parásitos despúes del primer reinóculo, resistencia que no es debida sólo a la mayor edad del huésped pués hubo parasitemia en GI1. Los xenodiagnósticos fueron negativos en los tres grupos. Los anticuerpos séricos no se modificaron significativamente en GR respecto de GI, salvo en los anticuerpos 7S, pues los del GR presentaron títulos superiores en algunos de los días estudiados. Los ECG basales no mostraron cambios distintivos en las ratas infectadas. La prueba de ajmalina mostró una disminución de la FC independiente del tratamiento; el PR, QaT y QRS se prolongaron significativamente en todos los grupos respecto del basal (p The present study was undertaken in order to demonstrate that reinfection could modify parasitemia, serum antibodies, electrocardiographic patterns and/or myocardial lesions already observed in a rat model. Experimental groups IG: rats infected at weaning with 1 x 10(6 T. cruzi; RG: same as IG plus reinoculations each 30 days until completion on day 150; IG1: 51 day old infected rats; C: controls. A high parasitemia was detected in IG and RG until day 20 showing a tendency to become negative on day 30. No parasites were observed in RG after the first reinoculation which could not be attributed to the old age of the host since there was no parasitemia in IG1. Xenodiagnoses were

  2. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  3. In vitro and in vivo antivirus activity of an anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 rat-bovine chimeric antibody against bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Nishimori

    Full Text Available Programmed death-1 (PD-1, an immunoinhibitory receptor on T cells, is known to be involved in immune evasion through its binding to PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 in many chronic diseases. We previously found that PD-L1 expression was upregulated in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV and that an antibody that blocked the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction reactivated T-cell function in vitro. Therefore, this study assessed its antivirus activities in vivo. First, we inoculated the anti-bovine PD-L1 rat monoclonal antibody 4G12 into a BLV-infected cow. However, this did not induce T-cell proliferation or reduction of BLV provirus loads during the test period, and only bound to circulating IgM+ B cells until one week post-inoculation. We hypothesized that this lack of in vivo effects was due to its lower stability in cattle and so established an anti-PD-L1 rat-bovine chimeric antibody (Boch4G12. Boch4G12 was able to bind specifically with bovine PD-L1, interrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, and activate the immune response in both healthy and BLV-infected cattle in vitro. Therefore, we experimentally infected a healthy calf with BLV and inoculated it intravenously with 1 mg/kg of Boch4G12 once it reached the aleukemic (AL stage. Cultivation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs isolated from the tested calf indicated that the proliferation of CD4+ T cells was increased by Boch4G12 inoculation, while BLV provirus loads were significantly reduced, clearly demonstrating that this treatment induced antivirus activities. Therefore, further studies using a large number of animals are required to support its efficacy for clinical application.

  4. Combined Cytolytic Effects of a Vaccinia Virus Encoding a Single Chain Trimer of MHC-I with a Tax-Epitope and Tax-Specific CTLs on HTLV-I-Infected Cells in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia (ATL is a malignant lymphoproliferative disease caused by human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I. To develop an effective therapy against the disease, we have examined the oncolytic ability of an attenuated vaccinia virus (VV, LC16m8Δ (m8Δ, and an HTLV-I Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL line, 4O1/C8, against an HTLV-I-infected rat T cell line, FPM1. Our results demonstrated that m8Δ was able to replicate in and lyse tumorigenic FPM1 cells but was incompetent to injure 4O1/C8 cells, suggesting the preferential cytolytic activity toward tumor cells. To further enhance the cytolysis of HTLV-I-infected cells, we modified m8Δ and obtained m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L, which can express a single chain trimer (SCT of rat major histocompatibility complex class I with a Tax-epitope. Combined treatment with m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L and 4O1/C8 increased the cytolysis of FPM1V.EFGFP/8R cells, a CTL-resistant subclone of FPM1, compared with that using 4O1/C8 and m8Δ presenting an unrelated peptide, suggesting that the activation of 4O1/C8 by m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L further enhanced the killing of the tumorigenic HTLV-I-infected cells. Our results indicate that combined therapy of oncolytic VVs with SCTs and HTLV-I-specific CTLs may be effective for eradication of HTLV-I-infected cells, which evade from CTL lysis and potentially develop ATL.

  5. Neuronal counting and parasympathetic dysfunction in the hearts of chronically Trypanosoma cruzi - infected rats Contagem neuronal e disfunção cardíaca parassimpática em ratos cronicamente infectados pelo Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapadeiro

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Ten male Wistar rats, chronically infected with Colombian, São Felipe (12SF and Y strains of Trypanosoma cruzi and ten non-infected control animals were submitted to the bradycardia responsiveness test, an assessment of heart parasympathetic function, after phenylephrine injection. Six chagasic animals showed heart parasympathetic dysfuntion characterized by reduction in the index of bradycardia baroreflex responsiveness, as compared with the control group. Microscopic examination of the atrial heart ganglia of chagasic rats showed ganglionitis, but no statiscally significant reduction in the number of neurons.Dez ratos machos Wistar cronicamente infectados pelas cepas Colombiana, São Felipe (12SF, e Y do Trypanosoma cruzi, foram submetidos, após 8 meses de infecção, juntamente com dez animais controles, ao teste da resposta bradicárdica barorreflexa pela injeção endovenosa de fenilefrina. Seis ratos chagásicos exibiram disfunção cardíaca parassimpática, caracterizada pela depressão do índice da resposta bradicárdica barorreflexa. Embora o estudo histológico dos corações chagásicos mostrasse lesões dos gânglios atriais, a contagem dos neurônios em cortes seriados, não apresentou redução numérica significativa dos mesmos.

  6. Effects of quorum sensing system lasR/rhlR gene on the expression of Foxp3, TGF-β1 and IL-10 of lung tissue in tracheal intubation model rat with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-qing XIANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of lasR/rhlR gene on Foxp3, TGF-β1 and IL-10 of lung tissue in rat tracheal intubation model with biofilm infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. aer wild strain (PAO1 and quorum sensing (QS deficient strain (ΔlasRΔrhlR. Methods  Twenty-one SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (7 each: ΔlasRΔrhlR-treated group, PAO1-treated group and sterile control group. Biofilms (BF were cultured in vitro, and the BF coated tube (infected respectively with Ps. aer PAO1 strain, ΔlasRΔrhlR strain, or with asepsis was inserted into the trachea to establish the rat model. The rats were sacrificed on the 7th day after intubation. Colony count of lung tissue homogenate (cfu and lung HE staining were performed, and IL-10 content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, TGF-β1 in lung tissue, and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in lung cells were determined. Results  The bacterial counts were significantly higher in PAO1 and ΔlasRΔrhlR groups than that in sterile control group, and the counts were obviously higher in PAO1 group (10 400.00±6313.70/g lung tissue than that in ΔlasRΔrhlR group (975.00±559.97/g lung tissue, P<0.05. There was no significant pathological changes in lung tissue in sterile control group, while the bronchi and blood vessels in PAO1 group were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells and complicated with alveolar septum thickening and local abscess and necrosis. The pathological changes were milder in ΔlasRΔrhlR group than in PAO1 group; the expression of Foxp3 mRNA was higher in the two Ps. aer infected groups than that in sterile control group (0.65±0.32, and it was significantly higher in PAO1 group (4.62±1.07 than in ΔlasRΔrhlR group (2.15±1.43, P<0.05. The accumulated optical density value of TGF-β1 was significantly higher in the two Ps. aer infected groups than in sterile control group (3721.66±1412.95, and significantly higher in PAO1 group (65 090.56±33

  7. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  8. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  9. Effect of Tetracycline on Late-stage African trypanosomiasis in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Tetracycline on Late-stage African trypanosomiasis in Rats. T.O. Johnson, J.T. Ekanem. Abstract. The effect of tetracycline on late stage African trypanosomiasis was examined in an in vivo experiment using rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Infected rats were treated on the 5th day of infection with ...

  10. Assessment of Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extracts on Dopamine and Selected Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Stomach and Brain of Salmonella typhimurium Infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmàn, David Calderón; Herrera, Maribel Ortiz; Brizuela, Norma Osnaya; Mejía, Gerardo Barragàn; García, Ernestina Hernàndez; Olguín, Hugo Juàrez; Peraza, Armando Valenzuela; Ruíz, Norma Labra; Del Angel, Daniel Santamaría

    2017-01-01

    The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium ( S.Typh ) (1 × 10 6 colony-forming units/rat) group 3; oseltamivir (100 mg/kg) + S.Typh (same dose) group 4. Drug and extracts were administered intraperitoneally every 24 h for 5 days, and S.Typh was given orally on days 1 and 3. On the fifth day, blood was collected to measure glucose and hemoglobin. The brains and stomachs were obtained to measure levels of DA, 5-HIAA, glutathione (GSH), TBARS, H 2 O 2 , and total ATPase activity using validated methods. DA levels increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir alone but decreased in no-MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh . 5-HIAA, GSH, and H 2 O 2 decreased in this last group, and ATPase activity increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh . TBARS (lipid peroxidation) increased in MAR group that received oseltamivir alone. Most of the biomarkers were not altered significantly in the stomach. MAR extract alters DA and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young animals infected. Antioxidant capacity may be involved in these effects. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Results: Mexican arnica and rosemary extract alter dopamine and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young animals infected. Antioxidant capacity may be

  11. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  12. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  13. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...

  14. EFFECT OF TOBRACEF IN CARBAPENEM RESISTANT PNEUMONIA INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahmad, V.K. Dwivedi * , and M. Chaudhary

    2010-01-01

    To determine ef ect of Tobracef and imipenem drug on antioxidant enzyme actvity and lipid peroxidation leveland some biochemical parametrs in carbapenem resistant pneumonia infection rat model. Total 40 rats wereselected and diveded into 4 groups of 10 rats each. Group I was control group; group II was infected via A.baumanni bacterial strain. Group III and IV were infected plus treated group with tobracef and imipenemdrugs.Our results showed that a significant (p

  15. A preliminary investigations on infective parasites in King rat snakes(Elaphe carinata and Red-banded wolf snakes(Dinodon rufozonatum in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Youling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the infective status of parasites in snakes from Shanghai,19 snakes from 2 species ( 9 Dinodon rufozonatum and 10 Elaphe carinata confiscated from the market were dissected.The viscera (body,subcutaneous,muscles,heart,lungs,liver,stomach,intestinal organs and blood smears of the snakes were examined.The parasites from these viscera were collected and observed by microscope.The results showed nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were found,but no ectoparasites,trematodes and acanthocephalan.The parasitic infection rate of snakes checked was 100%.The infection rate of nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were 77.88%,100%,0 in Dinodon rufozonatum and 100%,100%,100% in Elaphe carinata, respectively.A total of 192 nematodes and 1236 tapeworms were collected in 19 snakes,and 69.79% of nematodes and 86.55% of tapeworms were from Elaphe carinata.According to the viscera,93.20% of tapeworms were found in subcutaneous and 65.63% of nematodes in stomach.The results indicated the parasitic infection rate and intensity of snakes from Shanghai market were very high.Sparganum mansoni found in this investigation was zoonotic parasite,and it is easy to infect humans through eating snake skin,meat and gall.Therefore,protecting wild animals like snakes is also to protect human themselves.

  16. Influence of ceftriaxone treatment on fdg uptake - an in vivo [18f]-fluorodeoxyglucose imaging study in soft tissue infections in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, Matthias T.; Honer, Michael; Spaeth, Nicolas; Gottschalk, Jochen; Ametamey, Simon M.; Weber, Bruno; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Buck, Alfred; Kaim, Achim H.

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of antibiotic treatment using ceftriaxone on [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in experimental soft tissue infections. PET scans were performed in two groups (treated n=4; non-treated n=4) at days 3, 5, and 6 after inoculation of the infection. Additional autoradiography was performed in four animals at day 7 and in three animals at day 11. The difference of FDG uptake on day 5 (after three days of antibiotic treatment) between both groups proved to be significant (df=6; T=2.52; p=0.045). FDG uptake determined at the other days did not reveal significant difference between the two groups. It seems to be possible that the effect of antibiotic treatment on FDG uptake is less evident than reported for therapy monitoring of cancer treatment. The change of FDG uptake over time in treated and untreated infections is complex and further in vivo experiments have to be initiated to investigate the potential value of clinical FDG PET in therapy monitoring of infection

  17. Rat bite fever in a pet lover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, B B; Paller, A S; Katz, B Z

    1998-02-01

    Rat-bite fever is an uncommon bacterial illness resulting from infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis that is often transmitted by the bite of a rat. The cutaneous findings in rat-bite fever are nonspecific but have been described as maculopapular or petechial. We describe a 9-year-old girl with acrally distributed hemorrhagic pustules, fever, and arthralgias. Diagnosis was delayed because of difficulty in identifying the pathologic organism. She was successfully treated with 10 days of ceftriaxone.

  18. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  19. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Baek, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  20. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    Test). Preliminary results based on one fourth of the captured rats indicate, that the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira infected sewer rats are relatively high, as 28 out 48 rats were positive by PCR. This suggests that the sewer could be an environment representing high prevalence of leptospira...... among rats and thus an environment with high risk of transmission....

  1. Rat bite fever without fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  2. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outbreaks The Road to Zero The Trouble with Tiny Turtles What is Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus) Disease? Zika ... Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy ...

  4. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...

  5. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...

  6. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  7. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...

  8. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  9. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3 H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection. 3 H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  10. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  11. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  12. Effect of chromic γ-irradiation with small doses on candidiasis development in white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berchev, K.; Krushkov, Iv.

    1976-01-01

    Rats continuously exposed to 2 rads/day during eight months (cumulative dose of 400 rads) and nonirradiated rats were infected with a candida cells administered intravenously. All the irradiated animals died ten days after infection while only ten per cent of the control animals died for the same period of time. A morphological study has revealed candidiasis in the irradiated rats; changes, mainly in the kidneys, and formation of candidiasis granulomas have been detected in the control animals

  13. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi , a parasite from the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Meng, Yu; Guo, Yan-Mei; Liao, Jie-Ying; Song, Jing-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Transmission experiments were performed to elucidate the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi found in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in China. Two king rat snakes ( Elaphe carinata ) fed sarcocysts from the muscles of 4 naturally infected Norway rats shed sporocysts measuring 10.8 ± 0.7 × 8.0 ± 0.7 µm, with a prepatent period of 8-9 days. Sporocysts from the intestine of 2 experimentally infected king rat snakes were given to the laboratory Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ( R. norvegicus ) and Kunming (KM) mice ( Mus musculus ). Microscopic sarcocysts developed in the skeletal muscles of SD rats. No sarcocysts were observed in KM mice. Characters of ultrastructure and molecule of sarcocysts from SD rats were confirmed as S. zuoi . Our results indicate that king rat snake is the definitive host of S. zuoi .

  14. A Naturally Transmitted Epitheliotropic Polyomavirus Pathogenic in Immunodeficient Rats: Characterization, Transmission, and Preliminary Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Pesavento, Patricia; Hamilton, Shari; Bauer, Beth; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric; Livingston, Robert; Cushing, Susan; Watanabe, Rie; Levin, Stephen; Berger, Diana; Myles, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality. Large basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in epithelium of the respiratory tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, uterus, and prostate gland. Unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing of lesioned tissues identified a novel polyomavirus, provisionally named Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), which clustered with Washington University (WU) polyomavirus in the Wuki clade of the Betapolyomavirus genus. In situ hybridization analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results demonstrated viral nucleic acids in epithelium of respiratory, glandular, and reproductive tissues. Polyomaviral disease was reproduced in Foxn1 rnu nude rats cohoused with infected rats or experimentally inoculated with virus. After development of RatPyV2-specific diagnostic assays, a survey of immune-competent rats from North American research institutions revealed detection of RatPyV2 in 7 of 1,000 fecal samples by PCR and anti-RatPyV2 antibodies in 480 of 1,500 serum samples. These findings suggest widespread infection in laboratory rat populations, which may have profound implications for established models of respiratory injury. Additionally, RatPyV2 infection studies may provide an important system to investigate the pathogenesis of WU polyomavirus diseases of man.

  15. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  16. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  17. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  18. Brucella neotomae Infection in Humans, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Víquez-Ruiz, Eunice; Rojas-Campos, Norman; Baker, Kate S; Oviedo-Sánchez, Gerardo; Amuy, Ernesto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2017-06-01

    Several species of Brucella are known to be zoonotic, but B. neotomae infection has been thought to be limited to wood rats. In 2008 and 2011, however, B. neotomae was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 2 men with neurobrucellosis. The nonzoonotic status of B. neotomae should be reassessed.

  19. Mouse models of acute and chronic hepacivirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billerbeck, Eva; Wolfisberg, Raphael; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in labora...

  20. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  1. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment decreases the inflammatory response in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J

    1996-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by intraperitoneal treatment with recombinant rat interferon-gamma (rrIFN-gamma). Rats were treated either before or after intratracheal ch...

  2. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  3. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  4. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  5. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...

  6. Neonatal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...

  7. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  8. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...

  9. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...

  10. Puerperal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P

    1980-12-01

    This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis

  11. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  12. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Mane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India.

  13. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  14. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  15. Cerebral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  16. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, J.; Dargie, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  17. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  18. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  19. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Metapneumovirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...

  1. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  2. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  3. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  4. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  5. The effect of Syphacia muris on nutrient digestibility in laboratory rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, V.; Litvinec, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Horáková, B.; Sloup, V.; Jankovská, I.; Vadlejch, J.; Čadková, Z.; Borkovcová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 39-44 ISSN 0023-6772 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laboratory rat * Syphacia muris * infection * nutrient * digestibility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2016

  6. The rise of the rats: A growing paediatric issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchadourian, Karine; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Minodier, Philippe; Lamarre, Valérie; Lebel, Marc H; Tapiéro, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF), a systemic infection of Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus characterized by fever, arthralgias and petechial-purpuric rash on the extremities, carries a mortality rate of 7% to 10% if untreated. In Canada, one adult and two paediatric cases of RBF have been reported since 2000. In recent years, pet rats have become quite popular among children, placing them at an increased risk for RBF. Thus, paediatricians need to be more wary of the potential for RBF in their patients. In the present report, a culture-confirmed case of RBF and two additional cases of suspected infection are described. PMID:21358889

  7. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  8. The effect of preoperative internal and external biliary drainage on mortality of jaundiced rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Coelho, J. C.; Schlegel, J. F.; Li, Y. F.; Moody, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    Mortality following abdominal infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture was studied in rats with obstructive jaundice and after relief of the obstruction by preoperative internal or external biliary drainage. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used: common bile duct ligation (BDL),

  9. Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, D T; Ogra, P L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. Adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. By using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lun...

  10. Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathalingam Sinniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1–7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites.

  11. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  12. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p dogs to various types of endoparasitism while the variables breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), gender, and type of food were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall endoparasitism revealed that dogs >1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during

  13. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  14. Central Nervous System Infection with Borna Disease Virus Causes Kynurenine Pathway Dysregulation and Neurotoxic Quinolinic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Simone; Hornig, Mady; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Vasishtha, Mansi; Parsons, Loren H; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Williams, Brent L

    2017-07-15

    Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection. Gene expression analysis of rat brains following neonatal infection showed increased expression of kynurenine amino transferase II (KATII) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) enzymes. Additionally, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression was only modestly increased in a brain region- and time-dependent manner in neonatally infected rats; however, its expression was highly increased in adult infected rats. The most dramatic impact on gene expression was seen for KMO, whose activity promotes the production of neurotoxic quinolinic acid. KMO expression was persistently elevated in brain regions of both newborn and adult BDV-infected rats, with increases reaching up to 86-fold. KMO protein levels were increased in neonatally infected rats and colocalized with neurons, the primary target cells of BDV infection. Furthermore, quinolinic acid was elevated in neonatally infected rat brains. We further demonstrate increased expression of KATII and KMO, but not IDO, in vitro in BDV-infected C6 astroglioma cells. Our results suggest that BDV directly impacts the kynurenine pathway, an effect that may be exacerbated by inflammatory responses in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, experimental models of BDV infection may provide new tools for discriminating virus-mediated from immune-mediated impacts on the kynurenine pathway and their relative contribution to neurodegeneration. IMPORTANCE BDV causes persistent, noncytopathic infection in vitro yet still elicits

  15. Behavioral and neural effects of intra-striatal infusion of anti-streptococcal antibodies in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Dafna; Benhar, Itai; Alvarez, Kathy; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Brimberg, Lior; Frenkel, Dan; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Joel, Daphna

    2014-01-01

    Group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infection is associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The leading hypothesis regarding this association proposes that a GAS infection induces the production of auto-antibodies, which cross-react with neuronal determinants in the brain through the process of molecular mimicry. We have recently shown that exposure of rats to GAS antigen leads to the production of anti-neuronal antibodies concomitant with the development of behavioral alterations. The present study tested the causal role of the antibodies by assessing the behavior of naïve rats following passive transfer of purified antibodies from GAS-exposed rats. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from the sera of GAS-exposed rats was infused directly into the striatum of naïve rats over a 21-day period. Their behavior in the induced-grooming, marble burying, food manipulation and beam walking assays was compared to that of naïve rats infused with IgG purified from adjuvant-exposed rats as well as of naïve rats. The pattern of in vivo antibody deposition in rat brain was evaluated using immunofluorescence and colocalization. Infusion of IgG from GAS-exposed rats to naïve rats led to behavioral and motor alterations partially mimicking those seen in GAS-exposed rats. IgG from GAS-exposed rats reacted with D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and 5HT-2A and 5HT-2C serotonin receptors in vitro. In vivo, IgG deposits in the striatum of infused rats colocalized with specific brain proteins such as dopamine receptors, the serotonin transporter and other neuronal proteins. Our results demonstrate the potential pathogenic role of autoantibodies produced following exposure to GAS in the induction of behavioral and motor alterations, and support a causal role for autoantibodies in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24561489

  16. Infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénior, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.

  17. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  18. Systemic candidiasis in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A

    1996-01-01

    A reproducible model of a generalized Candida albicans infection was established in rats to allow a precise evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal compounds. In contrast to the intravenous C. albicans model in mice, which serves as a primary model for in vivo efficacy studies of antimycotic compounds, the infectious process in Sprague-Dawley rats is more severely spread into organs other than the kidneys, such as brain, heart, liver, lung, retina and spleen. Apart from a severe granulomatous nephritis beginning 1 day after infection, we observed a severe pneumonitis 3 days after infection with a mass of extravasal erythrocytes in the interstitium and the alveolar space. In addition, multiple nodular lesions could be observed in the brain, heart, liver, retina and spleen on the first day after infection. Lethality was 100% within 1 week, the majority of deaths occurring from 5 to 7 days. Antifungal therapy with amphotericin B or fluconazole led to long-term survival over 4 months, which could not be achieved in mice.

  19. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  20. Testing the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in the topical treatment of induced osteomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melicherčík, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Jahoda, David; Landor, Ivan; Ballay, Rastislav; Fulín, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Joint replacement infections and osteomyelitis are among the most serious complications in orthopaedics and traumatology. The risk factors for these infections are often bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. One of the few solutions available to control bacterial resistance involves antimicrobials, which have a different mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) appear to be highly promising candidates in the treatment of resistant infections. We have identified several AMP in the venom of various wild bees and designed analogues that show potent antimicrobial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of one of those synthetic peptide analogues for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis invoked in laboratory rats. Femoral cavities of 20 laboratory Wistar rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. After 1 week, eight rats received an injectable calcium phosphate carrier alone, another eight rats were treated with a calcium phosphate mixed with AMP, and four rats were left without any further treatment. After another week, all rats were euthanized and radiographs were made of both the operated and healthy limbs. The animals with the carrier alone exhibited more severe acute osteomyelitis on radiographs in comparison to the recipients of the calcium phosphate carrier loaded AMP and untreated infected individuals. Based on the results of the above mentioned experiment, it was concluded that when injected directly into the site of femoral acute osteomyelitis, the calcium phosphate carrier mixed with AMP reduced osteomyelitis signs visible on radiographs.

  1. UVB-induced decreased resistance to Trichinella spiralis in the rat is related to impaired cellular immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsch, W.; Garssen, J.; Loveren, H. van; Gruijl, F.R. de

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has demonstrated in preliminary experiments that UVB exposure using the Kromayer lamp can induce increased numbers of Trichinella spiralis larvae in carcasses of infected Wistar rats, without affecting specific antibody titers to this parasite. In this study, orally T.spiralis-infected Wistar rats were exposed to subery-thermal doses of UVB radiation using FS40 lamps during different time periods before or after infection. A significant increase in the number of T. spiralis larvae was found in the carcasses of rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Additionally, increased numbers of larvae were also detected histologically in the tongue of rats that were exposed the first and the second week after infection. Lymphocyte stimulation assays using mesenteral lymph node cells indicated that UVB exposure also impaired the specific lymphocyte response to T. spiralis. Moreover, DTH responses to T. spiralis were severely impaired in rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Thus, these data combined with the data of the Kromayer study indicate that exposure of rats to FS40 irradiation following oral infection with T. spiralis leads to increased numbers of larvae in systemic sites and impaired T-cell immunity to the parasite. (Author)

  2. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri de; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Feres, Magda; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ferreira, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  3. Inbred rats as a model to study persistent renal colonization and associated cellular immune responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection...

  4. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  5. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas. In Mexico, the higher number of murine typhus cases have ...

  6. Adrenergic blockade does not abolish elevated glucose turnover during bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, D.M.; Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Infusions of adrenergic antagonists were used to investigate the role of catecholamines in infection-induced elevations of glucose kinetics. Infection was produced in conscious catheterized rats by repeated subcutaneous injections of live Escherichia coli over 24 h. Glucose kinetics were measured by the constant intravenous infusion of [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose. Compared with noninfected rats, infected animals were hyperthermic and showed increased rates of glucose appearance, clearance, and recycling as well as mild hyperlacticacidemia. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were increased by 50-70% in the infected rats, but there were no differences in plasma glucagon, corticosterone, and insulin levels. Adrenergic blockade was produced by primed constant infusion of both propranolol (β-blocker) and phentolamine (α-blocker). A 2-h administration of adrenergic antagonists did not attenuate the elevated glucose kinetics or plasma lactate concentration in the infected rats, although it abolished the hyperthermia. In a second experiment, animals were infused with propranolol and phentolamine beginning 1 h before the first injection of E. coli and throughout the course of infection. Continuous adrenergic blockade failed to attenuate infection-induced elevations in glucose kinetics and plasma lactate. These results indicate that the adrenergic system does not mediate the elevated glucose metabolism observed in this mild model of infection

  7. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  8. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  9. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  10. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  11. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  12. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...

  13. Genetic line comparisons and genetic parameters for endoparasite infections and test-day milk production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; Scheper, Carsten; Strube, Christina; König, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Keeping dairy cows in grassland systems relies on detailed analyses of genetic resistance against endoparasite infections, including between- and within-breed genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different Black and White dairy cattle selection lines for endoparasite infections and (2) the estimation of genetic (co)variance components for endoparasite and test-day milk production traits within the Black and White cattle population. A total of 2,006 fecal samples were taken during 2 farm visits in summer and autumn 2015 from 1,166 cows kept in 17 small- and medium-scale organic and conventional German grassland farms. Fecal egg counts were determined for gastrointestinal nematodes (FEC-GIN) and flukes (FEC-FLU), and fecal larvae counts for the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus (FLC-DV). The lowest values for gastrointestinal nematode infections were identified for genetic lines adopted to pasture-based production systems, especially selection lines from New Zealand. Heritabilities were low for FEC-GIN (0.05-0.06 ± 0.04) and FLC-DV (0.05 ± 0.04), but moderate for FEC-FLU (0.33 ± 0.06). Almost identical heritabilities were estimated for different endoparasite trait transformations (log-transformation, square root). The genetic correlation between FEC-GIN and FLC-DV was 1.00 ± 0.60, slightly negative between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU (-0.10 ± 0.27), and close to zero between FLC-DV and FEC-FLU (0.03 ± 0.30). Random regression test-day models on a continuous time scale [days in milk (DIM)] were applied to estimate genetic relationships between endoparasite and longitudinal test-day production traits. Genetic correlations were negative between FEC-GIN and milk yield (MY) until DIM 85, and between FEC-FLU and MY until DIM 215. Genetic correlations between FLC-DV and MY were negative throughout lactation, indicating improved disease resistance for high-productivity cows. Genetic relationships between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU with milk

  14. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  15. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  16. What Is Infective Endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Infective Endocarditis? Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (IE) is an infection of either the heart’s inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. Infective endocarditis is a serious — and sometimes fatal — illness. Two ...

  17. Gonococcal Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.

  18. Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

  19. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  20. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  1. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  2. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  3. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  4. Pseudomonal breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastall, S; Catchpole, C; Bright-Thomas, R; Thrush, S

    2010-01-01

    Breast infection and breast sepsis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon. We report two cases of pseudomonal breast infection leading to septic shock and abscess formation in women with non-responding breast infection. The management of breast infection is broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultrasound with aspiration of any collection. To treat breast infection effectively, the causative organism must be isolated to enable appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:20412664

  5. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  6. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  7. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  8. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  9. Potential role of Saudi red propolis in alleviating lung damage induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiq, Amna Ali; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective impact of aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against rat lung damage induced by the pathogenic bacteria namely methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 6538 strain. Infected rats were received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bacterial suspension at a dose of 1 X 10(6) CFU / 100g body weight. Results showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of propolis (50mg/100g body weight) daily for two weeks to infected rats simultaneously with bacterial infection, effectively ameliorated the alteration of oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the antioxidant markers, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in lungs of infected rats compared with infected untreated ones. Also, the used propolis extract successfully modulated the alterations in proinflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum. In addition, the propolis extract successfully modulated the oxidative DNA damage and the apoptosis biomarker, caspase 3, in lungs of S aureus infected rats compared with infected untreated animals. The biochemical results were supported by histo-pathological observation of lung tissues. In conclusion, the beneficial prophylactic role of the aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against lung damage induced by methicillin resistant S aureus may be related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptosis of its active constituents.

  10. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  11. A Severe Case of Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis with Encephalitis and Neurologic Sequelae in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O‘ahu in Hawai‘i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

  12. Distinction of infected and non-infected post-surgical incisions with In-111-WBC scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if In-111-WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between healing and infection in post-surgical wounds, a prospective study was performed in patients with 3-14 day old surgical incisions. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were scanned 24 hrs after injection of 0.5 mCi of In-111 labeled autologous leukocytes. The scan findings were correlated with blood and/wound cultures results and diagnosis at time of discharge. Incisional uptake of In-111-WBCs was noted in 9 patients with infected surgical wounds and was absent in those 9 patients with non-infected surgical wounds. The results of the authors' study show that In-111-WBCs do not accumulate in non-infected surgical incisions. This confirms their previous findings in rats. The high specificity of In-111 leukocytes imaging makes it a valuable study in the evaluation of post-operative patients with suspected surgical wound infections. In-111 WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between normal healing and infection at the site of recent (3-14 days) surgical incisions

  13. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  14. Persistence of Trichinella spiralis in Rat Carcasses Experimentally Mixed in Different Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infected rat carcasses were incubated for 6 weeks in several animal feeds to assess how long Trichinella can present a risk for an outbreak in contaminated feeds. In groups of 6, 24 infected target rats were placed in silage, grained barley, propionic acid-preserved feed, and also into simulated pasture conditions. Test environments were sampled after one-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week-incubations. Trichinella larvae were recovered by digestion, and their infectivity was evaluated in rats. A two-week incubation reduced the number of recovered larvae, but still after 6 weeks low numbers were isolated from all feeds except from the experimental group simulating pasture conditions. After 2 weeks storage, the larvae were infective in all storage environments. However, up to 4 weeks, they survived only in the propionic acid-fermented feed and there in small numbers with reduced reproductive capability. This indicates the possibility of farm animals to get infection from rats or other infected material being hazardously mixed with hay or other feed. If silage is stored for at least one month before use, however, the risk from this forage appears to be minimized.

  15. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  16. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  17. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  18. Immunization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines and adjuvant can modulate the type of inflammatory response subsequent to infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Cryz, S J

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To study the possibility of preventing lung inflammation and decreasing the progression of the infection by vaccination, we have developed a rat model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. Rats were......, 2.0 versus 2.1 to 2.8) pathologic abnormalities were less severe in the control rats injected with sterile saline than in the immunized rats and the IFA group. The more severe lung abnormalities observed in immunized rats could be due to the result of immune complex-mediated lung tissue damage...... an acute-type inflammation to a chronic-type inflammation dominated by mononuclear leukocytes and scattered granulomas. Cross-reacting antibodies were induced by the two alginate vaccines, and most immunized animals developed a significant (P

  19. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...

  20. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  1. Blastocytosis hominis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases in places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Risk factors Blastocystis is common, and anyone can ... you have blastocystis or another gastrointestinal infection, good personal hygiene can help keep you from spreading the infection ...

  2. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  3. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  4. Infection After Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Hemsell

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.

  5. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  6. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / C. Difficile Infection C. Difficile Infection Basics Overview Diarrhea is a frequent ... that change the normal colon bacteria allowing the C. difficile bacteria to grow and produce its toxins. ...

  7. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  8. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...

  9. Treatment of Partial Thickness Burns with a Novel Extracellular Matrix in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    partial thickness burn was produced using a brass scale weight. Groups of 10 rats were randomly assigned to the various treatments . Jackets made from...Objectives: The objective this study was to examine the cellular and immune responses to various extracellular matrices (ECM) in a rat burn model...significant difference between treatments in terms of mean wound area (p = 0.77). Histologic examination revealed that all of the grafts were infected, with

  10. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  11. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  12. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  13. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  14. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  15. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  16. Aboriginal and invasive rats of genus Rattus as hosts of infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Khlyap, Lyudmila; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Morand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of ecology of zoonotic pathogens, the role of the Old World rats of the genus Rattus is exceptional. The review analyzes specific characteristics of rats that contribute to their important role in hosting pathogens, such as host-pathogen relations and rates of rat-borne infections, taxonomy, ecology, and essential factors. Specifically the review addresses recent taxonomic revisions within the genus Rattus that resulted from applications of new genetic tools in understanding relationships between the Old World rats and the infectious agents that they carry. Among the numerous species within the genus Rattus, only three species-the Norway rat (R. norvegicus), the black or roof rat (R. rattus), and the Asian black rat (R. tanezumi)-have colonized urban ecosystems globally for a historically long period of time. The fourth invasive species, R. exulans, is limited to tropical Asia-Pacific areas. One of the points highlighted in this review is the necessity to discriminate the roles played by rats as pathogen reservoirs within the land of their original diversification and in regions where only one or few rat species were introduced during the recent human history.

  17. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluháček, Tomáš; Petrík, M.; Luptáková, Dominika; Benada, Oldřich; Palyzová, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, 11-12 (2016), s. 1785-1792 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1509; GA ČR GAP206/12/1150 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Animal model * Aspergillosis * Biomedicine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  18. Parasitic Infections of the African Giant Rat ( Cricetomys Gambianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Reactivation of the Chagasic Infection in Wistar Rats in Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno B, Elio; Méndez I, Maidé; Alarcón M, Maritza; Araujo A, Sonia; Lugo de Yarbuh, Ana

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo investigamos en ratas Wistar crónicamente infectadas con Trypanosoma cruzi, la reactivación de la infección durante la gestación y después del parto, mediante un estudio parasitológico, inmunológico, histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Los resultados mostraron un control de las parasitemias patentes y/o subpatentes; títulos elevados de anticuerpos específicos anti-T. cruzi, detectándose en las ratas gestantes una disminución en los niveles de IgG y un incremento significativ...

  20. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  1. Toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcu, Doruk; Gebre, Rahiwa Z; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of local tetracycline on the microbiota of alveolar osteitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo de; Bosco, Álvaro Francisco; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Jardim Júnior, Elerson Gaetti

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of local tetracycline on the occurrence of alveolar osteitis in rats, and on the microbiota associated to this infection. Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10): I - the rats had the maxillary right incisor extracted and the alveolar wound did not receive any treatment; II - adrenaline and Ringer-PRAS were introduced into the alveolar wound; III - the alveolar wound was irrigated with sterile saline; and IV - the al...

  3. Localized cowpox infection in a 5-month-old Rottweiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bomhard, Wolf; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Breuer, Wolfram; Pfleghaar, Stephan; Nitsche, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are a sporadic cause of localized or disseminated skin disease in domestic animals and humans in Europe. Rodents are considered the primary reservoir host for CPXV. Cats can become infected by close contact with rodents and are the most important source of human infections. Recently, public awareness has also been drawn to CPXV infections by an outbreak of rat to human infections in central Europe. In dogs, CPXV infections are rare. Here we report a case of a 5-month-old Rottweiler with a focal nodule on the muzzle. The lesion was fully excised, and recovery was uneventful. The preliminary diagnosis of a CPXV infection was established by the characteristic inclusion bodies on histopathological examination. The diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of the PCR product led to a 231 bp sequence of the orthopoxvirus HA gene that was identical to a CPXV strain previously isolated from a cat. This is the third documented case of a canine CPXV infection. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Vaccination promotes TH1-like inflammation and survival in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Cryz, S J

    1995-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O-polysacc......In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O......-polysaccharide toxin A conjugate, or sterile saline. After challenge none of the rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A died, in contrast to the other two vaccine groups combined (p = 0.03). A significant reduction in the severity of the macroscopic lung inflammation was seen in rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A, compared...... predominantly PMNs (TH2-like) to a chronic-type inflammation dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (TH1-like). In accordance, the antibody titers induced by the D-ALG toxin A vaccine were not different from those of the control rats after challenge. This study identifies a possible new way of modifying...

  5. Resistance to reinfection in rats induced by irradiated metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Shi Quan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to observe the association between the resistance to reinfection induced by irradiated metacercariae (MC of Clonorchis sinensis and antigen specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine productions in rats. Rats were infected with 20 MC of C. sinensis, previously exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation, which varied from 0 to 100 Gy. All of them, single dose of 12 Gy showed higher IgG antibody titer with lowest worm recovery. Thus, 50 MC were used to challenge infection in rats previously infected with 20 MC irradiated at 12 Gy and the highest resistance to challenge infection was observed. The results of lymphocyte proliferation with specific antigen, ES Ag were shown no difference of proliferative responses as compared with primary and challenge infection at 12 Gy irradiation dose. In the case of cytokines production were observed that interferon (IFN-gamma and interlukin (IL-2 were significantly enhanced, while IL-4 and IL-10 was almost unchanged to make comparison between primary and secondary infection at 12 Gy irradiation dose. In conclusion, the single dose of 12 Gy could be adopted for induction of the highest resistance to challenge infection. Up-regulation of Th1 type cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-2 may be affected to develop vaccine by irradiated MC.

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.

  7. Effects by periodontitis on pristane-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kaja; Lönnblom, Erik; Tour, Gregory; Kats, Anna; Mydel, Piotr; Georgsson, Pierre; Hultgren, Catharina; Kharlamova, Nastya; Norin, Ulrika; Jönsson, Jörgen; Lundmark, Anna; Hellvard, Annelie; Lundberg, Karin; Jansson, Leif; Holmdahl, Rikard; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-11-03

    An infection-immune association of periodontal disease with rheumatoid arthritis has been suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-existing periodontitis on the development and the immune/inflammatory response of pristane-induced arthritis. We investigated the effect of periodontitis induced by ligature placement and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) infection, in combination with Fusobacterium nucleatum to promote its colonization, on the development of pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in rats (Dark Agouti). Disease progression and severity of periodontitis and arthritis was monitored using clinical assessment, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)/intraoral radiographs, antibody response, the inflammatory markers such as α-1-acid glycoprotein (α-1-AGP) and c-reactive protein (CRP) as well as cytokine multiplex profiling at different time intervals after induction. Experimentally induced periodontitis manifested clinically (P periodontitis-induction led to severe arthritis in all rats demonstrating that the severity of arthritis was not affected by the pre-existence of periodontitis. Endpoint analysis showed that 89% of the periodontitis-affected animals were positive for antibodies against arginine gingipain B and furthermore, the plasma antibody levels to a citrullinated P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD) peptide (denoted CPP3) were significantly (P periodontitis rats with PIA. Additionally, there was a trend towards increased pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and increased α-1-AGP levels in plasma from periodontitis-challenged PIA rats. Pre-existence of periodontitis induced antibodies against citrullinated peptide derived from PPAD in rats with PIA. However, there were no differences in the development or severity of PIA between periodontitis challenged and periodontitis free rats.

  8. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauder Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  9. Combination of Erythromycin and Curcumin Alleviates Staphylococcus aureus Induced Osteomyelitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Both erythromycin and curcumin can suppress S. aureus growth, but their roles in osteomyelitis are barely studied. We aim to explore the activities of erythromycin and curcumin against chronical osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Chronicle implant-induced osteomyelitis was established by MRSA infection in male Wistar rats. Four weeks after bacterial inoculation, rats received no treatment, erythromycin monotherapy, curcumin monotherapy, or erythromycin plus curcumin twice daily for 2 weeks. Bacterial levels, bone infection status, inflammatory signals and side effects were evaluated. Rats tolerated all treatments well, with no death or side effects such as, diarrhea and weight loss. Two days after treatment completion, erythromycin monotherapy did not suppress bacterial growth and had no effect in bone infection, although it reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6. Curcumin monotherapy slightly suppressed bacterial growth, alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Erythromycin and curcumin combined treatment markedly suppressed bacterial growth, substantially alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Combination of erythromycin and curcumin lead a much stronger efficiency against MRSA induced osteomyelitis in rats than monotherapy. Our study suggests that erythromycin and curcumin could be a new combination for treating MRSA induced osteomyelitis.

  10. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.

  11. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  12. Isolation, culture and intraportal transplantation of rat marrow stromal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Li Wentao; Lin Genlai; Hu Meiyu; Wang Yanhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the tracing and evolution of marrow stromal cell (MSC) after intraportal transplantation into the liver of homogenous rats, and to provide experimental data for MSC differentiation to hepatocyte in vivo. Methods: The MSC was isolated from the leg bone marrow of adult SD rats, and purified by culture-expanded in vitro. Before transplantation, MSC was labeled with DAPI. Then 10 5 MSC were intraportally transplanted into the homogenous rat liver. Rats were killed at 2 hours and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation. The cryosection samples of liver and lung were observed under fluorescence microscopy. Results: MSC in vitro culture had high ability of proliferation. Except 4 rats were dead because of abdominal bleeding or infection, other recipients were healthy until sacrificed. The implantation cells were detected by identifying the DAPI labeled MSC in the host livers, but not in the host lungs. Conclusion: Intraportal transplanted MSC could immigrate and survive in the host livers at least for 4 weeks. They could immigrate from the small branches of portal veins to hepatic parenchyma

  13. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  14. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  15. Detection of Leptospira in Rats Trapped from Households in Phraroj Village, Muang Sam Sip District, Ubon Ratchathani Province Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbutdee, Jaruwan; Jittimanee, Jutharat

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira, has been a health problem in Thailand for several years. Rats are a major reservoir host for Leptospira, and the people who are usually in contact with environments contaminated with rats' urine are at risk of infection. The prevalence rate of Leptospira infection in rats may result in the spread of leptospirosis in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate ofLeptospira infection in a total of 28 rats and develop a spatial database for leptospirosis surveillance in Phraroj village in Muang Sam Sip District, Ubon Ratchathani Province. The positions of the households and the rat-trapping area were tagged by using of a Global Positioning System (GPS). DNA samples were isolated fromn rats' kidneys. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for the detection of 16s rRNA and LipL32 genes specific to genus and pathogenic Leptospira respectively. All of the data were used to develop a geo-data base by the connection of spatial data and attributed data to be used for query and retrieval. A map of the positions of the households and the rat-trapping area in Phraroj village was created. No rats were found to be infected in the Leptospira survey. There was no trapped rat infected with Leptospira in Phraroj village. This result may involve unreported leptospirosis in patients in this village. The Leptospira survey in rats and the geo-database will be used as a primary resource to support and make decisions about surveillance, prevention, and control of leptospirosis.

  16. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke

    2016-01-01

    The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...

  17. Paediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G

    1996-09-28

    By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.

  18. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  19. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  20. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Rednak-Paradiž

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: CMV is the most common agent that causes congenital virus infection. Only 10 % of infected children have symptomatic infection immediately after birth. Signs of central nervous system damage, neurosensory deafness and delayed psychomotor development may manifest as a result of asimptomatic congenital infection later in childhood. In the article we present basic properties of CMV; we describe clinical picture of the congenital infection and possibilities of diagnose and its treatment. We present five children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection that were hospitalized for the period 1992–2002 at the Neonatal department in the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana.Conclusions: Identification of infected neonates, especially those with asimptomatic congenital CMV infection, is difficult. Latest incidence of infection in Slovenia is unknown. With new investigations the efficiency of antiviral therapy was discovered but exact indications for therapy are not yet known. CMV vaccine, once available, may ultimately be the best control strategy for this important public health problem. Proper educating women in childbearing age about the risks of CMV and how to avoid disease transmission during pregnancy (hand washing, avoiding mouth-to-mouth contact with preschool children, usage of gloves especially when handling dipers or respiratory secretions are the only control strategies available.

  1. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...

  2. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  3. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  4. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  5. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  6. Preclinical evaluation of two 68Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, Milos; Franssen, Gerben M.; Laverman, Peter; Haas, Hubertus; Schrettl, Markus; Hoertnagl, Caroline; Lass-Floerl, Cornelia; Helbok, Anna; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains high, mainly due to the difficulties and limitations in diagnosis. We have shown that siderophores can be labelled with 68 Ga and can be used for PET imaging of A. fumigatus infection in rats. Here we report on the further evaluation of the most promising 68 Ga-siderophore candidates, triacetylfusarinine (TAFC) and ferrioxamine E (FOXE). Siderophores were labelled with 68 Ga using acetate buffer. Log P, protein binding and stability values were determined. Uptake by A. fumigatus was studied in vitro in cultures with high and low iron loads. In vivo biodistribution was determined in normal mice and an infection model was established using neutropenic rats inoculated with A. fumigatus. Static and dynamic μPET imaging was performed and correlated with CT images, and lung infection was evaluated ex vivo. 68 Ga-siderophores were labelled with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. 68 Ga-TAFC and 68 Ga-FOXE showed high uptake by A. fumigatus in iron-deficient cultures. In normal mice, 68 Ga-TAFC and 68 Ga-FOXE showed rapid renal excretion with high metabolic stability. In the rat infection model focal lung uptake was detected by μPET with both compounds and increased with severity of the infection, correlating with abnormal CT images. 68 Ga-TAFC and 68 Ga-FOXE displayed excellent in vitro stability and high uptake by A. fumigatus. Both compounds showed excellent pharmacokinetics, highly selective accumulation in infected lung tissue and good correlation with severity of disease in a rat infection model, which makes them promising agents for A. fumigatus infection imaging. (orig.)

  7. Role of IL-12 and IFN-γ in immune response to toxoplasma gondii infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.; ElGawish, M.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Interlenkin 12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that is critically involved in a wide range of diseases. In several murine models of intracellular infection, endogenous IL-12 has been shown to be crucial for the generation of a protective Th1 response in a primary infection for a intracellular pathogens. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is also an important mediator of cellular immunity against microbial pathogens and tumor cells due to its potent capacity to activate macrophages for enhanced cytotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the immune response to toxoplasma gondii after primary inflection (infected groups and secondary infection (re-infected groups for over 19 weeks (the time of the experiment). the evaluation was assessed by measurements of levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ using ELISA technique in the sera of these infected rats. The results demonstrated that the primary immune response induced a fluctuation in the levels of IL-12 in the sera of infected rats, which reached maximum value of 122.6 ±1.4 pg/ml after 15 weeks of primary infection. While, in the challenged groups (secondary immune response, re-infected groups) the levels of IL-12 were generally lower than that of the primary immune response. On the other hand, IFN-γ levels increased significantly in the secondary immune response (re-infected groups) as compared to primary immune response 9 infected groups) In conclusion, the results suggest that IL-12 might have a role in the defense mechanism against intracellular infection with T-gondii especially in primary immune response than in the secondary immune response. This is in contrast to IFN-γ that takes the up-hand in secondary immune response to T-gondii infection

  8. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  9. IN ARCHACHATINA MARC/NATA (Swainson) IN ILE-IFE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-09

    Feb 9, 2004 ... bcr was also noticeable . This study has revealed that A. marginata SCf\\'(..'S as intermedi ate host ofthe rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Keywords: Archochmina marginata. prevalence. Angiostrongylus cantonens is. l. Introduction. Snails serve as sources of protein and a number of gastro-.

  10. Inbred Rats as a Model to Study Persistent Renal Leptospirosis and Associated Cellular Immune Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E. Nally

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection, excrete large numbers of organisms in their urine. A unique biological equilibrium exists between pathogenic leptospires and reservoir hosts of infection, but surprisingly, little is known concerning the host's cellular immune response that facilitates persistent renal colonization. To address this deficiency, we established and applied an immunocompetent inbred rat model of persistent renal colonization; leptospires were detected in urine of experimentally infected rats by 3 weeks post-infection and remained positive until 8 weeks post-infection. However, there was little, if any, evidence of inflammation in colonized renal tubules. At 8 weeks post-infection, a robust antibody response was detected against lipopolysaccharide and protein outer membrane (OM components. Purified B and T cells derived from the spleen of infected and non-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with 0.5 μg of OM fractions of Leptospira, including CD4+ T cells, which comprised 40% of proliferating cells, compared to 25% in non-infected controls. However, analysis of gene expression did not determine which immunoregulatory pathways were activated. Lymphocytes purified from the lymph node draining the site of colonization, the renal lymph node, also showed an increase in percentage of proliferating B and T cells. However, in contrast to a phenotype of 40% CD4+ T cells in the spleen, the phenotype of proliferating T cells in the renal lymph node comprised 65% CD4+ T cells. These results confirm that the renal lymph node, the local lymphoid organ, is a dominant site containing Leptospira reactive CD4+ T cells and highlight the need to consider the local, vs

  11. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  12. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  13. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.

  14. Nocardia infection following phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhale Nikhil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of a self-sealing tunnel incision is a rare but vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. We describe two cases of side port infection following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Nocardia was isolated in one case. Both the cases were worsening on medical treatment and were successfully treated by therapeutic keratoplasty.

  15. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  16. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  17. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  18. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  19. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  20. A novel knee prosthesis model of implant-related osteo- myelitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Niels H.; Jensen, Nina Vendel; Nürnberg, Birgit Meinecke

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of animal models of osteomyelitis. Very few of these have been prosthesis models that imitate human conditions. We have developed a new rat model of implant-related osteomyelitis that mimics human osteomyelitis, to investigate the pathology of infection after...

  1. Rice yellow mottle virus is transmitted by cows, donkeys, and grass rats in irrigated rice crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarra, S.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), endemic in Africa, is believed to be spread by chrysomelid beetles, although the infections in a field often cannot be explained by the prevailing number of beetles. We show that the grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus, domestic cows (Bos spp.), and donkeys (Asinus spp.)

  2. Discrimination between low dietary zinc and endotoxin exposure : a model study on weaning rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, van J.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    To establish a parameter for zinc status that is independent of the occurrence of infection, we studied the effects of low dietary zinc and endotoxin in weaning rats 21 d after 65Zn intubation. We monitored aspects of zinc status (tissue zinc content, 65Zn distribution, and specific 65Zn activity in

  3. Fibrinogen and fibronectin binding cooperate for valve infection and invasion in Staphylococcus aureus experimental endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Que, Yok-Ai; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Piroth, Lionel; François, Patrice; Widmer, Eleonora; Entenza, José M; Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias; Francioli, Patrick; Vaudaux, Pierre; Moreillon, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The expression of Staphylococcus aureus adhesins in Lactococcus lactis identified clumping factor A (ClfA) and fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) as critical for valve colonization in rats with experimental endocarditis. This study further analyzed their role in disease evolution. Infected

  4. Analysis of a child infected with [i]Hymenolepis[/i] [i]diminuta[/i] in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kołodziej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [i]Hymenolepis diminuta[/i] is a cosmopolitan parasite of rats and mice which is very rare in humans. This study presents the case of a 3-year-old boy infected with [i]Hymenolepis diminuta[/i] in Poland. The diagnosis was based on eggs found and their morphology in the patient’s stool.

  5. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  6. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  7. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  8. Characterization of murine hepatitis virus (JHM) RNA from rats with experimental encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D P; Percy, D H; Morris, V L

    1984-09-01

    When Wistar Furth rats are inoculated intracerebrally with the murine hepatitis virus JHM they often develop a demyelinating disease with resulting hind leg paralysis. Using an RNA transfer procedure and hybridization kinetic analysis, the virus-specific RNA in these rats was characterized. The pattern of JHM-specific RNA varied with individual infections of Wistar Furth rats. However, two species of JHM-specific RNA, the nucleocapsid and a 2.1-2.4 X 10(6)-Da RNA species were generally present. A general decrease in JHM-specific RNA in brains and spinal cord samples taken later than 20 days postinoculation was observed; however, JHM-specific RNA persisted in the spinal cord longer than in the brain of these rats.

  9. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  10. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  11. Ureaplasma parvum infection alters filamin a dynamics in host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Mary B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasmas are among the most common bacteria isolated from the human urogenital tract. Ureaplasmas can produce asymptomatic infections or disease characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response. Most investigations have focused on elucidating the pathogenic potential of Ureaplasma species, but little attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are capable of establishing asymptomatic infection. Methods We employed differential proteome profiling of bladder tissues from rats experimentally infected with U. parvum in order to identify host cell processes perturbed by colonization with the microbe. Tissues were grouped into four categories: sham inoculated controls, animals that spontaneously cleared infection, asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI, and complicated UTI. One protein that was perturbed by infection (filamin A was used to further elucidate the mechanism of U. parvum-induced disruption in human benign prostate cells (BPH-1. BPH-1 cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results Bladder tissue from animals actively colonized with U. parvum displayed significant alterations in actin binding proteins (profilin 1, vinculin, α actinin, and filamin A that regulate both actin polymerization and cell cytoskeletal function pertaining to focal adhesion formation and signal transduction (Fisher's exact test, P U. parvum perturbed the regulation of filamin A. Specifically, infected BPH-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in filamin A phosphorylated at serine2152 (P ≤ 0.01, which correlated with impaired proteolysis of the protein and its normal intracellular distribution. Conclusion Filamin A dynamics were perturbed in both models of infection. Phosphorylation of filamin A occurs in response to various cell signaling cascades that regulate cell motility, differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, this phenomenon may be a useful

  12. Imaging infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, John

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in

  13. Peripheral tumors alter neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyter, Leah M; El Mouatassim Bih, Sarah; Sattar, Husain; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-03-13

    Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis that peripheral tumors likewise induce neuroinflammatory sensitization or priming. Female rats with chemically-induced mammary carcinomas were injected with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250μg/kg; i.p.), and expression of mRNAs involved in the pathway linking inflammation and depression (interleukin-1beta [Il-1β], CD11b, IκBα, indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase [Ido]) was quantified by qPCR in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex, 4 or 24h post-treatment. In the absence of LPS, hippocampal Il-1β and CD11b mRNA expression were elevated in tumor-bearing rats, whereas Ido expression was reduced. Moreover, in saline-treated rats basal hypothalamic Il-1β and CD11b expression were positively correlated with tumor weight; heavier tumors, in turn, were characterized by more inflammatory, necrotic, and granulation tissue. Tumors exacerbated CNS proinflammatory gene expression in response to LPS: CD11b was greater in hippocampus and frontal cortex of tumor-bearing relative to tumor-free rats, IκBα was greater in hippocampus, and Ido was greater in hypothalamus. Greater neuroinflammatory responses in tumor-bearing rats were accompanied by attenuated body weight gain post-LPS. The data indicate that neuroinflammatory pathways are potentiated, or primed, in tumor-bearing rats, which may exacerbate future negative behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  15. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  16. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Persons

    Full Text Available The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  17. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Amanda L; Bradaric, Brinda D; Dodiya, Hemraj B; Ohene-Nyako, Michael; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shaikh, Maliha; Napier, T Celeste

    2018-01-01

    The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  18. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital, including: viral meningitis , an infection of the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) ... and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In newborns, symptoms can develop within 2 weeks ...

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  20. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...

  2. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  3. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  4. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007715.htm Helicobacter pylori infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ) is a type of bacteria that ...

  6. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat ordinary staph germs. What are Risk Factors for Staph Infection? Many healthy people normally have ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  8. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: MODERN COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.

  9. SURGICAL SITE INFECTION: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. M. Bonai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.

  10. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  11. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  12. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  13. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  14. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  15. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  16. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  17. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  18. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  19. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  20. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasite, Cryptosporidium , is a common culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in childcare centers and other public places. Cryptosporidium ... take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body. What Can I Do to ...

  1. [Transplantation-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzner, R

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.

  2. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  3. NOROVIRUS INFECTION (SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Khokhlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of norovirus infection is 17–20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the world. The dominant II genogroup of noroviruses is characterized by rapid variability. The new recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in the incidence of gastroenteritis in Asian and European countries during the winter season 2016–2017. The epidemiological features of norovirus infection are long-term excretion of the pathogen from the body of patients and carriers of viruses, especially in persons with immunosuppression; the implementation of various transmission routes (food, water, contact, aerosol, high contagiosity, winter seasonality in the countries of the northern hemisphere. In recent years, two human systems for the cultivation of noroviruses in vitro have been created, a double tropism of noroviruses has been established for immune cells and epithelial cells of the intestine, and the life cycle of noroviruses has been studied. The microbiota and its members can be either protective or stimulating for norovirus infection. Lactobacillus may play a protective role against norovirus infection. The existence of chronic norovirus infection lasting from several months to several years is proved, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Severe form of norovirus infection and deaths are more often recorded in young children, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and immunocompromised individuals. The clinical picture of norovirus gastroenteritis is similar in many respects to other viral gastroenteritis, which determines the need for laboratory verification of the diagnosis. The polymerase chain reaction method with reverse transcription is the most widely used in the world for diagnosing infection in patients and for detecting the virus in food and environmental objects. There are still no approved vaccines and antiviral drugs against this infection. Recommended therapeutic interventions include, along with rehydration with

  4. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  5. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  6. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  7. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunotherapy of Cryptococcus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J

    2012-02-01

    Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  10. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  11. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  12. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  13. RES hyperphagocytosis by rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, R P

    1981-03-01

    In contrast to previous studies of neutrophils from diabetic animals and humans in vitro and of macrophages from diabetic humans in vivo, which reported phagocytic depression, reticuloendothelial system (RES) hyperphagocytosis of colloidal carbon was observed in rats at 14 and 28 days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (STZ). Carbon clearance half times were significantly enhanced to 6.3 +/- 0.79 and 8.1 +/- 1.04 min at 14 and 28 days post-STZ, respectively, compared with the nondiabetic value (12.7 +/- 0.98 min). The severity of uncontrolled STZ-induced diabetes in rats was confirmed by significant hypoinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although body weights of STZ-diabetic animals declined progressively, liver weights as a percent of body weight increased above the control value at 14 and 28 days post-STZ. In fact, expression of carbon phagocytosis as the corrected phagocytic index, which accounts for changes in liver and spleen weights relative to body weight, eliminated the significant difference between STZ-diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Antibiotic treatment of diabetic rats failed to alter the hyperphagocytosis, implying that a chronic bacterial infection was not the cause of phagocytic stimulation. Daily insulin replacements, but not a single large insulin dose to 14-day post-STZ rats, reversed the enhanced phagocytosis of colloidal carbon.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared....... The rat model of P. aeruginosa lung infection was used in the present study. The rats were killed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after infection with the P. aeruginosa strains. The results showed that during the early stages of infection, the PAO1 double mutant induced a stronger serum antibody response, higher...... number of lung bacteria, and minor serum IgG and IgG1 responses but increased lung interferon gamma production were detected in the group infected with the PAO1 double mutant when compared with the PAO1-infected group. Delayed immune responses were observed in the PAO1-infected group and they might...

  15. Synthesis and biodistribution of 99mTc-Vancomycin in a model of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Malik, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Vancomycin Hydrochloride is an antibiotic produced by the growth of certain strains of Streptomyces orientalis. As vancomycin hydrochloride is poorly absorbed after oral administration; it is given intravenously for therapy of systemic infections. Vancomycin was labeled with technetium-99m pertechnetate using SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O as reducing agent. The labeling efficiency depends on ligand/reductant ratio, pH, and volume of reaction mixture. Radiochemical purity and stability of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was determined by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies of 99m Tc-Vancomycin were performed in a model of bacterial infection in Sprague-Dawley rats. A significantly higher accumulation of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was seen at sites of S. aureus infected animals. Whereas uptake of 99m Tc-Vancomycin in turpentine inflamed rats were quite low. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenite on Expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 Proteins in the Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yan-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 at protein level in the epididymis of rats with arsenism. Methods. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the high dose arsenic infected group (60.0 mg/L in water, the middle dose arsenic infected group (12.0 mg/L in water, the low dose arsenic infected group (2.4 mg/L in water, and the control group (distilled water. Rats were treated with arsenic through drinking water for 6 consecutive months. At the end of the experiment, the average densitometry values of apoptotic cells in epididymis tubules were determined by TUNEL method; the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 were observed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Results. Compared with the control group, in each infected group, the average densitometry values of apoptotic cells in the epididymis tubules were significantly lower. Compared with control group, protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 in each infected group were obviously declined. The correlations between protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 were positively exhibited (r = 0.843, 0.869, p < 0.05. Conclusions. Arsenism affects the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in the epididymis of rats and results in apoptosis of pathophysiology of male infertility.

  17. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  19. Adherence of urease-induced crystals to rat bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1988-01-01

    Apart from urine supersaturation with respect to struvite and calcium phosphate caused by urease-producing microorganisms, retention of formed crystals in the urinary tract is necessary for the formation of infection stones. This study was performed to investigate the role of the mucous coat lining the urothelium in the adhesion of urease-induced crystals. Removal of this glycosaminoglycan-containing layer from rat bladders increased the adherence of struvite and calcium phosphate crystals 5-6 times compared to that in intact rat bladders. Heparin completely restored the antiadherence capacity while chondroitin sulphate had a very weak restorative effect and human urine had no restorative effect. These findings support the view that the mucous coat is of importance in preventing retention of urease-induced crystals.

  20. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Banerjee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals or dextrose (Control. Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  1. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna Scharton

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies.

  2. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  3. Evaluation of ceftiofur–PHBV microparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilos C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristian Vilos,1,3 Luis Constandil,2,3 Paula I Rodas,1,3 Mario Cantin,4,5 Katherine Zepeda,1 Natalia Herrera,1 Luis A Velasquez1,3 1Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Science (CIMIS, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, 2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, 3Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Ecuador, Santiago, 4CIMA, Department of Integral Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, 5Center of Research in Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco, Chile Abstract: Despite the high number of antibiotics used for the treatment of infectious disease in animals, the development of slow release formulations presents a significant challenge, particularly in using novel biomaterials with low cost. In this report, we studied the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and therapeutic activity of ceftiofur–PHBV (ceftiofur–poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate in rats. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated a sustained release of ceftiofur into the bloodstream, with detectable levels over the minimum inhibitory concentration for at least 17 days after a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur–PHBV (10 mg/kg weight. In addition, the toxicological evaluation of biochemical, hematological, and coagulation blood parameters at the therapeutic dose demonstrated the safety of ceftiofur–PHBV, with no adverse effects. In addition, ceftiofur–PHBV exhibited a therapeutic effect for a longer time period than the nonencapsulated ceftiofur in rats challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium. The slow release of ceftiofur from the ceftiofur–PHBV, its low toxicity in the blood parameters evaluated, and the efficacy in the rats infected with Salmonella Typhimurium make ceftiofur–PHBV a strong candidate for biotechnological applications in

  4. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  5. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  6. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  7. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  8. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  10. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  11. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  12. Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gcanga, L; Kamau, J

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus Trichinella. Anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of Trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Infected rats were randomly assigned to three groups which were subjected to single treatments with each of maslinic acid, fenbendazole and a combination of both on day 25 post-infection (pi), and three groups which were subjected to double treatments with each of these drugs and a combination on days 25 and 32 pi. The untreated control group received a placebo. In single-treatment groups, the efficacy of each treatment, measured by rate of reduction in muscle larvae, was significant (P0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of maslinic acid against larval stages of T. zimbabwensis in rats was comparable to that of fenbendazole, with no side-effects observed, making maslinic acid a promising anthelmintic against larval stages of Trichinella species.

  13. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  14. Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea, a new lungworm occurring in man in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morera

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp. is described from Costa Rica where it produces lesions in the abdominal cavity of man. It can be distinguished from other species of the genus on the basis of its size, the length of the spicules, the position of the vulva and the morphology and position of the bursal rays. The parasite localizes in the small mesenteric arteries, especially in the ileocecal region, where it produces arteritis and thrombosis. Eggs in various stages of embryonation were found scattered in the tissues of the intestinal wall and regional lymph nodes, eliciting a granulomatous inflammatory reaction with in. tense eosinophilic infiltrationLos autores hacen la descripción de Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp., un nuevo metastrongilideo encontrado en Costa Rica, que produce lesiones en el hombre. Esta nueva especie se puede distinguir de las otras Catorce descritas hasta ahora, en base a su tamaño, la longitud de las espículas, la posición de la vulva y la morfología y disposición de los rayos bursales. A. costaricensis es la segunda especie del género de importancia en parasitología humana. La otra especie patógena para el hombre, A. cantonensis, es responsable de una forma de meningoencefalitis eosinofílica. Los parásitos adultos, machos y hembras, se localizan en las arterias del mesenterio y de la pared intestinal, especialmente de la región ileocecal en donde provocan fenómenos inflamatorios y trombóticos que llevan a grados diversos de necrosis. La presencia de huevos en varios estados de embrionación, en el tejido de la pared intestinal y de los ganglios linfáticos regionales, produce una reacción inflamatoria granulomatosa con intensa infiltración eosinofilica. La pared intestinal se presenta engrosada, llegándose a producir cuadros de suboclusión u oclusión que obligan a intervenciones quirúrgicas de emergencia. La presencia 4e huevos en los tejidos humanos sugiere una mejor adaptación de A. costaricensis en el hombre, en comparación con A. cantonensis, que no llega a alcanzar el estado adulto en los tejidos encefálicos humanos. Sin embargo en los casos en que hemos encontrado larvas completamente formadas, ellas siempre están encerradas en la cáscara del huevo, lo que sugiere la imposibilidad de que las mismas lleguen a la luz intestinal y regresen al suelo para completar su ciclo de vida

  15. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  17. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  18. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  19. Spatial variation in the parasite communities and genomic structure of urban rats in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angley, L P; Combs, M; Firth, C; Frye, M J; Lipkin, I; Richardson, J L; Munshi-South, J

    2018-02-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a globally distributed pest. Urban habitats can support large infestations of rats, posing a potential risk to public health from the parasites and pathogens they carry. Despite the potential influence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases on human health, it is unclear how urban habitats affect the structure and transmission dynamics of ectoparasite and microbial communities (all referred to as "parasites" hereafter) among rat colonies. In this study, we use ecological data on parasites and genomic sequencing of their rat hosts to examine associations between spatial proximity, genetic relatedness and the parasite communities associated with 133 rats at five sites in sections of New York City with persistent rat infestations. We build on previous work showing that rats in New York carry a wide variety of parasites and report that these communities differ significantly among sites, even across small geographical distances. Ectoparasite community similarity was positively associated with geographical proximity; however, there was no general association between distance and microbial communities of rats. Sites with greater overall parasite diversity also had rats with greater infection levels and parasite species richness. Parasite community similarity among sites was not linked to genetic relatedness of rats, suggesting that these communities are not associated with genetic similarity among host individuals or host dispersal among sites. Discriminant analysis identified site-specific associations of several parasite species, suggesting that the presence of some species within parasite communities may allow researchers to determine the sites of origin for newly sampled rats. The results of our study help clarify the roles that colony structure and geographical proximity play in determining the ecology of R. norvegicus as a significant urban reservoir of zoonotic diseases. Our study also highlights the spatial variation present in urban

  20. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  1. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  2. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  3. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  4. Pivotal Advance: Eosinophilia in the MES rat strain is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the gene for cytochrome b(-245), alpha polypeptide (Cyba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki; Li, Guixin; Hashimoto, Maiko; Nishio, Ayako; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Usami, Shin-ichi; Higuchi, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2009-09-01

    MES is a rat strain that spontaneously develops severe blood eosinophilia as a hereditary trait. Herein, we report that eosinophilia in MES rats is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the gene for cytochrome b(-245), alpha polypeptide (Cyba; also known as p22(phox)), which is an essential component of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase complex. The MES rat has a deletion of four nucleotides, including the 5' splice donor GpT of intron 4 of the Cyba gene. As a consequence of the deletion, a 51-nucleotide sequence of intron 4 is incorporated into the Cyba transcripts. Leukocytes from the MES strain lack both CYBA protein and NADPH oxidase activity. Nevertheless, unlike patients with chronic granulomatous disease, who suffer from infections with pathogens due to similar genetic defects in NADPH oxidase, MES rats retain normal innate immune defense against Staphylococcus aureus infection. This is due to large quantities of peritoneal eosinophils in MES rats, which phagocytose and kill the bacteria. MES rat has a balance defect due to impaired formation of otoconia in the utricles and saccules. Eosinophilia of the MES rat was normalized by introduction of a normal Cyba transgene. The mechanisms by which impairment of NADPH oxidase leads to eosinophilia in the MES rat are elusive. However, our study highlights the essential role of NADPH oxidase in homeostatic regulation of innate immunity beyond conventional microbicidial functions.

  5. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  6. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  7. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  8. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  9. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji, E-mail: tmntt08@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mori, Takayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, 4-86 Minaminokawa-cho, Ogaki 503-8502 (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Naiki, Takafumi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Moriwaki, Hisataka [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi [The Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation.

  10. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation

  11. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group ani...

  12. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Vaccine 21: 1375–1381. Wei, C.J., J.C. Boyington, P.M...contributes to heterosubtypic protection against influenza A-induced tachypnea in cotton rats" Name of Candidate: r. Timothy M. Straight Doctor of...Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the

  13. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wai Sum Li

    Full Text Available The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels.The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate.Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries.Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to

  14. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  15. Effect of pretreatment with Ethanol or Ammonium Hydroxide on Helicobacter Pylori colonization in the stomach of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimi F

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for H.pylori infection have been developed to clarify the pathogenesis, testing new therapies and developing vaccines against human H.pylori infection. Although rats have been used extensively for gastric ulceration and acid secretion studies, the animal is not normally infected with H.pylori.Several chemicals such as ethanol and ammonium hydroxide can induce gastric erosion and interact with gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori in not germ-free rats in order to overcome the resistance against H. pylori in rats. After 24 h fasting, the rats were divided into three major groups. Animals in the first group were not pretreated with any chemicals. The two other groups were pretreated with ethanol (60% or ammonium hydroxide (1% before inoculation of 1 mL H. pylori suspension (3×108 cfu/ml. The results showed that H. pylori could not colonize in rats, even with ethanol or ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. An understanding of the mechanism of this resistance can help researchers to develop new therapeutic or preventive drugs against H. pylori and it is recommended to perform more investigation to clarify the reason of this resistance

  16. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  17. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact. Giardia ...

  18. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  19. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  20. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  1. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  3. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  4. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  5. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IV) to kill the germs. If you take antibiotics while you’re in labor, the chances are very good that your baby won’t get this infection. What if my baby has group B strep? If your baby gets group B strep, he or she will be treated with IV antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Your baby will stay ...

  6. Healing stone ... by infection

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/

  7. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  9. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...

  10. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  11. Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouli, K A; Lazarus, M; Schoenbaum, S C; Gottlieb, M N; Lowrie, E G; Shocair, M

    1979-11-01

    This is a retrospective study of 133 episodes of bacteremic infection in 112 hemodialysis patients. The frequency of bacteremic infection was 9.5% in patients with chronic renal failure and 10.9% in patients with acute renal failure. In patients with acute renal failure, pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess were the most frequent sources of septicemia. Sepsis was usually due to Gram-negative organisms and mortality was high. In patients with chronic renal failure, infection of the shunt or fistula was the most common cause, was frequently due to Staphylococcus organism, and had a more favorable survival rate. Gram-negative septicemia from a nonaccess source in patients with chronic renal failure was associated with a higher mortality. Bacterial endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli occurred in 3.6% of septic episodes and 0.35% of patients at risk and had very low mortality. A low threshold for obtaining blood cultures and early antibiotic treatment are believed to be important in the treatment of bacteremic infections in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  13. Infections and endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  15. Challenges in Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2017-01-24

    Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  17. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.

  18. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.

  19. Effects of Aloe Vera and Chitosan Nanoparticle Thin-Film Membranes on Wound Healing in Full Thickness Infected Wounds with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Yousefi, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    To assess effect of Aleo vera with chitosan nanoparticle biofilm on wound healing in full thickness infected wounds with antibiotic resistant gram positive bacteria. Thirty rats were randomized into five groups of six rats each. Group I: Animals with uninfected wounds treated with 0.9% saline solution. Group II: Animals with infected wounds treated with saline. Group III: Animals with infected wounds were dressed with chitosan nanoparticle thin-film membranes. Group IV: Animals with infected wounds were treated topically with Aloe vera and Group V: Animals with infected wounds were treated topically with Aloe vera and dressed with chitosan nanoparticle thin-film membranes. Wound size was measured on 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21days after surgery. Microbiology, reduction in wound area and hydroxyproline contents indicated that there was significant difference ( p vera with chitosan nanoparticle thin-film membranes had a reproducible wound healing potential and hereby justified its use in practice.

  20. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.