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Sample records for rat kidney zones

  1. Differential down-regulation of aquaporin-2 in rat kidney zones by peripheral nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonism and vasopressin type-2 receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen S; Windfeld, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that aquaresis induced by the peripherally acting nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist ZP120 is associated with a decreased protein level of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in whole-kidney homogenates. We now examined the effects of Ac-RYYRWKKKKKKK-NH(2) (ZP120) (1 nmol/kg/min i.v. for...

  2. Mitochondrial activity of rat kidney during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaval, E; Razanoelina, M; Bastin, J; Freund, N; Bismuth, J; Geloso, J P

    1990-07-01

    The development of oxidative metabolism was studied from the late fetal to adult stages in mitochondria isolated from rat kidney. We used the oxygen consumption rate, as an index of inner membrane activity and citrate synthase and fumarase activities as an index of matrix activity and cytochrome c oxidase activity as an index of the number of mitochondria. Fumarase and citrate synthase activities displayed different developmental patterns, suggesting that these Krebs cycle enzymes did not mature synchronously. In fetal mitochondria, net oxygen consumption measured in the presence of succinate or glutamate as substrate, was low; it increased during the day after birth and reached adult level between days 10 and 15. During this period, the levels of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity did not change significantly in the isolated mitochondrial fraction. However, in fetal and adult kidney homogenates, these levels increased four-fold, suggesting a corresponding increase in the number of mitochondria. Most of these increases occurred during the 15 days after birth. These results suggest that in rat kidney, mitochondrial maturation precedes the maturation of reabsorptive ion transport and does not limit its development.

  3. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mückter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W.; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R.; Spahl, W.; Hume, W.R.; Moes, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were

  4. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Kidney and bladder calculi in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wexler, B. C.; McMurtry, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring kidney stones are rare in animals. The Japanese strains of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are normotensive at birth but develop high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia as they mature. The SHR strain is prone to develop kidney stones. A unique sub-strain of SHR has been developed in which some animals develop hypothalamic obesity concomitantly with their rising blood pressure, i.e. Obese/SHR. The Obese/SHR characteristically develop microscopic kidney...

  6. Expression of adrenomedullin in hypoxic and ischemic rat kidneys and human kidneys with arterial stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandner, Peter; Hofbauer, Karl Heinz; Tinel, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    To investigate regional aspects of hypoxic regulation of adrenomedullin (AM) in kidneys, we mapped the distribution of AM in the rat kidney after hypoxia (normobaric hypoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide, and CoCl(2) for 6 h), anemia (hematocrit lowered by bleeding) and after global transient ischemia...

  7. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  8. Biochemical effects on the liver and kidney of rats administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of ximenia Americana stem bark on liver and kidney of albino rats was investigated. Different doses of the crude extract were administered to rats for 30 consecutive days. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of treated animals significantly ...

  9. Renin and angiotensinogen gene expression in maturing rat kidney

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    Gomez, R.A.; Lynch, K.R.; Chevalier, R.L.; Wilfong, N.; Everett, A.; Carey, R.M.; Peach, M.J. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether angiotensinogen (A{sub o}) and renin are synthesized by the immature kidney and to assess the changes in intrarenal reinin distribution that occur with maturation, the kidneys from 24 newborn and 12 adult Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were processed for renin immunocytochemistry using a highly specific anti-rat renin antibody. Kidney renin and A{sub o} relative mRNA levels (mRNA/total RNA) were detected by Northern and dot blot techniques, using full-length rat renin and A{sub o} cDNAs. Renal renin concentration (RRC) was measured by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I (ANG I) and expressed as ng ANG I{center dot}h{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1} in the incubation media. RRC was higher in newborn than in adult SHR (979 {+-} 164 vs. 206 {+-} 47) and WKY. In the newborn kidneys of both rat strains, renin was distributed throughout the entire length of the afferent arterioles and interlobular arteries, whereas in the adult kidneys renin was confined to the classical juxtaglomerular position. With maturation, there was a decrease in the proportion of immunoreactive juxtaglomerular apparatuses and arterial segments that contained renin. Kidney renin mRNA levels were 7.9-fold higher in the newborn than in the adult animals. A{sub o} mRNA was detected in the newborn and adult kidneys of both rat strains. This study demonstrates conclusively that both renin and A{sub o} genes are expressed in the newborn kidney, providing evidence for a local renin-angiotensin system that is subjected to developmental changes.

  10. Effects of birth on energy metabolism in the rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, J; Delaval, E; Freund, N; Razanoelina, M; Djouadi, F; Bismuth, J; Geloso, J P

    1988-01-01

    The oxygen-consumption rates and the activities of fumarase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase were compared in mitochondria isolated from fetal- and neonatal-rat kidney. Whole-organ ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine contents were determined in parallel. Kidney mitochondrial respiratory rates in the presence of succinate, glutamate/malate and palmitoyl-L-carnitine increased between 21 days post coitum and 1 day post partum, together with activities of oxidative enzymes. However, this post...

  11. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  12. Effects of birth on energy metabolism in the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, J; Delaval, E; Freund, N; Razanoelina, M; Djouadi, F; Bismuth, J; Geloso, J P

    1988-06-01

    The oxygen-consumption rates and the activities of fumarase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase were compared in mitochondria isolated from fetal- and neonatal-rat kidney. Whole-organ ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine contents were determined in parallel. Kidney mitochondrial respiratory rates in the presence of succinate, glutamate/malate and palmitoyl-L-carnitine increased between 21 days post coitum and 1 day post partum, together with activities of oxidative enzymes. However, this postnatal maturation of oxidative metabolism was not yet initiated in mitochondria isolated from kidney 1 h post partum. An increase in ATP and phosphocreatine was observed immediately after delivery; newborn-rat kidney ATP content then remained high, whereas phosphocreatine reserves decreased considerably between 6 h and 1 day post partum. It is concluded that the increase in high-energy phosphate compounds observed at birth is not initially related to an activation of oxidative phosphorylation, and probably involves a transient stimulation of anaerobic glycolysis, while a progressive mitochondrial maturation takes place in the rat kidney during the first day of newborn life.

  13. Morphological characteristics of renal artery and kidney in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun

    2014-01-01

    The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05 g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P 0.01) with the length of renal arteries.

  14. Morphological Characteristics of Renal Artery and Kidney in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun

    2014-01-01

    The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05 g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P 0.01) with the length of renal arteries. PMID:24737971

  15. Genistein attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective role of genistein against ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat kidneys. Methods: Group I (control, n = 10) consisted of animals that were not operated on while group II (sham, n = 10) were animals surgically operated on, similar to I/R group without renal bilateral ischemia. Group.

  16. Vascular responsiveness in isolated perfused kidneys of diabetic hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, O. H.; Mathy, M. J.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diabetes and hypertension cause additive effects in the responses to various vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents, in isolated perfused kidneys obtained from streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and from diabetic spontaneously

  17. Translatability of rat kidney mRNA after mercury administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, S; Kuliszewski, M J; Girgis, G R; Nicholls, D M

    1985-09-01

    Young male rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg HgCl2/kg body weight and 16 h later the kidneys were removed and homogenized to prepare the polysomal fraction from which the poly(A)+ RNA was obtained. The activity of this fraction was assessed by translating the poly(A)+ RNA in a mRNA-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate and the activity was markedly elevated relative to preparations from control rat kidneys. The incorporation of labelled leucine and cysteine, but not phenylalanine, into a low molecular weight protein (approximately 10 000 as judged by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) accounted for the increased mRNA activity. The mobility during electrophoresis of the denatured labelled product and carboxymethylated product, as well as their acidic isoelectric points, provided evidence that it is metallothionein mRNA which exhibits increased translatability in preparations derived from mercury-treated rats.

  18. Using an isolated rat kidney model to identify kidney origin proteins in urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available The use of targeted proteomics to identify urinary biomarkers of kidney disease in urine can avoid the interference of serum proteins. It may provide better sample throughput, higher sensitivity, and specificity. Knowing which urinary proteins to target is essential. By analyzing the urine from perfused isolated rat kidneys, 990 kidney origin proteins with human analogs were identified in urine. Of these proteins, 128 were not found in normal human urine and may become biomarkers with zero background. A total of 297 proteins were not found in normal human plasma. These proteins will not be influenced by other normal organs and will be kidney specific. The levels of 33 proteins increased during perfusion with an oxygen-deficient solution compared to those perfused with oxygen. The 75 proteins in the perfusion-driven urine have a significantly increased abundance ranking compared to their ranking in normal human urine. When compared with existing candidate biomarkers, over ninety percent of the kidney origin proteins in urine identified in this study have not been examined as candidate biomarkers of kidney diseases.

  19. The origin of marginal zone B cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, PM; de Boer, NK; Deenen, GJ; Nieuwenhuis, P; Kroese, FGM

    The marginal zone is a unique compartment that is only found in the spleen. Rat marginal zone B cells (MZ-B) can be distinguished from other B cells, e.g. recirculating follicular B cells (RF-B), by several phenotypic characteristics. Typically MZ-B cells are surface (s)IgM(hi), sIgD(lo) and

  20. Sesamolin inhibits lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M H; Naito, M; Tsujihara, N; Osawa, T

    1998-06-01

    Although the sesame lignans, sesaminol and sesamolinol, have been shown to possess antioxidative activity, less is known about the metabolism and antioxidative properties of sesamolin, a major constituent of sesame oil. To determine the ability of sesamolin to act as an antioxidant in vivo, we fed rats a diet containing 1% sesamolin for 2 wk and studied its metabolism and its effects on oxidative stress. About 75% of the ingested sesamolin was excreted unmetabolized in feces, but it was not detected in urine. Sesamolin and its metabolites, sesamol and sesamolinol, were excreted primarily as sulfates and glucuronides. The amount of sesamolin and its metabolites was lower in the plasma than in the liver or kidneys. When we compared rats fed a diet containing 1% sesamolin for 14 d with those fed a control diet, we found that liver weight was significantly greater in the former group. Lipid peroxidation activity, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was significantly lower in the kidneys and liver of the sesamolin-fed rats than in the controls. In addition, the amount of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excreted in the urine was significantly lower in the sesamolin-fed rats. These results suggest that sesamolin and its metabolites may contribute to the antioxidative properties of sesame seeds and oil and support our hypothesis that sesame lignans reduce susceptibility to oxidative stress.

  1. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats

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    Mira Pavkovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM. The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003 [2]. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265. The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The β-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb and complement component 6 (C6 were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]. Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6.

  2. The Expression Changes of Inflammasomes in the Aging Rat Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Ma, Yuxiang; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms of kidney aging are not yet clear. Studies have shown that immunological inflammation is related to kidney aging. Inflammasomes are important components of innate immune system in the body. However, the function of inflammasomes and their underlying mechanisms in renal aging remain unclear. In this study, for the first time, we systematically investigated the role of the inflammasomes and the inflammatory responses activated by inflammasomes during kidney aging. We found that during kidney aging, the expression levels of the molecules associated with the activation of inflammasomes, including toll-like receptor-4 and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), were significantly increased; their downstream signaling pathway molecule interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) was markedly activated (Phospho-IRAK4 was obviously increased); the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was activated (the activated NF-κB pathway molecules Phospho-IKKβ, Phospho-IκBα, and Phospho-NF-κBp65 were significantly elevated); the levels of the inflammasome components NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3), NLRC4, and pro-caspase-1 were prominently upregulated; and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were notably increased in the kidneys of 24-month-old (elderly group) rats. These results showed that inflammasomes are markedly activated during the renal aging process and might induce inflamm-aging by promoting the maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of salvia miltiorrhizae on the kidney of rats with severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salvia miltiorrhizae on the kidney of rats with severe acute pancreatitis and obstrutive jaundice. ... in treated group was significantly lower than that in model control group; on 14 days after operation, the apoptosis index in the kidney of OJ rats in treated group was significantly lower than that in model control group.

  4. Permanent catheterization of the carotid artery induces kidney infection and inflammation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Uno Nicolas Kjærup; Nielsen, Sanne Gram; Hau, Jann

    2010-01-01

    techniques using a heparin-coated catheter rather than an ordinary non-coated polyvinyl chloride catheter. In all groups, approximately 80% of the rats developed kidney infection and 10-30% of the rats were septicaemic. Clinical chemistry did not indicate severe kidney damage, but serum haptoglobin and body...

  5. DISSOCIATION OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AFTER ISCHAEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kadkhodaee

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radical* (OFR involvement in ischacmia-rcpcrfusion (IR injury was investigated in a rat isolated kidney model, using 20 minutes iscliaemia followed by 15 or 60 minutes reperfusion. Two antioxidants, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol and the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimcthylthiourca (DMTU, were uscit to try and prevent OFR-relatcd damage. Renal function was estimated from the inulin clearance, fractional soiiium excretion and renal vascular resistance, location and extent of tubular damage, and type of cell death (apoptosis vs necrosis were used as morphological parameters of IR-iiuluced change. Cell damage was most extensive in the nephron segments of the outer zone of the outer medulla (straight proximal tubule and thick ascending limb (TAL. I're-treatment with allopttrinol or DMTU did not Improve renal function. Less structural damage was observed in the TAL of allopuriol - or DMTU - treated kidneys compared with IR alone. In allopurinol - treated kidneys, luminal debris was less extensive than that seen in IR kidneys. Most cell death was necrotic in type and morphological features of apoptosis were seen infrequently. Tlic beneficial effects of allopurinol and DMTU on structural change did not correlate with functional improvement during the reperfusion period, litis may require longer repcrfusion or multiple treatments. Tlie results suggest that OFR ■ injury is of limited significance in this model of renal IR injury. Targeting OFR injury may only be useful after very brief periods of iscliaemia where necrosis is minimal ami the potential for recover}- is greater, Tiie results confirm the different susccptibilitcs of individual nephron segments to injury within the intact kidney. Understanding the molecular response to injury in each segment should facilitate development of methods to accelerate repair after [R injury.

  6. Experimental study on developing rat kidney after Naja haje envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hessy, H; Abdel Rahman, S; Iskander, F; Nassar, A; el Maghraby, M

    1987-01-01

    In the present experiment 164 pregnant white Wistar rats were used to study the effect of Naja haje (Egyptian cobra) venom on the developing kidney. The rats were divided into 3 groups; a control group, a group receiving one LD50 of N. haje venom and the third injected with 1/8 of LD50. The injection was performed at different stages of gestation. After birth, the neonates of group I and III and embryos of group II were examined histologically, histochemically and electron-microscopically. Both lethal and sublethal doses of N. haje venom produced haemorrhages and vascular congestion of the developing kidney. The lethal dose had degenerative effects on the podocytes and endothelium. Tubular damage appeared mainly as mitochondrial degeneration and bud-like extension, protrusions of cytoplasm and vacuolization. The succinic dehydrogenase enzyme showed decreased activity. The sublethal dose had an effect on the glomerular basement membrane in the form of splitting, increased mesangial cells and matrix, mitochondrial degeneration and fusion of podocyte processes. Tubulization of the parietal epithelium, vacuolization of the proximal tubules, mitochondrial degeneration and apical budding were evident.

  7. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

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    Indira Pokkunuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP- mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month and aged (21-month Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls and with GP (1.5% in drinking water and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions.

  8. The membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases epidermal growth factor from the kidney membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    High levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in the urine and high levels of mRNA for the EGF-precursor have been demonstrated in the kidney. The EGF-precursor is a membrane bound peptide in the kidney, but little is known about the renal processing of the precursor. The present stud....... The EGF releasing enzyme is inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor aprotinin and by low temperatures (4 degrees C). The pH optimum of the reaction is pH 7.5-8.0....... shows that the membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases immuno and receptor reactive EGF from the kidney membranes when incubated at 37 degrees C. Gel filtration shows that the EGF reactivity released from the membranes is similar to the EGF reactivity in rat urine...

  9. Chronic kidney disease aggravates arteriovenous fistula damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Stephan; Kokozidou, Maria; Heiss, Christian; Kranz, Jennifer; Kessler, Tina; Paulus, Niklas; Krüger, Thilo; Jacobs, Michael J; Lente, Christina; Koeppel, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and impaired dilatation are important contributors to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is unclear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself causes adverse remodeling in arterialized veins. Here we determined if CKD specifically triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling and assessed whether these changes affect the function of AVFs. For this purpose, we used rats on a normal diet or on an adenine-rich diet to induce CKD and created a fistula between the right femoral artery and vein. Fistula maturation was followed noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound (US), and groups of rats were killed on 42 and 84 days after surgery for histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the AVFs and contralateral femoral vessels. In vivo US and ex vivo morphometric analyses confirmed a significant increase in NIH in the AVFs of both groups with CKD compared to those receiving a normal diet. Furthermore, we found using histological evaluation of the fistula veins in the rats with CKD that the media shrank and their calcification increased significantly. Afferent artery dilatation was significantly impaired in CKD and the downstream fistula vein had delayed dilation after surgery. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased peak systolic velocity at the site of the anastomosis, implying stenosis. Thus, CKD triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling in AVFs, all of which contribute to anatomical and/or functional stenosis.

  10. Biochemical changes in the liver, kidney and serum of rat following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of repeated administration of cimetidine, an antiulcer agent, twice daily for 7days on the phosphatase (acid and alkaline) and some function indices of rat liver and kidney was investigated. Sixty-four white albino rats were randomly grouped into two, A and B. Group A which consisted of 32 rats served as the ...

  11. High Resolution Ultrasonography for Assessment of Renal Cysts in the PCK Rat Model of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor Sarika; Rodriguez Daniel; Mitchell Katharyn; Wüthrich Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The PCK rat model of polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of renal medullary cysts. Here, we evaluated the suitability of high resolution ultrasonography (HRU) to assess the kidney and cyst volume in PCK rats, testing three different ultrasound image analysis methods, and correlating them with kidneys weights and histological examinations. METHODS: After inducing anesthesia, PCK rats (n=18) were subjected to HRU to visualize the kidneys...

  12. Inadequate Antioxidative Responses in Kidneys of Brain-Dead Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Dane; Rebolledo, Rolando A; Hottenrott, Maximilia; Bodar, Yves S; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke J; Van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri G D

    2017-04-01

    Brain death (BD)-related lipid peroxidation, measured as serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, correlates with delayed graft function in renal transplant recipients. How BD affects lipid peroxidation is not known. The extent of BD-induced organ damage is influenced by the speed at which intracranial pressure increases. To determine possible underlying causes of lipid peroxidation, we investigated the renal redox balance by assessing oxidative and antioxidative processes in kidneys of brain-dead rats after fast and slow BD induction. Brain death was induced in 64 ventilated male Fisher rats by inflating a 4.0F Fogarty catheter in the epidural space. Fast and slow inductions were achieved by an inflation speed of 0.45 and 0.015 mL/min, respectively, until BD confirmation. Healthy non-brain-dead rats served as reference values. Brain-dead rats were monitored for 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hours, after which organs and blood were collected. Increased MDA levels became evident at 2 hours of slow BD induction at which increased superoxide levels, decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, decreased glutathione levels, increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme-oxygenase 1 expression, and increased plasma creatinine levels were evident. At 4 hours after slow BD induction, superoxide, MDA, and plasma creatinine levels increased further, whereas GPx activity remained decreased. Increased MDA and plasma creatinine levels also became evident after 4 hours fast BD induction. Brain death leads to increased superoxide production, decreased GPx activity, decreased glutathione levels, increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme-oxygenase 1 expression, and increased MDA and plasma creatinine levels. These effects were more pronounced after slow BD induction. Modulation of these processes could lead to decreased incidence of delayed graft function.

  13. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mueckter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R. [Department of Operative/Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology and Pedodontics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Spahl, W. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Hume, W.R. [Dental Research Institute, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Moes, G.W. [TNO Prins-Maurits-Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    1999-09-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were prepared and isolated by digestion with collagenase. Every 10 min up to 60 min 1-ml samples were drawn from the cell suspension for quantitating the glucose content. Glucose formation in controls was 3.3 {+-} 0.2 nmol/mg . per min (mean {+-} SEM, n=21). Relative rates of glucose formation were obtained by expressing individual rates as a percentage of the corresponding control. X-Y concentration curves (effective concentration, EC) of the substances were calculated by fitting a four-parametric sigmoid function to the relative rates of glucose formation at various test concentrations. At the end of the incubation period cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Cell viability decreased within the 60 min interval from 90 to approx. 80% (controls), <25 (HEMA), <20 (TEGDMA), <10 (MeHgCl), and <10% (HgCl{sub 2}). Values of 50% effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) were calculated from fitted curves. EC{sub 50} values were (mmol; mean {+-} SEM; n=4): HEMA, 17.7 {+-} 2.9; TEGDMA, 1.8 {+-} 0.2; MeHgCl, 0.018 {+-} 0.0005; and HgCl{sub 2}, 0.0016 {+-} 0.0005. The toxic effect of HgCl{sub 2} was {proportional{underscore}to}1000 or 10 000 higher than that of the dental composite components TEGDMA or HEMA, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Curative effect of sesame oil in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Chien, Se-Ping; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes a progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. We investigated the curative effect of sesame oil, a natural, nutrient-rich, potent antioxidant, in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease was induced by subcutaneously injecting uni-nephrectomized rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and 1% NaCl [DOCA/salt] in drinking water. Four weeks later, the rats were gavaged with sesame oil (0.5 or 1 mL/kg per day) for 7 days. Renal injury, histopathological changes, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation, Nrf2, osteopontin expression, and collagen were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urine volume, and albuminuria were significantly higher in the DOCA/salt treated rats than in control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased these four tested parameters in DOCA/salt treated rats. In addition, creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression were significantly decreased in the DOCA/salt treated rats compared to control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite level, lipid peroxidation, osteopontin, and renal collagen deposition, but increased creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression in DOCA/salt treated rats. We conclude that supplementation of sesame oil mitigates DOCA/salt induced chronic kidney disease in rats by activating Nrf2 and attenuating osteopontin expression and inhibiting renal fibrosis in rats. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzierska K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Kędzierska,1 Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak,2 Krzysztof Sindrewicz,2 Joanna Bober,3 Leszek Domański,1 Mirosław Parafiniuk,4 Elżbieta Urasińska,5 Andrzej Ciechanowicz,6 Maciej Domański,1 Tomasz Smektała,2 Marek Masiuk,5 Wiesław Skrzypczak,6 Małgorzata Ożgo,6 Joanna Kabat-Koperska,1 Kazimierz Ciechanowski1 1Department of Nephrology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, 2Department of Dental Surgery, 3Department of Medical Chemistry, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, 5Department of Pathomorphology, Pomeranian Medical University, 6Department of Physiology, Cytobiology, and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Abstract: The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents' toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins' synthesis. Very slight differences

  16. Immunohistochemical Expression of Leptin (Ob-protein) in Experimentally Hypertensive Rat Kidney Tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fikret Gevrek; Meral Oncu; Kanat Gulle; Dilek Bayram; Erdal Karaoz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Leptin is an ob gene protein which has a 16 kDa weight. The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemically the correlation between immunohistochemical expression of Leptin and hypertension in rat kidney tissues...

  17. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. New rat model that phenotypically resembles autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.A. Goedbloed (Miriam); H.V. Herck; D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); P. Visser (Pim); R. Willemsen (Rob); R.P.E. van Dokkum (Richard); C.J. Wright; L.M. Guay-Woodford

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNumerous murine models of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) have been described. While mouse models are particularly well suited for investigating the molecular pathogenesis of PKD, rats are well established as an experimental model of renal physiologic

  19. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Schou, M

    1979-03-01

    A recent study by Kling et al (1978) noted the finding of higher lithium concentrations in serum and brain of rats after an intraperitoneal injection (2 mmol lithium kg-1) of lithium orotate as a slurry than of lithium carbonate in solution. The authors suggested that lithium orotate might offer advantages in the treatment of patients. We repeated the experiments of Kling et al but in addition examined the kidney function of the rats. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were markedly lower in rats given lithium orotate than in rats given lithium carbonate, sodium chloride or a sham injection. The renal lithium clearance was significantly lower, the kidney weight and the lithium concentrations in serum, kidney and heart significantly higher after injection of lithium orotate than after injection of lithium carbonate. The higher lithium concentrations could be accounted for by the lower kidney function. It seems inadvisable to use lithium orotate for the treatment of patients.

  20. Functionally induced changes in water transport in the proximal tubule segment of rat kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nørgaard, Tove

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate freezing artifacts in the proximal tubule cells, two cryotechniques were applied to normal rat kidneys, ie, freeze substitution and special freeze drying. In addition, salt depletion and salt loading were applied to groups of rats to evaluate whether the segmental structure of the pr...... segment, representing a structural background for the essential transport of water from the proximal tubules to the peritubular capillaries.......To eliminate freezing artifacts in the proximal tubule cells, two cryotechniques were applied to normal rat kidneys, ie, freeze substitution and special freeze drying. In addition, salt depletion and salt loading were applied to groups of rats to evaluate whether the segmental structure...

  1. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    DING, MEI; SI, DAOYUAN; ZHANG, WENQI; FENG, ZHAOHUI; HE, MIN; YANG, PING

    2014-01-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in viv...

  2. Effect of rifampicin on the kidney of albino rats | Peters | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the kidney biomarkers and histopathology of kidney of albino rats. 42 albino rats were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120gBW and 0.55mg/120gBW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days.Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last day of ...

  3. The Investigation of Garlic (Allium Sativum) Extract on Lead Detoxification of Neonatal Rats Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Zahra Zamani; Mokhtar Mokhtari; Vahid Hemayatkhah Jahromi; Houshang Jamali; Mohammad Yazdani

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objectives: Lead as a naturally-occurring element has different effects on hematopoitic system, nervous system, kidney, reproductive system and bone. In this investigation, was determined the effect of garlic alcoholic-water extract in kidney poisoning treatment induced by lead in neonatal rat.Materials & Methods: Rats were divided into 7 groups of 8. The First group was the control group, which had received no materials. The second group had received 0/1...

  4. Electrolyte content of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue in salt induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, T; Mumtaz, M; Haleem, M A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt load on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and electrolyte levels of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue was studied in rats. NaCl treatment increased sodium (5.69 +/- 0.4 mmol/L p electrolyte levels of erythrocytes, serum, heart and kidney tissues in NaCl loaded rats may play a definite role in the development of salt induced hypertension.

  5. Antihypertensive therapy upregulates renin and (pro) renin receptor in the clipped kidney of Goldblatt hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, C.; Hamming, I.; Sadaghiani, S.; Steinmetz, O. M.; Meyer-Schwesinger, C.; Fehr, S.; Stahl, R. A. K.; Garrelds, I. M.; Danser, A. H. J.; van Goor, H.; Contrepas, A.; Nguyen, G.; Wenzel, U.

    Recently, a (pro) renin receptor has been identified which mediates profibrotic effects independent of angiotensin II. Because antihypertensive therapy induces renal injury in the clipped kidney of two kidney-1-clip hypertensive rats, we examined the regulation of renin and the (pro) renin receptor

  6. Modifier loci in non-mutant, female Wistar Kyoto rats influence cellular pathogenesis of nephronophthisis in Lewis polycystic kidney rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkopiong, Jada Pasquale; Lako, Joseph Daniel Wani

    2015-09-01

    Genetic modifier loci influence the inheritance of diseases and lead to variability in phenotype progression. We report the influence of modifier loci in female Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats on cellular pathogenesis of nephronophthisis inherited from Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats. The loci modified cellular expression and progression of nephronophthisis in the backcross 1 (BC1) progeny. Mating experiments to produce BC1 progeny were carried out between three male LPK and seven female WKY rats. Fifteen female rats from the F1 generation were mated with the male LPK rats to produce the BC1 progeny. The rats with cystic kidney disease were identified and histology of the kidneys was carried out. Mapping studies and linkage analysis were carried out to identify the modifier loci. The BC1 progeny were less affected than the LPK strain with respect to disease severity and progression of the kidneys to end stage renal disease. It was found that the mean values of all the disease phenotypes of the mutant BC1 progeny were significantly different from those of the LPK rats, and these segregated with the genotypes of the markers located on chromosomes 5q34-q36 and 7q11-q34, giving maximum LOD scores greater than 3 (p < 0.001).

  7. Minocycline Attenuates Kidney Injury in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Bo-Yin; Zhao, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of minocycline on the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were evaluated in this study. The diabetes rats with DN were induced by STZ (55 mg/kg) injection. The experiment included 5 groups 1) normal, 2) normal plus minocycline for 16 weeks, 3) DN plus vehicle, 4) DN plus minocycline 16 weeks and 5) DN plus minocycline for 8 weeks. The pathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the apoptotic cells were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The mRNA expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the kidney tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The biochemical parameters of blood and urine were determined by biochemical analyzer. Treatment with minocycline reduced the urine volume, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) but not blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the DN rats. Furthermore, treatment with minocycline improved the pathological score of STZ-injured kidney and reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells in the kidney of DN rats. Moreover, minocycline mitigated the expression of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA, but increased Bcl-2 expression in the kidney of DN rats. These data indicated that minocycline improved the STZ-induced kidney damages, at least partially by protection form long-term hyperglycemia-induced kidney cell apoptosis.

  8. Zidovudine therapy: Effect(s) on histology of the kidney of wister rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the histo-morphological effect(s) of Zidovudine therapy on the kidney of Wister rats. Fifteen Wistar rats obtained from the Animal house of the College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, were used for this study. A three week period of acclimatisation was allowed.

  9. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  10. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  11. Betulinic acid attenuates renal fibrosis in rat chronic kidney disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshuk; Thakur, Richa; Lingaraju, Madhu C; Kumar, Dhirendra; Mathesh, Karikalan; Telang, Avinash G; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Most chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), regardless of the nature of the initial injury, progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by fibrosis with irreversible loss of tissue and function. Thus, improved and more effective therapies are critical. Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene is a compound in the pipeline of anti-cancer drug development. It has been shown to a possess variety of beneficial effects in many disease conditions. However, its efficacy against CKD is yet to be explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of BA on renal fibrosis in the rat model of adenine-induced CKD. CKD rats gained significantly less weight during the experimental period when compared to control rats and BA treatment did not significantly increase the weight gain in CKD rats. CKD rats showed elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and uric acid along with increased levels of kidney injury markers such as cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Further, in comparison to control rats, kidney samples from CKD rats revealed increased profibrotic protein levels like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, collagen type I and hydroxyproline indicating a progressive fibrotic response. These data are further fortified by histological findings where kidney damage and fibrosis are clearly evident as dilatation of tubules, glomerular degeneration and vacuolation along with deposition of collagen fibers. However, the above-mentioned findings in CKD rats were significantly reversed by BA-treatment revealing its nephroprotective potential and anti-fibrotic activity. The biochemical mechanism of the nephroprotective and anti-fibrotic effect of BA in the adenine-induced CKD rats might be mediated by inhibition of pro-fibrotic protein production thereby hindering the kidney tissue damage along with improvement in kidney function. Thus, BA could be

  12. Tangzhiqing Granules Alleviate Podocyte Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Kidney of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed the effect of Tangzhiqing granules on podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition in kidney of diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were divided randomly into five groups: DM group treated with vehicle, Tangzhiqing granules low-dose treatment group, Tangzhiqing granules middle-dose treatment group, and Tangzhiqing granules high-dose treatment group. Eight Wistar rats used as control group were given saline solution. The intervention was all intragastric administration for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, biochemical parameters and kidney weight/body weight ratio were measured. The kidney tissues were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. To search for the underlying mechanism, we examined the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT related molecular markers and TGF-β/smad signaling pathway key proteins expression. The results showed that Tangzhiqing granules relieved the structural damage and functional changes of diabetic kidneys. Kidney podocyte EMT related molecular markers nephrin and CD2AP expression were increased, when desmin and α-SMA levels were decreased by Tangzhiqing granules in diabetic rats. Further TGF-β/smad signaling pathway key proteins TGF-β1 and p-smad2/3 levels were decreased in diabetic rats after treatment with Tangzhiqing granules. These findings suggest that Tangzhiqing granules may protect the podocytes of diabetic nephropathy rats via alleviating podocyte EMT and likely activating TGFβ/smad signaling pathway.

  13. Lithium induces microcysts and polyuria in adolescent rat kidney independent of cyclooxygenase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In patients, chronic treatment with lithium leads to renal microcysts and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). It was hypothesized that renal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes microcyst formation and NDI. Kidney microcysts were induced in male adolescent rats by feeding dams with lithium...... was found in microcyst epithelium in rat kidney. A human nephrectomy specimen from a patient treated for 28 years with lithium displayed multiple, COX-1-immunopositive, microcysts. In chronic lithium-treated adolescent rats, COX-2 is not colocalized with microcystic epithelium, mitotic activity...

  14. Effect of high fructose administration on histopathology of kidney, heart and aorta of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Results: Nephropathy was achieved in fructose group after one month as indicated by biochemical assay. Pathological observation showed that high fructose administration decreased size of cardio-myocytes, increased cardiac interstitial fibrosis score and aortic wall thickness. In kidneys, high fructose administration decreased glomerular tuft area and corpuscular area, increased percentage in the rats affected with interstitial renal fibrosis score 1 and percentage of rats had glomerular sclerosis score 2. Conclusion: High fructose in diet should be avoided because it can damage kidney, heart and aorta in rats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 71-79

  15. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  16. Interactions of gold with cytosolic selenium-containing proteins in rat kidney and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M L; Viljoen, A J; Tappel, A L

    1988-04-01

    Rats injected with aurothioglucose (ATG) for 5 days were subsequently injected with [75Se]selenious acid and killed after 3 days. Kidney and liver cytosols were chromatographed on Sephadex G-150. 75Se in kidney was associated with high molecular weight (HMW), 85,000 Mr, 26,000 Mr, and 10,000 Mr proteins and with a nonprotein fraction. The elution profile of liver cytosol was similar to that of kidney, but without a 26,000 Mr protein. ATG injection increased the association of 75Se with all fractions of kidney cytosol except the 85,000 Mr fractions, which contained Se-glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) activity; 75Se in liver was increased only in HMW fractions. Unfractionated kidney cytosolic SeGSHPx activity was decreased 14% by ATG injection, but liver enzyme activity was not changed. However, Sephadex G-150 chromatography showed that total and specific activities, respectively, were decreased 28 and 23% in kidney and 25 and 16% in liver. Au coeluted with HMW and 10,000 Mr 73Se-containing kidney proteins; the latter contained 50% of the Au eluted from the column. DEAE Sephacel chromatography of the 10,000 Mr kidney protein showed that both Au and 75Se were tightly associated with metallothionein-like proteins. This study demonstrates the interaction of Au with rat liver and kidney 75Se-containing proteins.

  17. Sub acute and chronic effects of Carica Papaya on the kidney of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the sub-acute and chronic effects of Carica papaya on the kidney of growing Sprague Dawley rats. A total 40 growing rats (95.0 ± 10.0 grams) within the ages of 7 ± 1weeks were involved in the study. They were divided into eight groups of 5 rats each: A (control; n = 5), B (n = 10), C (n = 10) and D (n ...

  18. Increased Metabolic Stress in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Kidney and Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obesity and diabetes (hereafter termed diabesity are among the most challenging global health problems. Since the main pathophysiological complications in diabesity are hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, and urinary infections, the kidney and pancreas are the potential target organs affected in the above conditions. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of disease progression and complications are still unclear. The Zucker homozygous (FA/FA diabetic fatty (ZDF rat is a genetic model for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies, using cardiac muscles have demonstrated metabolic and oxidative stress in ZDF rats. In the present study, our aim was to investigate oxidative stress associated metabolic complications in ZDF rat kidney and pancreas. Methods: Here we have measured oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH-dependent metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory functions in the kidney and pancreas of ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, +/FA control rats. Results: Our results showed an increase in reactive oxygen species, NO production, lipid and protein peroxidation in ZDF rat kidney and pancreas accompanied by alterations in GSH-dependent metabolism and mitochondrial function. Western blot analysis has also confirmed increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins in ZDF rats. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that ZDF rats develop metabolic complications associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, these results might have implications in understanding the etiology and pathology of diabesity.

  19. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  20. Fenofibrate Attenuates Hypertension in Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats: Role of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in the Nonclipped Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporková, Alexandra; Čertíková Chábová, Věra; Doleželová, Šárka; Jíchová, Šárka; Kopkan, Libor; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Maxová, Hana; Červenka, Luděk

    2017-06-01

    There is vast evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is not the sole determinant of blood pressure (BP) elevation in human renovascular hypertension or the relevant experimental models. This study tested the hypothesis that kidney deficiency of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, is important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension. In 2K1C Goldblatt rats with established hypertension, angiotensin II, angiotensin 1-7, 20-HETE concentrations and gene expression of CYP4A1 enzyme (responsible for 20-HETE formation) of the nonclipped kidney were determined. We examined if 14 days׳ administration of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug, would increase CYP4A1 gene expression and renal 20-HETE formation, and if increased 20-HETE concentrations in the nonclipped kidney would decrease BP (telemetric measurements). CYP4A1 gene expression, 20-HETE and angiotensin 1-7 concentrations were lower and angiotensin II levels were higher in the nonclipped kidney of 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats. Fenofibrate increased CYP4A1 gene expression and 20-HETE concentration in the nonclipped kidney and significantly decreased BP in 2K1C rats but did not restore it to normotensive range. The treatment did not change BP in sham-operated rats. Our results suggest that alterations in the RAS and CYP-dependent ω-hydroxylase metabolites of arachidonic acid in the nonclipped kidneys are both important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertension. Therefore, fenofibrate treatment effectively attenuated hypertension, probably via stimulation of 20-HETE formation in the nonclipped kidney. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High Resolution Helium Ion Scanning Microscopy of the Rat Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William L.; Van Hoek, Alfred N.; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A.; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  2. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William L; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Păunescu, Teodor G; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  3. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  4. Lycopene Protects the Diabetic Rat Kidney Against Oxidative Stress-mediated Oxidative Damage Induced by Furan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Pandir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food and environmental contaminant and a potent carcinogen in animals. Lycopene is one dietary carotenoid found in fruits such as tomato, watermelon and grapefruit. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect of lycopene against furan-induced oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney. At the end of the experimental period (28 days, we found that lycopene markedly decreased the malondialdehide (MDA levels in the kidney, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels in the serum of furan-treated rats. The increase of histopathology in the kidney of furan-treated rats were effectively suppressed by lycopene. Furthermore, lycopene markedly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities in the kidney of furan-treated rats. In conclusion, these results suggested that lycopene could protect the rat kidney against furan-induced injury by improving renal function, attenuating histopathologic changes, reducing MDA production and renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Kidney biomarkers in MCPA-induced acute kidney injury in rats: reduced clearance enhances early biomarker performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Liu, Xin; Gobe, Glenda C; Endre, Zoltan H; Peake, Philip W; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2014-03-21

    For improved early detection and assessment of severe acute kidney damage following accidental or intentional ingestion of the herbicide MCPA, we compared a panel of 14 novel kidney injury biomarkers with plasma creatinine. Male Wistar rats received four different oral doses of MCPA and plasma and urine biomarker levels were measured at 8, 24 and 48 h after MCPA exposure. Diagnostic performances using absolute levels, urine levels normalized to urine creatinine or urinary excretion rate were determined by ROC analysis. Plasma creatinine remained the best early biomarker for predicting histological changes at 48 h. The performance of plasma cystatin C in mirroring kidney function was similar to that of plasma creatinine. While urine concentrations were generally less predictive, normalization by urine creatinine greatly improved the performance of several biomarkers. This may be due to an apparent amplification of the biomarker signal on normalizing to creatinine, in the presence of a declining glomerular filtration rate prior to reaching steady state. Normalized 8 h osteopontin and albumin concentrations outperformed other normalized biomarkers in predicting histological changes at later times. Normalized urinary kidney injury molecule-1 at 48 h also correlated well with the degree of kidney damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora on the progression of chronic kidney disease in a rat remnant kidney model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-xun; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Zhan-mei; Tian, Jian-wei; Liang, Min

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (EPS) on renal function and tissue damage in a rat remnant kidney model. Rat models of chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) were randomly assigned into two groups for treatment with a gavage of either EPS or vehicle for 9 weeks. The rats in the control group received only sham operation. Compared with vehicle-treated 5/6 Nx rats, the EPS-treated rats displayed significantly decreased urinary excretion of malondialdehyde, serum levels of AGEs and AOPPs, and increased serum SeGSHPx activities. These changes were associated with attenuated urinary protein excretion, glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. EPS can obviously improve the renal functions and renal pathologies in rats with chronic kidney disease probably by inhibiting the oxidative stress.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathophysiology of the rat kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, J.; Mazurchuk, R.J.; Acara, M.A.; Nickerson, P.A.; Fiel, R.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance imaging was performed on rats before induction of diabetes with streptozotocin (STZ) and at 2 and 12 days postinduction. Images revealed an increase in maximal longitudinal and axial dimensions of the kidneys at 2 days and a further increase at 12 days. Similarly, an increase in the size of the remaining kidney was seen in a rat which underwent uninephrectomy as a positive control. Two major differences were observed between the kidney undergoing compensatory hypertrophy and those developing diabetic nephropathy: (i) Expansion of the renal vasculature was seen only in images of the diabetic rat; (ii) A loss in conspicuity of the normal corticomedullary junction was seen in the T2-weighted images of the diabetic rat but not in the uninephrectomized rat. Histologic examination revealed that the medulla increased to a size greater than the cortex during diabetic nephropathy whereas the medullary volume was less than that of the cortex during compensatory hypertrophy. In vitro T1 relaxation times in cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla of kidneys from control rats were measured and compared with the same respective regions in diabetic rats. When these values were correlated with tissue water content, a linear increase in relaxation rate versus percent water content from cortex to inner medulla was found in the control kidneys, but this correlation was absent in diabetic nephropathy. These studies demonstrate that MRI is an effective noninvasive tool for studying the course of renal hypertrophy and hydration changes in the development of renal disease in STZ-induced diabetes in the rat.

  9. Human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium rescues kidney function in rats with established chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne van Koppen

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major health care problem, affecting more than 35% of the elderly population worldwide. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. Beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been described, however it is unclear whether the MSCs themselves or their secretome is required. We hypothesized that MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM reduces progression of CKD and studied functional and structural effects in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX combined with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet in Lewis rats. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received either 50 µg CM or 50 µg non-CM (NCM twice daily intravenously for four consecutive days. Six weeks after treatment CM administration was functionally effective: glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance were significantly higher in CM vs. NCM-treatment. Systolic blood pressure was lower in CM compared to NCM. Proteinuria tended to be lower after CM. Tubular and glomerular damage were reduced and more glomerular endothelial cells were found after CM. DNA damage repair was increased after CM. MSC-CM derived exosomes, tested in the same experimental setting, showed no protective effect on the kidney. In a rat model of established CKD, we demonstrated that administration of MSC-CM has a long-lasting therapeutic rescue function shown by decreased progression of CKD and reduced hypertension and glomerular injury.

  10. The influence of oxazaphosphorine agents on kidney function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: CP caused more advanced kidney dysfunction and some indices suggested the development of prerenal acute kidney injury. In the CP-treated group some particularly marked urinary and plasma uric acid disturbances suggested compensation of increased oxidative stress as uric acid is considered to exert also antioxidant properties.

  11. Chronic trimethyltin chloride exposure and the development of kidney stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuefeng; Wu, Xin; Sui, Gang; Gong, Zhihong; Yawson, Emmanuel; Wu, Banghua; Lai, Guanchao; Ruan, Xiaolin; Gao, Hongbin; Zhou, Feng; Su, Bing; Olson, James R; Tang, Xiaojiang

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that occupational exposure to trimethyltin (TMT) is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. To further examine the association between TMT exposure and the formation of kidney stones, we conducted a 180-day animal study and exposed the randomly grouped Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to TMT in the drinking water at doses of 0, 8.2, 32.8 and 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1). Transient behavioral changes were observed in the high-dose group during the first 2 weeks of exposure. TMT exposure led to a significant dose-dependent inhibition of renal H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and an increase in urinary pH. In comparison to no kidney stones being identified in the control and the lowest dose group, 1 rat in the 32.8 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group and 3 out of 9 rats in the 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group were found to have stones in the kidney/urinary tract. Pathological analysis showed that more wide spread calcium disposition was observed in kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that the kidney stones were mainly composed of struvite with the formula: NH4MgPO4 6H2O, while calcium-containing components were also detected. Together, this study further demonstrates through animal studies that chronic exposure to a relatively low level of TMT induces nephrotoxicity and increases the risk for developing kidney stones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Structural transition of kidney cystatin in dimethylnitrosamine-induced renal cancer in rats: identification as a novel biomarker for kidney cancer and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-04-01

    In our study, renal cancer is induced in rats making use of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). G1 - Group 1 were control rats and G2 - Group 2 rats were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of DMN of 50 mg/kg body weight resulting in 100% incidences of renal tumors after 12 months. SEM and histopathology confirmed the presence of renal cancer in the DMN-treated rats. Making use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR column, a thiol protease inhibitor was isolated from kidney of control rats known as Rat kidney Cystatin (RKC) as well as from kidney of cancerous rat called as Cancerous Rat Kidney Cystatin (CRKC). Both these inhibitors were characterized, and interestingly, it was found that CRKC showed greater anti-papain activity and also it was stable in a broad pH and temperature range thus implying that CRKC is more stable as compared to RKC. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy point out in structural difference between RKC and CRKC which was further confirmed by Circular dichroism (CD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Our study clearly showed that kidney cystatin is structurally modified in the case of renal cancer and performs its role in a more efficacious manner.

  13. Nephroprotection of punicalagin in rat model of endotoxemic acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Qutub, Hatem O; Al-Melhim, Walid N

    2016-09-01

    The potential nephroprotection of punicalagin (PNG) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury in rats was investigated. Rats received a single i.v. dose of LPS (5 mg/kg), and treated with PNG (50 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 h before, and 1 h following LPS administration. LPS caused significant increases of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. LPS also resulted in significant increases in interleukin-18, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and myeloperoxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspases 3, 8 and 9 activities, and a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity in kidney tissues. PNG significantly ameliorated the alterations in the measured parameters. Additionally, PNG attenuated the histopathological injury and reduced kidney injury molecule-1 expression in kidneys of rats that received LPS. It was concluded that PNG ameliorated endotoxemic acute kidney injury in rats by counteracting inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress and apoptosis.

  14. Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function in the remnant kidney from 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yan; Lu, Miaomiao; Han, Yarong; Zhou, Hongli; Liu, Wei; Li, Lijing; Jin, Ruixia

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Resveratrol has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the recovery of kidney diseases. In this study, the 5/6 nephrectomized rat was used as a CKD model and the TGF-β1-exposed mouse mesangial cells were used as an in vitro model. Pathological examination showed that resveratrol treatment attenuated glomerular injury in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rat. Additionally, resveratrol improved mitochondrial function in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing ATP, decreasing reactive oxygen species production and enhancing activities of complex I and III. Furthermore, the dysregulated expressions of electron transport chain proteins and fission/fusion proteins in the kidney of 5/6 nephrectomize rats and TGF-β1-exposed mesangial cells were restored by resveratrol. Finally, upregulated sirt1 and PGC-1α deacetylation were found after treatment with resveratrol in vivo and in vitro, which may contribute to the mitochondrial protective effects of resveratrol. The results demonstrate that resveratrol protects the mitochondria of kidney in 5/6 nephrectomized rats and TGF-β1 induced mesangial cells. The study provides new insights into the renoprotective mechanisms of resveratrol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of kidney sulfotransferases during lead-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templer, L.A.; Kong, J.; Ronis, M.J.J.; Ringer, D.P. [Univ. Arkansas Medical School, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-03-08

    Kidney sulfotransferases (ST) have been shown to be involved in the biotransformation of steroid and thyroid hormones as well as xenobiotics varying from carcinogenic heterocyclic amines to drugs such as acetaminophen. In order to examine the impact of lead-induced nephrotoxicity on kidney aryl, estrogen and DHEA STs during growth and development, time-impregnated female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed ad libitum to lead acetate (0.6%) in drinking water from gestational day 5 and continuing in male and female pups until they were sacrificed at day 85. Cytosols from male rat kidneys showed levels of estrogen ST activity (59% of females) that were significantly lowered (P{le}0.05) after lead exposure (6-20% of male). Aryl ST activity was relatively unchanged in male rats after rat kidney cytosol. Immunochemical analysis of cytosols from normal males and females with the antiserums to the three STs substantiated the presence of only the aryl and estrogen STs. Immunohistochemical techniques localized the aryl and estrogen STs primarily to the S3 section of the proximal tubules. These findings indicate that kidney STs may be differently modulated during lead exposure.

  16. Mass spectrometric imaging of metabolites in kidney tissues from rats treated with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Mi Suk; Choi, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Sunhee; Lee, Yu-Jung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    In the kidney, metabolic processes are different among the cortex (COR), outer medulla (OM), and inner medulla (IM). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we examined the change of metabolites in the COR, OM, and IM of the rat kidney after furosemide treatment compared with vehicle-treated controls. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats to deliver 12 mg·day(-1)·rat(-1) of furosemide. Vehicle-treated (n = 14) and furosemide-treated (furosemide rats, n = 15) rats in metabolic cages received a fixed amount of rat chow (15 g·220 g body wt(-1)·day(-1) for each rat) with free access to water intake for 6 days. At day 6, higher urine output (32 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 1 ml/day) and lower urine osmolality (546 ± 44 vs. 1,677 ± 104 mosmol/kgH2O) were observed in furosemide rats. Extracts of COR, OM, and IM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, where multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several metabolites, including acetylcarnitine, betaine, carnitine, choline, and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), were significantly changed. The changes of metabolites were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS. Their spatial distribution and relative quantitation in the kidneys were analyzed by IMS. Carnitine compounds were increased in COR and IM, whereas carnitine and acetylcarnitine were decreased in OM. Choline compounds were increased in COR and OM but decreased in IM from furosemide rats. Betaine and GPC were decreased in OM and IM. Taken together, MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS successfully provide the spatial distribution and relative quantitation of metabolites in the kidney. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibition Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Osorio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperglycemia triggers several chronic diabetic complications mediated by increased oxidative stress that eventually causes diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to examine if the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2 inhibition prevents the oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods. The diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. The inhibition of SGLT2 was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of phlorizin (0.4 g/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and by immunohistochemical analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT. Results. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes caused hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The CAT activity decreased in cortex and medulla from diabetic rats; in contrast, the GPx activity increased. Furthermore the 3-NT staining of kidney from diabetic rats increased compared to control rats. The inhibition of SGLT2 decreased hyperglycemia. However, significant diuresis and glucosuria remain in diabetic rats. The phlorizin treatment restores the CAT and GPX activities and decreases 3-NT staining. Conclusion. The inhibition of SGLT2 by phlorizin prevents the hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in kidney of diabetic rats, suggesting a prooxidative mechanism related to SGLT2 activity.

  18. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...... that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats....

  19. Chronic effects of cadmium on kidney, liver, testis, and fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygi, S; Deniz, G; Kutsal, O; Vural, N

    1991-12-01

    Male Wistar rats (n:20), at 5 wk of age, were given cadmium in drinking water (10 mg/L water) for 52 wk; 8 males and 20 female rats, as controls, were given tap water. At the end of 28 and 40 wk, some of the cadmium-treated males and control group male rats were sacrificed for the histopathological examination of testis, kidney, and liver. At the end of 56 wk, histopathological examinations were performed in the same way. Liver, kidney, and testis cadmium levels were also determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the cadmium-treated male rats showed pathological testicular alterations, and liver and kidney damage after chronic exposure. Cadmium levels were found to be highest in the kidney (1.009 +/- 0.034 microgram/g wet tissue in the infertile group). At the end of the 52-wk period, reproductive capacity of the cadmium-treated rats was investigated and was found to be lost in 39.89% of the animals.

  20. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  1. Effect of heat stress on histopathological alterations in kidneys of albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity

    2011-01-01

    The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August) by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group) and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (45±5°C). The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats u...

  2. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ezejindu D N; Udemezue O. O. Akingboye A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group...

  3. Effect of zinc and calcium ions on the rat kidney membrane-bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To investigate whether these results may be generalized to mammalian DPP-IV orthologues, we purified the intact membrane-bound form from rat kidney. Rat DPP-IV hydrolysed Gly-Pro--nitroanilide with an average Vmax of 0.86±0.01 mol min–1mL–1 and KM of 76±6 M. The enzyme was inhibited by the DPP-IV family ...

  4. The Effects of Early Postnatal Diuretics Treatment on Kidney Development and Long-Term Kidney Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Maicas, Nuria; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2016-01-01

    Diuretics are administered to neonates to control fluid balance. We studied whether clinical doses affected kidney development and function and whether extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) could be a modulator. Wistar rats were cross-fostered in normal food or food restricted litters at postnatal day (PND) 2 and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl, 5 mg/kg furosemide or 5 mg/kg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) up to PND 8. Kidneys were evaluated on proliferation, apoptosis and a set of mRNA target genes at PND 8, glomerular- and glomerular generation count at PND 35, clinical pathology parameters at 3- and 9 months, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at PND 8, 3 and 6 months, monthly blood pressure from 3 months onward and histopathology at study end. Treatment with furosemide or HCTZ did not have relevant effects on measured parameters. EUGR resulted in lower body weight from day 3 onwards (-29% at weaning; p < 0.001, -10% at necropsy; p < 0.001), less glomerular generations (4.4 ± 0.32 vs. 5.0 ± 0.423; p = 0.025, males only), decreased glomerular numbers (27,861 ± 3,468 vs. 30,527 ± 4,096; p = 0.026), higher creatinine clearance (0.84 ± 0.1 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; p = 0.047) at 3 months and lower plasma creatinine (25.7 ± 1.8 vs. 27.5 ± 2.8 µmol/l; p = 0.043) at 9 months. Furosemide and HCTZ did not influence kidney development or function when administered in a clinically relevant dose to rat pups at a stage of ongoing nephrogenesis. EUGR led to impaired kidney development but did not modify furosemide or HCTZ findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Investigation of Garlic (Allium Sativum Extract on Lead Detoxification of Neonatal Rats Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Johari

    2014-06-01

    in kidney poisoning treatment induced by lead in neonatal rat.Materials & Methods: Rats were divided into 7 groups of 8. The First group was the control group, which had received no materials. The second group had received 0/1 ml distilled water, the third group had received the lead with a dose of 0/6 gram per liter. The forth group had just received 0/4 g/kg garlic alcoholic – water extract. The fifth, sixth, and seventh group had first received 0/6 g lead perliter and then received doses of 0/1, 0/2, 0/4 g/kg garlic. Then, injections was performed orally in 10 consecutive days. The data were analysed then using T. Results: Based on the obtained results, there is a significant increase in the body weight and the kidney of the third, fifth, sixth and seventh groups compared with the control group. However, the body weight and kidney of rats in the fourth group showed a meaningful decrease comparing with the lead group. Regarding the third group, there was a meaningful increase in Urea, uric acid, creatinine and potassium compared with the control group but a significant decrease in the sodium. Conclusion: Protective effects of garlic on kidney are related to antioxidant properties, since different types of oxidation reactions have negative effects on glomerular filtration rate. Garlic is eliminating the poisoning effect of lead on the kidney because of having properties such as antioxidant and protective effect.

  7. Dynamic renal scintigraphic estimation of deceased donor kidneys in a rat model

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    Huseyin Aydin Mitil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a large number of the renal transplantations are being performed from the deceased donors. The success of these transplantations depends on the viability of the deceased donor kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of scintigraphic estimation of function of deceased donor kidneys by comparing the histopathologic and scintigraphic findings. Ten rats were included in the study (2–3 months old, 250–300 g, all male. Control scintigraphy was performed to all the rats by injection of 37 MBq Tc-99m DTPA from the tail vein in a dynamic manner. Brain death of the rats was achieved by inflation of a Fogartys catheter in the cranial cavity. Immediately, after brain death confirmation, dynamic renal scintigraphy was performed with the same parameters of control scintigraphy. In the comparison of scintigraphies obtained in the before and just after brain death period, there was impairment of tubular functions, concentration and excretion functions in the postbrain death period. In the immediate postbrain death period, there was a significant elevation in the glomerular filtration rate and time to maximum concentration values. In the histopathological evaluation of the kidney samples in the postbrain death period, there were definitive findings of tubular impairment. Dynamic renal scintigraphy also demonstrated definite impairment of tubular system and tubular functions in the deceased donor kidneys. This could explain the reason of the increased frequency of acute tubular necrosis seen among deceased donor kidneys.

  8. Discovery of novel microRNAs in rat kidney using next generation sequencing and microarray validation.

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    Fanxue Meng

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes. The latest version of the miRBase database (Release 18 includes 1,157 mouse and 680 rat mature miRNAs. Only one new rat mature miRNA was added to the rat miRNA database from version 16 to version 18 of miRBase, suggesting that many rat miRNAs remain to be discovered. Given the importance of rat as a model organism, discovery of the completed set of rat miRNAs is necessary for understanding rat miRNA regulation. In this study, next generation sequencing (NGS, microarray analysis and bioinformatics technologies were applied to discover novel miRNAs in rat kidneys. MiRanalyzer was utilized to analyze the sequences of the small RNAs generated from NGS analysis of rat kidney samples. Hundreds of novel miRNA candidates were examined according to the mappings of their reads to the rat genome, presence of sequences that can form a miRNA hairpin structure around the mapped locations, Dicer cleavage patterns, and the levels of their expression determined by both NGS and microarray analyses. Nine novel rat hairpin precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNA were discovered with high confidence. Five of the novel pre-miRNAs are also reported in other species while four of them are rat specific. In summary, 9 novel pre-miRNAs (14 novel mature miRNAs were identified via combination of NGS, microarray and bioinformatics high-throughput technologies.

  9. Discovery of novel microRNAs in rat kidney using next generation sequencing and microarray validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxue; Hackenberg, Michael; Li, Zhiguang; Yan, Jian; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes. The latest version of the miRBase database (Release 18) includes 1,157 mouse and 680 rat mature miRNAs. Only one new rat mature miRNA was added to the rat miRNA database from version 16 to version 18 of miRBase, suggesting that many rat miRNAs remain to be discovered. Given the importance of rat as a model organism, discovery of the completed set of rat miRNAs is necessary for understanding rat miRNA regulation. In this study, next generation sequencing (NGS), microarray analysis and bioinformatics technologies were applied to discover novel miRNAs in rat kidneys. MiRanalyzer was utilized to analyze the sequences of the small RNAs generated from NGS analysis of rat kidney samples. Hundreds of novel miRNA candidates were examined according to the mappings of their reads to the rat genome, presence of sequences that can form a miRNA hairpin structure around the mapped locations, Dicer cleavage patterns, and the levels of their expression determined by both NGS and microarray analyses. Nine novel rat hairpin precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNA) were discovered with high confidence. Five of the novel pre-miRNAs are also reported in other species while four of them are rat specific. In summary, 9 novel pre-miRNAs (14 novel mature miRNAs) were identified via combination of NGS, microarray and bioinformatics high-throughput technologies.

  10. [Protective effect of calcium dobesilate against early diabetic nephropathy of rat kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei-Juan; Liu, Ming; Li, Bo; Li, Ming-Long; Bian, Li-Xiang; Yu, Gui-Na

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study is to study the effect of calcium dobesilate on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early diabetic nephrophathy (DN) in rats. All male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal group; DN blank group; calcium dobesilate 75, 150, and 300 mg x kg(-1) groups and perindopril 0.4 mg x kg(-1) group. Blood glucose and the 24 h urinary albumin were measured dynamically during the experiment, after 8 weeks administration, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was determined, the expressions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) in cortex of kidney were examined with immunohistochemical staining. The endothelin (ET) in plasma and kidney cortex was measured with radioimmunoassay, renal pathomorphism was observed with light and electron microscopes. Calcium dobesilate could decrease the 24 h urinary albumin and ET in plasma and kidney cortex, down-regulate the expression of PAI-1, and up-regulate MMP-9 in kidney. These findings suggested that calcium dobesilate could protect blood vessel endothelium, inhibit kidney fibrous degeneration, ameliorate renal pathological damage, and protect kidney function in many ways.

  11. Decellularized scaffold of cryopreserved rat kidney retains its recellularization potential.

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    Baldeep Chani

    Full Text Available The multi-cellular nature of renal tissue makes it the most challenging organ for regeneration. Therefore, till date whole organ transplantations remain the definitive treatment for the end stage renal disease (ESRD. The shortage of available organs for the transplantation has, thus, remained a major concern as well as an unsolved problem. In this regard generation of whole organ scaffold through decellularization followed by regeneration of the whole organ by recellularization is being viewed as a potential alternative for generating functional tissues. Despite its growing interest, the optimal processing to achieve functional organ still remains unsolved. The biggest challenge remains is the time line for obtaining kidney. Keeping these facts in mind, we have assessed the effects of cryostorage (3 months on renal tissue architecture and its potential for decellularization and recellularization in comparison to the freshly isolated kidneys. The light microscopy exploiting different microscopic stains as well as immuno-histochemistry and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated that ECM framework is well retained following kidney cryopreservation. The strength of these structures was reinforced by calculating mechanical stress which confirmed the similarity between the freshly isolated and cryopreserved tissue. The recellularization of these bio-scaffolds, with mesenchymal stem cells quickly repopulated the decellularized structures irrespective of the kidneys status, i.e. freshly isolated or the cryopreserved. The growth pattern employing mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated their equivalent recellularization potential. Based on these observations, it may be concluded that cryopreserved kidneys can be exploited as scaffolds for future development of functional organ.

  12. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of vitamin C on cadmium-induced toxicity was investigated. Wister rats were exposed ... Keywords: Cadmium, Vitamin C, Toxicity, Kidney, Bone. INTRODUCTION. For non-smoking, non-occupationally exposed population, food, especially of vegetable origin, is the main source of cadmium ...

  13. BROMATE-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN LONG-EVANS RAT KIDNEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Long-Evans Rat Kidneys.Ozone disinfection of surface waters containing bromide ion (Br-) results in the oxidation of bromide to bromate, which can be found in finished drinking water as a by-product. Potassium bromate (KBrO3)...

  14. The protective effect of pomegranate extract against cisplatin toxicity in rat liver and kidney tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakır, Salih; Yazgan, Ümit Can; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Elbey, Bilal; Kızıl, Murat; Kelle, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a histopathological investigation, at the light microscopy level, of the protective effects of pomegranate extract in cisplatin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Treated for 10 consecutive days by gavage with pomegranate juice (2 ml/kg/day); Group 3: Injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight, single dose) onset of the day 5, and Group 4: Treated by gavage with pomegranate juice 10 days before and after a single injection of cisplatin onset of the day 5. After 10 days, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys and liver tissue samples were removed from each animal after experimental procedures. Cisplatin-induced renal and hepatic toxicity and the effect of pomegranate juice were evaluated by histopatological examinations. In the kidney tissue, pomegranate juice significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced structural alterations when compared with the cisplatin alone group. But in the liver tissue, although pomegranate juice attenuated the cisplatin-induced toxicity only in two rats, significant improvement was not observed. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the anti-oxidant pomegranate juice might have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat kidney, but not in liver. Pomegranate juice could be beneficial as a dietary supplement in patients receiving chemotherapy medications.

  15. Localization of prostaglandin E(2) EP2 and EP4 receptors in the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Stubbe, J; Hansen, P B

    2001-01-01

    segments showed EP2 expression in descending thin limb of Henle's loop (DTL) and in vasa recta of the outer medulla. The EP4 receptor was expressed in distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in preglomerular vessels, and in outer medullary vasa recta. Butaprost, an EP2 receptor......We investigated the localization of cAMP-coupled prostaglandin E(2) EP2 and EP4 receptor expression in the rat kidney. EP2 mRNA was restricted to the outer and inner medulla in rat kidney, as determined by RNase protection assay. RT-PCR analysis of microdissected resistance vessels and nephron......-selective agonist, dose dependently raised cAMP levels in microdissected DTL and outer medullary vasa recta specimens but had no effect in EP2-negative outer medullary collecting duct segments. Dietary salt intake did not alter EP2 expression in the kidney medulla. These results suggest that PGE(2) may act...

  16. Neural regulation of the kidney function in rats with cisplatin induced renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Niamh E.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a disturbed cardiovascular homeostasis. This investigation explored the role of the renal innervation in mediating deranged baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and renal excretory function in cisplatin-induced renal failure. Methods: Rats were either intact or bilaterally renally denervated 4 days prior to receiving cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and entered a chronic metabolic study for 8 days. At day 8, other groups of rats were prepared for acute measurement of RSNA or renal function with either intact or denervated kidneys. Results: Following the cisplatin challenge, creatinine clearance was 50% lower while fractional sodium excretion and renal cortical and medullary TGF-β1 concentrations were 3–4 fold higher in both intact and renally denervated rats compared to control rats. In cisplatin-treated rats, the maximal gain of the high-pressure baroreflex curve was only 20% that of control rats, but following renal denervation not different from that of renally denervated control rats. Volume expansion reduced RSNA by 50% in control and in cisplatin-treated rats but only following bilateral renal denervation. The volume expansion mediated natriuresis/diuresis was absent in the cisplatin-treated rats but was normalized following renal denervation. Conclusions: Cisplatin-induced renal injury impaired renal function and caused a sympatho-excitation with blunting of high and low pressure baroreflex regulation of RSNA, which was dependent on the renal innervation. It is suggested that in man with CKD there is a dysregulation of the neural control of the kidney mediated by its sensory innervation. PMID:26175693

  17. High Resolution Ultrasonography for Assessment of Renal Cysts in the PCK Rat Model of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

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    Sarika Kapoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The PCK rat model of polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of renal medullary cysts. Here, we evaluated the suitability of high resolution ultrasonography (HRU to assess the kidney and cyst volume in PCK rats, testing three different ultrasound image analysis methods, and correlating them with kidneys weights and histological examinations. Methods: After inducing anesthesia, PCK rats (n=18 were subjected to HRU to visualize the kidneys, to perform numeric and volumetric measurements of the kidney and any cysts observed, and to generate 3-dimensional images of the cysts within the kidney parenchyma. Results: HRU provided superior information in comparison to microscopic analysis of stained kidney sections. HRU-based kidney volumes correlated strongly with kidney weights (R2=0.809; PConclusion: HRU represents a useful diagnostic tool for kidney and cyst volume measurements in PCK rats. Sequential HRU examinations may be useful to study the effect of drugs on cyst growth without the need to euthanize experimental animals.

  18. Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Li-Min; Wang, Shu-Zhi; Kou, Jian-Qun; Xu, Yin-Li; Chen, Cao-Xin; Yu, Hong-Pei; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Xie, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported the oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) reduced adriamycin-induced chronic kidney damage. This study investigated the effects of intragastric administrated cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra venom on chronic kidney disease in rats. Wistar rats were injected with adriamycin (ADR; 6 mg/kg body weight) via the tail vein to induce chronic kidney disease. The cardiotoxin was administrated daily by intragastric injection at doses of 45, 90, and 180  μ g/kg body weight until the end of the protocol. The rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24 hours to collect urine, for determination of proteinuria, once a week. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to determine serum profiles relevant to chronic kidney disease, including albumin, total cholesterol, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine. Kidney histology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of kidney podocin were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We found that cardiotoxin reduced proteinuria and can improve biological parameters in the adriamycin-induced kidney disease model. Cardiotoxin also reduced adriamycin-induced kidney pathology, suggesting that cardiotoxin is an active component of NNAV for ameliorating adriamycin-induced kidney damage and may have a potential therapeutic value on chronic kidney disease.

  19. Low endogenous glucocorticoid allows induction of kidney cortical cyclooxygenase-2 during postnatal rat development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Stubbe, Jane; Skøtt, Ole

    2004-01-01

    COX-2 in these cells. Thus low plasma concentrations of corticosterone allowed for cortical and medullary COX-2 induction during postnatal kidney development. Increased circulating glucocorticoid in the postnatal period may damage late renal development through inhibition of COX-2.......In postnatal weeks 2-4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in the rat kidney cortex where it is critically involved in final stages of kidney development. We examined whether changes in circulating gluco- or mineralocorticosteroids or in their renal receptors regulate postnatal COX-2 induction....... Plasma corticosterone concentration peaked at birth, decreased to low levels at days 3-13, and increased to adult levels from day 22. Aldosterone peaked at birth and then stabilized at adult levels. Gluco- and mineralocorticoid receptor (GR and MR) mRNAs were expressed stably in kidney before, during...

  20. Kidney tissue targeted metabolic profiling of unilateral ureteral obstruction rats by NMR

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    Zhen-Yu Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathological process in the progression of kidney disease. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR based metabolomic approach was used to analyze the kidney tissues of rats with renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF, induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. The combination of a variety of statistical methods were used to screen out 14 significantly changed potential metabolites, which are related with multiple biochemical processes including amino acid metabolism, adenine metabolism, energy metabolism, osmolyte change and induced oxidative stress. The exploration of the contralateral kidneys enhanced the understanding of the disease, which was also supported by serum biochemistry and kidney histopathology results. In addition, the pathological parameters (clinical chemistry, histological and immunohistochemistry results were correlated with the significantly changed differential metabolites related with RIF. This study showed that targeted tissue metabolomic analysis can be used as a useful tool to understand the mechanism of the disease and provide a novel insight in the pathogenesis of RIF.

  1. Newly Developed Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Fujii, Hideki; Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Watanabe, Shuhei; Shinohara, Masami; Nishi, Shinichi

    2018-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Thus, elucidating its pathophysiological mechanisms is essential for improving the prognosis. We evaluated characteristics of CKD-MBD in a newly developed CKD rat model. We used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, which are used as models for nonobese type 2 diabetes. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). At 10 weeks, the rats were classified into six groups and administered with a vehicle or a low- or high-dose paricalcitol thrice a week. At 20 weeks, the rats were sacrificed; blood and urinary biochemical analyses and histological analysis of the aorta were performed. At 20 weeks, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure, and renal function were not significantly different among the six groups. Serum calcium and phosphate levels tended to be higher in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. The urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate was significantly greater in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. After administering paricalcitol, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels were significantly higher in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. The degree of aortic calcification was significantly more severe and the aortic calcium content was significantly greater in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. We suggest that our new CKD rat model using SDT rats represents a useful CKD-MBD model, and this model was greatly influenced by paricalcitol administration. Further studies are needed to clarify the detailed mechanisms underlying this model.

  2. The metabolic profile of a rat model of chronic kidney disease

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    Yohei Tanada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The kidney is always subjected to high metabolic demand. The aim of this study was to characterize metabolic profiles of a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD with cardiorenal syndrome (CRS induced by prolonged hypertension. Methods We used inbred male Dahl salt-sensitive (DS rats fed an 8% NaCl diet from six weeks of age (high-salt; HS group or a 0.3% NaCl diet as controls (low-salt; LS group. We analyzed function, pathology, metabolome, and the gene expression related to energy metabolism of the kidney. Results DS rats with a high-salt diet showed hypertension at 11 weeks of age and elevated serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen with heart failure at 21 weeks of age. The fibrotic area in the kidneys increased at 21 weeks of age. In addition, gene expression related to mitochondrial function was largely decreased. The levels of citrate and isocitrate increased and the gene expression of alpha-ketoglutaratedehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthetase decreased; these are enzymes that metabolize citrate and isocitrate, respectively. In addition, the levels of succinate and acetyl Co-A, both of which are metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, decreased. Conclusions DS rats fed a high-salt diet were deemed a suitable model of CKD with CRS. Gene expression and metabolites related to energy metabolism and mitochondria in the kidney significantly changed in DS rats with hypertension in accordance with the progression of renal injury.

  3. Effects of diabetes on oxidative and nitrosative stress in kidney mitochondria from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío V; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Esquivel-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Campos-García, Jesús; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in the secretion and/or action of insulin. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) develops in diabetic patients and is characterized by a progressive deterioration of renal function. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) produces most of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are involved in diabetic nephropathy. Due to the high incidence of DM in the elderly, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative and nitrosative stress in kidney mitochondria from aged rats. We evaluated lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO(•)) production, S-nitrosylation profiles, glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and aconitase activities under streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetes in kidney mitochondria from aged rats. The results showed an increase in LPO, NO(•) production, and S-nitrosylated proteins in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. A decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione reductase (GR) and aconitase activities in the rats that received the STZ-induced diabetes treatment was also observed, when compared with the age-related controls. The data suggest that oxidative and nitrosative stresses promote mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction in the more advanced age rat kidney in STZ-induced diabetes.

  4. GENETIC VARIANTS IN ARHGEF11 ARE ASSOCIATED WITH KIDNEY INJURY IN THE DAHL S RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jan M.; Johnson, Ashley C.; Stelloh, Cary; Dreisbach, Albert C.; Franceschini, Nora; Regner, Kevin R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Roman, Richard J.; Garrett, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A previous genetic analysis comparing the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat to the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) identified a major locus on chromosome 2 that influences proteinuria in the S rat. In the present study, blood pressure, proteinuria, and renal hemodynamics were evaluated in congenic strains with small segments of the protective SHR genome on the S background. Proteinuria and renal function were significantly improved in the congenic strains compared to the S. The causative locus interval was narrowed to differential expression. Arhgef11, Pear1, and Sh2d2 were identified as important candidate genes that may be linked to kidney injury in the S rat. In particular, Arhgef11 plays an important role in the activation of the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway. Inhibition of this pathway using fasudil resulted in a significant reduction of proteinuria in treated S rats (compared to untreated S). However, no difference was observed between treated or untreated SHR or congenic strains. The homologous region in humans was found to be associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) population. In summary, these findings demonstrate that allelic variants in Arhgef11, acting through the Rho-ROCK pathway, could influence kidney injury in the S as well as provide insight into human kidney disease. PMID:22987919

  5. Matrix Gla Protein is Involved in Crystal Formation in Kidney of Hyperoxaluric Rats

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    Xiuli Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP is a molecular determinant regulating vascular calcification of the extracellular matrix. However, it is still unclear how MGP may be invovled in crystal formation in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the hyperoxaluric group and control group. Hyperoxaluric rats were administrated by 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG for up to 8 weeks. Renal MGP expression was detected by the standard avidin-biotin complex (ABC method. Renal crystal deposition was observed by a polarizing microscope. Total RNA and protein from the rat kidney tissue were extracted. The levels of MGP mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Hyperoxaluria was induced successfully in rats. The MGP was polarly distributed, on the apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells, and was found in the ascending thick limbs of Henle's loop (cTAL and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT in hyperoxaluric rats, its expression however, was present in the medullary collecting duct (MCD in stone-forming rats. Crystals with multilaminated structure formed in the injurious renal tubules with lack of MGP expression.MGP mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by the crystals' stimulations. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the MGP was involved in crystals formation by the continuous expression, distributing it polarly in the renal tubular cells and binding directly to the crystals.

  6. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  7. Ameliorated Effects of Green Tea Extract on Lead Induced Kidney Toxicity in Rats

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    Nadia Ait Hamadouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE against renal oxidative damage induced by lead was undertaken. Adult males rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group receives distilled water as sole drinking source. GTE group received green tea extract (6.6% w/v.Pb group received Pb at dose of 0.4 % w/v in distilled water. Pb + GTE group received mixture of Pb and GTE as sole drinking source. Renal oxidative damage was observed in Pb-treated rats as evidenced via augmentation in kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as depletion in kidney antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Histopathological analysis revealed degeneration in the endothelium of glomerular tuft and the epithelium of lining tubules. In conclusion, GTE appeared to be beneficial to rats, to a great extent by attenuating and restoring the damage sustained by lead exposure.

  8. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  9. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  10. The effects of Artemisia deserti ethanolic extract on pathology and function of rat kidney

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    Ali Noori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medicinal plants played an important role in human health. The kidney is a major organ for elimination the additional materials of body. Some of metabolic waste products are excreted through the kidneys, give us useful information about kidney health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the effects of A. deserti flowering tips extract on kidney. Materials and Methods: Three groups of animal were studied. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was injected with saline, group 2 and 3 were injected with extract, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The animals were anesthetized, blood samples were collected 2 days after the last injection, then urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were assayed. Also, the kidney histology was studied. Results: No significant changes in urea and uric acid were observed. But, creatinine concentration was changed significantly in group 3 compared to other groups. The extract caused histologic changes in the kidney, including, glomerular atrophy, congestion of inflammatory cells and degeneration of the renal tubules. Conclusion: The results showed that A. deserti extract was able to damage the kidney tissue. However, the reason for these histopathological changes remains to be clarified.

  11. Genistein attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kidney I/R injury by improving antioxidant defense mechanisms. Keywords: Oxidative stress, Genistein, Ischemic reperfusion injury, Renal damage, Antioxidant, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, Heme oxygenase-1, Nrf-2, HO-1 Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index ...

  12. Human recombinant erythropoietin reduces sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive impairment in rat models of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza-Zaldívar, E E; Sandoval-Avila, S; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Vázquez-Méndez, E; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Esquivel-Solís, H; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Márquez-Aguirre, A L

    2017-11-10

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can cause anaemia and neurological disorders. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is used to manage anaemia in CKD. However, there is little evidence on the effects of rHuEPO on behaviour and cognitive function in CKD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of rHuEPO in sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a CKD model. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control and CKD, with and without rHuEPO treatment (1050 IU per kg body weight, once weekly for 4 weeks). The Morris water maze, open field, and adhesive removal tests were performed simultaneously to kidney damage induction and treatment. Markers of anaemia and renal function were measured at the end of the study. Treatment with rHuEPO reduced kidney damage and corrected anaemia in rats with CKD. We observed reduced sensorimotor dysfunction in animals with CKD and treated with rHuEPO. These rats also completed the water maze test in a shorter time than the control groups. rHuEPO reduces kidney damage, corrects anemia, and reduces sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunction in animals with CKD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Short Term Exposure of Atrazine on the Liver and Kidney of Normal and Diabetic Rats

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    Dinesh Babu Jestadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effects of short term (15 days exposure of low dose (300 μg kg−1 of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine on antioxidant status and markers of liver and kidney damage in normal (nondiabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I as normal control, Group II as atrazine treated, Group III as diabetic control, and Group IV as atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration resulted in increased MDA concentration as well as increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. However, GSH level was decreased in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration led to significant increase in liver damage biomarkers such as AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney damage biomarkers such as creatinine and urea in both normal and diabetic rats, but this increase was more pronounced in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that short term exposure of atrazine at a dose of 300 μg kg−1 could potentially induce oxidative damage in liver and kidney of both normal and diabetic rats.

  14. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol®) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  15. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Wenqi; Feng, Zhaohui; He, Min; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia.

  16. Renal primordia activate kidney regenerative events in a rat model of progressive renal disease.

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    Barbara Imberti

    Full Text Available New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration.

  17. Complexing activity and excretion of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzbach, J.M.; Diamond, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    The renal handling of the heavy metal complexing agent, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS), was examined in the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK). Net tubular secretion of DMPS was saturable and blocked by p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and probenecid (PRB), indicating involvement of carrier-mediated transport in the excretion of DMPS. DMPS was oxidized to a disulfide form (DMPSS) in perfusate and reduced to a sulfhydryl form (DMPSH) in kidney. In kidneys isolated from rats pretreated with HgCl/sub 2/, DMPS produced a dose-dependent decrease in retention of inorganic mercury, an increase in urinary excretion of mercury, and an increase in the amount of mercury transferred from kidney into venous perfusate. At a maximally effective dose, 40% of the renal mercury content was excreted in urine during 30 min of perfusion. Urinary excretion of mercury induced by DMPS was completely blocked by concentrations of PRB that blocked tubular secretion of DMPS and decreased uptake of DMPS in kidney. Thus tubular secretion of DMPS and reduction of DMPSS to DMPSH are important in the renal handling of DMPS and may contribute to the activity of DMPS as a complexing agent for renal mercury.

  18. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong, E-mail: xiegh@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury.

  19. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

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    Joshua C Kwekel

    Full Text Available Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  20. Safety evaluation of an Ayurvedic medicine, Arogyavardhini vati on brain, liver and kidney in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, S K; Gupta, Y K

    2012-03-06

    Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver and skin disorders in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, toxicity due to the presence of heavy metals in this traditional medicine is a matter of concern. To evaluate the safety of Arogyavardhini vati on brain, liver and kidney in rats. Arogyavardhini vati at doses of 50, 250 and 500mg/kg (1, 5 and 10 times of human equivalent dose respectively), mercury chloride (1mg/kg) and normal saline were administered orally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Behavioral parameters were assessed on day 1, 7th, 14th and 28th using Morris water maze, passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and rota rod. Biochemical parameters (acetyl-cholinesterase activity, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione), histopathology and mercury level in brain, liver, kidney were assessed at the end of the experiment. There was no significant change in behavioral parameters, acetyl-cholinesterase activity, liver function (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) function tests at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) as compared to normal control. However, significant change was observed in mercury chloride treated group. Mercury chloride treated group as well as Arogyavardhini vati treated groups (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) showed increased levels of mercury in brain, liver and kidney as compared to normal control. Histopathological results showed significant cytoarchitectural changes in brain, liver and kidney architecture in mercury chloride treated group. Whereas, normal cytoarchitecture was observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati. The finding of the present study suggests that Arogyavardhini vati in the doses equivalent up to 10 times of the human dose administered to rats for 28 days does not have appreciable toxicological effects on brain, liver and kidney. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Histopathological kidney alterations in rats naturally infected with Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Murillo, Victoria Eugenia; Londoño, Andrés Felipe; Rodas, Juan David

    2013-09-01

    Histopathological changes by Leptospira in naturally infected rodent reservoirs have been poorly described. The aim of the current study is to describe renal histopathology associated with leptospirosis infection of naturally infected rodents captured in the urban area of the city of Medellin, Colombia. We performed hematoxilin-eosin (H-E) on kidney samples collected from 254 captured rodents. The positive samples were processed by Warthin Starry (W-S) staining and PCR-LipL 32. Fifty one rodent kidneys showed H-E histopathological changes that consisted of inflammatory infiltrate with lympho-plasmocitary cells and histiocytes. We performed W-S staining and PCR-LipL 32 to 67 kidney samples, including the 51 that had shown detectable changes by H-E and 16 (8%) of 203 rodents with negative results. Eight of the samples that tested positive for H-E (15.7%) were also positive for W-S staining. All negative for H-E were also negative for W-S staining. Of the W-S positive samples also tested for culture only three tested positive for both. Additionally, 47 (92.1%) samples positive for H-E were positive for PCR; while eleven of the 16 (68.8%) negative for H-E were positive for PCR. The samples positive for PCR were subsequently tested for culture and 11 (23.4%) were positive. Seven samples were positive for PCR and W-S and three were positive for PCR, W-S and culture. All of the PCR-LipL 32 fragments were sequenced and showed specific amplicons for L. interrogans . The Leptospira infection was confirmed in all of the animals tested. The only histological kidney lesion attributable to leptospiral infection in the reservoir was interstitial nephritis.

  2. Polycystic kidney disease gene in the Lewis polycystic kidney rat is mapped to chromosome 10q21–q26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yengkopiong JP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jada Pasquale YengkopiongDr John Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bor, Republic of South SudanBackground: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is a life-threatening disorder that affects the kidneys of millions of people across the world. The disease is normally inherited, but it can also be acquired, and leads to development of many cysts in the renal nephrons. In this study, the aim was to characterize PKD in the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK rat, the newest model for human PKD.Methods: Mating experiments were performed between male LPK rats with PKD and female Brown Norway and Wistar Kyoto rats without PKD to raise second filial (F2 and backcross 1 (BC1 progeny, respectively. Rats that developed PKD were identified. Histological examination of the kidneys and liver was performed. Liver tissue samples were collected from each rat and used to extract DNA. The extracted DNA was amplified, and mapping and linkage analyses were performed to identify the quantitative trait locus that controlled the disease phenotypes.Results: It was established that the disease was controlled by a recessive mutation in a single gene (F2: PKD = 42, non-PKD = 110, χ2 = 0.53; BC1: PKD = 67, non-PKD = 72, χ2 = 0.18, P > 0.05 and that the disease was inherited as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. The rats with PKD developed larger fluid-filled cystic kidneys, higher systolic blood pressure, and anemia. However, there were no extrarenal cysts and no pup deaths. Mapping studies and linkage analyses associated the disease phenotypes in both the F2 and BC1 rats to chromosome 10q21–q26, giving a maximum LOD score of 7.9 (P = 0.00001 between peak markers D10Rat180 and D10Rat26.Conclusion: The quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10q21–q26 does not contain the Pkhd-1 gene, and it is different from quantitative trait loci that control ARPKD in other murine models. The candidate genes located in the

  3. Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Chelko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in isolated occipital arteries (OAs from sham-operated (SHAM and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, and plasma renin concentrations than SHAM rats. The contractile responses to AII were markedly diminished in both proximal and distal segments of OAs from 2K-1C rats as compared to those from SHAM rats. The responses elicited by AVP were substantially greater in distal than in proximal segments of OAs from SHAM rats and that AVP elicited similar responses in OA segments from 2K-1C rats. The responses elicited by 5-HT were similar in proximal and distal segments from SHAM and 2K-1C rats. These results demonstrate that continued exposure to circulating AII and AVP in 2K-1C rats reduces the contractile efficacy of AII but not AVP or 5-HT. The diminished responsiveness to AII may alter the physiological status of OAs in vivo.

  4. Elevated BSC-1 and ROMK expression in Dahl salt-sensitive rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Kimberly M; Flasch, Averia K; Dahly-Vernon, Annette J; dos Santos, Elisabete Alcantara; Knepper, Mark A; Roman, Richard J

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the expression of enzymes and transport and channel proteins involved in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant Brown-Norway (BN) and consomic rats (SS.BN13), in which chromosome 13 from the BN rat has been introgressed into the DS genetic background. The expression of the Na+/K+/2Cl- (BSC-1) cotransporter, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), and Na+-K+-ATPase proteins were similar in the renal cortex of DS, BN, and SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt (0.1% NaCl) or a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet. The expression of the BSC-1 and the renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK) were higher, whereas the expression of the cytochrome P4504A proteins responsible for the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE) was lower in the outer medulla of the kidney of DS than in BN or SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt or a high-salt diet. In addition, the renal formation and excretion of 20-HETE was lower in DS than in BN and SS.BN13 rats. These results suggest that overexpression of ROMK and BSC-1 in the thick ascending limb combined with a deficiency in renal formation of 20-HETE may predispose Dahl S rats fed a high-salt diet to Na+ retention and hypertension.

  5. [Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the rat kidney during the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanoelina, M; Delaval, E; Bastin, J; Bismuth, J; Freund, N; Geloso, J P

    1987-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism in the developing rat kidney has been studied on isolated mitochondria. An increase of about 50% in state 3 respiration has been observed at birth, using succinate, glutamate, or palmitoyl-L-carnitine as a substrate. The rate of respiration in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol was found identical to state 3 respiration in all cases. Cytochrome oxidase activity did not change between the fetal and newborn stages. The increase of mitochondrial respiration revealed here, which is not linked to a modification of the respiratory chain, could be involved in the rise of kidney ATP level and energy charge observed at birth.

  6. Triiodothyronine attenuates the progression of renal injury in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar Mohamed

    2018-02-06

    This study was designed to investigate whether and how triiodothyronine (T3) affects renal function in an experimental model of chronic kidney disease. Twenty four female rats were divided into: sham operated control group (n=8) , 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx, n=8) and 5/6 nephrectomized group treated with T3 for 2 weeks (T3-Nx, n=8). T3 administration significantly decreased serum levels of urea, creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 compared to Nx group. The levels of malondialdehyde , transforming growth factor beta, fibronectin, and collagen IV as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa B, poly ADP ribose polymerase, caspase-3 and Bax all were significantly decreased , though not normalized, in the remnant kidney of T3-Nx group compared to Nx rats. Glutathione, and Heme oxygenase-1 levels as well as the endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were increased in the remnant kidney of T3-Nx group. Histological studies revealed focal necrosis of renal tubules associated with inflammatory cells infiltration, and fibrosis in Nx group. These changes were alleviated in T3-Nx rats. T3 administration attenuated the clinical and histological signs of renal injury in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by mitigating renal oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis as well as fibrosis.

  7. Motion corrected Cadence CPS ultrasound for quantifying response to vasoactive drugs in a rat kidney model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E.; Dayton, Paul A.; Watson, Katherine D.; Hu, Xiaowen; Guracar, Ismayil M.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish the ability of contrast enhanced motion corrected Cadence Pulse Sequencing (CPS) to detect changes in renal blood flow induced by vasoactive substances in rats. Methods: Ultrasound contrast media was administered as a constant rate infusion into a phantom at a known rate and CPS data acquired. Rats were anesthetized and pre-drug CPS estimates of replenishment rate were made for the right kidney. Real-time motion correction was applied and parametric images were generated from the CPS data. Group 1 rats (n=7) were administered a vasodilator and Group 2 rats (n=3) were given a vasoconstrictor. CPS imaging of the kidney was repeated following ample time for drug effects to occur. Results: Contrast CPS accurately estimated flow velocity in the phantom model. In addition, CPS defined statistically significant differences between pre and post drug blood flow in the renal medulla (vasodilator, p<0.01; vasoconstrictor, p<0.0001) and cortex (vasoconstrictor, p<0.0001). Conclusions: We conclude that motion corrected CPS ultrasound provides real time quantification of renal blood flow alterations and may prove useful for the assessment of blood flow in transplanted kidneys. PMID:19589583

  8. Effects of hydration in rats and mice with polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Katharina; Wang, Xiaofang; Ye, Hong; Irazabal, María V.; Harris, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin and V2 receptor signaling promote polycystic kidney disease (PKD) progression, raising the question whether suppression of vasopressin release through enhanced hydration can delay disease advancement. Enhanced hydration by adding 5% glucose to the drinking water has proven protective in a rat model orthologous to autosomal recessive PKD. We wanted to exclude a glucose effect and explore the influence of enhanced hydration in a mouse model orthologous to autosomal dominant PKD. PCK rats were assigned to normal water intake (NWI) or high water intake (HWI) groups achieved by feeding a hydrated agar diet (HWI-agar) or by adding 5% glucose to the drinking water (HWI-glucose), with the latter group used to recapitulate previously published results. Homozygous Pkd1 R3277C (Pkd1RC/RC) mice were assigned to NWI and HWI-agar groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of HWI, kidney weight and histomorphometry were assessed, and urine vasopressin, renal cAMP levels, and phosphodiesterase activities were measured. HWI-agar, like HWI-glucose, reduced urine vasopressin, renal cAMP levels, and PKD severity in PCK rats but not in Pkd1RC/RC mice. Compared with rat kidneys, mouse kidneys had higher phosphodiesterase activity and lower cAMP levels and were less sensitive to the cystogenic effect of 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin, as previously shown for Pkd1RC/RC mice and confirmed here in Pkd2WS25/− mice. We conclude that the effect of enhanced hydration in rat and mouse models of PKD differs. More powerful suppression of V2 receptor-mediated signaling than achievable by enhanced hydration alone may be necessary to affect the development of PKD in mouse models. PMID:25503729

  9. Low-Amplitude Ultrasound Enhances Hydrodynamic-Based Gene Delivery to Rat Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifei; Pua, Eric C.; Lu, Xiaochun; Zhong, Pei

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic combination of hydrodynamics-based gene delivery and ultrasound was investigated to achieve improved gene transfer to the kidney. Plasmids encoding firefly luciferase and Erythropoietin (EPO) gene were delivered into the left kidney of rats by single or combinative application of renal vein hydrodynamic injection and ultrasound treatment with or without the addition of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). Ultrasound exposure was found to enhance the efficiency of hydrodynamics-based gene delivery for both luciferase and EPO expression. An ultrasound exposure intensity of 2 W/cm2 at 10% duty cycle for 15 min., produced a maximal gene expression 4.5 times higher than hydrodynamic delivery alone. Duration, location, and tissue-specificity of gene expression were not changed by ultrasound exposure. Application of UCA reduced the intensity and exposure duration of ultrasound treatment needed for optimal expression. Appropriate application of ultrasound and UCA did not alter histological structure or impair physiological function of the treated kidney. PMID:19523454

  10. Polycystic kidney rat is a novel animal model of Caroli's disease associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzen, T; Harada, K; Yasoshima, M; Kawamura, Y; Ishibashi, M; Nakanuma, Y

    2001-05-01

    Caroli's disease (congenital intrahepatic biliary dilatation) associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Recently, the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat, a spontaneous mutant derived from a colony of CRJ:CD rats with polycystic lesions in the liver and an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, was reported. In the present study, the pathology of the hepatobiliary system and the biliary cell-kinetics were evaluated in fetuses (day 18 to 21 of gestation) and neonates and adults (1 day to 4 months after delivery) of PCK rats. CRJ:CD rats were used as a control. Multiple segmental and saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts were first observed in fetuses at 19 days of gestation. The dilatation spread throughout the liver and the degree of dilatation increased with aging. Gross and histological features characterizing ductal plate malformation were common in the intrahepatic bile ducts. Overgrowth of portal connective tissue was evident and progressive after delivery. These features were very similar to those of Caroli's disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis. Proliferative activity in the biliary epithelial cells was greater in PCK rats than controls during the development. In contrast, the biliary epithelial apoptosis was less extensive in PCK rats than the controls until 1 week after delivery, but greater after 3 weeks, suggesting that the remodeling defect in immature bile ducts associated with the imbalance of cell kinetics plays a role in the occurrence of intrahepatic biliary anomalies in PCK rats. The PCK rat could be a useful and promising animal model of Caroli's disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Consequences of Ischemic Preconditioning of Kidney: Comparing between Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Maliheh

    2012-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of kidney transplantation failure, and ischemic-preconditioning (IPC) is a protective method against the IRI. In the present study, the defensive effect of IPC on rats' kidney was investigated and more importantly the differences between two genders were appraised. THIRTY TWO WISTAR RATS WERE RANDOMLY ALLOCATED TO FOUR GROUPS: group A (8 male IR), B (8 female IR), C (8 male IPC) and D (8 female IPC). Ischemia was induced by clamping of left renal arteries for 45 min in groups A and B. Rats in groups C and D experienced four cycles of 4 min arterial clamping followed by 11 min of de-clamping prior to the final 45 min of ischemia. 24 hr later, serum was provided to assess the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values. Also, renal tissues were obtained for histological measurements. Induction of IPC in both male and female rats led to significant decrease in creatinine levels in comparison with sham groups (Ptwo genders. Besides, histological protective effects of IPC was proved especially in female rats (Pgenders especially females. Thus, the IPC procedure seems to be a useful method mainly in females.

  12. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in basement membrane components, notably proteoglycans, in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease have been investigated. Rats were fed phenol II (2-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl thiazole) for 4 days and then changed to normal diet for a 7-day recovery period. Marked dilation...... membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein related to perlecan did not diminish but rather stained affected tubules intensely, whereas laminin, on the other hand, was apparently diminished in the basement membranes of the cystic tubules. Type IV collagen staining did not change through disease...... in this disease....

  14. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Revis, N W; Osborne, T R

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observe...

  15. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  16. Effects of dietary salt on adrenomedullin and its receptor mRNAs in rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Gambaryan, S; Schmaus, E

    1998-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that adrenomedullin (ADM) is involved in the control of salt and water homeostasis. ADM is considered to act primarily in a paracrine fashion, and since the kidneys are target organs for ADM, we investigated the localization and regulation of ADM and ADM receptor (A...... and a preferential action of ADM in the papilla. Ten days of feeding a low-salt (0.02%) or a high-salt diet (4%) did not change ADM mRNA or ADM-R mRNA in any kidney zone.......There is accumulating evidence that adrenomedullin (ADM) is involved in the control of salt and water homeostasis. ADM is considered to act primarily in a paracrine fashion, and since the kidneys are target organs for ADM, we investigated the localization and regulation of ADM and ADM receptor (ADM...

  17. Effects of hydration in rats and mice with polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hopp, Katharina; Wang, Xiaofang; YE, HONG; Irazabal, María V.; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin and V2 receptor signaling promote polycystic kidney disease (PKD) progression, raising the question whether suppression of vasopressin release through enhanced hydration can delay disease advancement. Enhanced hydration by adding 5% glucose to the drinking water has proven protective in a rat model orthologous to autosomal recessive PKD. We wanted to exclude a glucose effect and explore the influence of enhanced hydration in a mouse model orthologous to autosomal dominant PKD. PCK...

  18. Effect of spent turmeric on kidney glycoconjugates in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Curcumin known to have number of medicinal use and masked the fiber containing ukonan like active polysaccharide in turmeric and its pharmacological effect will be addressed on diabetic nephropathy particularly the glycoconjugates of extracellular components viz., glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans - heparan sulfate (HS). Methods Male Wistar rats were maintained on AIN-76 diet containing 10% spent turmeric and were grouped into control and STZ induced diabetes SFC/TFC and SFD/TFD, respectively. Diabetic status was monitored using blood and urine, and at the end, harvested kidneys were used to study the amelioration of glycoprotiens (collagen) and HS by enzymatic digestion, spectrophotometric, hydroxyproline and agarose electrophoretic methods. Results In the present study spent turmeric (10%) fed diabetic rats showed improved glomerular filtration rate (50%), kidney enlargement (60%) and other glycoconjugate metabolism in kidney. Increased collagen content in diabetic group was observed by hydroxyproline estimation (24%) and periodic acid-Schiff’s (PAS) staining. Furthermore, elevated activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered in spent turmeric fed diabetic group. Improvement in total GAGs (43%) and sulfate content (18%) followed by fractionation of GAGs using specific enzymes led to HS (28%) in the spent turmeric fed diabetic group, when compared to starch fed diabetic group and was further confirmed by electrophoresis of GAG. Conclusion These results clearly indicate beneficial role of spent turmeric in controlling glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes. PMID:26413492

  19. Protective effect of propolis on methotrexate-induced kidney injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hasan Basri; Öztürk, İsmet; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. Pharmacological induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) has been investigated for restoring normal cellular function following an injury. In this study, effect of propolis on HSP-70 expression in methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity and direct preventive effect of propolis in this toxicity were investigated. Material and methods A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20 mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100 mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 d by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under ketamine esthesia and their kidney tissues were removed. HSP-70 expression, apoptosis, and histopathological damage scores were then compared. Results MTX caused epithelial desquamation into the lumen of the tubules, dilatation, and congestion of the peritubular vessels and renal corpuscles with obscure Bowman's space. The number of apoptotic cells (p = 0.000) and HSP-70 (p = 0.002) expression were increased in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in number of apoptotic cells (p = 0.017), HSP-70 (p = 0.000) expression, and improved kidney morphology. Conclusions It was found that methotrexate gives rise to serious damage in the kidney and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing kidney injury.

  20. Mechanism of insulin resistance in a rat model of kidney disease and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dion

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is associated with homeostatic imbalances such as insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to these imbalances and whether they promote the development of type 2 diabetes is unknown. The effect of chronic kidney disease on insulin resistance was studied on two different rat strains. First, in a 5/6th nephrectomised Sprague-Dawley rat model of chronic kidney disease, we observed a correlation between the severity of chronic kidney disease and hyperglycemia as evaluated by serum fructosamine levels (p<0.0001. Further, glucose tolerance tests indicated an increase of 25% in glycemia in chronic kidney disease rats (p<0.0001 as compared to controls whereas insulin levels remained unchanged. We also observed modulation of glucose transporters expression in several tissues such as the liver (decrease of ≈40%, p≤0.01 and muscles (decrease of ≈29%, p≤0.05. Despite a significant reduction of ≈37% in insulin-dependent glucose uptake in the muscles of chronic kidney disease rats (p<0.0001, the development of type 2 diabetes was never observed. Second, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (Zucker Leprfa/fa, chronic kidney disease caused a 50% increased fasting hyperglycemia (p<0.0001 and an exacerbated glycemic response (p<0.0001 during glucose challenge. Similar modulations of glucose transporters expression and glucose uptake were observed in the two models. However, 30% (p<0.05 of chronic kidney disease Zucker rats developed characteristics of type 2 diabetes. Thus, our results suggest that downregulation of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle may be associated with insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease and could lead to type 2 diabetes in predisposed animals.

  1. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenate on Kidney of Rats

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    Namdar Yousofvand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, histopathological effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenate in drinkable water were studied on a quantity of organs of rat. Methods: Rats were divided into two groups, group I; served as control group, were main-tained on deionized drinkable water for 2 months, and group II; the study group were given 60 g/ml of sodium arsenate in deionized drinkable water for 2 months. Blood and urine samples from two groups of animals were collected under anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia (a-chloralose, 100 mg/kg, I.P. Their kidney, liver, aorta, and heart were dissected out and cleaned of surrounding connective tissue. The organs were kept in formaldehyde (10% for histopathologic examination. Serum and urine samples from two groups were collected and analyzed for arsenic level. Total quantity of arsenic in serum and urine of animal was measured through graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS. Results:Examination with light microscopy did not show any visible structural changes in the aorta, myocardium, and liver of chronic arsenic treated animals.However, a significant effect was observed in the kidneys of chronic arsenic treated rats showing distinct changes in proxi-mal tubular cells. There was high concentration of arsenic in serum and urine of arsenic ex-posed animals (group II significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion:Swollen tubular cells in histopathologic study of kidney may suggest toxic effects of arsenic in the body.

  2. Histopathological Changes in the Kidney following Congestive Heart Failure by Volume Overload in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddin B. Aboryag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated histopathological changes and apoptotic factors that may be involved in the renal damage caused by congestive heart failure in a rat model of infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF. Methods. Heart failure was induced using a modified approach of ACF in male Wistar rats. Sham-operated controls and ACF rats were characterized by their morphometric and hemodynamic parameters and investigated for their histopathological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic factor changes in the kidney. Results. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with histopathological signs of congestion and glomerular and tubular atrophy, as well as nuclear and cellular degeneration in the kidney. In parallel, overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, release of cytochrome C from the outer mitochondrial membrane into cell cytoplasm, and nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3 indicate apoptotic events. This was confirmed by electron microscopic findings of apoptotic signs in the kidney such as swollen mitochondria and degenerated nuclei in renal tubular cells. Conclusions. This study provides morphological evidence of renal injury during heart failure which may be due to caspase-mediated apoptosis via overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, subsequent mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and final nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3, supporting the notion of a cardiorenal syndrome.

  3. The para isomer of dinitrobenzene disrupts redox homeostasis in liver and kidney of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangodele, Janet Olayemi; Olaleye, Mary Tolulope; Monsees, Thomas K; Akinmoladun, Afolabi Clement

    2017-07-01

    Para - Dinitrobenzene (p -DNB) is one of the isomers of dinitrobenzene which have been detected as environmental toxicants. Skin irritation and organ toxicities are likely for industrial workers exposed to p -DNB. This study evaluated the effect of sub-chronic exposure of rats to p -DNB on cellular redox balance, hepatic and renal integrity. Forty eight male Wistar rats weighing 160-180 g were administered 50, 75, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.wt (body weight) of p -DNB or an equivalent volume of vehicle (control) orally and topically for 14 days. After the period of treatment, the activities of kidney and liver catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as extent of renal and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined. Serum ALP activity and plasma urea concentration were also evaluated. Compared with control animals, p -DNB -administered rats showed decrease in the body and relative kidney and liver weights as well as increased renal and hepatic hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels accompanied by decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. However, p -DNB caused a significant increase in plasma urea concentration and serum, liver and kidney ALP activities relative to control. In addition, p -DNB caused periportal infiltration, severe macro vesicular steatosis and hepatic necrosis in the liver. Our findings show that sub-chronic oral and sub-dermal administration of p -DNB may produce hepato-nephrotoxicity through oxidative stress.

  4. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

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    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  5. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition on Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression in PCK Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Kapoor

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption. Since increased diuresis retards the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD, we investigated the effect of DAPA in the PCK rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/d or vehicle was administered by gavage to 6 week old male PCK rats (n=9 per group. Renal function, albuminuria, kidney weight and cyst volume were assessed after 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment with DAPA markedly increased glucose excretion (23.6 ± 4.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/d and urine output (57.3 ± 6.8 vs 19.3 ± 0.8 ml/d. DAPA-treated PCK rats had higher clearances for creatinine (3.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 ml/min and BUN (1.7 ± 0.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.1 ml/min after 3 weeks, and developed a 4-fold increase in albuminuria. Ultrasound imaging and histological analysis revealed a higher cyst volume and a 23% higher total kidney weight after 6 weeks of DAPA treatment. At week 6 the renal cAMP content was similar between DAPA and vehicle, and staining for Ki67 did not reveal an increase in cell proliferation. In conclusion, the inhibition of glucose reabsorption with the SGLT2-specific inhibitor DAPA caused osmotic diuresis, hyperfiltration, albuminuria and an increase in cyst volume in PCK rats. The mechanisms which link glucosuria to hyperfiltration, albuminuria and enhanced cyst volume in PCK rats remain to be elucidated.

  6. Kidney pathology precedes and predicts the pathological cascade of cerebrovascular lesions in stroke prone rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schreiber

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD has been hypothesized to be an age-dependent disease accompanied by similar vascular changes in other organs. SHRSP feature numerous vascular risk factors and may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD. Here we compare renal histopathological changes with the brain pathology of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We histologically investigated the brains and kidneys of 61 SHRSP at different stages of age (12 to 44 weeks. The brain pathology (aggregated erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, microbleeds, microthromboses and the kidney pathology (aggregated erythrocytes within peritubular capillaries, tubular protein cylinders, glomerulosclerosis were quantified separately. The prediction of the brain pathology by the kidney pathology was assessed by creating ROC-curves integrating the degree of kidney pathology and age of SHRSP. RESULTS: Both, brain and kidney pathology, show an age-dependency and proceed in definite stages whereas an aggregation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, we parsimoniously interpreted as stases, represent the initial finding in both organs. Thus, early renal tubulointerstitial damage characterized by rather few intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and tubular protein cylinders predicts the initial step of SHRSPs' cerebral vascular pathology marked by accumulated erythrocytes. The combined increase of intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and protein cylinders accompanied by glomerulosclerosis and thrombotic renal microangiopathy in kidneys of older SHRSP predicts the final stages of SHRSPs' cerebrovascular lesions marked by microbleeds and thrombotic infarcts. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate a close association between structural brain and kidney pathology and support the concept of small vessel disease to be an age-dependent systemic pathology. Further, an improved joined nephrologic and neurologic

  7. Daily Intake of Grape Powder Prevents the Progression of Kidney Disease in Obese Type 2 Diabetic ZSF1 Rats

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    Salwa M. K. Almomen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease model with MetS, were fed WGP (5%, w/w diet for six months. Kidney disease was determined using blood and urine chemical analyses, and histology. When compared to Vehicle controls, WGP intake did not change the rat bodyweight, but lowered their kidney, liver and spleen weight, which were in parallel with the lower serum glucose and the higher albumin or albumin/globin ratio. More importantly, WGP intake improved the renal function as urination and proteinuria decreased, or it prevented kidney tissue damage in these diabetic rats. The renal protection of WGP diet was associated with up-regulation of antioxidants (Dhcr24, Gstk1, Prdx2, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4 and downregulation of Txnip (for ROS production in the kidneys. Furthermore, addition of grape extract reduced H2O2-induced cell death of cultured podocytes. In conclusion, daily intake of WGP reduces the progression of kidney disease in obese diabetic rats, suggesting a protective function of antioxidant-rich grape diet against CKD in the setting of MetS.

  8. Retrospective evaluation of alpha 2u-globulin accumulation in male rat kidneys following high doses of diisononyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D J; Eldridge, S R; Lington, A W; McKee, R H

    1999-09-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a widely used plasticizer, has been evaluated in two chronic studies in rats and one in mice. In the early 1980s, Exxon found no carcinogenic potential at the estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 0.6% (307 mg/kg/ day for male rats) administered in the diet of rats for 2 years. A recent study conducted at dietary levels up to 1.2% DINP (733 mg/kg/d for male rats) reported kidney tumors in male rats at the high treatment level, but not in female rats nor mice of either sex. Because these tumors occurred only in male rats, and only at high doses, the male rat-specific alpha 2u-globulin (alpha2UG) mechanism of action was investigated. Technological advances in immunohistochemical staining and computerized image analysis techniques permitted measuring the accumulation of alpha2UG in archived kidneys from the earlier Exxon study. Using archived tissue obtained at the 12-month interim sacrifice, we identified a dose-dependent accumulation of alpha2UG in specific regions of male rat kidneys only. An increase in cell proliferation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and was confined to the areas of alpha2UG accumulation. H and E-stained sections revealed tubular epithelial hypertrophy and regeneration, consistent with the immunohistopathology findings. These findings are consistent with the alpha2UG mechanism of tumorigenesis, which is not regarded as relevant for humans. Thus, exposure to DINP produced a dose-dependent alpha2UG accumulation in male rat kidneys, significant at a dietary level of 0.6% and a likely mechanism for the kidney tumors seen only in male rats administered higher dietary levels of DINP.

  9. Rat hypoplastic kidney (hpk/hpk) induces renal anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and osteodystrophy at the end stage of renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    1998-10-01

    In rats with genetically hypoplastic kidneys (hpk/hpk) and associated hypogonadism (hgn/hgn), their kidneys contain only one-quarter the number of nephrons that are found in those of normal rats [26]. Not surprisingly, therefore, renal excretive function has been shown to be depressed in hpk/hpk rats [26]. In the study presented here, we have examined the process of the progression of renal failure and the development of renal secondary disease in hpk/hpk rats. The plasma concentrations of urea-nitrogen and creatinine were significantly higher in adult hpk/hpk rats than in normal rats. These values elevated gradually and the degree of renal histological damage also progressed with advancing age in the hpk/hpk rats. In addition, renal anemia appeared at 140 days of age or later in these rats, and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands was visible macroscopically at 280 days of age. In the hpk/hpk rats plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus were significantly lower and higher than in normal rats, respectively, at 280 days of age. Pathologically, the left femora of hpk/hpk rats exhibited fibrous osteodystrophy at 280 days of age and the calcium content of the right femora (as a percentage of the dry weight of bone) was significantly lower than in normal rats at both 210 and 280 days of age. These results indicate that the reduced nephrogenesis of the hpk/hpk rats causes progressive renal failure, secondarily inducing anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and osteodystrophy.

  10. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

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    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  11. High Dietary Protein Exacerbates Hypertension and Renal Damage in Dahl SS Rats by Increasing Infiltrating Immune Cells in the Kidney

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Miguel, Carmen; Lund, Hayley; Mattson, David L

    2011-01-01

    ...) compared to rats fed normal protein (132±3 mm Hg, 1.2±0.3) or low-protein (132±6 mm Hg, 0.3±0.1) diets. Significantly greater numbers of infiltrating T lymphocytes were observed in kidneys of SS rats fed the high-protein diet...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Maleic Acid as a Food Adulterant Determined by Microdialysis in Rat Blood and Kidney Cortex

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    Mei-Ling Hou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maleic acid has been shown to be used as a food adulterant in the production of modified starch by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Due to the potential toxicity of maleic acid to the kidneys, this study aimed to develop an analytical method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of maleic acid in rat blood and kidney cortex. Multiple microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein and the kidney cortex for sampling after maleic acid administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that maleic acid produced a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon within the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The area under concentration versus time curve (AUC of the maleic acid in kidney cortex was 5-fold higher than that in the blood after maleic acid administration (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively, indicating that greater accumulation of maleic acid occurred in the rat kidney.

  13. Comparative Effects of Oyster Mushrooms on Lipid Profile, Liver and Kidney Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn

    2009-01-01

    Comparative effects of oyster mushrooms on plasma and fecal lipid profiles and on liver and kidney function were evaluated in hyper and normocholesterolemic rats. Feeding of hypercholesterolemic rats a 5% powder of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and P. florida) reduced the plasma total cholesterol level by 37%, 21% and 16%, respectively and reduced the triglyceride level by 45%, 24% and 14%, respectively. LDL/HDL ratio decreased by 64%, 45% and 41% for P. sajor-caju, P. ostreatus and P. florida fed rats, respectively. Mushroom feeding also reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effect on plasma bilirubin, creatinin and urea nitrogen level. Mushroom feeding also increased the total lipid and cholesterol excretion in the feces. The present study reveals that feeding of 5% oyster mushroom powder does not have detrimental effects on the liver and kidneys rather may provide health benefits for the cardiovascular-related complication by decreasing the atherogenic lipid profiles. PMID:23983505

  14. Kidney-Targeted Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction Promotes Kidney Repair in Diabetic Nephropathy Rats

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    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD technique increases the renoprotective effect of kidney-targeted transplantation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs in diabetic nephropathy (DN rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (60 mg/Kg, intraperitoneally in Sprague-Dawley rats. MSCs were administered alone or in combination with UTMD to DN rats at 4 weeks after diabetes onset. Random blood glucose concentrations were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, and plasma insulin levels, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER values, the structures of pancreas and kidney, the expressions of TGF-β1, synaptopodin, and IL-10 were assessed at 8 weeks after MSCs transplantation. MSCs transplantation decreased blood glucose concentrations and attenuated pancreatic islets/β cells damage. The permeability of renal interstitial capillaries and VCAM-1 expression increased after UTMD, which enhanced homing and retention of MSCs to kidneys. MSCs transplantation together with UTMD prevented renal damage and decreased UAER values by inhibiting TGF-β1 expression and upregulating synaptopodin and IL-10 expression. We conclude that MSCs transplantation reverts hyperglycemia; UTMD technique noninvasively increases the homing of MSCs to kidneys and promotes renal repair in DN rats. This noninvasive cell delivery method may be feasible and efficient as a novel approach for personal MSCs therapy to diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  16. [A study on the relationship between postmortem interval and the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Peng, D B; Liu, Y; Deng, W N; Liu, Y L; Li, J J

    2001-05-01

    To study changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rats and relationship with the postmortem interval. This experiment chose seven parameter of cell nuclear, including the area and integral optical density, determined the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of 15 rats at different intervals between 0 and 48 h postmortem with auto-TV-image system. The degradation rate of DNA in nuclear has a certainty relationship to early PMI(in 48 h) of rat, and get binomial regress equation. Determining the quantity of DNA in nuclear should be an objective and exact way to estimate the PMI.

  17. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Osborne, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observed between these two diets. When cysteine was added to the low-protein diet to the level observed in the high-protein diet and fed to rats receiving 25 ppm cadmium in the drinking water, significant dietary differences in liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were not observed. The importance of dietary protein to cadmium-induced toxicity was also assessed in these studies. The activity of catechol-o-methyltransferase was used as a measure of cadmium-induced toxicity. The activity of this enzyme in the lung, liver and heart was significantly lower in rats fed a low-protein diet than those fed the high-protein diet and 50 ppm cadmium. Metallothionein concentration in the lung and liver from low-protein-fed rats was approximately half the level observed in rats fed the high-protein diet, which suggests a relationship between cadmium-induced toxicity and metallothionein concentrations. These results illustrate the importance of considering dietary protein (and possibly cysteine) when studying cadmium metabolism in experimental animals. 22 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  18. The liver and kidney expression of sulfate anion transporter sat-1 in rats exhibits male-dominant gender differences

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    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Krick, Wolfgang; Lovrić, Mila; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta; Sabolić, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The sulfate anion transporter (sat-1, Slc26a1) has been cloned from rat liver, functionally characterized, and localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and basolateral membrane (BLM) in proximal tubules (PT). Here, we confirm previously described localization of sat-1 protein in rat liver and kidneys and report on gender differences (GD) in its expression by immunochemical, transport, and excretion studies in rats. The ∼85-kDa sat-1 protein was localized to the sinusoidal membrane ...

  19. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+ Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

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    Stefan Gauer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1 is rapidly upregulated following tubular injury, constituting a biomarker for acute kidney damage. We examined the renal localization of Kim-1 expression in PKD/Mhm (polycystic kidney disease, Mannheim (cy/+ rats (cy: mutated allel, +: wild type allel, an established model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with chronic, mainly proximal tubulointerstitial alterations. For immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis, kidneys of male adult heterozygously-affected (cy/+ and unaffected (+/+ littermates were perfusion-fixed or directly removed. Kim-1 expression was determined using peroxidase- or fluorescence-linked immunohistochemistry (alone or in combination with markers for tubule segments or differentiation. Compared to (+/+, only in (cy/+ kidneys, a chronic expression of Kim-1 could be detected by Western blot analysis, which was histologically confined to an apical cellular localization in areas of cystically-transformed proximal tubules with varying size and morphology, but not in distal tubular segments. Kim-1 was expressed by cystic epithelia exhibiting varying extents of dedifferentiation, as shown by double labeling with aquaporin-1, vimentin or osteopontin, yielding partial cellular coexpression. In this model, in contrast to other known molecules indicating renal injury and/or repair mechanisms, the chronic renal expression of Kim-1 is strictly confined to proximal cysts. Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations.

  20. Cell type-specific glycoconjugates of collecting duct cells during maturation of the rat kidney.

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    Holthöfer, H

    1988-08-01

    The ontogeny of lectin-positive epithelial cell types and the maturation of polarized expression of the glycocalyx of the collecting ducts (CD) of the rat kidney were studied from samples of 18th-day fetal and neonatal kidneys of various ages. Lectins from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), with preferential affinity to principal cells, stained virtually all CD cells of the fetal kidneys. However, within two days postnatally, the number of cells positive for DBA and VVA decreased to amounts found in the adult kidneys. Moreover, a characteristic change occurred rapidly after birth in the intracellular polarization of the reactive glycoconjugates, from a uniform plasmalemmal to a preferentially apical staining. In contrast, lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), reacting indiscriminatively with principal and intercalated cells of adult kidneys, stained most CD cells in the fetal kidneys, and failed to show any postnatal change in the amount of positive cells or in the intracellular polarization. The immunocytochemical tests for (Na + K)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA II) revealed the characteristic postnatal decrease in the amount of principal cells and simultaneous increase in the amount of CA II rich intercalated cells. DBA and VVA reactive cells also decreased postnatally, paralleling the changes observed in the (Na + K)-ATPase positive principal cells. The present results suggest that the expression of the cell type-specific glycocalyx of principal and intercalated cells is developmentally regulated, undergoes profound changes during maturation, and is most likely associated with electrolyte transport phenomena.

  1. Long-term cadmium exposure induces anemia in rats through hypoinduction of erythropoietin in the kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Sato, Masao [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Konno, Nobuhiro [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima, Masaaki [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal, is distributed widely in the general environment of today. The characteristic clinical manifestations of chronic Cd intoxication include renal proximal tubular dysfunction, general osteomalacia with severe pains, and anemia. We have recently reported that the serum level of erythropoietin (EPO) remained low despite the severe anemia in patients with Itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd intoxication. In order to prove that the anemia observed in chronic Cd intoxication arises from low production of EPO in the kidneys following the renal injury, we administered Cd to rats for a long period and performed the analysis of EPO mRNA inducibility in the kidneys. The rats administered Cd for 6 and 9 months showed anemia with low levels of plasma EPO as well as biochemical and histological renal tubular damage, and also hypoinduction of EPO mRNA in the kidneys. The results indicate that chronic Cd intoxication causes anemia by disturbing the EPO-production capacity of renal cells. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

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    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of pretreatment with simvastatin on kidney tissue of rats with acute sepsis.

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    Özkök, E; Yorulmaz, H; Ateş, G; Aydın, I; Ergüven, M; Tamer, Ş

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that changes in cytokine levels affect mitochondrial functions, levels of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-1α), and tissue damage during sepsis. We aimed to investigate the effects of simvastatin pretreatment on mitochondrial enzyme activities, and on levels of ghrelin, HIF-1α, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in kidney tissue during sepsis. Rats were separated into four groups, namely, control, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (20 mg/kg), simvastatin (20 mg/kg), and simvastatin + LPS. We measured the levels of mitochondrial enzyme activities and TBARS in the kidney using spectrophotometry. The histological structure of the kidney sections was examined after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-10, HIF-1α, and ghrelin immunoreactivity were examined using proper antibodies. In tissue, TNF-α (p simvastatin + LPS and LPS groups. TBARS levels were higher in the LPS group than in the other groups (p simvastatin + LPS and control groups (p > 0.05). Ghrelin immunoreactivity was lower in the LPS group (p simvastatin + LPS group than in the LPS group (p  0.05). We observed that pretreatment of simvastatin caused favorable changes on ghrelin and TBARS levels in rats with sepsis.

  4. High-pressure carbon monoxide preserves rat kidney grafts from apoptosis and inflammation.

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    Abe, Toyofumi; Yazawa, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Imamura, Ryoichi; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Kakuta, Yoichi; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okumi, Masayoshi; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Seki, Kunihiro; Takahara, Shiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-04-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable in kidney transplantation (KTx) and frequently influences both short- and long-term allograft survival. Carbon monoxide (CO) has attracted attention as a medical gas with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. We investigated a new strategy for organ preservation using ex vivo application of high-pressure CO in an experimental rat KTx model. We preserved kidney grafts using a high-pressure chamber filled with mixed gases composed of CO and O2. We found that cold I/R injury resulted in progressive deterioration of renal graft function in University of Wisconsin solution, whereas CO significantly improved renal function. We confirmed that CO decreased oxidative stress and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited tubular apoptosis in the early phases. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CO increased phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and phosphorylation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, CO significantly alleviated tubular injury scores and suppressed the development of interstitial fibrosis at 100 days after KTx. Thus, high-pressure mixed CO and O2 gases successfully preserved rat kidney grafts for 24 h by protecting tubular epithelial cells from apoptosis and inhibiting inflammation.

  5. Effect of Eisenia foetida Extract against Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury in Rats.

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    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Golzar, Tahereh; Derakhshanfar, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Kidney injury is a deleterious side effect accompanied by therapeutic uses of cisplatin as an antineoplastic agent. However, no therapeutic option is available against this complication. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of a glycoprotein extract obtained from Eisenia foetida against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were treated with cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.) and Eisenia foetida extract (300 and 500 mg/kg, i.p. and/or oral). Serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly elevated in cisplatin-treated rats. A significant amount of lipid peroxidation was detected in drug-treated animals. Furthermore, kidney histopathological findings revealed acute tubular necrosis and hyaline cast formation caused by cisplatin. Eisenia foetida extract administration (300 and 500 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced serum BUN and creatinine and lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue. Moreover, cisplatin-induced histopathological lesions were alleviated by Eisenia foetida extract. This investigation concluded that Eisenia foetida extract ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This protection might be mediated by preventing cisplatin-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Changes in the expression of the Toll-like receptor system in the aging rat kidneys.

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    Xi, Yue; Shao, Feng; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Cai, Guangyan; Lv, Yang; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of kidney aging are not yet clear. Studies have shown that immunological inflammation is related to kidney aging. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the receptor types of the body's innate immune system. The function of the TLR system and the mechanisms by which it functions in renal aging remain unclear. In the present study, we, for the first time, systematically investigated the role of the TLR system and the inflammation responses activated by TLRs during kidney aging. We used western blot and immunohistochemistry to systematically analyze the changes in the expression and activation of the endogenous TLR ligands HSP70 and HMGB1, the TLRs (TLR1-TLR11), their downstream signaling pathway molecules MyD88 and Phospho-IRF-3, and the NF-κB signaling pathway molecules Phospho-IKKβ, Phospho-IκBα (NF-κB inhibition factor α), NF-κBp65, and Phospho-NF-κBp65 (activated NF-κB p65) in the kidneys of 3 months old (youth group), 12 months old (middle age group), and 24 months old (elderly group) rats. We used RT-qPCR to detect the mRNA expression changes of the proinflammatory cytokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CD80, TNF-α, and IL-12b in the rat renal tissues of the various age groups. We found that during kidney aging, the HSP70 and HMGB1 expression levels were significantly increased, and the expression levels of TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 11 and their downstream signaling pathway molecules MyD88 and Phospho-IRF-3 were markedly elevated. Further studies have shown that in the aging kidneys, the expression levels of the NF-κB signaling pathway molecules Phospho-IKKβ, Phospho-IκBα, NF-κBp65, and Phospho-NF-κBp65 were obviously increased, and those of the proinflammatory cytokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CD80, TNF-α, and IL-12b were significantly upregulated. These results showed that the TLR system might play an important role during the kidney aging process maybe by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway and promoting the high expression of inflammation

  7. Effects of combination of aliskiren and pentoxyfylline on renal function in the rat remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Hitesh M; Patel, Praful P; Patel, Savan; Rath, Akshyaya C; Acharya, Aviseka; Trivedi, Harshkant D; Jain, Mukul R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the nephroprotective effect of combination of aliskiren (ASK), a direct renin inhibitor and pentoxifylline (PTX), inhibitor of tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in rat remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nephrectomized (NPX) rats were treated with ASK (10 mg/kg, p.o.), PTX (100 mg/kg, p.o.), and combination of PTX + ASK once daily for 28 days. We have performed analysis of various renal injury parameters after 4 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PTX, ASK and combination showed significant improvement in urea, creatinine and total protein in plasma when compared with vehicle treated group in NPX rats. ASK and combination of PTX + ASK elicited significant reduction in blood pressure but PTX alone did not produce blood pressure reduction. ASK treatment showed significant elevation in TNF-alpha, whereas PTX and ASK + PTX showed significant reduction in TNF-alpha in plasma. Histopathologically, the extent of the kidney injury was similar in NPX + vehicle and NPX + ASK-treated rats. PTX and ASK + PTX-treated group showed lesser extent of kidney injury. There was good correlation of mRNA expression levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and bradykinin B1 receptor data with histopathological findings in kidney samples and elevated TNF-alpha levels in plasma. We conclude that combination of PTX + ASK may be better therapeutic intervention for nephroprotection in CKD patients.

  8. Expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors in developing human and rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, W M; Schmitt, R; Rosenberger, C; Münchenhagen, P M; Gröne, H-J; Frei, U; Warnecke, C; Bachmann, S; Wiesener, M S; Willam, C; Eckardt, K-U

    2006-01-01

    Early kidney development is associated with the coordinated branching of the renal tubular and vascular system and hypoxia has been proposed to be a major regulatory factor in this process. Under low oxygen levels, the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) regulates the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and glycolysis. To investigate the role of HIF in kidney development, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression of the oxygen regulated HIF-1alpha and -2alpha subunits at different stages of rat and human kidney development. Using double-staining procedures, localization of the HIF target geneproducts vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endoglin was studied in relation to HIFalpha. In both species, we found marked nuclear expression of HIF-1alpha in medullary and cortical collecting ducts and in glomerular cells. In contrast, HIF-2alpha was expressed in interstitial and peritubular cells podocytes of the more mature glomeruli. After completion of glomerulogenesis and nephrogenesis, HIF-1alpha and -2alpha were no longer detectable. The HIF-target gene VEGF colocalized with HIF-1alpha protein in glomeruli and medullary collecting ducts. HIF-2alpha colocalized with the endothelium-associated angiogenic factor, endoglin. Both HIFalpha isoforms are activated in the developing kidney in a cell-specific and temporally controlled manner, indicating a regulatory role of oxygen tension in nephrogenesis. HIF-1alpha seems to be primarily involved in tubulogenesis and HIF-2alpha in renal vasculogenesis. Both isoforms are found in glomerulogenesis, potentially having synergistic effects.

  9. Effect of GLP-1 on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the kidney of type 1 diabetic rats

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    Jin-jin LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats, and explore the protective effects and mechanisms of exenatide on the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into control group (group A, n=7 and diabetic model group (n=23. Type 1 diabetic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. It was successful in 19 rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group (group B, n=10 and diabetic with treatment of exenatide group (group C, n=9. Rats in group C were injected subcutaneously with exenatide in dose of 5μg/kg twice daily. Rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline by subcutaneous injection. All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks. The mRNA expression of renal p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein expression of CTGF was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The levels of blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea nitrogen, the albumin excretion rate, kidney index, the mRNA expressions of renal NOX4 and p22phox, and the protein expression of renal CTGF were significantly increased in group B compared with that in group A (P0.05. Conclusion Exenatide can decrease the expressions of renal NOX4, p22phox and CTGF, decline the index of urinary protein, and alleviate the kidney hypertrophy in type 1 diabetic rats, implying that exenatide exerted a protective effect on the kidney.

  10. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (pextract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  11. Thiamethoxam Actara® induced alterations in kidney liver cerebellum and hippocampus of male rats

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    Hassina Khaldoun-Oularbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiamethoxam (TMX, a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used insecticides in Algeria. The present study assessed the effects of repeated subchronic exposure to the commercial formulation of thiamethoxam (Actara®, 25% WG in albino male rats. The toxic effects of thiamethoxam (TMX were studied biochemically and histopathologically. Twenty-eight male albino rats weighing between 226 and 243 g were randomly assigned to four groups. One group served as control, and the other three were served as experimental groups administered a neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (TMX; 26, 39 and 78 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Histopathological studies were carried out in the liver, kidney, cerebellum and hippocampus at the end of the experiment. Changes in biochemical parameters glucose, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate aminotransferase, γGT (gamma-glutamyltransferase ALP (alkaline phosphatase urea and creatinine were observed in treated-groups in a dose dependent manner when compared to the control. Histopathological alterations were more intense in male rats from the TMX high dose group than those from group 2 and 3. Based on these results, subchronic oral administration of thiamethoxam altered the biochemical parameters, which correlated with histopathological changes in the liver kidney and brain.

  12. Remote ischemic perconditioning attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced downregulation of AQP2 in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marie Louise V; Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nielsen, Per Mose; Krag, Søren; Birn, Henrik; Nejsum, Lene N; Nørregaard, Rikke

    2016-07-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to impaired urine concentration ability and increased fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa). Local ischemic preconditioning improves renal water and sodium handling after I/R injury. Here, we investigate whether remote ischemic perconditioning (rIPeC) prevents dysregulation of renal water and salt handling in response to I/R injury and mechanisms that may be involved. Rats were subjected to right nephrectomy and randomized into a sham group or an I/R group. In the I/R group, rats were subjected to 37 min of renal ischemia and 3 days of reperfusion. rIPeC was applied to the abdominal aorta. Blood and urine were collected on day 3 postoperatively for clearance studies. The expression of aquaporins (AQPs) and the sodium transporter Na-K-ATPase were analyzed using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. I/R injury resulted in polyuria, increased FeNa, and decreased urine osmolality compared to sham rats. rIPeC attenuated the increase in FeNa and the decrease in urine osmolality. Expression of AQP1, AQP2, phosphorylated AQP2 (pAQP2), and Na-K-ATPase was downregulated in I/R rats. rIPeC attenuated the reductions in AQP2 and pAQP2 expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased labeling of Na-K-ATPase in the outer medulla in I/R kidneys compared to kidneys from sham and I/R + rIPeC rats. After renal ischemia, the expression of Na-K-ATPase was substantially reduced in the outer medullary thick ascending limb. In conclusion, our data suggest that rIPeC might prevent dysregulation of renal water and salt handling via regulation of AQP2 expression and phosphorylation as well as via regulation of Na-K-ATPase expression in I/R rat kidneys. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Measuring rat kidney glomerular number and size in vivo with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelomar, Edwin J; Charlton, Jennifer R; Beeman, Scott C; Bennett, Kevin M

    2017-11-01

    Nephron number is highly variable in humans and is thought to play an important role in renal health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the result of too few nephrons to maintain homeostasis. Currently, nephron number estimates can only be determined invasively or as a terminal assessment. Due to a lack of tools to measure and track nephron number in the living, the early stages of CKD often go unrecognized, preventing early intervention that might halt the progression of CKD. In this work, we present a technique to directly measure glomerular number (Nglom) and volume in vivo in the rat kidney (n=8) using MRI enhanced with the novel contrast agent cationized ferritin (CFE-MRI). Adult male rats were administered intravenous cationized ferritin (CF) and imaged in vivo with MRI. Glomerular number was measured and each glomerulus was spatially mapped in 3D in the image. Mean apparent glomerular volume (aVglom) and intra-renal distribution of the individual glomerular volume (IGV) were also measured. These metrics were compared between images of the same kidneys scanned in vivo and ex vivo with CFE-MRI. In vivo Nglom and aVglom correlated to ex vivo metrics within the same kidneys and were within 10% of Nglom and aVglom previously validated by stereologic methods. This is the first description of direct in vivo measurements of Nglom and aVglom, introducing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms of renal disease progression and therapeutic response over time. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  14. [Effects of coumarins from cnidium monnieri on the function of pituitary-adrenocortical axis in kidney yang deficiency rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L P; Zhang, J Q; Shi, H P

    1997-04-01

    To observe the effect of Cnidium monnieri in Kidney Yang Deficiency rats. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with hydrocortisone acetate to replicate the animal model of Kidney Yang Deficiency. Osthol, total-coumarins (TCR) from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri and positive control drug (PCD) were administered orally to model rats. The plasma levels of corticosterone (B), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), renin (PRA), angiotensin-II (AT-II) and aldosterone (ALD) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared with those in normal rats, the levels of B and ACTH in the plasma of model rats lowered significantly (P 0.05). The osthol, TCR have the effects in protecting and strengthening the function of pituitary-adrenocortex axis.

  15. Puerarin protects rat kidney from lead-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chan-Min, E-mail: lcm9009@126.com [School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, No.101, Shanghai Road, Tangshan New Area, Xuzhou City 221116, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China); Ma, Jie-Qiong [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Yun-Zhi [School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, No.101, Shanghai Road, Tangshan New Area, Xuzhou City 221116, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2012-02-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead (Pb) induced injury in kidney have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats exposed to Pb. Wistar rats were exposed to lead acetate in the drinking water (500 mg Pb/l) with or without puerarin co-administration (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg PU/kg intragastrically once daily) for 75 days. Our data showed that puerarin significantly prevented Pb-induced nephrotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of kidney damage (serum urea, uric acid and creatinine) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, Pb-induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing of lipid peroxidation level and depleting of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney, were suppressed by treatment with puerarin. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that Pb-induced apoptosis in rat kidney was significantly inhibited by puerarin. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of puerarin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were markedly inhibited by the treatment of puerarin in the kidney of Pb-treated rats. Puerarin increased phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated eNOS and NO levels in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events including inhibition of mitochondria cytochrome c release and restoration of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in kidney of Pb-treated rats. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of Pb-induced apoptosis by puerarin is due at least in part to its antioxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Highlights: ► Puerarin prevented lead-induced nephrototoxicity. ► Puerarin reduced lead-induced increase in ROS and TBARS production

  16. Hyperphosphaturia after kidney transplantation in syngeneic rats: effects on nephrocalcinosis and bone metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, B; Müller, M; Heicappell, R; Schrader, M; Goessl, C; Miller, K

    2003-06-01

    Studies on kidney transplantation have thus far mainly dealt with surgical techniques, immunology, and transplant tolerance. Disturbed mineral metabolism after renal denervation has not received much attention. Basic physiological research in short-term experiments has shown that experimental renal denervation in rats leads to parathormone (PTH)-independent hyperphosphaturia (HPU). HPU and other metabolic complications also have been described after clinical kidney transplantation. Furthermore, there is an unexpected increase in the risk of bone fracture. However, these studies have examined an organism pre-damaged with regard to the parathyroid and immunosuppression. Experimental investigations in syngeneic rats were performed to see whether HPU also occurs after transplantation and thus after denervation and which target organs are involved. Thirty-six male Lewis rats subjected to laparotomy (n = 12), unilateral nephrectomy (n = 12), or unilateral transplantation and bilateral nephrectomy (n = 12) were observed for 18 weeks. Animals that underwent transplantation had a significant loss of phosphate in the urine not associated with decreased calcium, phosphate, or magnesium in bone. Stability test showed no deterioration, despite a slight increase in the bone parameters of alkaline phosphatase, cyclic AMP, and hydroxyproline with unchanged calciotropic hormones. Nephrocalcinosis was not observed. Parallel to HPU, there was a compensatory reduction in fecal phosphate excretion. The loss of phosphate after clinical kidney transplantation in the predamaged parathyroid hormone control system as well as immunosuppression and a surprising increase in the incidence of bone fractures may be explained by the denervation-related loss of phosphate. The lack of intestinal counter-regulation could be an important pathomechanism.

  17. Protective effect of dietary polyphenol caffeic acid on ethylene glycol-induced kidney stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Fauzia; Wahab, Atia-Tul-; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-06-14

    Dietary polyphenol caffeic acid (1) has been reported for various pharmacological activities. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid (1) on ethylene glycol-induced renal stones in rats. For the study, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups; normal, pathological, and standard drug controls, and preventive and curative groups. Normal control group received drinking water for 8 weeks. Pathological, standard drug, preventive, and curative groups received 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of calcium oxalate stone formation, along with the regular diet. Standard drug group received Urocit-K by gavage from day 1, while preventive and curative groups received caffeic acid (1) by gavage at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg on day 1 and day 14, respectively. At the end of the experiment, urine analysis and kidney histopathology were performed. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the renal expression of the most important genes involved in urolithiasis, i.e., osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall, prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin genes. The results indicated that in both the preventive and curative groups, treatment of rats with caffeic acid (1) significantly regulated the altered biochemical parameters, along with the remarkable reduction of calcium oxalate deposits in the kidneys, as compared to the pathological group. Treatment with compound 1 also resulted in down-regulation of the osteopontin gene, and up-regulation of the prothrombin fragment 1, Tamm-Horsfall, and bikunin genes. These results suggest that caffeic acid (1) can be further investigated for the prevention, and treatment of kidney stones.

  18. Allicin ameliorates kidney function and urinary bladder sensitivity in cyclosporine A-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, D H; El-Kenawi, A E; Suddek, G M; Salem, H A

    2017-07-01

    Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the modulator effect of allicin on the oxidative nephrotoxicity of CsA in rats was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of allicin on CsA-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated. Rats were divided into three groups, control, CsA (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and CsA/allicin (50 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were killed and then blood, urine samples, and kidneys were taken. CsA administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by elevated kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and urinary protein with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and Cr clearance as compared with control. A significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase activities, and nitric oxide (NOx) content was detected upon CsA administration. Exposure to CsA increased the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Histological analysis revealed that CsA caused tubular necrosis and moderate diffuse tubular atrophy. Allicin protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect of CsA and significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that allicin administration has the potential to protect against CsA-induced renal injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and restoring NOx level.

  19. Methyl thiophanate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of adult rats: a biochemical, molecular and histopathological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, A; Ben Saad, H; Jaballi, I; Magne, C; Boudawara, O; Zeghal, K M; Hakim, A; Ben Ali, Y; Ben Amara, I

    2017-02-28

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the redox effects of Thiophanate methyl (MT) in the rat liver and kidney. Our results showed, after 3 days of MT injection (700 mg/kg), an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide and advanced oxidation protein products levels. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were also remarkably increased in the liver but decrease in the kidney. Glutathione and vitamin C values were significantly reduced. The changes in biochemical parameters were substantiated by histological and molecular data. A smear without ladder formation on agarose gel was shown, indicating random DNA degradation in the liver and the kidney of MT treated rats. The increase in cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, marker of inflammation, and an increase in genes expression of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in liver and their decrease in the kidney were also occurred after MT exposure. These data confirmed the pro-oxidant and genotoxic effects of this fungicide.

  20. Immunohistochemical Expression of Leptin (Ob-protein in Experimentally Hypertensive Rat Kidney Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Gevrek

    2016-12-01

    Results: The blood pressure levels of the experimental group were higher than in the control, and their renal tissues had some distinctive histopathological changes. Additionally, Leptin immunostaining scores increased in the excretory tubule cells of hypertensive rats. Conclusion: Upregulation of Leptin expression may indicate that Leptin molecules have an important physiological role such as regulation of some kidney functions to adapt high blood pressure; or, contrary to this, they may be a pathophysiological sign. Further research is necessary to determine whether this situation is physiological or pathophysiological process. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 255-265

  1. Microsurgical anastomosis of renal vasculature in rats: A practical platform for acellular kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Kameli, Seyede Maryam; Nabavizadeh, Behnam

    2018-02-03

    End-stage renal disease is becoming a contemporary global concern with increasing prevalence. The available treatment strategies are limited to dialysis and renal transplantation. However, limited organ supply and autoimmune rejection are the shortcomings that limit widespread application of transplantation. Favorably, regenerative medicine is able to provide acellular natural scaffolds for renal transplantation. Experimental surgeries in animal models are a fundamental step in transplantation research. This video presents a practical method for transplantation of bilateral acellular kidneys in a rat model, which could serve as a key step for further research. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. The microscopic slides from the kidneys were silver methenamine-PAS stained. In the segments of the proximal convoluted tubules of the nephrons, presence of nuclear pyknosis, places of denuded basement membranes and presence of exfoliated tubular cells were counted...... versus the subsequent loops. The distribution of the structural lesions is in accordance with the previously reported presence of a tubulo-capillary counter-current flow in the proximal convoluted tubule and, when related to the highly variable oxygen tension in the normal renal cortex of the rat...

  3. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karadeniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CDDP is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg-1 body weight i.p., single dose; group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day; group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA, elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity.

  4. The effect of three angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on kynurenic acid production in rat kidney in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrocka, Izabela; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2017-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is commonly known to regulate blood pressure, water and electrolyte homeostasis, however it also exerts paracrine and autocrine actions on the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), alongside their hypotensive properties, have been shown to decrease kidney function decline in animal models of nephropathy. Glutamate (GLU) is the main stimulatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, however its importance in the periphery should also be considered. Activation of renal GLU receptors has been linked to normal kidney function and also renal injury. The wide spectrum GLU receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) possesses neuroprotective and central hypotensive effects, however its actions outside the brain are less well recognized. KYNA is a tryptophan metabolite synthesized from kynurenine by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three ACE-Is: lisinopril, perindopril and ramipril on KYNA production and KATs activity in rat kidney in vitro. The effect of ACE-Is on KYNA production and KATs activity was examined in rat kidney homogenates. KYNA was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified fluorometrically. All examined ACE-Is: lisinopril, perindopril and ramipril decreased KYNA production in rat kidney in vitro. KAT I activity was decreased by lisinopril and ramipril whereas the activity of KAT II was lowered by ramipril. Our study shows that ACE-Is can decrease KYNA production in rat kidney in vitro. Further studies are required to determine the clinical importance of the inhibitory action of ACE-Is on KYNA synthesis in the kidney. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  5. Less contribution of mast cells to the progression of renal fibrosis in Rat kidneys with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asuka; Tachi, Masahiro; Ejima, Yutaka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazutomo; Abe, Nozomu; Yamauchi, Masanori; Miura, Chieko; Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-02-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is histopathologically characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis in addition to glomerulosclerosis. Although mast cells are known to infiltrate into the kidneys with chronic inflammation, we know little about their contribution to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The aim of this study was to reveal the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis in CRF. Using a rat model with CRF resulting from 5/6 nephrectomy, we examined the histopathological features of the kidneys and the infiltration of mast cells into the renal interstitium. By treating the rats with a potent mast cell stabilizer, tranilast, we also examined the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The CRF rat kidneys were characterized by the wide staining of collagen III and increased number of myofibroblasts, indicating the progression of renal fibrosis. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells was much smaller within the fibrotic kidneys and they did not proliferate in situ. The mRNA expression of mast cell-derived fibroblast-activating factors was not increased in the renal cortex isolated from CRF rat kidneys. Treatment with tranilast did not suppress the progression of renal fibrosis, nor did it ameliorate the progression of glomerulosclerosis and the interstitial proliferation of inflammatory leukocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that mast cells are neither increased nor activated in the fibrotic kidneys of CRF rats. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages that proliferate in situ within the fibrotic kidneys, mast cells were less likely to contribute to the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Examining the Protective Role of Caraway Hydroalcoholic Extract in Heart and Kidney Tissue Injury in CLP Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sepsis is a systemic response to infection leading to organdeath.With regard to the side effects of synthetic drugs, nowadays using medicinal plants in treatment of sepsis must not be ignored. In this study, the protective role of caraway hydroalcoholic extractin heart and kidney injuries in experimental inflammation model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP was examined.

     

    Methods: For the purpose of this study, the rats were divided into five groups i.e: Sham-operated (SOP; CLP; CLP+hydroalcoholic extract (50&100 mg/kg and CLP+Indomethacin (10mg/kg as positive control. The extract and indomethacin were injected i.p immediately after sepsis induction. 24 hours after CLP, the rats were sacrificed and their hearts, kidneys and plasma were removed and analyzed. The differences between the results were assessed by one-way ANOVA test followed byTukey’s HSD.

     

    Results: The results of this study showed that lipid peroxidation (LP in kidney and alsoplasmaurea/creatinine ratio were increased in CLP rats. In contrast, the glutathione (GSH level of kidney was not changed indicating the partial damage of kidney tissue due to sepsis. Unlike indomethacine, treatment of rats with both doses of caraway hydroalcoholic extract did not modulate these parameters.

     

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that treatment of septic rats by caraway hydroalcoholic extract immediately after sepsis induction via i.p route cannot modulate parameters related to kidney damages.So, this extract is not able to protect the kidney tissue against oxidative injuries induced by sepsis.

     

  7. [Gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1 over-expression protects kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jin-xing; Yan, Chun-yin; Pu, Jin-xian; Hou, Jian-quan; Yuan, He-xing; Ping, Ji-gen

    2010-12-14

    To study the protection of gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1 over-expression against renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury was established with Sprague-Dawley rats. In the therapy group (n=18), the left kidney was perfused and preserved with Ad-hHO-1 at 2.5×10(9) pfu/1.0 ml after flushed with 0-4°C HC-A organ storage solution via donor renal aorta. The rats in control groups were perfused with 0.9% saline solution (n=12) or the vector carrying no interest gene Ad-EGFP 2.5×10(9) pfu/1.0 ml (n=18) instead of Ad-hHO-1. BUN and Cr in serum were measured by slide chemical methods. The kidney samples of rats were harvested for assay of histology, immunohistochemistry and quantification of HO enzymatic activity. Apoptosis cells in the kidney were measured by TUNEL. Ad-hHO-1 via donor renal aorta could transfect renal cells of rats effectively, enzymatic activity of HO in treated group [(1.62±0.07) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] is higher than in control groups treated with saline solution team [(1.27±0.07) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] and vector EGFP team [(1.22±0.06) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] (PhHO-1 expressed hHO-1 in kidneys at a high level. Corresponding to this, the level of BUN and Cr, as well as the number of apoptosis cells, were decreased, and the damage in histology by HE staining was ameliorated. Over-expression of human HO-1 can protect the kidney from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  8. Effect of Resveratrol on Leptin and Sirtuin 2 Expression in the Kidneys in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylali, Ashi; Ergin, Kemal; Ceçen, Serpil

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on the histopathology and leptin and sirtuin 2 expression levels of the kidneys in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The study was carried out with 33 young, healthy, female Wistar Albino rats. STZ was given (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, single dose) to the rats to induce and constitute a diabetes model. After 1 month of STZ, resveratrol (10 mg/kg) was given for 15 days. Then the kidneys were evaluated histopathologically and the leptin and sirtuin 2 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically. High glucose and fewer weight levels were seen in the STZ-induced diabetes mellitus group. The glucose levels in the RSV-administered diabetic group showed a tendency to decrease but not significantly. Decreased signs of histopathologic kidney damage was seen in the RSV-administered diabetic group, and an increased expression of leptin was seen in the diabetic kidney tissues. There were no significant differences of sirtuin 2 expression levels among the groups. It was observed that resveratrol caused changes in the diabetic kidney histology and leptin expression level. Resveratrol may be effective, with its antioxidant and antidiabetic effects, in the prevention of kidney damage caused by long-term hyperglycemia.

  9. l-Carnitine improves cognitive and renal functions in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ahmad, Nur; Armaly, Zaher; Berman, Sylvia; Jabour, Adel; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Mosenego-Ornan, Efrat; Avital, Avi

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function. As yet, there are no clinical intervention studies that investigated the effect of l-carnitine administration on cognitive impairment evidenced in CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of l-carnitine treatment on renal function and on the cognitive performance in a rat model of progressive CKD. To assess the role of l-carnitine on CKD condition, we estimated the renal function and cognitive abilities in a CKD rat model. We found that all CKD animals exhibited renal function deterioration, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and ample histopathological abnormalities. l-Carnitine treatment of CKD rats significantly reduced serum creatinine and BUN, attenuated renal hypertrophy and decreased renal tissue damage. In addition, in the two way shuttle avoidance learning, CKD animals showed cognitive impairment which recovered by the administration of l-carnitine. We conclude that in a rat model of CKD, l-carnitine administration significantly improved cognitive and renal functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Hermann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are found on circulating leukocytes. Leukocyte infiltration in the vascular wall accompanies PAI-1, MCP-1, iNOS and Tissue Factor expression. Furthermore we show evidence that Ang II causes the upregulation of NF-kB in our model. Methods We started PDTC-treatment on four weeks old dTGR (200 mg/kg sc and age-matched SD rats.. Blood-pressure- and albuminuria- measurements were monitored during the treatement period (four weeks. The seven weeks old animals were killed, hearts and kidneys were isolated and used for immunohistochemical-and electromobility shift assay analsis. Results Chronic treatment with the antioxidant PDTC decreased blood pressure (162 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.02. Cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced (4.90 ± 0.1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.1 mg/g, p Conclusion Our data show that inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC markedly reduces inflammation, iNOS expression in the dTGR most likely leading to decreased cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation. Thus, NF-κB activation plays an important role in ANG II-induced end-organ damage.

  11. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on renal vascular responses in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Suleimani, Y M; Al Mahruqi, A S; Al Za'abi, M; Shalaby, A; Ashique, M; Nemmar, A; Ali, B H

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated the possible association between exposure to particulate air pollution and the increased rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney diseases. The link of this observation to vascular damage has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, this study aims to investigate possible vascular damage that might be associated with exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DP) in adenine (AD)-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats, and the possible ameliorative effect of gum acacia (GA). CKD was induced by feeding AD (0.75%, w/w), and DP (0.5 mg/kg) was instilled intratracheally every second day and GA was given concomitantly in the drinking water at a dose of 15% w/v. All treatments were given concomitantly for 28 days. Changes in renal blood flow (RBF) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were monitored in these animals after anesthesia, together with several other endpoints. Exposure to DP significantly reduced RBF and this was significantly potentiated in AD-treated rats. Phenylephrine-induced decreases in RBF and increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were severely potentiated in rats exposed to DP, and these actions were significantly augmented in AD-treated rats. GA did not significantly affect the vascular impairment induced by AD and DP given together. This study provides experimental evidence that exposure to particulate air pollution can exacerbate the vascular damage seen in patients with CKD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 541-549, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biological Effect of Cynara cardunculus on Kidney Status of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkushi, Abdullah Glil

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cynara cardunculus or artichoke thistle belongs to the sunflower family and has a variety of cultivable forms. Historically, it was cultivated as a vegetable, but more recently, it is being used in cheese and biofuel preparation. Artichoke leaf extracts are also known for its medicinal purposes, particularly in reducing the elevated cholesterol levels in blood. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is also associated with other complications such as impaired renal function and diabetes mellitus. A remedy without major side effects for HC and its associated complications is highly desirable. Aims: We explored the effect of artichoke on the kidneys of hypercholesterolemic adult male Sprague–Dawley albino rats. Subjects and Methods: Oral administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of C. cardunculus leaf extract (CCL) and C. cardunculus pulp extract (CCP) was made to male Sprague–Dawley albino hypercholesterolemic rats and investigated the levels of glucose, creatinine, uric acid, and urea in their blood. Results: We observed that both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the creatinine and uric acid levels in the blood in a dose-dependent manner (P artichoke. SUMMARY C. cardunculus leaf extract (CCL) not only has cholesterol-reducing capacity but also reduces the blood glucose levels and repairs the impaired kidney functions and damages. This study evaluated the nephroprotective role of CCL and CCP in hypercholesterolemic rats and observed that both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the creatinine and uric acid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Abbreviations used: HC: Hypercholesterolemia, WHO: World Health Organization, BAS: Bile acid sequestrant, PCSK9: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9, ALE: Artichoke leaf extract, CCL: Cynara cardunculus leaf extract, CCP: Cynara cardunculus pulp extract, BWG%: Body weight gain%, FER: Food-efficiency ratio. PMID:29142395

  13. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  14. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...... of Henle's loop and collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. In rats, the abundance of inactive, phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) protein decreased during postnatal development. After feeding dams with litters lithium (50 mmol Li/kg chow, postnatal (P) day 7-28), the offspring showed...

  15. Curcumin inhibits adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in cadmium-induced renal toxicity in rat kidney

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    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6: saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 mg/kg. The results of this study revealed that the activities of renal adenosine deaminase and arginase were significantly increased in Cd-treated rats when compared with the control (p < 0.05. However, co-treatment with curcumin inhibits the activities of these enzymes compared with Cd-treated rats. Furthermore, Cd intoxication increased the levels of some renal biomarkers (serum urea, creatinine, and electrolytes and malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in functional sulfhydryl group and nitric oxide (NO. However, co-treatment with curcumin at 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively, increases the nonenzymatic antioxidant status and NO in the kidney, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and renal biomarkers. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance of adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in Cd poisoning conditions and suggest some possible mechanisms of action by which curcumin prevent Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

  16. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease.

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    Yanling Zhang

    Full Text Available Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD.

  17. Histopathological evaluation of the effect of vitamin E on rat kidney after complete unilateral urethral obstruction

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    G.h Mousavi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, which plays a vital role in preventing free radical induced reperfusion injuries. Any disorder in the normal urinary flow is termed obstructive nephropathy which could ultimately lead to hydronephrosis, atrophy and complete impairment of renal function. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E on renal tissue following complete unilateral urethral obstruction in the rat. In this experimental study, 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 10 rats. The first group was considered as the control group. Following Unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO, rats in the second group received olive oil intraperitoneally for 15 days starting one day before surgery. Group three rats were given 50 Iu/kg of Vitamin E intraperitoneally for 15 days starting one day before unilateral obstruction (UUO-Vit E. Rats were euthanized at day 14 after surgery for histopathological evaluation and their left kidneys were collected and fixed in formalin and stained with Hematoxylen and Eosin, Trichrome-masson and Periodic Acid Schiff techniques. Histopathological evaluation revealed dilation of the Bowman’s capsule, severe glomerular and tubular atrophy, periglomerular sclerosis, interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, severe diffuse tubular degeneration, epithelial thickening of Bowman’s capsule, perivascular edema, interstitial fibrosis, hemorrhage and sub capsular fibrosis in the UUO group. Vitamin E administration in the UUO-Vit E group significantly decreased renal tissue lesions and fibrosis. The result of the present study indicated that urethral obstruction leads to severe renal fibrosis and tissue damage and concurrent administration of Vitamin E decreases tissue lesions and fibrosis resulting from the obstruction.

  18. Anti-oxidative effects of curcumin on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver and kidney.

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    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz

    2017-03-01

    Restraint stress has been indicated to induce oxidative damage in tissues. Several investigations have reported that curcumin (CUR) may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CUR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver and kidneys. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CUR daily for 21days. In order to evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were measured in the brain, liver and kidney of rats after the end of restraint stress. The restraint stress significantly increased MDA level, but decreased the level of GSH and activists of SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT the brain, liver and kidney of rats in comparison to the normal rats (Poxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, prevented apoptosis, and increased antioxidant defense mechanism activity in the tissues versus the control group (Pstress-induced oxidative damage in the brain, liver and kidney of rats and propose that CUR may be useful agents against oxidative stress in the tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic analysis of kidney in rats chronically exposed to monosodium glutamate.

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    Amod Sharma

    Full Text Available Chronic monosodium glutamate (MSG intake causes kidney dysfunction and renal oxidative stress in the animal model. To gain insight into the renal changes induced by MSG, proteomic analysis of the kidneys was performed.Six week old male Wistar rats were given drinking water with or without MSG (2 mg/g body weight, n = 10 per group for 9 months. Kidneys were removed, frozen, and stored at -75°C. After protein extraction, 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed and renal proteome profiles were examined with Colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. Statistically significant protein spots (ANOVA, p<0.05 with 1.2-fold difference were excised and analyzed by LC-MS. Proteomic data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses.The differential image analysis showed 157 changed spots, of which 71 spots were higher and 86 spots were lower in the MSG-treated group compared with those in the control group. Eight statistically significant and differentially expressed proteins were identified: glutathione S-transferase class-pi, heat shock cognate 71 kDa, phosphoserine phosphatase, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA ligase.The identified proteins are mainly related to oxidative stress and metabolism. They provide a valuable clue to explore the mechanism of renal handling and toxicity on chronic MSG intake.

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

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    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  1. Electrical bioimpedance measurement during hypothermic rat kidney preservation for assessing ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, Meritxell; Ivorra, Antoni; Sola, Anna; Palacios, Luis; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Hauet, Thierry; Villa, Rosa; Aguiló, Jordi; Hotter, Georgina

    2005-03-15

    Non-heart-beating donors sustain an ischemic insult of unknown severity and duration, which can compromise the viability of the graft. This preliminary study aimed to assess whether electrical bioimpedance monitoring of cold preserved organs could be useful to identify kidneys that have suffered previous warm ischemia (WI). Two rat groups were studied during 24 h of preservation in University of Wisconsin solution (UW): a control cold ischemia group and another group subjected previously to 45 min of WI. Multi-frequency bioimpedance was monitored during preservation by means of a miniaturized silicon probe and the results were modeled according to the Cole equation. Tissular ATP content, lactate dehydrogenase in UW solution and histological injury were assessed. Renal function and cell injury, evaluated during 3 h of ex vivo reperfusion using the isolated perfused rat kidney model, demonstrated differences between groups. Bioimpedance results showed that the time constant and the high frequency resistivity parameters derived from the Cole equation were able to discriminate between groups at the beginning of the preservation (Deltatau approximately 78%, DeltaRinfinity approximately 36%), but these differences tended to converge as preservation time advanced. Nevertheless, another of the Cole parameters, alpha, showed increasing significant differences until 24 h of preservation (Deltaalpha approximately 15%).

  2. Heterogeneity of memory marginal zone B cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    The spleen is an important organ of the immune system. Like other lymphoid organs, the spleen is compartmentalized. Different compartments harbor different populations of lymphocytes, subpopulation of the white blood cells. One of these compartments in the spleen is the so-called marginal zone. Most

  3. The impact of gallic acid on the methotrexate-induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Ozmen, Ozlem; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Aydin, Bunyamin; Bas, Ercan; Yilmaz, Necat

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged use of an antineoplastic agent methotrexate (MTX), can cause numerous side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MTX on kidneys and demonstrate the protective effects of gallic acid (GA). Twenty-four, male, rats distributed into three groups. Each groups consisted eight rats and only saline was administered to the control group. The MTX group received a single dose (20 mg/kg) MTX intraperitoneally. The MTX + GA group received same dose MTX and 100 mg/kg GA orally during the 7 days. Renal functions, oxidative stress markers, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid levels and tissue oxidative stress markers, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index levels significantly increased and total antioxidant status levels significantly decreased in MTX group compared with the control group. At the histopathological examination hemorrhages, tubular cell necrosis, glomerulosclerosis, inflammatory cell infiltrations and proteinous materials in tubules were noticed in MTX group. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that increased expressions of serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in tubular epithelial cells of kidneys in this group. There were no immunoreaction with SAA and CRP, only small number of PGE-2 and TNF-α positive tubular epithelial cells were observed in MTX + GA group. In conclusion, all evidence suggested that oxidative stress caused MTX-induced nephrotoxicity and GA prevent the kidney from the nephrotoxicity due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  5. The impact of gallic acid on the methotrexate-induced kidney damage in rats

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    Halil Asci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged use of an antineoplastic agent methotrexate (MTX, can cause numerous side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MTX on kidneys and demonstrate the protective effects of gallic acid (GA. Twenty-four, male, rats distributed into three groups. Each groups consisted eight rats and only saline was administered to the control group. The MTX group received a single dose (20 mg/kg MTX intraperitoneally. The MTX + GA group received same dose MTX and 100 mg/kg GA orally during the 7 days. Renal functions, oxidative stress markers, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid levels and tissue oxidative stress markers, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index levels significantly increased and total antioxidant status levels significantly decreased in MTX group compared with the control group. At the histopathological examination hemorrhages, tubular cell necrosis, glomerulosclerosis, inflammatory cell infiltrations and proteinous materials in tubules were noticed in MTX group. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that increased expressions of serum amyloid A (SAA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and C-reactive protein (CRP in tubular epithelial cells of kidneys in this group. There were no immunoreaction with SAA and CRP, only small number of PGE-2 and TNF-α positive tubular epithelial cells were observed in MTX + GA group. In conclusion, all evidence suggested that oxidative stress caused MTX-induced nephrotoxicity and GA prevent the kidney from the nephrotoxicity due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Arctium lappa Against Cadmium Genotoxicity and Histopathology in Kidney of Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman Al-Gebaly, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test to determine the difference among means using the JMP version 12. Results revealed that cadmium induced a significant disorganization (pArctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed a slightly less hypercellularity of glomerulus and reduction in the cell tail (59 μm). Furthermore, histological sections of kidney of rats pre-treated with 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed high improvement of renal tubules and glomerulus with a prominent urinary space beside tail length of cells was recorded as 39 μm which was lower in comparison to other groups. Moreover, cadmium induced cellular destruction of the kidney was resumed with the pre-treatment of the secondary metabolites as an antioxidant compounds that produced from plant extracts. Arctium lappa leaf extract was efficient at both applied doses while 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., had the most ameliorative effect.

  7. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

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    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  8. Nephroprotective effects of Colpomenia sinuosa (Derbes & Solier against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney injury in Wistar rats

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    Lekameera Ramarajan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the protective effect of seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat kidney. Methods: Seven to eight weeks old male Wistar rats (150-220g were exposed to CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg injection then treated with seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.3% CMC solution. Blood was collected at the 5th day of experimental period to estimate the Total count (TC, Hemoglobin (HB, Total protein (TP, Glucose, Albumin, Cholesterol, TGL and Urea. Results: The results shows significantly decreased (P<0.01 level of TC, the cholesterol and urea levels shows significantly increased (P<0.05 in CCl4 treated groups when compared to control groups. These levels were found to be normalized by oral feeding of C. sinuosa. Then the rats were sacrificed and kidneys taken for enzyme analyses and histological examination. In the CCl4 treated group significantly increased activities in TBARS, SOD, CAT, GPX, GSH (P<0.05 when compared to control group. These increased activities were found to near normal in the CCl 4 + C. sinuosa treated group and Seaweed C. sinuosa treated alone group did not change any enzyme activity. Exposure to CCl4 resulted hydrobhic changes in epithelium and Hypercellulartity of glomerulus was seen in the CCl 4 + drug treated group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the nephroprotective effect of C. sinuosa can be attributed to its enhancing effects on antioxidant defense system and lead to prevent the damage by exposure of CCl4 toxicity.

  9. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  10. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  11. Nitraria retusa fruit prevents penconazole-induced kidney injury in adult rats through modulation of oxidative stress and histopathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane, Mariem; Koubaa, Mohamed; Soudani, Nejla; Elwej, Awatef; Grati, Malek; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-12-01

    Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) Asch. (Nitrariaceae) is a medicinal plant which produces edible fruits whose antioxidant activity has been demonstrated. The current study elucidates the potential protective effect of N. retusa fruit aqueous extract against nephrotoxicity induced by penconazole, a triazole fungicide, in the kidney of adult rats. Adult Wistar rats were exposed either to penconazole (67 mg/kg body weight), or to N. retusa extract (300 mg/kg body weight) or to their combination. Penconazole was administered by intra-peritoneal injection every 2 days from day 7 until day 15, the sacrifice day, while N. retusa extract was administered daily by gavage during 15 days. Oxidative stress parameters, kidney biomarkers and histopathological examination were determined. Nitraria retusa extract administration to penconazole treated rats decreased kidney levels of malondialdehyde (-10%), hydrogen peroxide (-12%), protein carbonyls (PCOs, -11%) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, -16%); antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (-13%), superoxide dismutase (-8%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -14%), and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants: non-protein thiols (-9%), glutathione (-7%) and metallothionein (-12%). Furthermore, this plant extract prevented kidney biomarker changes by reducing plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and LDH and increasing those of ALP and GGT. Histopathological alterations induced by penconazole (glomeruli fragmentation, Bowman's space enlargement, tubular epithelial cells necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory leucocytes) were attenuated following N. retusa administration. Our results indicated that N. retusa fruit extract had protective effects against penconazole-induced kidney injury, which could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  12. Oxygen nano-bubble water reduces calcium oxalate deposits and tubular cell injury in ethylene glycol-treated rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Kubota, Yasue; Kawai, Noriyasu; Itoh, Yasunori; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Water containing oxygen nano-bubbles (nanometer-sized bubbles generated from oxygen micro-bubbles; ONB) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ONB water on kidney stone formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-treated rats. We divided 60 rats, aged 4 weeks, into 5 groups: control, the water-fed group; 100 % ONB, the 100 % ONB water-fed group; EG, the EG treated water-fed group; EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB, water containing EG and 50 % or 100 % ONB, respectively. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and renal expression of inflammation-related proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the crystal-binding molecule hyaluronic acid were compared among the 5 groups. In the control and 100 % ONB groups, no renal CaOx deposits were detected. In the EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB groups, ONB water significantly decreased renal CaOx deposits, urinary NAG excretion, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, and hyaluronic acid expression and increased renal superoxide dismutase-1 expression compared with the EG group. ONB water substantially affected kidney stone formation in the rat kidney by reducing renal tubular cell injury. ONB water is a potential prophylactic agent for kidney stones.

  13. Impact of normothermic preservation with extracellular type solution containing trehalose on rat kidney grafting from a cardiac death donor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Iwai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate factors that may improve the condition of a marginal kidney preserved with a normothermic solution following cardiac death (CD in a model of rat kidney transplantation (RTx. METHODS: Post-euthanasia, Lewis (LEW donor rats were left for 1 h in a 23°C room. These critical kidney grafts were preserved in University of Wisconsin (UW, lactate Ringer's (LR, or extracellular-trehalose-Kyoto (ETK solution, followed by intracellular-trehalose-Kyoto (ITK solution at 4, 23, or 37°C for another 1 h, and finally transplanted into bilaterally nephrectomized LEW recipient rats (n = 4-6. Grafts of rats surviving to day 14 after RTx were evaluated by histopathological examination. The energy activity of these marginal rat kidneys was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; n = 4 per group and fluorescence intensity assay (n = 6 per group after preservation with UW or ETK solutions at each temperature. Finally, the transplanted kidney was assessed by an in vivo luciferase imaging system (n = 2. RESULTS: Using the 1-h normothermic preservation of post-CD kidneys, five out of six recipients in the ETK group survived until 14 days, in contrast to zero out of six in the UW group (p<0.01. Preservation with ITK rather than ETK at 23°C tended to have an inferior effect on recipient survival (p = 0.12. Energy activities of the fresh donor kidneys decreased in a temperature-dependent manner, while those of post-CD kidneys remained at the lower level. ETK was superior to UW in protecting against edema of the post-CD kidneys at the higher temperature. Luminescence intensity of successful grafts recovered within 1 h, while the intensity of grafts of deceased recipients did not change at 1 h post-reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Normothermic storage with extracellular-type solution containing trehalose might prevent reperfusion injury due to temperature-dependent tissue edema.

  14. Anionic and cationic drug secretion in the isolated perfused rat kidney after neonatal surgical induction of ureteric obstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, R.P.E. de; Feitz, W.F.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Wouterse, A.C.; Smits, D.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the pathophysiological changes of renal tubular drug transport mechanisms in congenital renal obstruction, by developing a model for perfusing the isolated kidney (IPK) after neonatal surgical induction of partial ureteric obstruction in Hanover Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  15. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into

  16. Possible protective role of silybin against polymyxin E-induced toxic effect in rat kidneys: A biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif S; Thomann, Charity; Ettarh, Rajunor; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2017-11-01

    Polymyxin E was used for treating gram-negative bacterial infections but not recently for fear of its nephrotoxicity. Silybin has potential to counteract nephrotoxicity; however, few studies have investigated its protective effect on the kidney in an animal model. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether silybin could decrease elevated urine and serum renal biochemical markers induced by polymyxin E in rat kidney. Forty rats were divided randomly into four groups of 10 rats: control (I), vehicle (II), treatment (III, using polymyxin E), and protection (IV, using silybin and polymyxin E). Urine was collected daily for 7 days to test for N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Serum was collected after euthanizing the rats on day 7 to test kidney functions. RESULTS Group III had significant increases in NAG (all P possible protective effect of silybin against polymyxin E-induced nephrotoxicity. Additional studies are recommended that use different doses of silybin for Groups III and IV to test for statistical differences for kidney functions and that test the protective effect of silybin against nephrotoxicity induced by polymyxin E in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. USE OF qRTPCR TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS OF BROMATE EXPOSURE IN F344 MALE RAT KIDNEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a drinking water disinfection by-product that is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. To identify potential biomarkers of carcinogenicity, male F344 rats were chronically exposed to a carcinogenic dose (400mg/l) of KBrO3 in their drinking water. Kidneys were...

  18. Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, decreases the oxidative stress produced by carbon tetrachloride in rat liver and kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkey, Naveen; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2005-01-01

    Background CCl4 is a well-established hepatotoxin inducing liver injury by producing free radicals. Exposure to CCl4 also induces acute and chronic renal injuries. The present study was designed to establish the protective effect of hesperidin (HDN), a citrus bioflavonoid, on CCl4-induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat liver and kidney. Methods Animals were pretreated with HDN (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (2 ml/kg/s.c.) in olive oil. Rats were sacrificed by carotid bleeding under ether anesthesia. Liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were estimated in serum. Oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissue was estimated using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase(SOD), and Catalase (CAT) Results CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of ALT and AST (P < 0.05). TBARS levels were significantly increased whereas GSH, SOD and CAT levels decreased in the liver and kidney homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. HDN (200 mg/kg) successfully attenuated these effects of CCl4 Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated a protective effect of HDN in CCl4 induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney. This protective effect of HDN can be correlated to its direct antioxidant effect. PMID:15683547

  19. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  20. Expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rat kidney exposed to mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giusto, Gisela; Torres, Adriana M. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Area Farmacologia, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina); Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tokyo (Japan); Ruiz, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Instituto de Fisiologia Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the expression and function of the organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in rats exposed to a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl{sub 2}. Oat1 protein expression increased in renal homogenates and decreased in renal basolateral membranes from HgCl{sub 2} rats, while Oat3 protein abundance decreased in both kidney homogenates and basolateral membranes. The lower protein levels of Oat1 and Oat3 in basolateral membranes explain the lower uptake capacity for p-aminohippurate (in vitro assays) and the diminution of the systemic clearance of this organic anion (in vivo studies) observed in treated rats. Since both transporters mediate mercury access to the renal cells, their down-regulation in basolateral membranes might be a defensive mechanism developed by the cell to protect itself against mercury injury. The pharmacological modulation of the expression and/or the function of Oat1 and Oat3 might be an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing the nephrotoxicity of mercury. (orig.)

  1. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikangbam, Reena; Damayanti Devi, M

    2012-06-01

    The present study aims at systematic evaluation of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa to establish its scientific validity for anti-urolithiatic property using ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria model in male albino rats. Administration of a mixture of 0.75% ethylene glycol and 2% ammonium chloride resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. The decrease in the serum calcium concentration indicates an increased calcium oxalate formation. Supplementation of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) significantly lowered the deposition of stone-forming constituents in the kidneys and serum of urolithiatic rats. These findings have been confirmed through histological investigations. Results of in vivo genotoxicity testing showed no significant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of ethylene glycol-induced rats. The plant extracts at the doses investigated induced neither toxic nor lethal effects and are safe. It can be concluded that the calyces of H. sabdariffa are endowed with anti-urolithiatic activity and do not have genotoxic effects. Thus, it can be introduced in clinical practices and medicine in the form of orally administered syrup after further investigations and clinical trials.

  2. Megalin dependent urinary cystatin C excretion in ischemic kidney injury in rats.

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    Danny Jensen

    Full Text Available Cystatin C, a marker of kidney injury, is freely filtered in the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors essential for reabsorption of most filtered proteins. This study examines the role of these receptors for the uptake and excretion of cystatin C and explores the effect of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury on renal cystatin C uptake and excretion in a rat model.Binding of cystatin C to megalin and cubilin was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance analysis. ELISA and/or immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to study the urinary excretion and tubular uptake of endogenous cystatin C in mice. Furthermore, renal uptake and urinary excretion of cystatin C was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury.A high affinity binding of cystatin C to megalin and cubilin was identified. Megalin deficient mice revealed an increased urinary excretion of cystatin C associated with defective uptake by endocytosis. In rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury urinary cystatin C excretion was increased and associated with a focal decrease in proximal tubule endocytosis with no apparent change in megalin expression.Megalin is essential for the normal tubular recovery of endogenous cystatin C. The increase in urinary cystatin C excretion after ischemia/reperfusion injury is associated with decreased tubular uptake but not with reduced megalin expression.

  3. Effects of gonadectomy and testosterone treatment on aquaporin expression in the kidney of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Su Yi; Giribabu, Nelli; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure was due to changes in aquaporin (AQP) expression in kidneys. In this study, expression level of kidney AQPs was investigated under testosterone influence. Adult normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive SHR male and female rats underwent gonadectomy. For female rats, testosterone was given for six weeks duration, two weeks following ovariectomy via subcutaneous silastic implant. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in all the rats after eight weeks via carotid artery cannulation and the rats were then sacrificed and kidneys were harvested for analyses of AQP-1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 mRNA and protein expressions by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Distribution of AQP subunits' protein in kidneys was observed by immunofluorescence. In male WKY rats, MAP, AQP-1, 2, 4, and 7 protein; and mRNA expression decreased however AQP-3 protein and mRNA expression increased following orchidectomy. The vice versa effects were observed in testosterone-treated ovariectomized female WKY rats. However, no changes in AQP-6 expression were observed. Meanwhile, in adult male SHR rats, MAP and expression level of all AQP subunits decreased following orchidectomy. The opposite effects were seen in ovariectomized female SHR rats following testosterone treatment. Immunofluorescence study showed AQP-1 and AQP-7 were distributed in the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) while AQP-2, AQP-4, and AQP-6 were distributed in the collecting ducts (CDs). AQP-3 was distributed in the PCT and CD. In conclusion, changes in AQP subunit expression in kidneys could explain changes in blood pressure under testosterone influence. Impact statement This study provides fundamental understanding on the mechanisms underlying testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure which involve regulation of aquaporin channel subunits in the kidneys. A better understanding of this issue can help to explain

  4. Effects of unfractionated heparin on renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yingbin; Li, Qingnan; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the most widely used anticoagulant in hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Many studies have verified that UFH can induce bone loss in subjects with normal bone, but few have focused on its effect on renal osteodystrophy. We therefore investigated this issue in adenine-induced CKD rats. As CKD also impairs mineral metabolism systemically, we also studied the impacts of UFH on serum markers of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and vascular calcification. We administered low and high doses of UFH (1U/g and 2U/g body weight, respectively) to CKD rats and compared them with CKD controls. At sacrifice, the serum markers of CKD-MBD did not significantly differ among the two UFH CKD groups and the CKD control group. The mean bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the total femur and a region of interest (ROI) constituted of trabecular and cortical bone were lower in the high-dose UFH (H-UFH) CKD group than in the CKD control group (Prats indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism, and the femoral trabecular bone volume, but not cortical bone volume, significantly decreased with increasing UFH dose. The same decreasing trend was found in osteoblast parameters, and an increasing trend was found in osteoclast parameters; however, most differences were not significant. Moreover, no distinct statistical differences were found in the comparison of vascular calcium or phosphorus content among the CKD control group and the two UFH CKD groups. Therefore, we concluded that UFH could induce bone loss in CKD rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism, mainly by reducing the trabecular volume and had little effect on cortical bone volume. The underlying mechanism might involve inhibition of osteoblast activity and promotion of osteoclast activity by UFH. We did not find any effect of UFH on vascular calcification in CKD rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism. © 2013.

  5. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  6. [Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inducible nitric oxide synthase in kidneys of Type 1 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Jia, Qiang; Ma, Shanfeng; Cui, Shujun; Liu, Xiaofen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Qin

    2017-04-28

    To investigate effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in kidneys of Type 1 diabetic rats.
 Methods: Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: A normal control (NC) group, a diabetes mellitus (DM) group, a NaHS (NaHS+DM) group, and a NaHS control (NaHS) group (n=8 per group). Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). After successful establishment of models, the rats in NaHS+DM and NaHS groups were injected with NaHS solution (56 μmol/kg) intraperitoneally. Eight weeks later, the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) and iNOS, as well as the level of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in serum and renal tissues, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was determined in renal tissues. The ultrastructures of renal tissues were observed by transmission electron microscope. The protein expression of iNOS in renal tissues was detected by Western blot.
 Results: Compared with the NC group, there was no significant difference in the various indexes in the NaHS group (P>0.05). However, in the DM group, the activities of T-NOS and iNOS, and the level of NO were all increased significantly in serum and renal tissues, while the activity of GSH-Px was decreased in renal tissues. Under the electronic microscope, the thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane, the proliferation of mesangial matrix, and the foot fusion were observed. The protein expression of iNOS was increased obviously in renal tissues in the DM group (P<0.01). Compared with the DM group, the activities of T-NOS and iNOS and the level of NO were all decreased in serum and renal tissues, while the activity of GSH-Px was increased in renal tissues in the NaHS+DM group (P<0.01). The renal ultrastructural damages were ameliorated obviously. The protein expression of iNOS was decreased significantly (P<0.01).
 Conclusion: H2S exerts a protective effect on

  7. [Study on the expression of uncoupling protein 2 in the kidney of the rats with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Tian, Xiu-biao; Fang, Hui; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qing-yi

    2010-12-01

    To observe the change in the expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in kidney mitochondria in rats with hypothyroidism, and study the mechanism of renal injury due to hypothyroidism. The Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and hypothyroidism group (n=10). The hypothyroidism rat model was reproduced by low-iodine diet. The intake of iodine in control group and hypothyroidism group were 10.00 μg/d and 1.24 μg/d, respectively. The rats were raised under these conditions respectively for 3 months after they adapted to the feeding for 1 week. Then the thyroid function parameters were measured in blood, and the expressions of UCP2 protein and mRNA in renal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The thyrotropic-stimulating hormone (TSH, mU/L) in hypothyroidism group was significantly higher than that in control group (4.88±1.37 vs. 1.65±0.33, Phypothyroidism group were significantly lower than those in control group [TT(3) (nmol/L) : 0.54±0.07 vs. 0.98±0.17, TT(4) (nmol/L): 7.82±2.18 vs. 48.78±3.65, FT(3) (pmol/L): 2.28±0.22 vs. 2.99±0.10, FT(4) (pmol/L): 11.38±1.74 vs. 29.27±0.95, all Phypothyroidism group was significantly lower than that of control group (renal glomeruli: 0.17±0.02 vs. 0.24±0.04, renal tubule: 0.19±0.02 vs. 0.25±0.02, both Phypothyroidism group was significantly lower than that of control group (0.70±0.19 vs. 1.30±0.09, PHypothyroidism may produce damage to kidney, which is related to the down-regulation of UCP2 expression in the mitochondria of renal cells.

  8. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

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    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans.

  9. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

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    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  10. Effect of administering a diet contamined with fumonisins on the kidneys of wistar rats

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    Jade Cabestre Venancio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins (FBs are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium molds. Several works have shown contamination of maize by this toxin. Fumonisin B1 (FB-1 is found in greatest proportion (about 70%, resistant to several industrialization processes. In that context, the objective of this work was to analyze the effect of administering a diet contaminated with FB-1 on the morphophysiology of the kidneys of 21-day old male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 2 groups: G0 (with animals receiving feed free of FBs and G6 (6mg of FB1 kg-1 of feed. The diet was administered during 42 days. After that period, the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection, blood was collected for analysis of plasma creatinine, and the kidneys were fixed and stained with Masson's trichrome. We observed that FB1 administration did not affect feed intake, body weight gain and animal growth. The normal levels of plasma creatinine suggest that the toxin did not lead to glomerular lesion. There was also no change in water intake, osmolarity and excretion of sodium in urine. However, there was a significant increase in urine volume and potassium excretion in urine, with mild tubulointerstitial changes in the outer cortex for the group receiving the mycotoxin.

  11. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  12. Effect of Amlodipine in Comparison to Nifedipine on Vascular Perfusion Pressure of Isolated Rat Kidney

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    Lili Sepehr-Ara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate and to compare the effects of nifedipine and amlodipine, dihydropyridine (DHP calcium channel blockers (CCBs on perfusion pressure of isolated perfused rat kidney.Materials and MethodsFollowing the establishment of renal perfusion with a constant baseline pressure of 85-95 mmHg, the renal vasculature was constricted by phenylephrine (PE injection. Changes in the baseline perfusion pressure were recorded. Then nifedipine and amlodipine prepared in perfusion medium was fed to the kidney for 30 min. Finally alterations in the baseline pressure arising from PE administrations in the presence of CCBs were recorded and data analyses were done.ResultsPE-induced increases in perfusion pressure attenuated significantly in the presence of 5 and 10 μM of nifedipine and 1, 5, and 10 μM of amlodipine. Increases in perfusion pressure arising from PE (100 and 200 μM in the presence of amlodipine (1, 5, and 10 μM was significantly less than that in the presence of nifedipine (1, 5, and 10 μM. Calculated EC50 value of amlodipine for inhibition was significantly lower than that of nifedipine. Based on the EC50 values, the potency of amlodipine in inhibiting PE-induced responses is significantly higher compared to nifedipine.ConclusionThe potency of amlodipine in inhibiting PE-induced increments in renal perfusion pressure is significantly higher compared to nifedipine.

  13. Protective effect of rosmarinic acid against oxidative stress biomarkers in liver and kidney of strepotozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nadia; Schmatz, Roberta; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; da Costa, Pauline; Reichert, Karine Paula; Dalenogare, Diéssica; Pelinson, Luana Paula; Vieira, Juliano Marchi; Stefanello, Naiara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Mulinacci, Nadia; Bellumori, Maria; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.

  14. Protective effects of Carissa opaca fruits against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney lipid peroxidation and trauma in rat

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    Sumaira Sahreen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a potent nephrotoxin, as it causes acute as well as chronic toxicity in kidneys. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the pharmacological potential of different fractions of Carissa opaca fruits on CCl4-induced oxidative trauma in the kidney. Methods: The parameters studied in this respect were the kidney function tests viz, serum profile, urine profile, genotoxicity, characteristic morphological findings, and antioxidant enzymatic level of kidneys. Result: The protective effects of various fractions of C. opaca fruits against CCl4 administration were reviewed by rat renal function alterations. Chronic toxicity caused by 8-week treatment of CCl4 to the rats significantly decreased the pH level, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione contents, whereas a significant increase was found in the case of specific gravity, red blood cells, white blood cells, level of urea, and lipid peroxidation in comparison to control group. Administration of various fractions of C. opaca fruit with CCl4 showed protective ability against CCl4 intoxication by restoring the urine profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rat. CCl4 induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation and glomerular atrophy by means of dilation, disappearance of Bowmen's space, congestion in the capillary loops, dilation in renal tubules, and foamy look of epithelial cells of tubular region, which were restored by co-admiration of various fractions of C. opaca. Conclusion: Results revealed that the methanolic fractions of C. opaca are the most potent and helpful in kidney trauma.

  15. Frequency Dependence of Kidney Injury Induced by Contrast-Aided Diagnostic Ultrasound in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Wiggins, Roger C.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the frequency dependence of glomerular capillary hemorrhage (GCH) induced by contrast aided diagnostic ultrasound in rats. Diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) scanners were utilized for exposure at 3.2, 5.0 and 7.4 MHz, and previously published data at 1.5 and 2.5 MHz also was included. A laboratory exposure system was used to simulate DUS exposure at 1.0, 1.5, 2.25, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 MHz with higher peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPAs) than were available from our DUS systems. The right kidneys of rats mounted in a water bath were exposed to intermittent image pulse sequences at 1 s intervals during infusion of diluted ultrasound contrast agent. The percentage of GCH was zero for low PRPAs, and then rapidly increased with increasing PRPAs above an apparent threshold, pt. The values of pt were approximately proportional to the ultrasound frequency, f, such that pt/f was approximately 0.5 MPa/MHz for DUS and 0.6 MPa/MHz for laboratory-system exposures. The increasing thresholds with increasing frequency limited the GCH effect for contrast aided DUS, and no GCH was seen for DUS at 5.0 or 7.4 MHz for the highest available PRPAs. PMID:18485567

  16. Nateglinide uptake by a ceftibuten transporter in the rat kidney brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Saito, Yoshitaka; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2005-08-30

    Nateglinide, a novel oral hypoglycemic agent, possesses a carbonyl group and a peptide-type bond in its structure. We previously reported that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system by the rat small intestine. We speculated that the absorption system present on the intestinal epithelium may be similar to that found on the renal tubular epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the transporters on the apical side of the kidney that may contribute to the reabsorption of ceftibuten and nateglinide. The uptake of nateglinide by rat renal brush-border membranes is associated with an H(+)-coupled transport system. Ceftibuten competitively inhibited H(+)-dependent nateglinide uptake. In contrast, Gly-Sar, cephradine and cephalexin had no effect on nateglinide uptake. Nateglinide competitively inhibited H(+)-driven transporter-mediated ceftibuten uptake. We conclude that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that is H(+)-dependent and may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system.

  17. The effect of Nigella Sativa Seed Extract on Male Rats Kidneys Induced by Gentamicin

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    M Khazaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Gentamicin is an aminoglycosides antibiotic which is used to treat several types of bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa extract on renal toxicity in rats induced by gentamicin. Methods: In the present experimental study, 42 Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7 includes: control (normal saline 2ml/kg, i.p, gentamicin (gentamicin80mg/kg/day, i.p, positive control (400mg/kg NSE, i.p and treated groups 1, 2, 3 (gentamicin 80mg/kg/day+ NSE 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively, i.p. Nigella sativa extract was injected for 7 days after a ten days period of gentamicin injection. Results: Gentamicin caused necrosis and inflammation in the renal cortex and medullary tissues. Treatment with Nigella sativa seed extract significantly decreased serum creatinine, BUN and serum LDH in treated groups compared with the group receiving gentamicin. The greatest impact was created in high dose (P=0.001. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract reduces inflammation caused by receiving gentamicin in kidney tissue and a significant reduction in creatinine, urea nitrogen and lactic dehydrogenase enzyme in treated mice compared with the control group.

  18. The adverse effects of long-term l-carnitine supplementation on liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Zhang, D-M; Wang, M-X; Fan, C-Y; Zhou, F; Wang, S-J; Kong, L-D

    2015-11-01

    Levo-Carnitine (l-carnitine) is widely used in health and food. This study was to focus on the adverse effects of 8-week oral supplementation of l-carnitine (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) in female and male Sprague Dawley rats. l-carnitine reduced body and fat weights, as well as serum, liver, and kidney lipid levels in rats. Simultaneously, hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation and lipid synthesis were disturbed in l-carnitine-fed rats. Moreover, l-carnitine accelerated reactive oxygen species production in serum and liver, thereby triggering hepatic NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation to elevate serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 levels in rats. Alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase levels further confirmed liver dysfunction in l-carnitine-fed rats. Additionally, l-carnitine may potentially disturb kidney function by altering renal protein levels of rat organic ion transporters. These observations may provide the caution information for the safety of long-term l-carnitine supplementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Mori cortex prevents kidney damage through inhibiting expression of inflammatory factors in the glomerulus in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Lili Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: It has been widely reported that Mori cortex extract (MCE is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The present study was designed to investigate its mechanism of action in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN. We assessed whether MCE preventive treatment ameliorates kidney damage in high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed a high-fat diet and injected with STZ. MCE was given to rats daily at 10 g/kg. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and postprandial plasma glucose were measured. Blood and urine biochemical parameters, renal tissue morphology, and inflammation were investigated. Results: Prevention with MCE significantly decreased FBG and homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA of IR (HOMA-IR levels and increased insulin levels in diabetic rats. MCE prevention significantly decreased levels of KW/BW, BUN, Cr, and 24 hr urinary protein. MCE inhibited glomerular basement membrane thickening, tubular epithelial cell hypertrophy, and glomerular capillary dilation. MCE also prevented the disappearance of bowman’s space and renal tubular lumen and decreased collagen deposition in rat kidney. Moreover, MCE reduced the levels of inflammatory factors (MCP-1 and TNF-α and fibrosis factors (collagen IV and fibronectin. Conclusion: MCE prevents DN through inhibition of inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model. It might provide a safe and effective way to prevent DN.

  20. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys. The fructose control rats were treated with 10% fructose in drinking water over 5 weeks. The fructose consumption in ginger-treated rats was adjusted to match that of fructose control group. The ethanolic extract of ginger was co-administered (once daily by oral gavage). The indexes of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined enzymatically, by ELISA and/or histologically. Gene expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR. In addition to improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, supplement with ginger extract (50 mg/kg) attenuated liquid fructose-induced kidney injury as characterized by focal cast formation, slough and dilation of tubular epithelial cells in the cortex of the kidneys in rats. Furthermore, ginger also diminished excessive renal interstitial collagen deposit. By Real-Time PCR, renal gene expression profiles revealed that ginger suppressed fructose-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2. In accord, overexpression of two important macrophage accumulation markers CD68 and F4/80 was downregulated. Moreover, overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were downregulated. Ginger treatment also restored the downregulated ratio of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to PAI-1. The present results

  1. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

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    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  2. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrefozalayi, Somayyeh; Farokhi, Farah

    2014-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare) is an herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF) in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control, was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml) of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.). In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV) (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil). The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw) with the same route. The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw). After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (pPCOS and PCOS rats treated with high dose of AEF. Moreover, histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable in PCOS rats with respect to treated groups with AEF. Aqueous extract of fennel seed showed the beneficial effect (especially at dose of 150 mg/kg b.w.) on renal function in PCOS rats.

  3. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  4. Alleviation of kidney damage induced by unilateral ureter obstruction in rats by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Terzi, E Hakan; Kemahli, Eray; Gucuk, Adnan; Tosun, Mehmet; Çetinkaya, Ayhan

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Rhodiola rosea extract in terms of alleviating the renal damage induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) in rats. Thirty Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups: (I) Control, (II) UUO 7 days, (III) UUO 7 days+extract,(IV) UUO 14 days, and (V) UUO 14 days+extract. Seven or 14 days after the initiation of the experimental procedure, the left kidneys of rats in all five groups were removed for histological examination, and their blood was drawn for biochemical measurements. Median malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were, respectively, 39.4 (5.04) nmol/mL and 25.8 (8.01) nmol/minute/mL in group I, 77.9 (12.38) nmol/mL and 5.8 (1.95) nmol/minute/mL in group II, 48.7 (12.1) nmol/mL and 9.1 (2.3) nmol/minute/mL in group III, 58.5 (23.83) nmol/mL and 8.4 (2.1) nmol/minute/mL in group IV, and 44.8 (4.97) nmol/mL and 13.8 (3.73) nmol/minute/mL in group V. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of MDA and GPx levels (prosea extract was shown to alleviate the renal damage induced by UUO through its antioxidant effects. The mechanism by which R. rosea extract causes these effects merits further investigation.

  5. Spongean alkaloids protect rat kidney cells against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Florian; Krüger, Katharina; Henninger, Christian; Wätjen, Wim; Proksch, Peter; Thomale, Jürgen; Fritz, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting adverse effect of cisplatin (CisPt) and results from CisPt-induced damage of tubular cells. Nephroprotective strategies are preferential to improve supportive care in cancer. We investigated a subset of purified substances originating from various plants or from marine sponges as to their potency to protect rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) against the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cisplatin. Cotreatment with a substance pool containing five purified substances originating from marine sponges increased the viability of NRK-52E cells following cisplatin treatment. Cytoprotection was accompanied by a reduced level of DNA damage as indicated by a lower amount of S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) 24 h after treatment. Cytoprotection and genoprotection by the sponge substance pool did not comprise the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin. The spongean alkaloid aaptamine was identified as major bioactive compound that mediates cisplatin resistance. Aeroplysinin-1 was less cytoprotective than aaptamine. Notably, aaptamine preferentially conferred resistance to cisplatin, but not to oxaliplatin. Cytoprotection by aaptamine was also observed in rat glomerular endothelial cells, but not in RT-112 bladder cancer cells. Protection by aaptamine does not rest on a reduced formation of DNA damage caused by cisplatin treatment. Aaptamine and aeroplysinin-1 affected cisplatin-stimulated DDR as reflected on the level of S15-phosphorlyated p53 and S345-phosphorylated checkpoint kinase-1. Summarizing, the spongean alkaloid aaptamine alleviates cisplatin-induced damage in tubular and glomerular rat kidney cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that aaptamine might be useful to widen the therapeutic window of a cisplatin-based therapeutic regimen.

  6. Study of chronic effect of Losartan in inhibition of kidney glomerular number and glomerular volume changes in uninephrectomized diabetic rats(Stereological study.

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    majid Tavafi

    2005-02-01

    Conclusion: Chronic low dose usage of losartan in uninephrectomized diabetic rats can prevent kidney volume increasing (84%, inhibit increase glomerular volume (67% and prevent glomerular number decreasing (68% significantly. Combined drug therapy is recommended for better results.

  7. [Na+, K+-ATPase activity of the kidneys and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in rat plasma during adaptation to cold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaĭ, T N; Medvedev, L N

    1985-01-01

    No correlation between Na, K-ATPase activity increase in rat kidney and the level of T3 in blood plasma was revealed in course of the rats adaptation to cold. Spironolactone prevented the enzyme activation caused by cold. Actinomycin D, administered to the acclimated rats two days before the experiment, decreased the enzyme activity. Addition of actinomycin D to membrane preparation did not change the enzyme activity. The increase in Na, K-ATPase activity in kidney during adaptation of rats to cold appears to be related to DNA-dependent synthesis of RNA. The enzyme activation was apparently regulated by aldosterone but it was not the T3-dependent process.

  8. Effect of Oral Administration of Tungsten Trioxide (WO3) Particles on Hispathological Feature of liver and kidney in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Gumilar, G. G.; Widi, A.; Subangkit, M.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the toxicity and histopathology of tungsten trioxide (WO3) administration on rat’s liver and kidney. The LD50 of WO3 was determined and the sub acute toxicity was evaluated by orally administration of 5000 mg kg-1 of WO3 to rat for 14 consecutive days. Parameter of blood cells, ALT, creatinine, and BUN were experimentally measured. The toxicological evaluation showed that WO3 is a non toxic compound with the LD50 higher that 5000 mg kg-1. No biochemical change was observed for creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen parameter. In contrast, ALT parameter shows higher value in the experiment than that in the control group. Histopathological changes on rat’s liver and kidney were also studied. Small defects in rat’s liver and kidney were found, which may interfere the functional of related enzymes.

  9. Polycystic Kidney Rat Is a Novel Animal Model of Caroli’s Disease Associated with Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzen, Takahiro; Harada, Kenichi; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Kawamura, Yasuhito; Ishibashi, Masahiko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2001-01-01

    Caroli’s disease (congenital intrahepatic biliary dilatation) associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Recently, the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat, a spontaneous mutant derived from a colony of Crj:CD rats with polycystic lesions in the liver and an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, was reported. In the present study, the pathology of the hepatobiliary system and the biliary cell-kinetics were evaluated in fetuses (day 18 to 21 of gestation) and neonates and adults (1 day to 4 months after delivery) of PCK rats. Crj:CD rats were used as a control. Multiple segmental and saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts were first observed in fetuses at 19 days of gestation. The dilatation spread throughout the liver and the degree of dilatation increased with aging. Gross and histological features characterizing ductal plate malformation were common in the intrahepatic bile ducts. Overgrowth of portal connective tissue was evident and progressive after delivery. These features were very similar to those of Caroli’s disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis. Proliferative activity in the biliary epithelial cells was greater in PCK rats than controls during the development. In contrast, the biliary epithelial apoptosis was less extensive in PCK rats than the controls until 1 week after delivery, but greater after 3 weeks, suggesting that the remodeling defect in immature bile ducts associated with the imbalance of cell kinetics plays a role in the occurrence of intrahepatic biliary anomalies in PCK rats. The PCK rat could be a useful and promising animal model of Caroli’s disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis. PMID:11337358

  10. Aqueous Extract of Purple Sweet Potato Tubers Decrease MDA and Increase SOD2 in Kidney of Diabetic Rats

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    Bagus Komang Satriyasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by increase of blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in oxidative stress and increase of AGEs. Oxidative stress and metabolic stress lead to reduction of endogenous antioxidant activity resulted in various organs injury especially kidney. The complication is caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and free radicals. Increase free radicals that occur in diabetics accompanied with decline in endogenous antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. One way to overcome the complications due to oxidative stress is through utilize the foods which possess natural antioxidant such as purple sweet potato. It has been proven in animals that purple sweet potato had antioxidant properties to prevent various complications in DM. Balinese purple sweet potato tubers contain high anthocyanin and it had been researched as antioxidant in rats in vivo. The aims of this research are to determine the effect of aqueous extract of purple sweet potato tubers to decrease malondialdehyde (MDA and increase SOD2 in kidney of diabetic rats. This experimental study was conducted with randomized posttest only control group design. Research subject is 38 diabetic rats that divided into 2 groups, controlled group and treatment group, with 18 diabetic rats in each group. Treatment was given for 60 days to each group. Treatment group (P1 is diabetic rats group that was given a standard diet and ad libitum drinks, and 4CC/day/rat of purple sweet potato tubers aqueous extract for 60 days. Controlled group (P0 is diabetic rats group as control that was given a standard diet and ad libitum drinks only. After 60 days of treatment, evaluation was performed. The results of this research found that mean MDA in kidney of control and treatment group was 8.40±0.17 and 1.47±0.15, respectively. There was a significant decreae of MDA (p<0.05. Relative expression

  11. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  12. Chronically decreased oxygen tension in rat pancreatic islets transplanted under the kidney capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, P O; Palm, F; Andersson, A; Liss, P

    2000-03-15

    A factor of potential importance in the failure of islet grafts is poor or inadequate engraftment of the islets in the implantation organ. This study measured the oxygen tension and blood perfusion in 1-, 2-, and 9-month-old islet grafts. The partial pressure of oxygen was measured in pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the renal capsule of diabetic and nondiabetic recipient rats with a modified Clark electrode (outer tip diameter 2-6 microm). The size of the graft (250 islets) was by purpose not large enough to cure the diabetic recipients. The oxygen tension in islets within the pancreas was also recorded. Blood perfusion was measured with the laser-Doppler technique. Within native pancreatic islets, the partial pressure of oxygen was approximately 40 mm Hg (n=8). In islets transplanted to nondiabetic animals, the oxygen tension was approximately 6-7 mm Hg 1, 2, and 9 months posttransplantation. No differences could be seen between the different time points after transplantation. In the diabetic recipients, an even more pronounced decrease in graft tissue oxygen tension was recorded. The mean oxygen tension in the superficial renal cortex surrounding the implanted islets was similar in all groups (approximately 15 mm Hg). Intravenous administration of glucose (0.1 gxkg(-1)x min(-1)) did not affect the oxygen tension in any of the investigated tissues. The islet graft blood flow was similar in all groups, measuring approximately 50% of the blood flow in the kidney cortex. The oxygen tension in islets implanted beneath the kidney capsule is markedly lower than in native islets up to 9 months after transplantation. Moreover, persistent hyperglycemia in the recipient causes an even further decrease in graft oxygen tension, despite similar blood perfusion. To what extent this may contribute to islet graft failure remains to be determined.

  13. Uranium induces apoptosis and is genotoxic to normal rat kidney (NRK-52(E)) proximal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Milgram, S.; Simon, A.; Avoscan, L.; Gouget, B. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, UMR 9956, Lab Pierre Sue, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal used in the nuclear industry and for military applications. U compounds are toxic. Their toxicity is mediated either by their radioactivity or their chemical properties. Mammalian kidneys and bones are the main organs affected by U toxicity. Although the most characteristic response to U exposure is renal dysfunction, little information is available on the mechanisms of its toxicity at the molecular level. This report studied the genotoxicity of U. Apoptosis induction in normal rat kidney (NRK-52(E)) proximal cells was investigated as a function of exposure time or concentrations (0-800 {mu}M). In parallel, DNA damage was evaluated by several methods. In order to distinguish between the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis, caspases-8, -9, -10 assays were conducted and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Three methods were selected for their complementarities in the detection of genetic lesions. The comet assay was used for the detection of primary lesions of DNA. {gamma}-H2AX immunostaining was achieved to detect DNA double-strand breaks. The micronucleus assay was used to detect chromosomic breaks or losses. DNA damage and apoptosis were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that U is genotoxic from 300 {mu}M and induces caspase dependent apoptosis cell death from 200 {mu}M mainly through the intrinsic pathway in NRK-52(E) cells. These results suggest that the DNA damage caused by U is reversible at low concentration (200-400 {mu}M) but becomes irreversible and leads to cell death for higher concentrations (500-800 {mu}M). (authors)

  14. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PPAR-γ Agonist-Treated Kidneys in an Orthologous Rat Model of Human Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidneys are enlarged by aberrant proliferation of tubule epithelial cells leading to the formation of numerous cysts, nephron loss, and interstitial fibrosis in polycystic kidney disease (PKD. Pioglitazone (PIO, a PPAR-γ agonist, decreased cell proliferation, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation, and ameliorated PKD progression in PCK rats (Am. J. Physiol.-Renal, 2011. To explore genetic mechanisms involved, changes in global gene expression were analyzed. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of 30655 genes, 13 of the top 20 downregulated gene ontology biological process gene sets and six of the top 20 curated gene set canonical pathways identified to be downregulated by PIOtreatment were related to cell cycle and proliferation, including EGF, PDGF and JNK pathways. Their relevant pathways were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes database. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 is a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism found in the top 5 genes downregulated by PIO treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the gene product of this enzyme was highly expressed in PCK kidneys and decreased by PIO. These data show that PIO alters the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and fatty acid metabolism.

  15. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  16. The Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Zingiber Officinale on Prevention from Plumbism in Kidney Tissue of Neonatal Rats

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    Habiballah Johari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present research, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on treating lead-poisoned kidney of neonatal rats was studied.Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a laboratory work. The neonatal rats were divided into 7 groups of 10 samples. The first control group received no treatment. The second control group received 0.1 mg of distilled water. As an experimental group, the one received an amount of 0.6 g/l lead. The fourth group received only 2 g/kg body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. Groups 5 to 7 each initially received 0.6 g/l lead and then amounts of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. The injections were administered via oral gavage during 10 consecutive days.Results: According to the obtained results, the body and kidney weights showed a significant reduction in experimental groups that had received amounts of 1 and 2 g/kg in comparison with the group that had received lead. The kidney weight of the group that had received only extract showed no significant difference in comparison with the control group. As for the body weights, however, it showed a significant increase. Moreover, the body and kidney weights of the lead-injected group showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group.Conclusion: Lead can cause damage to kidney tissues. Due to its antioxidant and protective effect, ginger can be a medication to nephrotoxicity of lead and prevent kidney tissues from destruction.

  17. Increased retention of americium in kidneys as compared with plutonium in an actinide wound contamination model in the rat.

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    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Molina, Thibaut; Wilk, Jean-Claude; Renault, Daniel; Berard, Philippe; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Americium-241 ((241)Am) presents a potential risk for nuclear industry workers associated with reactor decommissioning and aging combustible materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate Am renal retention after actinide contamination by wounding in the rat. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with Mixed Oxide (MOX) (7.1% Plutonium [Pu] by mass and containing 27% Am as % total alpha activity), Pu or Am nitrate following an incision wound of the hind leg. Times of euthanasia ranged from 2 hours to 5 months after contamination. Pu and Am levels were quantified following radiochemistry and alpha-spectrophotometry. Initial data show that over the experimental period the proportion of Am in kidneys as a fraction of total kidney alpha activity was elevated as compared to MOX powder indicating a specific retention in this organ. The percentage of Pu was similar to the powder. After MOX contamination, kidney to liver ratios appeared to increase more markedly for Am (from 0.2 at 7 days to 0.6 at 90 days) as compared with Pu (0.1 at 7 days to 0.2 at 90 days). In accordance with tissue actinide retention the dose from Am to the kidney increases with time. For comparison, the ratio of estimated equivalent doses due to Am to kidney is 1.5-fold greater than for Pu (around 90 versus 60 mSv). After actinide contamination of wounds, Am is concentrated in the kidneys as compared to Pu leading to potential exposure of renal tissue to both alpha particles and gamma radiation.

  18. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

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    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-12-20

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 7), a LPS group that received fluid resuscitation (n = 7), and a LPS group that received blood transfusion (n = 7). The mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal microvascular oxygenation within the kidney cortex were recorded. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the serum creatinine levels, metabolic cost, and histopathological lesions. Nitrosative stress (expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) within the kidney was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hemoglobin levels, pH, serum lactate levels, and liver enzymes were measured. Fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion both significantly improved the mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after LPS infusion. Renal microvascular oxygenation, serum creatinine levels, and tubular damage significantly improved in the LPS group that received blood transfusion compared to the group that received fluids. Moreover, the renal expression of eNOS was markedly suppressed under endotoxin challenge. Blood transfusion, but not fluid resuscitation, was able to restore the renal expression of eNOS. However, there were no significant differences in lactic acidosis or liver function between the two groups. Blood transfusion significantly improved renal function in endotoxemic rats. The specific beneficial effect of blood transfusion on the kidney could have been mediated in part by the improvements in renal microvascular oxygenation and sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction via the restoration of eNOS expression within the kidney.

  19. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

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    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  20. Structural Injury after Lithium Treatment in Human and Rat Kidney involves Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Positive Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glyco......Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition...... of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β and pGSK-3β was investigated in a developing series of rat kidney cortex and medulla. Li+ was given to female wistar rats with litters through food pellets at postnatal (P) days 7-28. In human fetal and adult kidney the expression of GSK-3β was examined and also....... Lithium causes proliferation, structural injury and increases inactive pGSK-3β abundance in these segments. The data are compatible with epithelial entry of lithium and a causal role for GSK-3β in postnatal developing cortical collecting duct epithelium....

  1. Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

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    G. Chandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME. Enalapril (30 mg kg−1 day−1 was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1 was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P<0.001 and SOD activity (P<0.001, reduced the TBARS levels (P<0.001, and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups.

  2. The assessment of early glycosaminoglycan concentration changes in the kidney of diabetic rats by critical electrolyte concentration staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Sum, Shima; Shafi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) has a pivot role in renal function and homeostasis. Analysis of GAG amount generally serves to determine GAG alteration due to diabetes mellitus. Critical Electrolyte Concentration (CEC) staining can be an efficacy method to study GAG amount changes. Based on an experimental study, 20 male rats were randomly divided equally into two experimental and control groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single sub cutaneous injection (120 mg/kg) of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 weeks, diabetic kidneys were paraffin embedded and sectioned at 5μm on a microtome. Slides were prepared and studied after staining by Critical Electrolyte Concentration (CEC 1 -4). In this study, we succeeded to show a decrease of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate concentration in diabetic kidney at 8 weeks diabetic rats which are earlier signs compared to those reported previously. In contrary, no significant changes in heparin sulfate and keratin sulfate have been seen. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease and earlier diagnosis makes a better treatment design to reduce its development. CEC staining is able to determine degradation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate synthesis in diabetic kidney of rats in an earlier time.

  3. Nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Artemisia arborescens hydroalcoholic extract against oestroprogestative-induced kidney damages in rats.

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    Dhibi, Sabah; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Tlili, Zied; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Currently, medicinal plants are found to have biological and pharmacological activities and are used in various domains. This study, carried out on Wistar rats, evaluates the beneficial effects of Artemisia arborscens extract on oestroprogestative-induced damages in kidney. Thirty-six 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 batches of nine each: a control group, a group of rats receiving oestroprogestative treatment, a group undergoing oestroprogestative treatment after receiving Artemisia arborescens extract in drinking water, and a group that received only Artemisia arborescens. Artemisia arborescens extract was found to optimize many parameters which were shifted to pathological values as a consequence of oestroprogestative toxicity: plasma creatinine and urea levels were decreased, uric acid and proteins were restored to normal values. The alteration of renal architecture was also suppressed. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities that had been reduced in kidney of the treated group were restored by Aretmisia arborscens-based treatments and, therefore, the lipid peroxidation level was reduced in the renal tissue compared to the control group. The obtained results confirmed that the Artemisia-based treatment allowed efficient protection against oestroprogestative-induced nephrotoxicity by restoring the activities of kidney. The protective effect of Artemisia arborescens was mainly attributed to antioxidant properties as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids detected by means of HPLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney.

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    Stemmer, Kerstin; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Ananthakrishnan, Gayathri; Bort, Anja; Seeley, Randy J; Tschöp, Matthias H; Dietrich, Daniel R; Pfluger, Paul T

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens) or partially resistant (DIOres) to DIO to investigate the impact of body adiposity versus dietary nutrient overload in the development of renal preneoplasia and activation of tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Our data clearly show a correlation between body adiposity, the severity of nephropathy, and the total number and incidence of preneoplastic renal lesions. However, similar plasma triglyceride, plasma free fatty acid and renal triglyceride levels were found in chow-fed, DIOres and DIOsens rats, suggesting that lipotoxicity is not a critical contributor to the renal pathology. Obesity-related nephropathy was further associated with regenerative cell proliferation, monocyte infiltration and higher renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor and leptin receptor. Accordingly, we observed increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation in tubules with preneoplastic phenotypes. In summary, our results demonstrate that high body adiposity induces an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment in rat kidneys that promotes the development of preneoplastic lesions, potentially via activation of the STAT3 and mTOR signaling pathways.

  5. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney

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    Kerstin Stemmer

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens or partially resistant (DIOres to DIO to investigate the impact of body adiposity versus dietary nutrient overload in the development of renal preneoplasia and activation of tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Our data clearly show a correlation between body adiposity, the severity of nephropathy, and the total number and incidence of preneoplastic renal lesions. However, similar plasma triglyceride, plasma free fatty acid and renal triglyceride levels were found in chow-fed, DIOres and DIOsens rats, suggesting that lipotoxicity is not a critical contributor to the renal pathology. Obesity-related nephropathy was further associated with regenerative cell proliferation, monocyte infiltration and higher renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-6 receptor and leptin receptor. Accordingly, we observed increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR phosphorylation in tubules with preneoplastic phenotypes. In summary, our results demonstrate that high body adiposity induces an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment in rat kidneys that promotes the development of preneoplastic lesions, potentially via activation of the STAT3 and mTOR signaling pathways.

  6. Apocynin-treatment reverses hyperoxaluria induced changes in NADPH oxidase system expression in rat kidneys: a transcriptional study.

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    Sunil Joshi

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is an important contributor to renal injury and inflammation following exposure to oxalate (Ox or calcium-oxalate (CaOx crystals. The present study was conducted, utilizing global transcriptome analyses, to determine the effect of Apocynin on changes in the NADPH oxidase system activated in kidneys of rats fed a diet leading to hyperoxaluria and CaOx crystal deposition.Age-, sex- and weight-matched rats were either fed regular rat chow or regular rat chow supplemented with 5% w/w hydroxy-L-proline (HLP. Half of the rats on the HLP diet were also placed on Apocynin-supplemented H(2O. After 28 days, each rat was euthanized, their kidneys freshly explanted and dissected to obtain both cortex and medulla tissues. Total RNA was extracted from each tissue and subjected to genomic microarrays to obtain global transcriptome data. KEGG was used to identify gene clusters with differentially expressed genes. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm protein expressions of selected genes.Genes encoding both membrane- and cytosolic-NADPH oxidase complex-associated proteins, together with p21rac and Rap1a, were coordinately up-regulated significantly in both renal medulla and cortex tissues in the HLP-fed rats compared to normal healthy untreated controls. Activation of NADPH oxidase appears to occur via the angiotensin-II/angiotensin-II receptor-2 pathway, although the DAG-PKC pathway of neutrophils may also contribute. Immuno histochemical staining confirmed up-regulated gene expressions. Simultaneously, genes encoding ROS scavenger proteins were down-regulated. HLP-fed rats receiving Apocynin had a complete reversal in the differential-expression of the NADPH oxidase system genes, despite showing similar levels of hyperoxaluria.A strong up-regulation of an oxidative/respiratory burst involving the NADPH oxidase system, activated via the angiotensin-II and most likely the DAG

  7. [Expression of heparanase in kidney of rats with respiratory syncytial virus nephropathy and its relationship with proteinurina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Ru

    2014-03-01

    To explore the role of heparanase in the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nephropathy in rats model. Twenty 150-200 g Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 5 per group) were inoculated with 6 x 10(6) PFU RSV and sacrificed on days 4, 8, 14 and 28 postinoculation (RSV4, RSV8, RSV14 and RSV29). Five SD rats inoculated with Dulbecco's minimum essential medium were served as normal control. The expression levels of heparanase protein and mRNA in the rat renal tissue of each group were determined by immunohistochemical staining and real-time quantitative RT-PCR respectively. The proteinurina was also measured and then the relationship between the expression level of heparanase and the 24-hour urinary protein was studied. The rats with RSV nephropathy exhibited higher proteinuria in comparison with normal rats, and the 24-hour urinary protein level was significantly different between each RSV nephropathy group (RSV14 > RSV8 > RSV28 > RSV4, P RSV8 > RSV4 > RSV28 , P < 0.05). There was a linear positive correlation between the expression level of renal heparanase mRNA and the quantity of 24-hour urinary protein (r = 0.725, P < 0.05). The increased expression of heparanase in kidney may be important to the loss of glomerular negative charge in glomerular basement membrane which is involved in the pathogenesis of RSV nephropathy in rats.

  8. Effects of therapies for regulating and reinforcing lung and kidney on osteoporosis in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yange, Tian; Ya, Li; Jiansheng, Li; Suyun, Li; Suli, Jiang; Ying, Wang; Xiaofan, Lu; Weiwei, Li

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and long-term effects of the three therapies for regulating and reinforcing lung and kidney (reinforcing lung and invigorating spleen, reinforcing lung and replenishing kidney, and supplementing Qi and nourishing kidney) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on osteoporosis in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Totally 120 rats were randomly divided into control, model, Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, Yiqizishen, aminophyline groups. Repeated smoke inhalations and bacterial infections were used to duplicate the stable Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat model. Normal saline was given to the air control and model groups, while Bufeijianpi granule, Bufeiyishen granule, and Yiqizishen granule, and aminophylline were administrated to rats in the Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, Yiqizishen, and aminophylline groups respectively from weeks 9 through 20. Another 12 weeks without medicines to observe the long-term effect. Rats were sacrificed at week 20 and week 32. Bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), morphology of the femoral head, lung function, and levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. At weeks 20 and 32, tidal volume, peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50% tidal volume in the three TCM-treated groups were higher than those in the model group (P < 0.05). Femur weight, BMD, and BMC were significantly higher in the three TCM-treated groups and the aminophylline-treated group compared with the model group (P < 0.01), except for BMC in the Yiqizishen-treated group at week 20. Bufeijianpi, Bufeiyishen, and Yiqizishen granules show good effects in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, which can alleviate airflow limitations and inflammation, improve BMD and BMC of the femur, and have favorable long-term effects.

  9. The liver and kidney expression of sulfate anion transporter sat-1 in rats exhibits male-dominant gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Krick, Wolfgang; Lovrić, Mila; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Sabolić, Ivan

    2009-04-01

    The sulfate anion transporter (sat-1, Slc26a1) has been cloned from rat liver, functionally characterized, and localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and basolateral membrane (BLM) in proximal tubules (PT). Here, we confirm previously described localization of sat-1 protein in rat liver and kidneys and report on gender differences (GD) in its expression by immunochemical, transport, and excretion studies in rats. The approximately 85-kDa sat-1 protein was localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and BLM in renal cortical PT, with the male-dominant expression. However, the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction data indicated no GD at the level of sat-1 mRNA. In agreement with the protein data, isolated membranes from both organs exhibited the male-dominant exchange of radiolabeled sulfate for oxalate, whereas higher oxalate in plasma and 24-h urine indicated higher oxalate production and excretion in male rats. Furthermore, the expression of liver, but not renal, sat-1 protein was: unaffected by castration, upregulated by ovariectomy, and downregulated by estrogen or progesterone treatment in males. Therefore, GD (males > females) in the expression of sat-1 protein in rat liver (and, possibly, kidneys) are caused by the female sex-hormone-driven inhibition at the posttranscriptional level. The male-dominant abundance of sat-1 protein in liver may conform to elevated uptake of sulfate and extrusion of oxalate, causing higher plasma oxalate in males. Oxalate is then excreted by the kidneys via the basolateral sat-1 (males > females) and the apical CFEX (Slc26a6; GD unknown) in PT and eliminated in the urine (males > females), where it may contribute to the male-prevailing development of oxalate urolithiasis.

  10. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

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    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  11. Development of a physiologically-based computational kidney model to describe the renal excretion of hydrophilic agents in rats

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    Christoph eNiederalt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A physiologically-based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water re-absorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow.The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administration of any contrast media or drugs. These data included the sodium and urea concentration gradient along the cortico-medullary axis, water reabsorption, urine flow and sodium as well as urea urine concentrations for a normal hydration state. The model was evaluated by predicting the effects of mannitol and contrast media administration and comparing to experimental data on cortico-medullary concentration gradients, urine flow, urine viscosity, hydrostatic tubular pressures and single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Finally the model was used to analyze and compare typical examples of ionic and non-ionic monomeric as well as non-ionic dimeric contrast media with respect to their osmolality and viscosity. With the computational kidney model, urine flow depended mainly on osmolality, while osmolality and viscosity were important determinants for tubular hydrostatic pressure and kidney exposure. The low diuretic effect of dimeric contrast media in combination with their high intrinsic viscosity resulted in a high viscosity within the tubular fluid. In comparison to monomeric contrast media, this led to a higher increase in tubular pressure, to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow and to an increase in kidney exposure.The presented kidney model can be implemented into whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models and extended in order to simulate the renal excretion of lipophilic drugs which may also undergo active secretion

  12. Morphological changes on nerves and histopathological effects on liver and kidney of rats by pentachlorophenol (PCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, F; Montoya, G; Klaasen, R; Fleckenstein, R; Suwalsky, M

    1992-02-01

    1. The chronic toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was studied in rats after 90-120 days of oral administration ad libitum of 0.3-3 mM PCP aqueous solutions. 2. Morphological studies of their sciatic nerves were performed by optical and electron microscopy. 3. They showed degenerative changes in about 10% of the A and B type of nerve fibers. 4. The myelin sheath was discontinued by complete separation in several concentric rings while some other parts of the nerve exhibited a variable loss of neurotubules, neurofilaments and other axoplasmic components. 5. However, the C type of nerve fibers, the blood vessels and the perineurium did not show any morphologic alteration. 6. It was also found that in the liver PCP caused hemodynamic vein changes and injury in the hepatocytes such as cellular swelling and vacuolar degeneration. 7. The damage in the kidney occurred primarily in the glomeruli and secondarily in the proximal tubules causing turbid tumefaction and the formation of casts in the tubular lumen.

  13. Ultrasound localization microscopy to image and assess microvasculature in a rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiret, Josquin; Zhang, Hua; Ilovitsh, Tali; Mahakian, Lisa; Tam, Sarah; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2017-10-20

    The recent development of ultrasound localization microscopy, where individual microbubbles (contrast agents) are detected and tracked within the vasculature, provides new opportunities for imaging the vasculature of entire organs with a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. In stationary tissue, recent studies have demonstrated a theoretical resolution on the order of microns. In this work, single microbubbles were localized in vivo in a rat kidney using a dedicated high frame rate imaging sequence. Organ motion was tracked by assuming rigid motion (translation and rotation) and appropriate correction was applied. In contrast to previous work, coherence-based non-linear phase inversion processing was used to reject tissue echoes while maintaining echoes from very slowly moving microbubbles. Blood velocity in the small vessels was estimated by tracking microbubbles, demonstrating the potential of this technique to improve vascular characterization. Previous optical studies of microbubbles in vessels of approximately 20 microns have shown that expansion is constrained, suggesting that microbubble echoes would be difficult to detect in such regions. We therefore utilized the echoes from individual MBs as microscopic sensors of slow flow associated with such vessels and demonstrate that highly correlated, wideband echoes are detected from individual microbubbles in vessels with flow rates below 2 mm/s.

  14. Concentration gradient of oxalate from cortex to papilla in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Toshikado; Kamikawa, Sadanori; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshinao; Kishimoto, Taketoshi

    2003-02-01

    The kidney eliminates the major fraction of plasma oxalate. It is well known that oxalate is freely filtered by glomeruli and secreted by the proximal tubules. However, the renal handling of oxalate in distal nephrons, which is considered as playing an important role in stone formation, remains obscure. At 15-180 min after intravenous injection of 14C-oxalate to rats, the intrarenal localization of radioactivity was quantitatively measured by the radioluminographic method using a bioimaging analyzer. Tissue radioactivity was compared with plasma, and urinary radioactivities were measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The control study was conducted with 14C-inulin. The radioactivity of 14C-oxalate in the papilla was 10 times greater than in the cortex and eight times greater than in the medulla 180 min after injection when almost no radioactivity was present in the urine. In contrast, the radioactivity of 14C-inulin was nine times less in the papilla than in the cortex at the same time. Oxalate remains in the renal papilla for an extended period. This accumulation of oxalate may be attributed to calcium oxalate crystal fixation along the deep nephron which is considered to be the first step of stone formation.

  15. Malva sylvestris extract protects upon lithium carbonate-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Brahmi, Dalel; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazher

    2016-12-01

    Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K+, Na+, Ca++ and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis. The antioxidant capacities in vitro showed high level of radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The in vivo results showed that intraperitoneal injection of lithium carbonate exhibited a significant increase (pLithium carbonate also induced oxidative damage as indicated by a significant raise in LPO level associated with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the kidney. However, pretreatment with Malva sylvestris extract restored the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate has induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes and histopathological damage but the supplementation with Malva sylvestris extract has prevented such toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. DMP-1 attenuates oxidative stress and inhibits TGF-β activation in rats with diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Na; Liu, Shunan; Cui, Chongshuang; Zhang, Mo; Jia, Jibin; Cao, Xia

    2017-11-01

    DMP-1 supplement has a satisfactory effect on diabetic kidney disease in patients with whether T1DM or T2DM. Oxidative stress and TGF-β signal pathway activation are essential in the pathogenesis of DKD. We aim to investigate the effect of DMP-1 on oxidative stress and TGF-β activation in rats with DKD. Male Wistar rats were enrolled and randomly allocated into five groups: Control group, STZ group (60 mg/kg, ip), DMP-1 low dose group (0.5 g/kg/day, ig), DMP-1 medium dose group (1.0 g/kg/day, ig) and DMP-1 high dose group (2.0 g/kg/day, ig). The levels of UREA, BUN, UCr, β2-MG, mALB, NOS, CAT, MDA and T-AOC were measured after 8 weeks treatment. And rats' left kidneys were harvested to detect the expression of TGF-β, Smad2/3 and Smad7 by immunohistochemical analysis. DMP-1 treatment has protective effects on kidney injury induced by STZ, which is demonstrated as following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in levels of UREA (p < 0.05), BUN (p < 0.05), UCr (p < 0.05), β2-MG (p < 0.05) and mALB (p < 0.05) in rats treated by DMP-1 compared with the ones injected with STZ only; (2) an apparent increment levels of NOS (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.05) and T-AOC (p < 0.05), while reduction in level of MDA (p < 0.05) in DMP-1 groups compared with STZ group; (3) a significant inhibition of TGF-β and Smad2/3 overexpression induced by STZ in kidney tissue. What's more, DMP-1 can increase Smad7 expression. DMP-1 could slow pathological process and protect kidney from DKD injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inhibiting TGF-β signal pathway activation in rats.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats

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    Pan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. Methods. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP, serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. Results. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and •OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. Conclusions. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress.

  18. 1H NMR-based metabolite profiling of plasma in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

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    Ju-Ae Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by the gradual loss of the kidney function to excrete wastes and fluids from the blood. (1H NMR-based metabolomics was exploited to investigate the altered metabolic pattern in rats with CKD induced by surgical reduction of the renal mass (i.e., 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx, particularly for identifying specific metabolic biomarkers associated with early of CKD. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in CKD rats (at 4- or 8-weeks after 5/6 Nx compared to sham-operated rats. Principle components analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA score plots showed a significant separation between the groups. The resulting metabolic profiles demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of organic anions, including citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and formate in CKD. Moreover, levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate were significantly higher. These changes were likely to be associated with complicated metabolic acidosis in CKD for counteracting systemic metabolic acidosis or increased protein catabolism from muscle. In contrast, levels of VLDL/LDL (CH2n and N-acetylglycoproteins were decreased. Taken together, the observed changes of plasma metabolite profiles in CKD rats provide insights into the disturbed metabolism in early phase of CKD, in particular for the altered metabolism of acid-base and/or amino acids.

  19. [Alternations of ADF and G-actin in renal tubular epithelial cell of neonatal rats during kidney ischemic Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yao, Yu-jia; Xiong, Ying; Yuan, Li-xing; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yong-xiu

    2006-01-01

    To study the changes of ADF and G-actin in renal tubular epithelial cell of neonatal rats during kindney ischemic injury. To explore the interactions between ADF and G-actin and their relationships with actin cytoskeleton. Twenty-four neonatal rats were used to the experiments due to have the weights from 30 to 40 g respectively. Renal ischemia was induced by clamping the left renal pedicle for different periods of time that was in 10 min or 30 min. The kidneys of normal neonatal rats were functioned as the control group. Two kinds of primary antibodies, which one was rabbit anti-chick ADF antiserum and another was mouse monoclonal G-actin antibody, were used on one same section of kidney tissue. FITC-labeled and TRITC-labeled secondary antibodies were used to identify ADF and G-actin respectively. These samples were examined by using a fluorescene microscope. In control group, ADF and G-actin showed to be diffused in cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cell. In ischemic injury group, the distributions of ADF and G-actin were changed significantly to apical region of tubular epithelial cells and the renal tubula lumen. Regardless of the ADF expression to not change but G-actin was increased after kidney ischemia. Under the physiolgical condition, ADF and G-actin got a diffuse distribution in cytoplasm of renal tubular epitbelial cell. However, when the kidney got in ischemia, the distributions of ADF and G-actin were changed significantly to apica region of tubular epithelial cell or the renal tubular lumen.

  20. Quantitative arterial spin labelling perfusion measurements in rat models of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury at 3 T

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    Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone; Yard, Benito A.; Kraemer, Bernhard K. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V

    2017-05-01

    To employ ASL for the measurement of renal cortical perfusion in particular renal disorders typically associated with graft loss and to investigate its potential to detect and differentiate the related functional deterioration i.e., in a setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as in renal grafts showing acute and chronic transplant rejection. 14 Lewis rats with unilateral ischaemic AKI and 43 Lewis rats with renal grafts showing acute or chronic rejections were used. All ASL measurements in this study were performed on a 3 T MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach to assess renal blood flow (RBF). Perfusion maps were calculated and the cortical blood flow was determined using a region-of-interest based analysis. RBF of healthy and AKI kidneys as well as of both rejection models, were compared. In a subsample of 20 rats, creatinine clearance was measured and correlated with cortical perfusion. RBF differs significantly between healthy and AKI kidneys (P < 0.001) with a mean difference of 213 ± 80 ml/100 g/min. Renal grafts with chronic rejections show a significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean cortical perfusion (346 ± 112 ml/100 g/min) than grafts with acute rejection (240 ± 66 ml/100 g/min). Both transplantation models have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower perfusion than healthy kidneys. Renal creatinine clearance is significantly correlated (R = 0.85, P < 0.001) with cortical blood flow. Perfusion measurements with ASL have the potential to become a valuable diagnostic tool, regarding the detection of renal impairment and the differentiation of disorders that lead to a loss of renal function and that are typically associated with graft loss.

  1. Influence of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats

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    Paweł Bodera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is the evaluation of the influence of repeated (5 times for 15 min exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF of 1800 MHz frequency on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO both in normal and inflammatory state, combined with analgesic treatment. Material and Methods: The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA as the end-product of the lipid peroxidation (LPO was estimated in blood, liver, kidneys, and brain of Wistar rats, both healthy and those with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced persistent paw inflammation. Results: The slightly elevated levels of the MDA in blood, kidney, and brain were observed among healthy rats in electromagnetic field (EMF-exposed groups, treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF and exposed to the EMF. The malondialdehyde remained at the same level in the liver in all investigated groups: the control group (CON, the exposed group (EMF, treated with tramadol (TRAM as well as exposed to and treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF. In the group of animals treated with the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA we also observed slightly increased values of the MDA in the case of the control group (CON and the exposed groups (EMF and TRAM/EMF. The MDA values concerning kidneys remained at the same levels in the control, exposed, and not-exposed group treated with tramadol. Results for healthy rats and animals with inflammation did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The electromagnetic field exposure (EMF, applied in the repeated manner together with opioid drug tramadol (TRAM, slightly enhanced lipid peroxidation level in brain, blood, and kidneys.

  2. Study of histopathological and molecular changes of rat kidney under simulated weightlessness and resistance training protective effect.

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    Ye Ding

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of long-term weightlessness on the renal tissue, we used the two months tail suspension model to simulate microgravity and investigated the simulated microgravity on the renal morphological damages and related molecular mechanisms. The microscopic examination of tissue structure and ultrastructure was carried out for histopathological changes of renal tissue morphology. The immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms associated the observations. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining showed severe pathological kidney lesions including glomerular atrophy, degeneration and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in two months tail-suspended rats. Ultrastructural studies of the renal tubular epithelial cells demonstrated that basal laminas of renal tubules were rough and incrassate with mitochondria swelling and vacuolation. Cell apoptosis in kidney monitored by the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 accompanied these pathological damages caused by long-term microgravity. Analysis of the HSP70 protein expression illustrated that overexpression of HSP70 might play a crucial role in inducing those pathological damages. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, one of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER chaperones, was up-regulated significantly in the kidney of tail suspension rat, which implied that ER-stress was associated with apoptosis. Furthermore, CHOP and caspase-12 pathways were activated in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Resistance training not only reduced kidney cell apoptosis and expression of HSP70 protein, it also can attenuate the kidney impairment imposed by weightlessness. The appropriate optimization might be needed for the long term application for space exploration.

  3. Renoprotective Effects of DNAse-I Treatment in a Rat Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Victoria; Abu Hamad, Ramzia; Berman, Sylvia; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Massive DNA destruction/accumulation of cell-free DNA debris is a sensitive biomarker of progressive organ/tissue damage. Deleterious consequences of DNA debris accumulation are evident in cardiac ischemia, thrombosis, auto-inflammatory diseases, SLE-induced lupus nephritis and cystic fibrosis. In case of renal pathologies, degradation and elimination of DNA debris are suppressed, due to downregulated DNAse-I activity within the diseased kidneys. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether exogenous DNAse-I administration might exert renoprotective effects in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI or acute renal failure). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral nephrectomy, with simultaneous clamping of contralateral kidney artery. The treated group received DNAse-I injection before discontinuing anesthesia. Positive (ischemic) controls received saline injection. Negative (non-ischemic) controls were either non-operated or subjected to surgery of similar duress and duration without ischemia. Renal perfusion was evaluated using the Laser-Doppler technique. Blood was procured for evaluating DNAse-I activity, renal functioning, renal perfusion. The kidneys were allocated for histopathologic examinations and for the evaluation of renal hypoxia, intra-renal apoptosis and proliferation. Contrary to the situation in untreated ischemic rats, renal perfusion was significantly improved in DNAse-treated animals, concomitantly with significant amelioration of damage to renal functioning and tissue integrity. Treatment with DNAse-I significantly decreased the ischemia-induced renal hypoxia and apoptosis, simultaneously stimulating renal cell proliferation. Exogenous DNAse-I administration accelerated the clearance of intra-renal apoptotic DNA debris. Functional/histologic hallmarks of renal injury were ameliorated, renal functioning improved, intra-renal hypoxia decreased and intra-renal regeneration processes were activated. Thus, DNAse-I treatment protected the

  4. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hokuto Nakata; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Balazs Oroszlany; Yoshinori Ikenaka; Hazuki Mizukawa; Kazuyuki Tanaka; Tsunehito Harunari; Tsutomu Tanikawa; Wageh Sobhy Darwish; Yohannes, Yared B.; Aksorn Saengtienchai; Mayumi Ishizuka

    2017-01-01

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry we...

  5. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  6. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

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    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  7. Biliary Infection May Exacerbate Biliary Cystogenesis Through the Induction of VEGF in Cholangiocytes of the Polycystic Kidney (PCK) Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang Shan; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Yoneda, Norihide; Lin, Zhen Hua; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-01-01

    Cholangitis arising from biliary infection dominates the prognosis in Caroli's disease. To clarify the influences of bacterial infection on the biliary cystogenesis, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed using the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat as an animal model of Caroli's disease. Cholangitis became a frequent histological finding in aged PCK rats, and neovascularization around the bile ducts also increased in aged PCK rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in PCK rat biliary epithelium. In vitro, PCK cholangiocytes overexpressed VEGF, and the supernatant of cultured PCK cholangiocytes significantly increased the proliferative activity, migration, and tube formation of cultured rat vascular endothelial cells. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) further induced VEGF expression in PCK cholangiocytes, which might be mediated by signaling pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both LPS and VEGF increased cell proliferative activity in PCK cholangiocytes, and siRNA against VEGF significantly reduced LPS-induced cell proliferation. Thus, LPS-induced overexpression of VEGF in the biliary epithelium may lead to hypervascularity around the bile ducts; concurrently, LPS and VEGF act as cell proliferation factors for cholangiocytes. Biliary infection may thus exacerbate biliary cystogenesis in PCK rats. PMID:22015458

  8. Effects of dextran sulfate sodium induced experimental colitis on cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver, kidney and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Huang, Yanjuan; Gao, Xuejiao; Li, Sai; Yan, Zhixiang; Wei, Bin; Yan, Ru

    2017-06-01

    Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis presents a histologic resemblance to human ulcerative colitis (UC). Altered cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been reported in this model and patients with UC. In this study, six CYPs activities were quantitatively determined in microsomes of liver (RLMs), kidney (RRMs) and intestine (RIMs) from rats with colitis at acute (5% DSS for 7 days, UCA) and remission (7-day DSS treatment followed by 7-day cessation, UCR) phases and compared with normal rats. Generally, CYPs activities varied with isoform, organ, and disease status. Hepatic CYP1A2, 2B1, 2C6/11, 2E1 and 3A1/2 activities were reduced by acute colitis and completely or partially restored after DSS was halted. Although DSS treatment decreased the Vmax of renal CYP2C6/11 and increased that of CYP2D2, their CLint, in vitro were comparable among normal, acute and remission stages. DSS treatment changed the kinetics of CYP3A1/2-mediated nifedipine metabolism in RRMs from biphasic to classical kinetics. Notably, CYP2D2 activity was elevated in liver and kidney in acute UC, while enhanced in liver and decreased in kidney in remission. In intestine, CYP3A1/2 activity was increased in UCA and further enhanced after DSS withdrawal. These findings highlight the necessity of quantifying enzyme activity for precision drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. To study the effect of monosodium glutamate on histomorphometry of cortex of kidney in adult albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shilpi Gupta; Rani, Puja; Anand, Akansha; Khatri, Kamlesh; Chauhan, Renu; Bharihoke, Veena

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of chemicals are being used recently in our new high tech foods like ready to eat Japanese, Chinese, packaged and tinned foods. Most food additives act as either preservatives or flavor enhancers like monosodium glutamate (MSG), a sodium salt of glutamic acid. The present study investigated the effect of intraperitoneally administered MSG on cortex of the kidneys of adult albino Wistar rats and compared with control group. The histomorphometry done by calibrating with ocular micrometer on kidney tissue of control and experimental group revealed a significant difference in glomeruli with increase in length, size of bowman's capsule with an increase in bowman's space. The size of renal tubules could not be compared as the cells of these tubules in experimental group were disintegrated and distorted. In the experimental group (rats treated with 4 mg MSG/g body weight), the cortex of the kidneys developed variable pathological changes, which were patchy in distribution with intervening normal areas. There was distortion of renal cytoarchitecture. Many glomeruli (66.4%) showed hypercellularity, i.e., cellular proliferation of mesangial or endothelial cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The capillary membrane showed thickening as was evident on PAS stain. Since MSG, as a food additive, was found to be toxic on various organs of the body by various researchers, it should perhaps be stopped from being used as a food additive. This may be a suggestion which needs validation in human studies.

  10. Increased expression of Na,K-ATPase and a selective increase in phosphorylation at Ser-11 in the cortex of the 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Lauren; Rossi, Noreen F; Mattingly, Raymond; Yingst, Douglas R

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism by which blood pressure increases during renovascular hypertension is incompletely understood. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) rat, in which hypertension develops due to increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, there is increased expression and phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase at Ser-11 and Ser-18 in the kidney cortex. The rationale is Ang II is reported to directly stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity in proximal tubules, which reabsorb 2/3 of filtered sodium, via increased phosphorylation at Ser-11 and Ser-18 and the Na,K-ATPase drives sodium reabsorption. Five-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral or sham clipping of the right renal artery and placement of telemetry transmitters. Six weeks later blood pressure and plasma Ang II were measured and kidneys harvested. The amount of Na,K-ATPase, phosphorylation at Ser-11 and Ser-18, and the expression of β-actin in each kidney cortex were measured by quantitative immunoblotting. Clipping significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 110 ± 3 to 148 ± 13 mm Hg, plasma Ang II, cortical Na,K-ATPase in the unclipped kidney of 2K-1C compared to sham-clipped rats, the total cortical Na,K-ATPase in both kidneys compared to sham-clipped rats, and the extent to which the Na,K-ATPase was phosphorylated at Ser-11. Clipping did not significantly change phosphorylation at Ser-18, β-actin, or the total protein in the cortexes of both kidneys. Thus, in the kidney cortex of rats with renovascular hypertension there is increased expression of Na,K-ATPase and a selective increase in its phosphorylation at Ser-11 that could increase the capacity to reabsorb sodium and water.

  11. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy causes metal accumulation and metallothionein up-regulation in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Stig S; Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Larsen, Agnete; Bruun, Jens M; Mygind, Tina; Kemp, Kaare; Soballe, Kjeld

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal-on-metal hip prosthesis has had a revival due to their excellent wear properties. However, particulate wear debris and metal ions liberated from the CoCrMo alloys might cause carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity, local and general tissue toxicity, genotoxicity and inflammation-generating qualities. Nine months after implanting small pieces of CoCrMo alloy intramuscularly and intraperitoneally in rats, we analysed the accumulation of metals with a multi-element analysis, and the levels of metallothionein I/II with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in liver and kidney. We found that metal ions are liberated from CoCrMo alloys and suggest that they are released by dissolucytosis, a process where macrophages causes the metallic surface to release metal ions. Animals with intramuscular implants accumulated metal in liver and kidney and metallohionein I/II were elevated in liver tissue. The present data do not tell whether kidney and liver are the primary target organs or what possible toxicological effect the different metal ions might have, but they show that metal ions are liberated from CoCrMo alloys that are not subjected to mechanical wear and that they accumulate in liver and kidney tissue. That the liberated metal ions affect the tissues is supported by an up-regulation of the detoxifying/pacifying metalloprotein I/II in the liver.

  12. Establishment of Simple and Routine Methods in Early Diagnosis of Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Injury Based on a Rat Model

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    Cuiyan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in biomarkers of gentamycin- (GM- induced kidney injury have been studied by using simple and routine methods and also assessed the efficacy and utility of these routine biomarkers in early diagnosis. Eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three experimental groups treated with different GM dosages (4, 20, and 100 mg·kg−1 and a control group. The experimental groups were given intramuscular GM injections once daily for 14 days, and the control group was given intramuscular sterile water. Blood and urine samples were collected on treatment days 1, 3, 7, and 14 to test for total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CRE, uric acid (UA, pH, specific gravity (SG, proteins (PRO, and cells in urinary sediment. Histopathology and kidney coefficient were performed on excised kidney specimens. The result indicated that serum CRE, BUN, and TP, urine PRO, and urinary hyaline casts and low-transitional epithelium showed an immediate and highly sensitive response to kidney injury, and the combined diagnosis with the above methods could be used in early diagnosis. Particularly, the process of the test was simple and quick, no special equipment, so it is more suit for primary medical institution.

  13. Establishment of Simple and Routine Methods in Early Diagnosis of Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Injury Based on a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiyan; Kang, Youxi; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhu, Long; Yu, Hai; Han, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    The changes in biomarkers of gentamycin- (GM-) induced kidney injury have been studied by using simple and routine methods and also assessed the efficacy and utility of these routine biomarkers in early diagnosis. Eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three experimental groups treated with different GM dosages (4, 20, and 100 mg·kg(-1)) and a control group. The experimental groups were given intramuscular GM injections once daily for 14 days, and the control group was given intramuscular sterile water. Blood and urine samples were collected on treatment days 1, 3, 7, and 14 to test for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), uric acid (UA), pH, specific gravity (SG), proteins (PRO), and cells in urinary sediment. Histopathology and kidney coefficient were performed on excised kidney specimens. The result indicated that serum CRE, BUN, and TP, urine PRO, and urinary hyaline casts and low-transitional epithelium showed an immediate and highly sensitive response to kidney injury, and the combined diagnosis with the above methods could be used in early diagnosis. Particularly, the process of the test was simple and quick, no special equipment, so it is more suit for primary medical institution.

  14. Effect of paricalcitol and cinacalcet on serum phosphate, FGF-23, and bone in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Jane L; Tokumoto, Masanori; Nakamura, Hironori; Yao, Wei; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Lane, Nancy; Slatopolsky, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Calcimimetics activate the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) and reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) by increasing the sensitivity of the parathyroid CaR to ambient calcium. The calcimimetic, cinacalcet, is effective in treating secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients [chronic kidney disease (CKD 5)], but little is known about its effects on stage 3-4 CKD patients. We compared cinacalcet and paricalcitol in uremic rats with creatinine clearances "equivalent" to patients with CKD 3-4. Uremia was induced in anesthetized rats using the 5/6th nephrectomy model. Groups were 1) uremic control, 2) uremic + cinacalcet (U+Cin; 15 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) po for 6 wk), 3) uremic + paricalcitol (U+Par; 0.16 microg/kg, 3 x wk, ip for 6 wk), and 4) normal. Unlike U+Par animals, cinacalcet promoted hypocalcemia and marked hyperphosphatemia. The Ca x P in U+Cin rats was twice that of U+Par rats. Both compounds suppressed PTH. Serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) was decreased in both U+Par and U+Cin rats. Serum FGF-23 was increased in U+Par but not in U+Cin, where it tended to decrease. Analysis of tibiae showed that U+Cin, but not U+Par, rats had reduced bone volume. U+Cin rats had similar bone formation and reduced osteoid surface, but higher bone resorption. Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), and cinacalcet itself may play a role in the detrimental effects on bone seen in U+Cin rats. This requires further investigation. In conclusion, due to its effects on bone and to the hypocalcemia and severe hyperphosphatemia it induces, we believe that cinacalcet should not be used in patients with CKD without further detailed studies.

  15. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory response of sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture in d-galactose-induced aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Jie; Mao, Zhi; Kang, Hongjun; Liu, Hui; Fu, Wanlei; Lv, Yangfan; Zhou, Feihu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced mimetic aging rat model has been widely used in studies of age-associated diseases, which have shown that chronic d-gal exposure induces premature aging similar to natural aging in rats. With the increasing rate of sepsis in the geriatric population, an easy-access animal model for preclinical studies of elderly sepsis is urgently needed. This study investigates whether a sepsis model that is established in d-gal-induced aging rats can serve as a suitable model for preclinical studies of elderly patients with sepsis. To investigate the acute kidney injury (AKI) and inflammatory response of sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in d-gal-induced aging rats. Twelve-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into low-dose d-gal (L d-gal, 125 mg/kg/d), high-dose d-gal (H d-gal, 500 mg/kg/d), and control groups. After daily subcutaneous injection of d-gal for 6 weeks, the CLP method was used to establish a sepsis model. The mortality was 73.3%, 40%, and 33.3% in the H d-gal, L d-gal, and control groups, respectively. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were markedly increased in the H d-gal group after establishment of the sepsis model (H d-gal vs control, Paging rats are more likely to die from sepsis than are young rats, and probably this is associated with increased severity of septic AKI and an increased inflammatory response. Therefore, use of the high-dose- d-gal-induced aging rat model of sepsis for preclinical studies can provide more useful information for the treatment of sepsis in elderly patients.

  16. Subcellular localization and displacement by diuretics of the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site (PBS) from rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukeman, S.; Fanestil, D.

    1986-03-05

    Although the PBS has been identified in many organs, its function and cellular location are speculative. Using rapid filtration, binding of (/sup 3/H)RO 5-4864 (*RO) (.75 nM) was assessed in four subcellular fractions (.3 mg/ml) derived from depapillated rat kidney by differential centrifugation: N (450g x 2 min), O (13,000 x 10), P (105,000 x 30), and S. The binding distribution was: N-18%, O-74%, P-6%, and S-2%. Marker enzyme analysis revealed that O was enriched in mitochondria (M), lysosomes (L), peroxisomes (P), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not plasma membrane, and that N contained small amounts (10-15%) of markers for the above. Repeated washing of O removed ER enzymes but preserved *RO binding. O was further fractionated with centrifugation (57,000g x 4 hr) on a linear sucrose gradient (18-65%); *RO binding then comigrated with M but not P and L markers. Centrifugation of isolated M (5500 x 10 min) on another linear sucrose gradient (37-65%) gave low and high density bands, which contained 65% and 35% of *RO binding activity, resp. *RO binding in O was specific, saturable, reversible, and inhibited by diuretics. Inhibitors with the highest potency were indacrinone (K/sub d/ = 35 ..mu..M), hydrochlorothiazide (100 ..mu..M), and ethacrynic acid (325 ..mu..M). Low potency inhibitors (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 1 mM) included amiloride, triamterene, furosemide, bumetanide, and ozolinone.

  17. Surface expression of sodium channels and transporters in rat kidney: effects of dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frindt, Gustavo; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2009-11-01

    The abundance of Na transport proteins in the luminal membrane of the rat kidney was assessed using in situ biotinylation and immunoblotting. When animals were fed an Na-deficient diet for 1 wk, the amounts of epithelial Na channel (ENaC) beta-subunit (beta-ENaC) and gamma-subunit (gamma-ENaC) and Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) protein in the surface fraction increased relative to controls by 1.9-, 3.5-, and 1.5-fold, respectively. The amounts of the luminal Na/H exchanger (NHE3) and the luminal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) did not change significantly. The increases in ENaC subunits were mimicked by administration of aldosterone for 1 wk, but the increase in NCC was not. When the animals were fed a high-Na (5% NaCl) diet for 1 wk, the surface expression of beta-ENaC increased by 50%, whereas that of the other membrane proteins did not change, relative to controls. The biochemical parameter most strongly affected by dietary Na was the abundance of the 65-kDa cleaved form of gamma-ENaC at the surface. This increased by 8.5-fold with Na depletion and decreased by 40% with Na loading. The overall 14-fold change reflected regulation of the total abundance of the subunit as well as the fraction of the subunit protein in the cleaved form. We conclude that cleavage of gamma-ENaC and its expression at the apical surface play a major role in the regulation of renal Na reabsorption.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  19. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  20. Xenon Treatment Protects against Remote Lung Injury after Kidney Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailin; Huang, Han; Ologunde, Rele; Lloyd, Dafydd G; Watts, Helena; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P; Lian, Qingquan; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2015-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of renal grafts may cause remote organ injury including lungs. The authors aimed to evaluate the protective effect of xenon exposure against remote lung injury due to renal graft IRI in a rat renal transplantation model. For in vitro studies, human lung epithelial cell A549 was challenged with H2O2, tumor necrosis factor-α, or conditioned medium from human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK-2) after hypothermia-hypoxia insults. For in vivo studies, the Lewis renal graft was stored in 4°C Soltran preserving solution for 24 h and transplanted into the Lewis recipient, and the lungs were harvested 24 h after grafting. Cultured lung cells or the recipient after engraftment was exposed to 70% Xe or N2. Phospho (p)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), Bcl-2, high-mobility group protein-1 (HMGB-1), TLR-4, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression, lung inflammation, and cell injuries were assessed. Recipients receiving ischemic renal grafts developed pulmonary injury. Xenon treatment enhanced HIF-1α, which attenuated HMGB-1 translocation and NF-κB activation in A549 cells with oxidative and inflammatory stress. Xenon treatment enhanced p-mTOR, HIF-1α, and Bcl-2 expression and, in turn, promoted cell proliferation in the lung. Upon grafting, HMGB-1 translocation from lung epithelial nuclei was reduced; the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway was suppressed by xenon treatment; and subsequent tissue injury score (nitrogen vs. xenon: 26 ± 1.8 vs. 10.7 ± 2.6; n = 6) was significantly reduced. Xenon treatment confers protection against distant lung injury triggered by renal graft IRI, which is likely through the activation of mTOR-HIF-1α pathway and suppression of the HMGB-1 translocation from nuclei to cytoplasm.

  1. The soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase of rat kidney represents solubilized ecto-5'-nucleotidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piec, G; Le Hir, M

    1991-01-15

    A soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase has been described previously in several organs. It has been presumed to be of cytosolic origin and thus to play a role in the intracellular production of adenosine. Its catalytic properties are similar to those of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase of cell membranes. In the present study we compared molecular properties of the two enzymes in the kidney of the rat. The Mr of the main peak of soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase in gel-filtration chromatography was similar to that of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase solubilized by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from renal brush-border membranes. In phase-partition experiments using Triton X-114, the soluble enzyme appeared to be hydrophobic. Its hydrophobicity was decreased on treatment with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, suggesting that the soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase contains the phosphatidylinositol anchor which is characteristic for the ecto-enzyme. An anti-ecto-5'-nucleotidase antiserum provoked an almost complete inhibition of the soluble enzyme. Immunoblotting using anti-ecto-5'-nucleotidase antiserum revealed in the high-speed supernatants a polypeptide with a similar Mr to the subunit of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase. The soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase, like the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, bound specifically to concanavalin A. We conclude that the soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase is not a cytosolic enzyme, but that it most probably originates from the solubilization of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and that it therefore cannot participate in the intracellular production of adenosine.

  2. Capillary rarefaction and altered renal development: the imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in response to angiotensin II inhibition in the developing rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kee Hwan; Yim, Hyung Eun; Bae, Eun Soo; Hong, Young Sook

    2018-02-13

    Proper and timely assembly of the kidney vasculature with their respective nephrons is crucial during normal kidney development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) on angiogenesis-related gene expression and microvascular endothelium related to glomeular and tubular changes in the neonatal rat kidney. Enalapril-treated rats had higher tubular injury scores and lower glomerular maturity grades than those of untreated rats. In the enalapril-treated group, intrarenal angiopoietin-2, Tie-2, and thrombospondin-1 protein expression increased, whereas intrarenal angiopoietin-1 protein expression decreased. JG12-positive glomerular and peritubular capillary staining was reduced in the enalapril-treated rat kidney. The number of JG12-positive capillary endothelial cells was directly correlated with glomerular maturation grade and was inversely related with the tubular injury. Our findings suggest the imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors may be implicated in the loss of capillaries in associated with impaired nephrogenesis after angiotensin II blockade in the developing rat kidney.

  3. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Xue Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Early acute kidney injury (AKI is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9; these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  4. Optical cryoimaging of rat kidney and the effective role of chromosome 13 in salt-induced hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, F.; Yang, C.; Kurth, T.; Cowley, A. W.; Ranji, M.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work is to assess oxidative stress levels in salt-sensitive hypertension animal model using 3D optical cryoimager to image mitochondrial redox ratio. We studied Dahl salt-induced (SS) rats, and compared the results with a consomic SS rat strain (SSBN13). The SSBN13 strain was developed by the introgression of chromosome from the Brown Norway (BN) rat into the salt-sensitive (SS) genetic background and exhibits significant protection from salt induced hypertension1 . These two groups were fed on a high salt diet of 8.0% NaCl for one week. Mitochondrial redox ratio (NADH/FAD=NADH RR), was used as a quantitative marker of the oxidative stress in kidney tissue. Maximum intensity projected images and their corresponding histograms in each group were acquired from each kidney group. The result showed a 49% decrease in mitochondrial redox ratio of SS compared to SSBN13 translated to an increase in the level of oxidative stress of the tissue. Therefore, the results quantify oxidative stress levels and its effect on mitochondrial redox in salt sensitive hypertension.

  5. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administered orally over 28 days. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 14 and 28 days. Histopathological studies were carried out in the kidneys and adrenal glands at the end of the experiment. Lambda-cyhalothrin, as a pyrethroid insecticide, induced significant increases (P≤0.05 in plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid and glucose concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities after 14 and 28 days. In the rat plasma samples after 28 days, residual concentrations of LCT 1R, cis,

  6. Dietary soya protein during pregnancy and lactation in rats with hereditary kidney disease attenuates disease progression in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Leah E; Peng, Claudia Yu-Chen; Bankovic-Calic, Neda; Sankaran, Deepa; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Aukema, Harold M

    2007-01-01

    Dietary soya protein substitution for casein initiated at weaning slows disease progression in animal models of chronic renal disease. As there is increasing evidence that fetal programming can have a significant impact on kidney physiology and function in offspring, the objective of the current study was to determine whether exposure to soya protein in the diet earlier than weaning would have further benefits. Han:SPRD-cy (cy/+) breeder rats were fed a casein-based or soya protein-based diet 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. Following this maternal period, 3-week-old pups were given either the same or the alternate diet for a 7-week weaning period. Dietary soya protein compared with casein in the maternal or weaning period both independently resulted in less renal inflammation (macrophage infiltration lower by 24% (P=0.0003) and 32% (Ppregnancy and lactation represents a potential preventative approach in treating for those with congenital kidney diseases.

  7. Effects of p67phox on the mitochondrial oxidative state in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive rats: optical fluorescence 3-D cryoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, F; Ghanian, Z; Yang, C; Zheleznova, N N; Kurth, T; Dash, R K; Cowley, A W; Ranji, M

    2015-08-15

    The goal of the present study was to quantify and correlate the contribution of the cytosolic p67(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 to mitochondrial oxidative stress in the kidneys of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rat. Whole kidney redox states were uniquely assessed using a custom-designed optical fluorescence three-dimensional cryoimager to acquire multichannel signals of the intrinsic fluorophores NADH and FAD. SS rats were compared with SS rats in which the cytosolic subunit p67(phox) was rendered functionally inactive by zinc finger nuclease mutation of the gene (SS(p67phox)-null rats). Kidneys of SS rats fed a 0.4% NaCl diet exhibited significantly (P = 0.023) lower tissue redox ratio (NADH/FAD; 1.42 ± 0.06, n = 5) than SS(p67phox)-null rats (1.64 ± 0.07, n = 5), indicating reduced levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and enhanced oxidative stress in SS rats. When fed a 4.0% salt diet for 21 days, both strains exhibited significantly lower tissue redox ratios (P < 0.001; SS rats: 1.03 ± 0.05, n = 9, vs. SS(p67phox)-null rats: 1.46 ± 0.04, n = 7) than when fed a 0.4% salt, but the ratio was still significantly higher in SS(p67phox) rats at the same salt level as SS rats. These results are consistent with results from previous studies that found elevated medullary interstitial fluid concentrations of superoxide and H2O2 in the medulla of SS rats. We conclude that the p67(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 plays an important role in the excess production of ROS from mitochondria in the renal medulla of the SS rat. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of p67phox on the mitochondrial oxidative state in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive rats: optical fluorescence 3-D cryoimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, F.; Ghanian, Z.; Yang, C.; Zheleznova, N. N.; Kurth, T.; Dash, R. K.; Cowley, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to quantify and correlate the contribution of the cytosolic p67phox subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 to mitochondrial oxidative stress in the kidneys of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rat. Whole kidney redox states were uniquely assessed using a custom-designed optical fluorescence three-dimensional cryoimager to acquire multichannel signals of the intrinsic fluorophores NADH and FAD. SS rats were compared with SS rats in which the cytosolic subunit p67phox was rendered functionally inactive by zinc finger nuclease mutation of the gene (SSp67phox-null rats). Kidneys of SS rats fed a 0.4% NaCl diet exhibited significantly (P = 0.023) lower tissue redox ratio (NADH/FAD; 1.42 ± 0.06, n = 5) than SSp67phox-null rats (1.64 ± 0.07, n = 5), indicating reduced levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and enhanced oxidative stress in SS rats. When fed a 4.0% salt diet for 21 days, both strains exhibited significantly lower tissue redox ratios (P < 0.001; SS rats: 1.03 ± 0.05, n = 9, vs. SSp67phox-null rats: 1.46 ± 0.04, n = 7) than when fed a 0.4% salt, but the ratio was still significantly higher in SSp67phox rats at the same salt level as SS rats. These results are consistent with results from previous studies that found elevated medullary interstitial fluid concentrations of superoxide and H2O2 in the medulla of SS rats. We conclude that the p67phox subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 plays an important role in the excess production of ROS from mitochondria in the renal medulla of the SS rat. PMID:26062875

  9. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. I. Biochemical and histopathological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2c str., 15-222, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, Marcin; Supernak-Bobko, Dorota [Department of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Medykow 20, 40-752, Katowice-Ligota (Poland); Zwierz, Krzysztof [Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222, Bialystok (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    We have created an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd administered in drinking water at the concentration of 5 or 50 mg Cd/l for 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The degree of kidney damage was evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Sensitive biomarkers of Cd-induced proximal tubular injury such as urinary total N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-T) and its isoenzyme B (NAG-B), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used. Cd content in the kidney increased with the level and duration of exposure leading to dose- and time-dependent structural and functional renal failure. In rats exposed to 5 mg Cd/l, first symptoms of injury of the main tubules of long and short nephrons (structural damage to epithelial cells, increased urinary activities of NAG-T and NAG-B) were noted after 12 weeks of the experiment. The damage occurred at a low kidney Cd concentration amounting to 4.08{+-}0.33 {mu}g/g wet weight (mean {+-}SE) and a urinary concentration of 4.31{+-}0.28 {mu}g/g creatinine. On exposure to 50 mg Cd/l, damage to the main tubules (blurred structure of tubular epithelium, atrophy of brush border, partial fragmentation of cells with release of nuclei into tubular lumen as well as increased urinary activities of NAG-T, NAG-B and ALP) was already evident after 6 week s with the kidney Cd concentration of 24.09{+-}1.72 {mu}g/g wet weight. In rats exposed to 50 mg Cd/l, a lack of regular contour of glomeruli was noted after 12 weeks, whereas after 24 weeks thickening of capillary vessels and widening of filtering space were evident. After 24 weeks of exposure to Cd, increased urea concentration in the serum with simultaneous decrease in its level in the urine, indicating decreased clearance of urea, and increased excretion of total protein were observed, but endogenous creatinine clearance remained unaffected. At the lower exposure, symptoms of structural, but not functional, damage to the glomeruli were also evident after 24 weeks of the experiment. Our

  10. [Expression and role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in renal tissue of two kidneys one clip hypertension rats model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-juan; Tao, Zhong-fei; Wang, Qian; Lu, Min; Guan, You-fei; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Yue

    2011-12-18

    To investigate renal expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in 2-kidney-1-clip rats and explore the role of sEH in renal arterial stenosis hypertensive development. Hypertensive models were established in Sprague-Dawly rats by chronic partial occlusion of left renal artery. In the study,16 male Sprague-Dawly rats were randomized into sham operation group and 2-kidney-1-lip (2K1C) group (n=8, each group), and were observed for 40 days. Before operation and every ten days after operation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and twenty-four-hour urine was collected. At the end of the observation, the blood and kidneys were harvested. The serum Na,24-hour urine protein excretion were measured. Renin activity and angiotensin II concentrition in plasm and renal tissue were evaluated by radioimmunoassay (RIA).The expression of sEH, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in kidneys were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Histology was analysed after kidney sections were stained by Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver nitrate. After surgery, the systolic blood pressure in 2K1C group gradually became higher than that in sham group. Urine protein excretion was statistically increased in 2K1C group on the 30 th and 40 th days, while serum sodium was of no significant difference from those of the two groups. Renin-angiotensin system in both clipped and nonclipped kidneys were also invoked by the 2K1C surgery. Both sEH and PPARγ were upregulated in renocortex and renomedulla in 2K1C group. The two groups were compared: in SBP,on the 10 th day, (106.70±7.71) vs.(124.04±6.79) mmHg, P150.40±11.76) mmHg, PUrine protein excretion,on the 30 th day,(206.81±37.61)vs.(292.33±20.53)mg/d, P=0.005; Serum sodium, (179.76±29.20) vs. (157.72±51.00)mmol/L, P=0.44; Renin activity[plasm(50.00±13.66) vs.(132.90± 31.22)ng/(L×h),P=0.03; clipped kidney(128.40±36.88)vs.(324.90±56.66)ng/(g×h), P=0.01; nonclipped kidney(103.00±19.87)vs.(345

  11. Aristolochic acid-induced destruction of organic ion transporters and fatty acid metabolic disorder in the kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yujie; Li, Jianmei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Xing; Jiao, Ruiqing; Wang, Shuijuan; Kong, Lingdong

    2011-02-25

    Aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy exhibits early proximal tubular injury and fatty acid metabolic disorder. In order to study the unrecognized abnormalities of organic ion transporters and fatty acid metabolism indicators in AA nephropathy, Wistar rats were orally administrated with vehicle, 10 and 20mg/kg AA once daily for 7 days, respectively. At day 8, significant reduction of body weight and right kidney weight, as well as elevation of plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, renal long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) contents were observed in AA-treated rats, accompanying with down-regulation of renal rOAT1/3, rOCT1/2 and rOCTN1/2 expressions. OCTN2 particularly transports l-carnitine through cell membrane. AA treatment also induced a significant decrease of L-carnitine levels in renal cortex of rats. Down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (rPPARα) and carnitine acyltransferase 1 (rCPT1), and up-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1/2 (rACC1/2) in renal cortex were detected in AA-treated rats. These results indicate that alterations of organic ion transportation and fatty acid metabolism are part of AA-induced nephropathy (AAN), contribute to the altered urinary metabolic profile and may lead to further proximal tubule injury in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol protect from bisphenol A effects in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Asma; Ghorbel, Héla; Bouallegui, Zouhair; Marrekchi, Rim; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in hard plastics and the coatings of food and drinks cans which can behave in a similar way to estrogen and other hormones in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of the treatment with oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves rich extracts in reducing functional perturbations and oxidative stress arising from BPA treatment in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'. For this, four groups of lactating mothers were used: controls (group A), treated with bisphenol A (group B), treated with bisphenol A and oleuropein (group C) and with bisphenol A and hydroxytyrosol (group D). As results, we had found, in BPA treated group, either in mothers or in their pups', a significant decrease in morphological parameters, in catalase activity and in total antioxidant capacity associated to an increase in malondialdehyde levels in livers and kidneys. For these rats, the histological aspect showed, also, deep changes. Indeed, we had observed, in livers, hepatocellular necrosis associated to leucocytes infiltration and in kidneys tubular and glomerular necrosis. The co-treatments with BPA and oleuropein (group C) or with BPA and hydroxytyrosol (group D) ameliorate all morphological, biochemical and histological parameters as compared to BPA treated group B. The analysis of BPA and its derivatives with LC-MS/MS showed changes in their localizations between serum, livers or kidneys in all studied groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the hepato-protective and reno-protective effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves extracts from BPA and its derivates toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A study on the effect of cimetidine and L-carnitine on myoglobinuric acute kidney injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaphan, Suzanne; Eissa, Hassan; Elattar, Samah; Rashed, Laila; Farouk, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobinuric acute renal failure is the most important life threatening complication of rhabdomyolysis. Iron, free radicals, nitric oxide and cytochrome p450 are involved in the pathogenesis of mARF. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of cimetidine, l-carnitine and both agents together on mARF in rats. Forty rats were divided into 5 groups; group I: control rats, group II: myoglobinuric ARF rats, group III: mARF rats received l-carnitine (200mg/kg, i.p.), group IV: mARF rats received cimetidine (150mg/kg i.p.) and group V: mARF rats received both agents together. 48h after glycerol injection, systolic blood pressure was measured. Urine and blood samples were collected to evaluate urine volume, GFR, BUN, creatinine, K, Na, serum creatine kinase, NO and glutathione levels. Kidney specimens were taken to investigate renal cytochrome p450 and for histological examinations. Cimetidine treatment significantly decreased creatinine, BUN, K, Na, SBP and creatine kinase and increased GFR and urine volume compared to group II. l-carnitine exerted similar changes except for the effect on K and GFR. NO was significantly decreased, while renal glutathione and cytochrome p450 were significantly increased in groups treated with l-carnitine or cimetidine as compared to group II. Combined treatment further improved renal functions, creatine kinase, oxidative stress parameters and SBP as compared to each therapy alone. The histological changes confirmed the biochemical findings. Cimetidine and l-carnitine have protective effects - almost equally - against mARF. Using both agents together, minimises the renal injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolisetty, Narendrababu; Bull, Richard J; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Costyn, Leah J; Delker, Don A; Guo, Zhongxian; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Cummings, Brian S

    2013-10-15

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO3(-)) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO3(-) caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO3(-) and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO3(-) in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5mg BrO3(-)/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2u-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2u-globulin nephropathy. © 2013.

  15. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  16. The Effects of Rumex patientia L. and Urtica dioica L. on Some Blood and Urine Parameters, and Liver and Kidney Histology in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Hasan V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Rumex patientia and Urtica dioica on levels of blood glucose, plasma amino acids and other parameters, urine excreta, and liver and kidney histology were examined in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Streptozotocin increased blood glucose and changed the levels of amino acids and other parameters, and caused degenerative changes in the liver and kidney. Rumex patientia had some protective effect on these parameters changed by streptozotocin, while Urtica dioci...

  17. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (pnegative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.

  18. L-Carnitine Ameliorates the Decrease of Aquaporin 2 Levels in Rats with Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjun; Gu, Zhaoyan; Li, Min; Xu, Yongxing; Gao, Yuehua; Wei, Jiamei; Liang, Boran; Na, Yu

    2017-01-01

    It has been found that L-carnitine ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. However, the detailed role of L-carnitine in improving the renal urinary concentration function in cisplatin-induced AKI is not fully understood. In this study, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, cisplatin (CIS), L-carnitine (CAR), L-carnitine plus cisplatin (CAR + CIS), and cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR) groups. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) and L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. Urine (24 h) and blood samples were collected to analyze renal urinary concentrating function. Immunoblotting, confocal laser microscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess the level and localization of the water channel aquaporin (AQP) 2, and levels of stimulatory G protein α subunit (GSα protein), arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor 2, adenylyl cyclase and serum AVP. Renal urinary concentrating function was improved by L-carnitine in rats with cisplatin-induced AKI. AQP2 expression, which decreased after cisplatin treatment, was improved by L-carnitine in different regions of the kidney. Moreover, our data indicated that L-carnitine could increase AQP2 accumulation at the apical plasma membranes of the renal-collecting ducts. Finally, intervention with L-carnitine effectively improved the expression of AQP2 upstream signaling proteins, such as GSα protein, adenylyl cyclase, and serum AVP levels in rats with cisplatin-induced AKI. L-carnitine resolves the cisplatin-induced urinary concentration defect, which may occur by increasing AVP/cyclic adenosine monophosphate/AQP2 levels, indicating the potential use of L-carnitine to ameliorate the renal urinary concentration effect in cancer patients treated with cisplatin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Soy Protein Alleviates Hypertension and Fish Oil Improves Diastolic Heart Function in the Han:SPRD-Cy Rat Model of Cystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Naser H M; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Jia, Yong; Netticadan, Thomas; Aukema, Harold

    2016-05-01

    Abnormalities in cardiac structure and function are very common among people with chronic kidney disease, in whom cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death. Dietary soy protein and fish oil reduce kidney disease progression in the Han:SPRD-Cy model of cystic renal disease. However, the effects of these dietary interventions in preventing alterations in cardiac structure and function due to kidney disease (reno-cardiac syndrome) in a cystic kidney disease model are not known. Therefore, weanling Han:SPRD-Cy diseased (Cy/+) and normal (+/+) rats were given diets containing either casein or soy protein, and either soy or fish oil in a three-way design for 8 weeks. Diseased rats had larger hearts, augmented left ventricular mass, and higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to the normal rats. Assessment of cardiac function using two-dimensional guided M-mode and pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography revealed that isovolumic relaxation time was prolonged in the diseased compared to normal rats, reflecting a diastolic heart dysfunction, and fish oil prevented this elevation. Soy protein resulted in a small improvement in systolic and mean arterial pressure but did not improve diastolic heart function, while fish oil prevented diastolic heart dysfunction in this model of cystic kidney disease.

  20. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolisetty, Narendrababu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Bull, Richard J. [MoBull Consulting, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Costyn, Leah J. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Delker, Don A. [School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States); Guo, Zhongxian [Water Quality Office, Public Utilities Board, 608576 (Singapore); Cotruvo, Joseph A. [Joseph Cotruvo and Associates, LLC, Washington, DC 20016 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Cummings, Brian S., E-mail: bsc@rx.uga.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup −}) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO{sub 3}{sup −} caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO{sub 3}{sup −} and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO{sub 3}{sup −} in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5 mg BrO{sub 3}{sup −}/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2{sub u}-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2{sub u}-globulin nephropathy. - Highlights: • Bromate induced nephrotoxicity in both male and female rats by similar mechanisms. • Apoptosis was seen in both male and female rats at the lowest doses tested. • Bromate-induced apoptosis correlated to 8-oxo

  1. TR(beta)1 protein is preferentially expressed in the pericentral zone of rat liver and exhibits marked diurnal variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandieh Doulabi, B.; ter Platvoet-Schiphorst, M.; van Beeren, H.C.; Labruyëre, W.T.; Lamers, W.H.; Fliers, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    TR(beta)1 protein is preferentially expressed in the pericentral zone of rat liver and exhibits marked diurnal variation. Zandieh Doulabi B, Platvoet-ter Schiphorst M, van Beeren HC, Labruyere WT, Lamers WH, Fliers E, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic

  2. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  3. Effects of voluntary exercise on blood pressure, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renal function in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldman BM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brian M Waldman,1,2 Robert A Augustyniak,1–3 Haiping Chen,1,2 Noreen F Rossi1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Carolinas, Spartanburg, SC, 4Department of Internal Medicine, John D Dingell Veterans Administration Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Spontaneous dynamic exercise promotes sympathoinhibition and decreases arterial pressure in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C hypertensive rats. Renal sympathetic nerves stimulate renin secretion and increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We hypothesized that daily voluntary wheel running exercise by 2K-1C rats will decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II, and aldosterone as well as normalize urinary sodium and potassium excretion independent of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Five-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham clipping (Sham or right renal artery clipping (2K-1C. Rats were randomized to standard caging (SED or cages with running wheels (EX. After 12 weeks, rats were assigned to either collection of aortic blood for measurement of Ang II and aldosterone or assessment of inulin clearances and excretory function. Running distances were comparable in both EX groups. MAP was lower in 2K-1C EX vs 2K-1C SED rats (P<0.05. Plasma Ang II and aldosterone were significantly higher in 2K-1C SED rats and decreased in 2K-1C EX rats to levels similar to Sham SED or Sham EX rats. Clipped kidney weights were significantly lower in both 2K-1C groups, but GFR and urine flow rates were no different from right and left kidneys among the four groups. Total and fractional sodium excretion rates from the unclipped kidney of 2K-1C SED rats were higher vs either Sham group (P<0.05. Values in 2K-1C EX rats were similar to the Sham groups. Potassium excretion paralleled sodium excretion. These

  4. Effect of Antiretroviral Drug (arved) on the Kidney in Albino Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of fifty two (52) albino rats were randomly divided into four groups labeled A, B, C and D and kept in a well ventilated room. All experimental groups shared the same environmental conditions. Group A served as the control and rats were treated with distil water. Rats in groups B, C and D were, respectively treated ...

  5. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  6. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Albertoni Borghese

    Full Text Available Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  7. Sub-chronic exposure to fipronil induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fipronil (FPN is a broad-spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide and has been used in agriculture and public health since the mid-1990s. The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the FPN on the liver and kidney of male rats at three concentrations 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L in drinking water for 45 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity and levels of uric acid, creatinine and total protein were significantly increased in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reduced (GSH were significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation (LPO was significantly increased in treating rats in a concentration dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidney of male rats. From our results, it can be concluded that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver, and kidney injury in rats. These pathophysiological changes in liver and kidney tissues could be due to the toxic effect of FPN that associated with a generation of free radicals.

  8. [Comparative investigation of antigens associated with plasmatic membranes of rat hepatoma and myogenic cells using anti-kidney serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriukova, N P; Desheva, A S; Blinova, G I; Mirgorodskaia, O A; Ivanov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of antigenic diversion of tumor cells resulting from the expression of heteroorganic antigens has been continued. Tumor-associated heteroorganic antigens with mol. weight 200-210 kDa (identified before as laminin), 105-130, 75-80 and 43 kDa were detected by anti-kidney serum in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cells of rat ascitic Zajdela hepatoma and cultured HTC hepatoma; the antigen 43 kDa was isolated on immunosorbent and identified by mass spectrometry as beta-actin. Anti-kidney serum revealed laminin in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cultured L8 and L6J1 myoblasts, and L6J1 myotubes; apparently, synthesis of laminin by hepatoma and myogenic cells is not connected with their proliferative activity. Besides, anti-kidney serum detected components 38, 42, 44, 48, 62, 78 and 120 kDa, expression of which on myogenic cells surface might be consequence of active cell proliferation and (or) differentiation.

  9. Adenovirus-Mediated Over-Expression of Nrf2 Within Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs Protected Rats Against Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh-Vardin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recent developments in the field of cell therapy have led to a renewed interest in treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI. However, the early death of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in stressful microenvironment of a recipient tissue is a major problem with this kind of treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether overexpression of a cytoprotective factor, nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2, in MSCs could protect rats against AKI. Methods: The Nrf2 was overexpressed in MSCs by recombinant adenoviruses, and the MSCs were implanted to rats suffering from cisplatin-induced AKI. Results: The obtained results showed that transplantation with the engineered MSCs ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI. Morphologic features of the investigated kidneys showed that transplantation with the MSCs in which Nrf2 had been overexpressed significantly improved the complications of AKI. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the engineered MSCs might be a good candidate to be further evaluated in clinical trials. However, detailed studies must be performed to investigate the possible carcinogenic effect of Nrf2 overexpression.

  10. Role of GABAergic activity of sodium valproate against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Ramanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Kaur, Tajpreet; Arora, Saroj; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2014-02-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) has been reported to be renoprotective in various preclinical studies. Sodium valproate (SVP) is documented to protect against renal injury through its histone deacetylase-inhibiting activity. The present study investigated the involvement of GABAA receptors and the role of GABAergic activity of SVP against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h to induce AKI. The creatinine clearance, serum urea, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria were measured to assess kidney injury. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione level, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity were assayed to assess oxidative stress in renal tissues along with hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe histopathological changes. The ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI witnessed an increase in serum parameters, microproteinuria, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. Picrotoxin aggravated ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced AKI confirming the role of GABAA receptors in AKI. The SVP treatment afforded protection against AKI that was blocked by concurrent treatment with picrotoxin. Hence, it is concluded that regulation of GABAA receptors is important for management of AKI. Moreover, the GABAergic activity of SVP is important for its renoprotective effect.

  11. Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Decreases Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Jian; Li, Yi; Chang, Ruiming; Wu, Haidong; Lin, Jiali; Huang, Zitong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has shown various physiological effects including anti-inflammatory activity in several diseases, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CO on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported as of yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of exogenous CO on sepsis-induced AKI and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in rats. Male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis and AKI. Exogenous CO delivered from CO-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) was used intraperitoneally as intervention after CLP surgery. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on sepsis-induced AKI were assessed by measuring serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney histology scores, apoptotic cell scores, oxidative stress, levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. CORM-2 treatment protected against the sepsis-induced AKI as evidenced by reducing serum Scr/BUN levels, apoptotic cells scores, increasing survival rates, and decreasing renal histology scores. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels and oxidative stress. Moreover, CORM-2 treatment significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome protein expressions. Our study provided evidence that CORM-2 treatment protected against sepsis-induced AKI and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and suggested that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for treating sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:26334271

  12. Effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Percário, Sandro; Ribeiro, Rubens Fernando Gonçalves; Cavalcante, Lainy Carollyne da Costa; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Couteiro, Rodrigo Paracampo; Rodrigues, Ivone Aline da Silva; Santos, Hellen Aparecida Geyer Dos

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. After reperfusion, blood samples were collected for BUN and creatinine serum levels analyzes. TBARS were evaluated in plasma and renal tissue to assess oxidative stress. Kidney histopathological examination were performed. Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of renal dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly reduced oxidative stress and histological damage. Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  13. Local administration of AAV-BDNF to subventricular zone induces functional recovery in stroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Shen, Hui; Harvey, Brandon K; Airavaara, Mikko; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV-BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains.

  14. Local administration of AAV-BDNF to subventricular zone induces functional recovery in stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jin Yu

    Full Text Available Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV-BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains.

  15. Decreased Tissue COX5B Expression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Sepsis-Induced Kidney Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hinkelbein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis is the dominant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI, accounting for nearly 50% of episodes of acute renal failure. Signaling cascades and pathways within the kidney are largely unknown and analysis of these molecular mechanisms may enhance knowledge on pathophysiology and possible therapeutic options. Material and Methods. 26 male Wistar rats were assigned to either a sham group (control, N=6 or sepsis group (N=20; cecal ligature and puncture model, 24 and 48 hours after CLP. Surviving rats (n=12 were decapitated at 24 hours (early phase; n=6 or 48 hours (late phase; n=6 after CLP and kidneys removed for proteomic analysis. 2D-DIGE and DeCyder 2D software (t-test, P<0.01 were used for analysis of significantly regulated protein spots. MALDI-TOF in combination with peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF as well as Western Blot analysis was used for protein identification. Bioinformatic network analyses (STRING, GeneMania, and PCViz were used to describe protein-protein interactions. Results. 12 spots were identified with significantly altered proteins (P<0.01 in the three analyzed groups. Two spots could not be identified. Four different proteins were found significantly changed among the groups: major urinary protein (MUP5, cytochrome c oxidase subunit B (COX5b, myosin-6 (MYH6, and myosin-7 (MYH7. A significant correlation with the proteins was found for mitochondrial energy production and electron transport. Conclusions. COX5B could be a promising biomarker candidate since a significant association was found during experimental sepsis in the present study. For future research, COX5B should be evaluated as a biomarker in both human urine and serum to identify sepsis.

  16. CD47 blockade reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury and improves outcomes in a rat kidney transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiing; Manning, Pamela T; Jia, Jianluo; Gaut, Joseph P; Xiao, Zhenyu; Capoccia, Benjamin J; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Hiebsch, Ronald R; Upadhya, Gundumi; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Frazier, William A; Chapman, William C

    2014-08-27

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) significantly contributes to delayed graft function and inflammation, leading to graft loss. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is exacerbated by the thrombospondin-1-CD47 system through inhibition of nitric oxide signaling. We postulate that CD47 blockade and prevention of nitric oxide inhibition reduce IRI in organ transplantation. We used a syngeneic rat renal transplantation model of IRI with bilaterally nephrectomized recipients to evaluate the effect of a CD47 monoclonal antibody (CD47mAb) on IRI. Donor kidneys were flushed with CD47mAb OX101 or an isotype-matched control immunoglobulin and stored at 4°C in University of Wisconsin solution for 6 hr before transplantation. CD47mAb perfusion of donor kidneys resulted in marked improvement in posttransplant survival, lower levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium, and less histological evidence of injury. In contrast, control groups did not survive more than 5 days, had increased biochemical indicators of renal injury, and exhibited severe pathological injury with tubular atrophy and necrosis. Recipients of CD47mAb-treated kidneys showed decreased levels of plasma biomarkers of renal injury including Cystatin C, Osteopontin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1), β2-Microglobulin, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A), and clusterin compared to the control group. Furthermore, laser Doppler assessment showed higher renal blood flow in the CD47mAb-treated kidneys. These results provide strong evidence for the use of CD47 antibody-mediated blockade to reduce IRI and improve organ preservation for renal transplantation.

  17. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H 2 O 2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H 2 O 2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H 2 O 2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and macrophages (ED1 + ) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H 2 O 2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. The effect of tadalafil therapy on kidney damage caused by sepsis in a polymicrobial septic model induced in rats: a biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Erdal; Ayyildiz, Sema Nur; Cirrik, Selma; Koktürk, Sibel; Cirakoglu, Abdullah; Noyan, Tevfik; Ayyildiz, Ali; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory reaction to bacteria involving the whole body and is a significant cause of mortality and economic costs. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tadalafil exhibits a preventive effect on sepsis in a septic model induced in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were randomly separated into groups, 10 rats in each: (i) a sham (control) group, (ii) an untreated sepsis group, (iii) a sepsis group treated with 5mg/kg tadalafil and (iv) a sepsis group treated with 10mg/kg tadalafil. A polymicrobial sepsis model was induced in rats using CLP. Rats were sacrificed after 16h, and blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological study. Levels of the inflammatory parameter IL-6 decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil in comparison with the untreated sepsis group (p kidney tissues decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil compared to the untreated sepsis group (p kidney tissue of septic rats in a polymicrobial sepsis model induced with CLP. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  19. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Receptor Mas Are Colocalized and Functionally Interdependent in Obese Zucker Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Samuel, Preethi; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Hussain, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    The actions of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas (MasR) are complex but show similar pronatriuretic function; particularly, AT2R expression and natriuretic function are enhanced in obese/diabetic rat kidney. In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT2R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. We found that infusion of AT2R agonist C21 in obese Zucker rats (OZR) increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of the AT2R antagonist PD123319 or the MasR antagonist A-779. Similarly, infusion of MasR agonist Ang-(1-7) in OZR increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion, which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of A-779 or PD123319. Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. Dual labeling of AT2R and MasR in OZR kidney sections and human proximal tubule epithelial cells showed that AT2R and MasR are colocalized. The AT2R also coimmunoprecipitated with MasR in cortical homogenate of OZR. Immunoblotting of cortical homogenate cross-linked with zero-length oxidative (sulfhydryl groups) cross-linker cupric-phenanthroline revealed a shift of AT2R and MasR bands upward with overlapping migration for their complexes which were sensitive to the reducing β-mercaptoethanol, suggesting involvement of -SH groups in cross-linking. Collectively, the study reveals that AT2R and MasR are colocalized and functionally interdependent in terms of stimulating NO and promoting diuretic/natriuretic response. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Impaired expression of key molecules of ammoniagenesis underlies renal acidosis in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Remy; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Bettoni, Carla; Wang, Xueqi; Serra, Andreas L; Wagner, Carsten A

    2015-05-01

    Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of renal metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis per se may represent a trigger for progression of CKD. Renal acidosis of CKD is characterized by low urinary ammonium excretion with preserved urinary acidification indicating a defect in renal ammoniagenesis, ammonia excretion or both. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have not been addressed to date. We examined the Han:SPRD rat model and used a combination of metabolic studies, mRNA and protein analysis of renal molecules involved in acid-base handling. We demonstrate that rats with reduced kidney function as evident from lower creatinine clearance, lower haematocrit, higher plasma blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphate and potassium had metabolic acidosis that could be aggravated by HCl acid loading. Urinary ammonium excretion was highly reduced whereas urinary pH was more acidic in CKD compared with control animals. The abundance of key enzymes and transporters of proximal tubular ammoniagenesis (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, PEPCK and SNAT3) and bicarbonate transport (NBCe1) was reduced in CKD compared with control animals. In the collecting duct, normal expression of the B1 H(+)-ATPase subunit is in agreement with low urinary pH. In contrast, the RhCG ammonia transporter, critical for the final secretion of ammonia into urine was strongly down-regulated in CKD animals. In the Han:SPRD rat model for CKD, key molecules required for renal ammoniagenesis and ammonia excretion are highly down-regulated providing a possible molecular explanation for the development and maintenance of renal acidosis in CKD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effects of oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban on the activities of carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the liver and kidney tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Umit M; Taşkıran, Ahmet Şevki; Taslimi, Parham; Yokuş, Ahmet; Temel, Yusuf; Gulçin, İlhami

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxytocin (OT), atosiban, which is an OT receptor antagonist, and OT-atosiban chemicals injected to rats on the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes in liver and kidney tissues of rats. For this purpose, four different groups, each consisting of six rats (n = 6), were formed (control group, OT administered group, atosiban administered group, and both OT and atosiban administered group). The rats were necropsied 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of chemicals into the rats. Liver tissues of rats were extracted. CA and AChE enzyme activities were measured for each tissue by using hydratase, esterase, and acetylcholiniodide methods. Activity values for each enzyme obtained were statistically calculated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prednisolone has a positive effect on the kidney but not on the liver of brain dead rats : a potencial role in complement activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebolledo Acevedo, Rolando; Liu, Bo; Akhtar, Mohammed Z.; Ottens, Petra J.; Zhang, Jian-ning; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contradictory evidence has been published on the effects of steroid treatments on the outcomes of kidney and liver transplantation from brain dead (BD) donors. Our study aimed to evaluate this disparity by investigating the effect of prednisolone administration on BD rats. Methods: BD

  3. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P content was not affected by this thermal treatment. Rats fed raw kidney bean lost BW rapidly and the majority died by 9 d. Pretreatment of the beans by extrusion cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P < 0.01) food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  4. Mixed compared with single-source proteins in high-protein diets affect kidney structure and function differentially in obese fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Wojcik, Jennifer L; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-02-01

    Questions remain regarding the potential negative effects of dietary high protein (HP) on kidney health, particularly in the context of obesity in which the risk for renal disease is already increased. To examine whether some of the variability in HP effects on kidney health may be due to source of protein, obese fa/fa Zucker rats were given HP (35% of energy from protein) diets containing either casein, soy protein, or a mixed source of animal and plant proteins for 12 weeks. Control lean and obese rats were given diets containing casein at normal protein (15% of energy from protein) levels. Body weight and blood pressure were measured, and markers of renal structural changes, damage, and function were assessed. Obesity alone resulted in mild renal changes, as evidenced by higher kidney weights, proteinuria, and glomerular volumes. In obese rats, increasing the protein level using the single, but not mixed, protein sources resulted in higher renal fibrosis compared with the lean rats. The mixed-protein HP group also had lower levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, even though this diet further increased kidney and glomerular size. Soy and mixed-protein HP diets also resulted in a small number of damaged glomeruli, while soy compared with mixed-protein HP diet delayed the increase in blood pressure over time. Since obesity itself confers added risk of renal disease, an HP diet from mixed-protein sources that enables weight loss but has fewer risks to renal health may be advantageous.

  5. Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Freidig, A.P.; Jonker, D.; Thissen, U.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mumtaz, M.M.; Groten, J.P.; Stierum, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected based on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were

  6. PPARa and PPAR¿ coactivation rapidly induces Egr-1 in the nuclei of the dorsal and ventral urinary bladder and kidney pelvis urothelium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Svendsen, Jette Eldrup; Hinley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    and PPAR gamma agonists. Immunohistochemistry for Egr-1 with a rabbit monoclonal antibody demonstrated that male vehicle-treated rats exhibited minimal urothelial expression and specifically, no nuclear signal. In contrast, Egr-1 was induced in the nuclei of bladder, as well as kidney pelvis, urothelia...

  7. Astragaloside-IV prevents acute kidney injury and inflammation by normalizing muscular mitochondrial function associated with a nitric oxide protective mechanism in crush syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isamu; Abe, Yuji; Yaginuma, Yuka; Yodo, Kayako; Kamakari, Yuka; Miyazaki, Yurika; Baba, Daichi; Shinoda, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toru; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Inoue, Yutaka; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2017-09-04

    Crush syndrome (CS) is a serious medical condition characterized by muscle cell damage resulting from decompression after compression (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury). A large number of CS patients develop cardiac failure, kidney dysfunction, and systemic inflammation, even when fluid therapy is administered. We evaluated whether the administration of astragaloside-IV (AS)-containing fluid improved survival by preventing kidney and muscular mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of CS. The CS model was generated by subjecting anesthetized rats to bilateral hind limb compression with a rubber tourniquet for 5 h. Rats were then randomly divided into four groups: (1) sham; (2) CS with no treatment; (3) CS with normal saline treatment; and (4) CS with normal saline + 10 mg/kg AS. AS-containing fluid improved kidney function by improving shock and metabolic acidosis in CS rats. In addition, there was a reduction in oxidative damage. The attenuation of hyperkalemia was significantly related to improving muscle injury via preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, this mitochondria protection mechanism was related to the nitric oxide (NO) generated by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which provided an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect. Treatment with AS-containing fluid led to a dramatic improvement in survival following CS because of direct and indirect anti-oxidative effects in the kidney, and improvements in mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation owing to AS acting as an NO donor in injured muscle.

  8. Rhizoma smilacis glabrae protects rats with gentamicin-induced kidney injury from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiyan; Kang, Youxi; Zhou, Xiuhong; Yang, Zisheng; Gu, Jingang; Han, Chunyang

    2017-02-23

    Rhizoma smilacis glabrae (RSG), which is mild-natured and tastes sweet or bland, has pharmacological action of eliminating dampness, detoxifying, and ensuring that joints were healthy and supple in traditional Chinese medicine. To discuss the protective effect of RSG on gentamicin (GM)-induced kidney injury in rats and its regulatory mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activation. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group, model group, and RSG low, middle, and high dose groups (0.75,1.5,3gkg(-1)). Six hours after intramuscular GM injections, rats in the model group were given distilled water by intragastric administration, and rats in the 3 RSG intervention groups were given different dosages of RSG water-extracts. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, blood and kidney samples were collected to test for biochemical indexes of kidney injury, oxidative stress, histopathological defects, apoptosis rate, and caspase-3 protein expression to assess the protective effect of RSG water-extracts against GM-induced kidney injury. Compared with the model group, serum TP and ALB levels were significantly higher (Papoptosis rate dropped markedly (Poxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  10. First D1-like receptor PET imaging of the rat and primate kidney: implications for human disease monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Michael L.; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Borra, Ronald H. J.; Schauer, Nathan; Aisaborhale, Ehimen; Guimaraes, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    The intrarenal dopamine system is important for signaling and natriuresis, and significant dysfunction is associated with hypertension and kidney disease in ex vivo studies. Dopamine receptors also modulate and are modulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Here, we show the first in vivo measurement of D1-like receptors in the renal cortex of Sprague-Dawley rat and Papio anubis baboon using [11C]NNC 112, a positron emission tomography radioligand for D1-like receptors. In addition, we show a D1-like binding potential response to angiotensin II blockade in rats using losartan. Demonstration of self-saturable binding in the rat as well as specific and saturable binding in Papio anubis validate the use of [11C]NNC 112 in the first in vivo measurement of renal dopamine D1-like receptors. Furthermore, [11C]NNC 112 is a radioligand tool already validated for use in probing human central nervous system (CNS) D1-like receptors. Our work demonstrates specific and saturable non-CNS binding in higher animals and the ability to quantify physiological response to drug treatment and provides a clear path to extend use of [11C]NNC 112 to study renal dopamine in humans. PMID:24808534

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Cerasus Avium Stem on Ethylene Glycol- Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaryan, Ehsaneh; Malekaneh, Mohammad; Shemshadi Nejad, Maryam; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2017-07-02

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Cerasus Avium stem on kidney calculi. In this experimental study, forty-eight (48) male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into six (6) groups and were studied during a 30 day period. Group A served as normal control and Group B received 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water (EG group). C, D, E, and F Groups, received 1% ethylene glycol from day 1 and were used as prevention and treatment subjects. Rats in prevention groups of low dose (C) and high dose (D) extract, were gavaged with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract respectively from first day of the experiment and treatmentgroups of low dose (E) and high dose (F) extract, were gavaged with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract respectively from the 15th day of the experiment. On the 30th days of the experiment, serum level of magnesium and potassium decreased significantly in EG group compared with A,C,D,E and F groups (P < .05), while serum level of calcium, creatinine, uric acid, sodium and urine level of calcium, creatinine, uric acid, increased significantly in EG group compared with A,C,D,E and F groups (P < .05). In the prevention and treatment groups, the number of deposits decreased significantly compared with EG group on the 30th day (P < .05). Cerasus Avium stem has a therapeutic effect on calcium oxalate stones in rats with nephrolithiasis and reduces the number of calcium oxalate deposits.

  12. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Peroxiredoxin 5 Protects TGF-β Induced Fibrosis by Inhibiting Stat3 Activation in Rat Kidney Interstitial Fibroblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-In Choi

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is a common final pathway of end-stage kidney disease which is induced by aberrant accumulation of myofibroblasts. This process is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS and proinflammatory cytokines generated by various source of injured kidney cells. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prdx5 is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that reduces oxidative stress by catalyzing intramolecular disulfide bonds. Along with its antioxidant effects, expression level of Prdx5 also was involved in inflammatory regulation by immune stimuli. However, the physiological effects and the underlying mechanisms of Prdx5 in renal fibrosis have not been fully characterized. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO for 1 or 7 days. For the in vitro model, NRK49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell lines, were treated with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β for 0, 1, 3, or 5 days. To access the involvement of its peroxidase activity in TGF-β induced renal fibrosis, wild type Prdx5 (WT and double mutant Prdx5 (DM, converted two active site cysteines at Cys 48 and Cys 152 residue to serine, were transiently expressed in NRK49F cells. The protein expression of Prdx5 was reduced in UUO kidneys. Upregulation of fibrotic markers, such as fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, declined at 5 days in time point of higher Prdx5 expression in TGF-β treated NRK49F cells. The overexpression of wild type Prdx5 by transient transfection in NRK49F cells attenuated the TGF-β induced upregulation of fibronectin and α-SMA. On the other hand, the transient transfection of double mutant Prdx5 did not prevent the activation of fibrotic markers. Overexpression of Prdx5 also suppressed the TGF-β induced upregulation of Stat3 phosphorylation, while phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 was unchanged. In conclusion, Prdx5 protects TGF-β induced fibrosis in NRK49F cells by modulating Stat3 activation in a peroxidase activity dependent manner.

  14. In vitro and in vivo studies of Allium sativum extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in rats brain and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Saoudi, Mongi; Sellami, Hanen; Rahmouni, Fatma; Lahyani, Amina; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2017-09-18

    The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant capacities of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat's brain and kidney. The in vitro result showed that highest extraction yield was achieved with methanol (20.08%). Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity. The in vivo results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase of the acetylcholinesterase level (AChE) in brain and plasma, the brain and kidney conjugated dienes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels as compared to control group. The antioxidant enzymes results showed that deltamethrin treatment induced a significantly decrease (p < 0.01) in brain and kidney antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to control group. The co-administration of garlic extract reduced the toxic effects in brain and kidney tissues induced by deltamethrin.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis of glycosylation related gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney inner medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The UT-A1 urea transporter is crucial to the kidney’s ability to generate concentrated urine. Native UT-A1 from kidney inner medulla (IM is a heavily glycosylated protein with two glycosylation forms of 97 and 117 kDa. In diabetes, UT-A1 protein abundance, particularly the 117 kD isoform, is significantly increased corresponding to an increased urea permeability in perfused IM collecting ducts, which plays an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria. However, how the glycan carbohydrate structure change and the glycan related enzymes regulate kidney urea transport activity, particularly under diabetic condition, is largely unknown. In this study, using sugar-specific binding lectins, we found that the carbohydrate structure of UT-A1 is changed with increased amounts of sialic acid, fucose, and increased glycan branching under diabetic conditions. These changes were accompanied by altered UT-A1 association with the galectin proteins, α-galactoside glycan binding proteins. To explore the molecular basis of the alterations of glycan structures, the highly sensitive next generation sequencing (NGS technology, Illumina RNA-seq, was employed to analyze genes involved in the process of UT-A1 glycosylation using streptozotocin (STZ - induced diabetic rat kidney. Differential gene expression analysis combining quantitative PCR revealed that expression of a number of important glycosylation related genes were changed under diabetic conditions. These genes include the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat4a, the sialylation enzymes St3gal1 and St3gal4 and glycan binding protein galectin-3, -5, -8 and -9. In contrast, although highly expressed in kidney IM, the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat1, Mgat2, and fucosyltransferase Fut8, did not show any changes. Conclusions: In diabetes, not only is UT-A1 protein abundance increased but the protein’s glycan structure is also significantly changed. UT-A1 protein becomes highly sialylated

  16. Vitamin K metabolism in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have very high levels of uncarboxylated, inactive, extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins measured in circulation, putting them at risk for complications of vitamin K deficiency. The major form of vitamin K found in the liver is phylloquinon...

  17. Azilsartan Improves Glycemic Status and Reduces Kidney Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Neckář, Jan; Haines, J.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 8 (2014), s. 1087-1095 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : azilsartan medoxomil * blood pressure * hypertension * inflammation * kidney injury * oxidative stress * type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  18. Chrysin Protects Rat Kidney from Paracetamol-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Apoptosis, and Autophagy: A Multi-Biomarker Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Kandemir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PC is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug at therapeutic doses, and it is widely used in clinics. However, at high doses, it can induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Chrysin (CR is a natural flavonoid that has biological activities that include being an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-cancer agent. The main objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CR against PC-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. CR was given orally via feeding needle to male Sprague Dawley rats as a single daily dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg for six days. PC was administered orally via feeding needle as a single dose on the sixth day. PC caused significant glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, increased serum toxicity markers (serum urea and creatinine, and reductions in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase — SOD, catalase — CAT, and glutathione peroxidase — GPx. The renal protective effect of CR was associated with decreasing the regulation of serum renal toxicity markers and increasing the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, PC led to significant increases in the levels of inflammatory markers including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-33 (IL-33. Furthermore, PC induced apoptotic tissue damage by increasing cysteine aspartate-specific protease-3 (caspase-3 activity and autophagic tissue damage by increasing the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B. CR therapy significantly decreased these values in rats. This study demonstrated that CR has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-autophagic effects on PC-induced kidney toxicity in rats.

  19. Influence of remote ischemic conditioning and tramadol hydrochloride on oxidative stress in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Silva de; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Ribeiro, Rubens Fernando Gonçalves; Oliveira, Leonam Oliver Durval; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Brandão, Fernando Mateus Viegas; Cavalcante, Lainy Carollyne da Costa; Gouveia, Eduardo Henrique Herbster; Henriques, Higor Yuri Bezerra

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of tramadol hydrochloride associated to remote ischemic perconditioning on oxidative stress. Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Tramadol group (T) treated with tramadol hydrochloride (40mg/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Tramadol group (Per+T) with both treatments. Oxidative stress was assessed after 24 hours of reperfusion. Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (pischemic perconditioning was more effective reducing renal ischemia-reperfusion injury than administration of tramadol or association of both treatments.

  20. Effects of Hominis Placenta Aqua-acupuncture on Kidney and Liver Intoxicated by HgCI2 in Rats

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    Lee, Sang-Keel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was perfomled to examine the therapeutic effect of aqua-acupuncture solution of Hominis Placenta(HP on kidney and liver intoxicated by HgCl2 in rats. Methods: 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture were carried out everyday for 8 days on corresponding bilateral loci of Shinsu(BL23 and Kansu(BL18, respectively, after mercuric chloride intoxication in rats. Thereafter BUN, creatinine, GOT, GPT, ALP, -GT, albumin and total bilirubin were measured before intoxication, and at the 4th and the 8th experimental day. Histopathological and immunochemical observation were also carried out. Results: 1. It showed significant decreases of BUN in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th experimental day as compared with the control group. 2. It showed significant decreases of creatinine in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th and the 8th experimental days as compared with the control group. 3. There were not any significant changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, γ-GT, albumin and total bilirubin in the HP aqua-acupuncture groups compared with the control group. 4. By the histopathological observations on kidney under a light microscope, all the 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu showed the preventive effect on tubulo-interstitial necrosis and muItifocal calcification in tubular lumen respectively compared with the control group. 5. By the histopathological observations on liver under a light mIcroscope, the groups 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Kansu did not show any significant changes in the liver compared with the control group. 6. By the immunochemical analysis of heat shock protein(hsp and glucose-regulated protein(grp in rat renal cortex, the expressions of hsp70 and grp78 were decreased in the and HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu respectively compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hominis Placenta aqua-acupuncture have an effect on prevention and protection of

  1. Geochemical and isotopic evidences from groundwater and surface water for understanding of natural contamination in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) endemic zones in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, E A N V; Manthrithilake, H; Pitawala, H M T G A; Dharmagunawardhane, H A; Wijayawardane, R L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is the main health issue in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Despite many studies carried out, causative factors have not been identified yet clearly. According to the multidisciplinary researches carried out so far, potable water is considered as the main causative factor for CKDu. Hence, the present study was carried out with combined isotopic and chemical methods to understand possible relationships between groundwater; the main drinking water source, and CKDu in four endemic areas in the dry zone. Different water sources were evaluated isotopically ( 2 H, 3 H and 18 O) and chemically from 2013 to 2015. Results revealed that prevalence of CKDu is significantly low with the groundwater replenished by surface water inputs. It is significantly high with the groundwater stagnated as well as groundwater recharged from regional flow paths. Thus, the origin, recharge mechanism and flow pattern of groundwater, as well as geological conditions which would be responsible for natural contamination of groundwater appear as the main causative factors for CKDu. Therefore, detailed investigations should be made in order to identify the element(s) in groundwater contributing to CKDu. The study recommends providing drinking water to the affected zones using water sources associated with surface waters.

  2. Comparison of diglycolic acid exposure to human proximal tubule cells in vitro and rat kidneys in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Mossoba

    Full Text Available Diglycolic acid (DGA is present in trace amounts in our food supply and is classified as an indirect food additive linked with the primary GRAS food additive carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Carboxymethyl starches are used as a filler/binder excipient in dietary supplement tablets and a thickening ingredient in many other processed foods. We sought to utilize the human proximal tubule HK-2 cell line as an in vitro cellular model system to evaluate its acute nephrotoxicity of DGA. We found that DGA was indeed toxic to HK-2 cells in all in vitro assays in our study, including a highly sensitive Luminex assay that measures levels of an in vitro biomarker of kidney-specific toxicity, Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1. Interestingly, in vitro KIM-1 levels also correlated with in vivo KIM-1 levels in urine collected from rats treated with DGA by daily oral gavage. The use of in vitro and in vivo models towards understanding the effectiveness of an established in vitro system to predict in vivo outcomes would be particularly useful in rapidly screening compounds that are suspected to be unsafe to consumers. The merit of the HK-2 cell model in predicting human toxicity and accelerating the process of food toxicant screening would be especially important for regulatory purposes. Overall, our study not only revealed the value of HK-2 in vitro cell model for nephrotoxicity evaluation, but also uncovered some of the mechanistic aspects of the human proximal tubule injury that DGA may cause. Keywords: Kidney proximal tubule, HK-2 cells, Diglycolic acid, Nephrotoxicity

  3. Simultaneous analysis of proteome, phospho- and glycoproteome of rat kidney tissue with electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piliang Hao

    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs are regulated separately from protein expression levels. Thus, simultaneous characterization of the proteome and its PTMs is pivotal to an understanding of protein regulation, function and activity. However, concurrent analysis of the proteome and its PTMs by mass spectrometry is a challenging task because the peptides bearing PTMs are present in sub-stoichiometric amounts and their ionization is often suppressed by unmodified peptides of high abundance. We describe here a method for concurrent analysis of phosphopeptides, glycopeptides and unmodified peptides in a tryptic digest of rat kidney tissue with a sequence of ERLIC and RP-LC-MS/MS in a single experimental run, thereby avoiding inter-experimental variation. Optimization of loading solvents and elution gradients permitted ERLIC to be performed with totally volatile solvents. Two SCX and four ERLIC gradients were compared in details, and one ERLIC gradient was found to perform the best, which identified 2929 proteins, 583 phosphorylation sites in 338 phosphoproteins and 722 N-glycosylation sites in 387 glycoproteins from rat kidney tissue. Two hundred low-abundance proteins with important functions were identified only from the glyco- or phospho-subproteomes, reflecting the importance of the enrichment and separation of modified peptides by ERLIC. In addition, this strategy enables identification of unmodified and corresponding modified peptides (partial phosphorylation and N-glycosylation from the same protein. Interestingly, partially modified proteins tend to occur on proteins involved in transport. Moreover, some membrane or extracellular proteins, such as versican core protein and fibronectin, were found to have both phosphorylation and N-glycosylation, which may permit an assessment of the potential for cross talk between these two vital PTMs and their roles in regulation.

  4. Lutein attenuates oxidative stress markers and ameliorates glucose homeostasis through polyol pathway in heart and kidney of STZ-induced hyperglycemic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharavana, Gurunathan; Joseph, G S; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2017-12-01

    Lutein's role on chronic hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated glucose homeostasis in heart and kidney is limited. Purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of lutein on cardiac and renal polyol pathway enzymes and oxidative stress markers under hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress condition using streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. STZ-induced hyperglycemic (fasting blood glucose ≥11 mM) male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 11/group). Group 1 received micellar lutein (39 nmol/day/rat) and group 2 (negative control) received micelle without lutein for 8 weeks. A separate group (no STZ injected) served as a positive control (n = 11/group). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biweekly urine glucose and activities of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) enzymes were assessed. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant level were also evaluated. Lutein-administered hyperglycemic rats showed better glucose tolerance as evidenced with OGTT and biweekly urine glucose when compared to negative control. Activities of AR and SDH were decreased in heart and kidney of lutein-fed hyperglycemic rats. Also, they had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased malondialdehyde levels (66, 34, and 33 %) and increased reduced glutathione level (81, 18 and 92 %) in serum, heart and kidney, respectively. Altered antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase were also affected in serum, heart and kidney of lutein-fed diabetic group. Lutein prevented cardiac and renal injury in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats due to potential amelioration of altered activities in polyol pathway and oxidative stress markers.

  5. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by methylthiophanate, a systemic fungicide, in blood, liver and kidney of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibtissem, Ben Amara; Hajer, Ben Saad; Ahmed, Hakim; Awatef, Elwej; Choumous, Kallel; Ons, Boudawara; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled; Najiba, Zeghal

    2017-03-01

    Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism. In the present study, the effect of MT injected intraperitoneally to adult rats at 300 or 500 mg/kg of body weight was studied on blood, liver and kidney. Our results showed 3 days after MT injection, a significant decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit values. A disruption in total white blood cells and platelets also occurred. Accordingly, an increased in malondialdehyde, H2O2 and advanced oxidation protein levels in liver and kidney were noted with the two doses. A significant change in plasma biomarkers and organ enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities were observed after MT treatment. The modifications in biochemical parameters were substantiated by histopathological data. These data confirmed the pro-oxidant effects of this fungicide. Accordingly, care must be taken to avoid mammalian and human exposure to MT.

  6. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p acid, urea, and creatinine, when compared with the control group. Thence, and as this study indicates, heavy-metals-polluted water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks.

  7. Consumption of Dietary Resistant Starch Partially Corrected the Growth Pattern Despite Hyperglycemia and Compromised Kidney Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; Rowling, Matthew J; Schalinske, Kevin L; Grapentine, Kelly; Loo, Yi Ting

    2016-10-12

    We previously demonstrated that feeding of dietary resistant starch (RS) prior to the induction of diabetes delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy and maintained vitamin D balance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats. Here, we examined the impact of RS on kidney function and vitamin D homeostasis following STZ injection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered STZ and fed a standard diet containing cornstarch or 20, 10, or 5% RS for 4 weeks. T1D rats fed 10 and 20% RS, but not 5% RS, gained more weight than cornstarch-fed rats. Yet, renal health and glucose metabolism were not improved by RS. Our data suggest that RS normalized growth patterns in T1D rats after diabetes induction in a dose-dependent manner despite having no effect on blood glucose and vitamin D balances. Future interventions should focus on the preventative strategies with RS in T1D.

  8. Effect of rifampicin on the kidney of albino rats *1 PETERS, D.E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Result from this study indicates that urea and creatinine levels in a dose and ... Types of pulmonary TB are primary tuberculosis pneumonia, tuberculosis pleurisy, cavitary tuberculosis, miliary .... animals were fed with rat pellets and water ad.

  9. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction through augmented activation of renal Toll-like receptors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kouhei; Kuno, Atsushi; Murase, Hiromichi; Muratsubaki, Shingo; Miki, Takayuki; Tanno, Masaya; Yano, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Satoko; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Miura, Tetsuji

    2017-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined the roles of renal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, a rat DM model, and Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) rats, nondiabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF rats than in sham-operated LETO rats, although levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TLR4 were similar. At 12 h after MI, protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the kidney were elevated by 5.3- and 4.0-fold, respectively, and their mRNA levels were increased in OLETF but not LETO rats. The increased KIM-1 and NGAL expression levels after MI in the OLETF kidney were associated with upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and transforming growth factor-β1 and also with activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB. Cu-CPT22, a TLR1/TLR2 antagonist, administered before MI significantly suppressed MI-induced upregulation of KIM-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 levels and activation of NF-κB, whereas NGAL levels and IL-6 and TNF-α expression levels were unchanged. The results suggest that DM increases the susceptibility to AKI after acute MI by augmented activation of renal TLRs and that TLR1/TLR2-mediated signaling mediates KIM-1 upregulation after MI.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first report to demonstrate the involvement of Toll-like recpetors (TLRs) in diabetes-induced susceptibility to acute kidney injury after acute myocardial infarction. We propose that the TLR1/TLR2

  10. Biochemical and pathological changes in the male rat kidney and bladder following exposure to continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field on postnatal days 22-59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türedi, Sibel; Kerimoğlu, Gökçen; Mercantepe, Tolga; Odacı, Ersan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect on male rat kidney and bladder tissues of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) applied on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 21 days, were used. These were divided equally into one of three groups, control (CG), sham (SG) or EMF (EMFG). CG was not exposed to any procedure. SG rats were kept inside a cage, without being exposed to the effect of EMF, for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. EMFG rats were exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 h a day under the same conditions as those for the SG rats. Rats were sacrificed on postnatal day 60, and the kidney and bladder tissues were removed. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome for histomorphological evaluation. The TUNEL method was used to assess apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used for the kidney tissue. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters were studied in terms of biochemical values. The findings showed that tissue malondialdehyde increased in EMFG compared to CG and SG in both kidney (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004, respectively) and bladder tissue (p = 0.004, p = 0.006, respectively), while catalase and glutathione levels decreased compared to CG (p = 0.004; p = 0.004, respectively) and SG (p = 0.004; p = 0.004, respectively). In the EMF group, pathologies such as dilatation and vacuolization in the distal and proximal tubules, degeneration in glomeruli and an increase in cells tending to apoptosis were observed in kidney tissue. In bladder tissue, degeneration in the transitional epithelium and stromal irregularity and an increase in cells tending to apoptosis were observed in EMFG. Additionally, EMFG samples exhibited glomerular capillary degeneration with capillary basement membranes under TEM. We conclude that continuous exposure to the effect of 900-MHz EMF for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive, causes an

  11. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harbi, Naif O.; Faisal Imam; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M.; Muzaffar Iqbal; Ahmed Nadeem; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M.; Ali D. Alabidy; Almukhallafi, Ali F.

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically ...

  12. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Giribabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO product, malondialdehyde (MDA, and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale OLEORESIN ON THE PROFILE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD IN THE KIDNEY OF RATS UNDER STRESS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress condition has beeb reported to decrease intracellular antioxidant-superoxide dismutase(SOD in the liver and kidney of rats. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activies of ginger oleoresin on the profile of superoxide dismutase(SOD in the kidney of rats under stress condition. The stress condition was achieved by five days of fasting together with swimming for 5 min/day. Ginger oleoresin was orally administrated in a dose of 60 mg/KgBW/day for seven days. Drinking water was provided ad libitum to all groups. The treatment of ginger oleoresin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA levels and increased SOD activity, as well as immunohistochemicall, increased the content of copper, zinc-SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD in the kidney tissues compared to that of untreated group. The antioxidant content in ginger oleoresin such as shogaol, zingeron, and gingerol, etc. were shownto have activities in the kidney tissues of rats under stress condition that is increasunf the profile of SOD. Ginger oleoresin treatment in combination both before and after stress gave the best result.

  15. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activities and stress protein (HSP72/73, GRP94) expression in kidney and liver of rats under lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Riadh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Bourogaa, Ezzedine; Saoudi, Monji; Murat, Jean-Claude; Croute, Françoise; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-03-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the effects of a subchronic lithium treatment on rat liver and kidneys, paying attention to the relationship between lithium toxicity, oxidative stress, and stress protein expression. Male rats were submitted to lithium treatment by adding 2 g of lithium carbonate/kg of food for different durations up to 1 month. This treatment led to serum concentrations ranging from 0.5 mM (day 7) to 1.34 mM (day 28) and renal insufficiency highlighted by an increase of blood creatinine and urea levels and a decrease of urea excretion. Lithium treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress both in kidney and liver, leading to an increase of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Conversely, glutathione peroxidase activity was reduced. Constitutive HSP73 (heat shock protein 73) expression was not modified by lithium treatment, whereas inducible HSP72 was down-regulated in kidney. GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94) appeared as two isoforms of 92 and 98 kDa: the 98-kDa protein being overexpressed in kidney by lithium treatment whereas 92-kDa protein was underexpressed both in kidney and liver.

  16. Niacin ameliorates kidney warm ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced ventricular dysfunction and oxidative stress and disturbance in mitochondrial metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, S T; Fu, Y H; Yang, Y C; Wang, J J

    2015-05-01

    Kidney ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury-associated acute and chronic kidney injury often leads to cardiac dysfunction, which may involve depletion of intracellular NAD(+) (the oxidized form of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme) and reduction in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined whether treatment with niacin, an antioxidant and a component of NAD+, protects cardiac function and improves myocardial mitochondrial metabolism during kidney I/R injury. Studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley male rats divided into sham-operated, kidney I/R, and niacin-treated kidney I/R groups. Niacin was administered 3 days before the ischemia through 7 days of reperfusion. Kidney ischemia was conducted by bilateral occlusion of renal pedicles for 45 minutes, followed by releasing the clamps and closing the abdominal incision. After 7 days of reperfusion, we measured the cardiac function using a simultaneous pressure-volume catheter, cardiac biomarker (troponin T; cTnT), and kidney injury marker (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen). Myocardial malondialdehyde level and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α mRNA expression also were measured. Kidney I/R injury impairs cardiac function, induces myocardial and kidney injury, and markedly increases myocardial PGC-1α mRNA expression, suggesting utilizing more free fatty acid for ATP production. Niacin treatment improved cardiac function, reduced oxidative stress, and sustained PGC-1α expression (P Niacin improves mitochondrial metabolism and reduced myocardial oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel mutation causing nephronophthisis in the Lewis polycystic kidney rat localises to a conserved RCC1 domain in Nek8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCooke John K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephronophthisis (NPHP as a cause of cystic kidney disease is the most common genetic cause of progressive renal failure in children and young adults. NPHP is characterized by abnormal and/or loss of function of proteins associated with primary cilia. Previously, we characterized an autosomal recessive phenotype of cystic kidney disease in the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat. Results In this study, quantitative trait locus analysis was used to define a ~1.6Mbp region on rat chromosome 10q25 harbouring the lpk mutation. Targeted genome capture and next-generation sequencing of this region identified a non-synonymous mutation R650C in the NIMA (never in mitosis gene a- related kinase 8 ( Nek8 gene. This is a novel Nek8 mutation that occurs within the regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1-like region of the protein. Specifically, the R650C substitution is located within a G[QRC]LG repeat motif of the predicted seven bladed beta-propeller structure of the RCC1 domain. The rat Nek8 gene is located in a region syntenic to portions of human chromosome 17 and mouse 11. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed abnormally long cilia on LPK kidney epithelial cells, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry for Nek8 protein revealed altered cilia localisation. Conclusions When assessed relative to other Nek8 NPHP mutations, our results indicate the whole propeller structure of the RCC1 domain is important, as the different mutations cause comparable phenotypes. This study establishes the LPK rat as a novel model system for NPHP and further consolidates the link between cystic kidney disease and cilia proteins.

  18. Monitoring Lead (Pb Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats

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    Hokuto Nakata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43 and black (R. rattus, n = 98 rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight, Aichi (10.83, Niigata (10.62, Fukuoka (8.09, Ibaraki (5.06, Kyoto (4.58, Osaka (4.57, Kanagawa (3.42, and Tokyo (3.40 were above the threshold (2.50 for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  19. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  20. Effect of cisplatin on proximal convoluted and straight segments of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    lithium clearance (CLi/Cin) and e-TT/OT was observed (from 270 +/- 32 to 387 +/- 60 microliters/min/g kidney weight, 0.202 +/- 0.03 to 0.340 +/- 0.06 and 0.415 +/- 0.02 to 0.497 +/- 0.02, respectively). These increases indicate an increased fluid delivery from both the proximal straight segment...

  1. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  2. 17β Estradiol Modulates Perfusion Pressure and Expression of 5-LOX and CYP450 4A in the Isolated Kidney of Metabolic Syndrome Female Rats

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    A. M. Zúñiga-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and progression of nephropathy depend on sex. We examined a protective effect of estradiol against nephropathy in metabolic syndrome through the modulation of the arachidonic acid metabolism by activating the 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome p450 4A pathways. 28 female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven animals each: control, intact metabolic syndrome, ovariectomized metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome ovariectomized plus estradiol. Blood pressure, body weight, body fat, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-index, albuminuria, and TNF-α were increased in ovariectomized metabolic syndrome rats (p<0.001. The perfusion pressure in isolated kidneys of ovariectomized metabolic syndrome rats in presence of 4 μg of arachidonic acid was increased. The inhibitors of the arachidonic acid metabolism Baicalein, Miconazole, and Indomethacin in these rats decreased the perfusion pressure by 57.62%, 99.83%, and 108.5%, respectively and they decreased creatinine clearance and the arachidonic acid percentage. Phospholipase A2 expression in the kidney of ovariectomized metabolic syndrome rats was not modified. 5-lipoxygenase was increased in metabolic syndrome ovariectomized rats while cytochrome p450 4A was decreased. In conclusion, the loss of estradiol increases renal damage while the treatment with estradiol benefits renal function by modulating arachidonic acid metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome p450 4A pathways.

  3. Beneficial modification of functional renal parameters in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by nutraceutical. In view of a kidney-protective intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Matsuko; Sweed, Hala; Catanzaro, Roberto; Kumari, Archana; Bomba, Alojz; Minelli, Emilio; Polimeni, Ascanio; Solimene, Umberto; Marotta, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the potential beneficial effects of a novel phytoterapeutic formula (DTS, Kyotsu Jigyo, Japan) on renal function and morphological structure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Male Spraque-Dawley rats, 240-280 g, were divided into sham control (Group A) and nephrectomized (Group B and Group C) groups. The 5/6 nephrectomy was performed by removal of the right kidney and 2/3 ligation of left renal artery. After surgery, the animals were kept in individual cage for 6 weeks. Rats in Group A and Group B were fed with a normal protein diet only while those in Group C were fed normal protein diet added with DTS (10 mg/rat/day). The DTS supplementation was started a day after surgery. After 5 weeks, all rats were subjected to renal function study and then their left kidneys were isolated for morphological study. There were no significant differences in body weight, blood pressure, and heart rate among groups. DTS supplementation significantly increased (pfunction without any morphological effect in 5/6 nephrectomized rats if not a slight preservation.(www.actabiomedica.it).

  4. Berberine ameliorates chronic kidney injury caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease through the suppression of NFκB signaling pathway in rats.

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    Xin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired renal function in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARD may be the result of crosstalk between atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis and amplified oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Berberine (BBR regulates cholesterol metabolism and exerts antioxidant effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that BBR treatment may ameliorate ARD-induced kidney injury through its cholesterol-lowering effect and also suppression of the pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and NFκB activation. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to unilateral renal artery stenosis with silver-irritant coil, and then fed with 12-week hypercholesterolemic diet. Rats with renal artery stenosis were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 each - ARD, or ARD+BBR - according to diet alone or in combination with BBR. Similarly, age-matched rats underwent sham operation and were also fed with hypercholesterolemic diet alone or in combination with BBR as two corresponding controls. Single-kidney hemodynamic metrics were measured in vivo with Doppler ultrasound to determine renal artery flow. The metrics reflecting hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, renal structure and function, inflammation and NFκB activation were measured, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control rats, ARD rats had a significant increase in urinary albumin, plasma cholesterol, LDL and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity. When exposed to 12-week BBR, ARD rats had significantly lower levels in blood pressure, LDL, urinary albumin, and TBARS. In addition, there were significantly lower expression levels of iNOS and TGF-β in the ARD+BBR group than in the ARD group, with attenuated NFκB-DNA binding activity and down-regulated protein levels of subunits p65 and p50 as well as IKKβ. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BBR can improve hypercholesterolemia and redox status in the kidney, eventually ameliorating

  5. Effect of oleuropein against chemotherapy drug-induced histological changes, oxidative stress, and DNA damages in rat kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatime Geyikoglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is responsible for a large number of renal failures, and it is still associated with high rates of mortality today. Oleuropein (OLE presents a plethora of pharmacological beneficial properties. In this study we investigated whether OLE could provide sufficient protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. With this aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: control; 7 mg/kg/d cisplatin, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg OLE; and treatment with OLE for 3 days starting at 24 hours following cisplatin injection. After exposure to the chemotherapy agent and OLE, oxidative DNA damage was quantitated in the renal tissue of experimental animals by measuring the amount of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG adducts. Malondialdehyde (MDA level, total oxidative stress (TOS, and total antioxidant status (TAS were assessed to determine the oxidative injury in kidney cells. The histology of the kidney was examined using four different staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin (H&E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS, Masson trichrome, and amyloid. In addition, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN, uric acid (UA, and creatinine (CRE levels were established. Our experimental data showed that tissue 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in the cisplatin group when compared to the control group. The glomerular cells were sensitive to cisplatin as tubular cells. In addition, treatment with cisplatin elevated the levels of BUN, UA, CRE, and TOS, but lowered the level of TAS compared to the control group. The OLE therapy modulated oxidative stress in order to restore normal kidney function and reduced the formation of 8-OHdG induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, the OLE treatment significantly reduced pathological findings in renal tissue. We demonstrate for the first time that OLE presents significant cytoprotective properties against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity by restoring the antioxidant system of the renal tissue

  6. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic, it was close to the normal level (p garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  7. The effects of chronic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to rats on the levels of endogenous EGF in the submandibular glands and kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jøgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    influenced the amount of endogenous EGF in the SMG and kidneys. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of placebo (n = 16) or human recombinant EGF (150 micrograms/kg per day, n = 8) for 4 weeks. Urine was sampled the last 24 h of the study period. At the time of killing......-treated animals (1.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.08 g, P excretions were not changed. In conclusion, chronic systemic treatment with EGF causes growth of the SMG with concomitantly reduced contents of EGF, and growth of the kidneys with unchanged content and excretion of EGF...

  8. The Antidiabetic Activity of Curry Leaves “Murraya Koenigii” on the Glucose Levels, Kidneys, and Islets of Langerhans of Rats with Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

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    Imad M Al-Ani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to explore the antihyperglycemic effect of curry leaves, Murraya koenigii "MK" aqueous extract, and to examine its possible protective effects on the islets of Langerhans and kidneys of streptozotocin (STZ diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n=6; normal control, normal treated with "MK" control, diabetic control (non-treated with "MK", diabetic treated with 200 mg/kg MK aqueous leaf extract and diabetic treated with 400 mg/kg MK aqueous leaf extract. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored gravimetrically. The animals were sacrificed on the 30th day; the kidney and pancreatic tissues were processed for histological studies. Results: The diabetic group showed considerable loss of body weight and increase in blood glucose levels and degeneration of the glomeruli and renal convoluted tubules and atrophied islets with disintegration of β-cells. Treatment of diabetic rats with MK extract showed significant (p < 0.001 improvement in blood glucose levels and body weight gain. The MK extract also caused an improvement in tissue injury induced by STZ injection in the kidney and islets of Langerhans. Conclusions: These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of MK aqueous extract against cellular oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Molecular Adaptations in the Hippocampal Synaptic Active Zone of Chronic Mild Stress-Unsusceptible Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Liu, Zhao; Yu, Jia; Han, Xin; Fan, Songhua; Shao, Weihua; Chen, Jianjun; Qiao, Rui; Xie, Peng

    2015-09-12

    While stressful events are recognized as an important cause of major depressive disorder, some individuals exposed to life stressors maintain normal psychological functioning. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Abnormal transmission and plasticity of hippocampal synapses have been implied to play a key role in the pathoetiology of major depressive disorder. A chronic mild stress protocol was applied to separate susceptible and unsusceptible rat subpopulations. Proteomic analysis using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differential proteins in enriched hippocampal synaptic junction preparations. A total of 4318 proteins were quantified, and 89 membrane proteins were present in differential amounts. Of these, SynaptomeDB identified 81 (91%) having a synapse-specific localization. The unbiased profiles identified several candidate proteins within the synaptic junction that may be associated with stress vulnerability or insusceptibility. Subsequent functional categorization revealed that protein systems particularly involved in membrane trafficking at the synaptic active zone exhibited a positive strain as potential molecular adaptations in the unsusceptible rats. Moreover, through STRING and immunoblotting analysis, membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a and Munc18-1 appear to coregulate syntaxin-1/SNAP25/VAMP2 assembly at the hippocampal presynaptic active zone of unsusceptible rats, facilitating SNARE-mediated membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release, and may be part of a stress-protection mechanism in actively maintaining an emotional homeostasis. The present results support the concept that there is a range of potential protein adaptations in the hippocampal synaptic active zone of unsusceptible rats, revealing new investigative targets that may contribute to a better understanding of stress insusceptibility. © The Author 2015. Published by

  10. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Danijela; Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  11. Antioxidant Protection against Pathological Mycotoxins Alterations on Proximal Tubules in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA was one of the mycotoxins and received attention worldwide because of the hazard it posed to human and animal health, where the kidney was the primary target organ for OTA toxicity. In the other hand, dates served as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food.Methods: The study was performed in the department of biology in King Abdulaziz University. Animals were gavage administrated and divided into four groups: first group received (sodium bicarbonate, second group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W. /day, third group received (1mg Ajwa/kg B.W. / day and fourth group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W./day+ 1mg Ajwa /kg B.W. / day. Serum (creatinine - urea levels were measured in each group at the time of tissue collection , some biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for light microscopy processing stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H& E., Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS and Masson´s Trichrome (M.T..Other biopsies were immediately collected into electron microscopy processing. Results: After 28 days, a significant decrease in body weight, kidney weight and relative weight was detected in OTA treated group. Also, Serum (creatinine - urea level were elevated .The normal cyto-architecture of proximal tubules were lost exhibiting damaged bruch border, degenerated, binucleated and karyomegalic cells. The most destructed ultra-structure was the mitochondria which severely swollen with disintegrated membranes. In Ajwa Date extract-group the proximal tubules were normal, whereas in Ajwa date extract + OTA -group the severity of the lesions was significantly reduced. Conclusion: The present results indicated that, Ajwa date have protective effects and ameliorated the lesions of Ochratoxin nepherotoxicity which might lead to kidney failure.

  12. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and calcium kits were products of Quimica Clinica. Applicada SA (QCA), Spain, purchased from Equator. Medics, Benin City, Nigeria. Experimental Animals and Management. Forty-eight post weaned healthy albino rats (Rattus novergicus) of average weight 84.20g were obtained from the Animal Unit of Lagos University ...

  13. Effects of ethanol extract of propolis on histopathological changes and anti-oxidant defense of kidney in a rat model for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameni, Hamid Reza; Ramhormozi, Parisa; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Safari, Manouchehr

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Propolis and its constituents have a wide range of medicinal properties against oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-oxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of propolis on kidneys in diabetes mellitus rats. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: control, diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus with vehicle treatment, diabetes mellitus with propolis treatment (100 mg/kg) and diabetes mellitus with propolis treatment (200 mg/kg). Diabetes mellitus in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic groups were treated with vehicle or ethanolic extracts of Iranian propolis for 6 weeks. Serum concentration of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The results showed that Iranian propolis significantly inhibited bodyweight loss in diabetes mellitus rats. The propolis extracts significantly reduced serum glucose levels and kidney weight in diabetes mellitus rats (P propolis extracts significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P propolis extract significantly reduced the glomerular basement membrane thickness and glomerular area. The present study results showed that the Iranian propolis extract could enhance the anti-oxidant levels and histopathological changes in the kidneys of rats. The final results showed that most of the favorable effects of propolis are mediated by a reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes".

  15. Oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney of female rats exposed to low doses of deltamethrin (DM): a molecular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Issam; Grissa, Intissar; Bensassi, Fatma; Hrira, Mohamed Yahia; Haouem, Samir; Haouas, Zohra; Bencheikh, Hassen

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate histopathological alterations of the liver and kidney of female rats exposed to low doses of DM and its potential genotoxic activity. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (3 groups, 6 rats in each) and treatment groups (3 groups, 6 rats in each). They were subjected to subcutaneous injections of DM (at doses of 0.003, 0.03, and 0.3 mg/kg bw/d) after 30, 45, and 60 d, respectively. Significant alterations were recorded in liver parenchyma induced by hepatic vacuolization, fragmented chromatin in nuclei, dilatation of sinusoids and congestions. Lesions within proximal and distal tubules were observed in the kidneys. Tissue congestions and severe alterations within glomeruli were visible. DM as a pyrethroid insecticide induced significant increase (P≤0.05) of plasma MDA concentrations after 45 d. A significant increase (P≤0.05) in plasma ALT (after 45 and 60 d) and AST (after 60 d) concentrations was recorded as compared to controls. During the whole experimental period the toxic agent provoked significant DNA damages (P≤0.05), especially in the dominance of classes 3 and 4 of obtained comet. DM even at a very low dose displays harmful effects by disrupting hepatic and renal function and causing DNA damages in puberscent female rats. Low doses of DM are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P sulforaphane low and middle dose groups ((69.12 ± 8.63), (64.43 ± 6.58) U/mg) were higher than those in the high-fat group((53.03 ± 5.70) U/mg)(t values were -3.82 and -2.71, P 0.05). High-fat diet can induce the mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction in kidney, and sulforaphane shows protective effect on the kidney mitochondrial complex from oxidative damage in obese rats induced by high-fat diet.

  17. Protective Effects of Vitamin E and/or Quercetin Co-Supplementation on the Morphology of Kidney in Cyclosporine A-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Mostafavi Pour; Mahmood Vessal; Fatemeh Zal; Zahra Khoshdel; Simin Torabinejad

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a nephrotoxic immunosuppressivedrug. Antioxidants might attenuate its toxicity. Inthe present study, the effects of vitamin E and quercetin on themorphology of kidney in CsA-treated rats were investigated.Methods: Six groups of rats were used in this gavage feedingstudy either for 4 or 8 weeks. Groups 1 and 2 received eitherolive oil or 25% ethanol in olive oil per day. Group 3 receivedCsA (25 mg/kg/day) in olive oil. All other groups received CsAplus the f...

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Therapy Modulates Nrf2-Keap1 in Kidney from Rats with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; Tostado-González, Montserrat; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the relationship of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-Keap1 system in diabetic nephropathy. The experimental groups were control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The renal function, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, oxidative stress, morphology, and nephrin expression were assessed. Diabetic group showed impaired renal function in association with oxidative stress and decreased Nrf2 nuclear translocation. These results were associated with increased mesangial matrix index, interstitial fibrosis, and increased nephrin expression in cortex and urine excretion. Additionally, interleukin-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in plasma and kidney. MMF treatment conserved renal function, prevented renal structural alterations, and partially prevented the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines overexpression. Despite that MMF treatment induced nephrin overexpression in renal tissue, preventing its urinary loss. MMF salutary effects were associated with a partial prevention of oxidative stress, increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and conservation of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue. In conclusion, our results confirm that inflammation is a key factor in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and suggest that treatment with MMF protects the kidney by an antioxidant mechanism, possibly regulated at least in part by the Nrf2/Keap1 system, in addition to its well-known anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26955430

  19. Renal Fibrosis mRNA Classifier: Validation in Experimental Lithium-Induced Interstitial Fibrosis in the Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hans-Peter; Jeffs, Aaron; Scherer, Andreas; Leader, John; Leader, Catherine; Bedford, Jennifer; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of fibrosis is of paramount clinical importance. A human fibrosis classifier based on metzincins and related genes (MARGS) was described previously. In this investigation, expression changes of MARGS genes were explored and evaluated to examine whether the MARGS-based algorithm has any diagnostic value in a rat model of lithium nephropathy. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were divided into 2 groups (n = 6). One group was given a diet containing lithium (40 mmol/kg food for 7 days, followed by 60mmol/kg food for the rest of the experimental period), while a control group (n = 6) was fed a normal diet. After six months, animals were sacrificed and the renal cortex and medulla of both kidneys removed for analysis. Gene expression changes were analysed using 24 GeneChip® Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Statistically relevant genes (p-value1.5, t-test) were further examined. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), CD44, and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) were overexpressed in the medulla and cortex of lithium-fed rats compared to the control group. TGFβ2 was overrepresented in the cortex of lithium-fed animals 1.5-fold, and 1.3-fold in the medulla of the same animals. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), both the medulla and cortex of lithium-fed animals showed an enrichment of the MARGS, TGFβ network, and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene sets, while the cortex expression signature was enriched in additional fibrosis-related-genes and the medulla was also enriched in immune response pathways. Importantly, the MARGS-based fibrosis classifier was able to classify all samples correctly. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR confirmed the up-regulation of NOV, CD44, and TGFβ2. The MARGS classifier represents a cross-organ and cross-species classifier of fibrotic conditions and may help to design a test to diagnose and to monitor fibrosis. The results also provide evidence for a common pathway in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.

  20. Assessment of Myo‌inositol and Crocin Effects on RAGE and TGF? Gene Expression in the Kidney of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadat Heidary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the micro vascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia results in the formation of glycated proteins and activation of pathways leading to diabetic nephropathy. Increasing RAGE and TGF? production in the kidney tissue is a major pathway involved in diabetic complications. In this survey, the effect of myoinositol and Crocin on RAGE and TGF? expression in the kidney of diabetic rats was studied. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study after rendering rats with diabetes with strepto-zotocin, they were treated with oral 1% myoinositol and injection of 100 mg/kg BW crocin for 12 weeks. Changes in both RAGE and TGF? expressions in the kidney tissue were as-sessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. The data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software and one way ANOVA and Tukey statisticaly tests. Results: Crocin administration caused a significant reduction in the RAGE and TGF? expres-sion in comparison with the untreated diabetic rats. Oral administration of myoinositol could not induce any significant changes in the expression of both genes in the diabetic rats. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, crocin has the ability to block pathways leading to diabetic nephropathy through reducing RAGE and TGF? expression in the kidney tissue, maybe through its ability to reduce the serum glucose and AGEs, and antioxidant ac-tivity. Considering the positive effects of myoinositol in diabetic complications in previous studies, more studies are needed to find the mechanism of its action. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:122-130

  1. Icariin protects rats against 5/6 nephrectomy-induced chronic kidney failure by increasing the number of renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongdi; He, Liqun; Huang, Di; Lei, Shi; Gao, Jiandong

    2015-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease poses a serious health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence and lack of effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of icariin in alleviating chronic renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. The chronic renal failure model was established by a two-phased 5/6 nephrectomy procedure. The model rats were given daily doses of water or icariin for 8 weeks. The kidney morphology was checked by HE staining. The levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured by colometric methods. The expression of specified genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The number of renal stem/progenitor cells was analyzed by CD133 and CD24 immunohistochemical staining. Icariin protected against CDK-caused damages to kidney histology and improved renal function, significantly reduced levels of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid. Icariin inhibited the expression level of TGF-β1 whereas upregulated HGF, BMP-7, WT-1, and Pax2 expression. Moreover, ccariin significantly increased the expression of CD24, CD133, Osr1, and Nanog in remnant kidney and the numbers of CD133(+)/CD24(+) renal stem/progenitor cells. These data demonstrated that icariin effectively alleviated 5/6 nephrectomy induced chronic renal failure through increasing renal stem/progenitor cells.

  2. Damage caused by two finnish mushrooms, Cortinarius speciosissimus and Cortinarius gentilis on the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, M; Nieminen, L; Heikkilä, H

    1975-01-01

    The toxicity of two mushroom species found in Finland, Cortinarius speciosissimus and Cortinarius gentilis, on the rat was studied. Dried, homogenized mushroom was given orally by stomach tubing. A dose of 500 mg dried mushroom/kg body weight, was used. It was demonstrated that both species caused renal damage. No damage could be shown in other organs. The renal histopathological changes corresponded to those of tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The sensitivity of different individuals to the fungal toxins varied greatly.

  3. Pharmacological characterisation and autoradiographic localisation of a putative dopamine D3 receptor in the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, P; Ricci, A; Baldoni, E; Mignini, F; Amenta, F

    1997-10-29

    The pharmacological profile and the microanatomical localisation of a putative dopamine D3 receptor in the rat renal cortex were investigated using radioligand binding assay and light microscope autoradiography techniques. [3H]7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetraline ([3H]7-OH-DPAT) was used as a ligand. [3H]7-OH-DPAT was bound specifically to sections of renal cortex. The binding was time-, temperature- and concentration-dependent, of high affinity and guanine nucleotide-insensitive. The dissociation constant (Kd) value was 0.57 +/- 0.02 nM and the maximum density of binding sites (Bmax) was 62.4 +/- 3.5 fmol/mg tissue. The pharmacological profile of [3H]7-OH-DPAT binding to sections of rat renal cortex suggests the labelling of a dopamine D3 receptor. Light microscope autoradiography revealed the accumulation of the radioligand primarily within cortical tubules and to a lesser extent in the glomerular tuft. In glomeruli, binding sites were found mainly in mesangium and mesangial cells. The demonstration of a putative dopamine D3 receptor in slide-mounted sections of rat renal cortex suggests that appropriate radioligand binding assay techniques combined with autoradiography, may contribute to characterise peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes.

  4. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae, Stigma maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction’s ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  5. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S.; O'Neill, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:27579048

  6. Effects of adenosine on renin release from isolated rat glomeruli and kidney slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Baumbach, L

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine produced by the macula densa cells in response to changes in the tubular NaCl-concentration has been suggested to inhibit renin release in vivo. In order to test this suggestion we studied: incubated kidney cortical slices (KS) which contain both the macula densa and the entire afferent...... was used. The specificity of the renin release process was validated by measuring adenylate kinase as a marker for cytoplasmatic leak. Adenosine (10 micrograms/ml) halved basal renin release from incubated KS as compared to controls (P less than 0.001, n = 8, 8). Renin release from LAG stimulated...... by calcium depletion was also inhibited (P less than 0.05, n = 8, 9) whereas basal release was not affected (n = 6, 12). No effect was detected neither on basal nor on calcium stimulated renin release from SAG. We conclude that adenosine inhibits renin release in vitro by a mechanism independent...

  7. Biological responses to perfluorododecanoic acid exposure in rat kidneys as determined by integrated proteomic and metabonomic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA is a perfluorinated carboxylic chemical (PFC that has broad applications and distribution in the environment. While many studies have focused on hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity of PFCAs, few have investigated renal toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used comparative proteomic and metabonomic technologies to provide a global perspective on renal response to PFDoA. Male rats were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of PFDoA for 110 days. After 2-D DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, 79 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the PFDoA treated rats (0.2 and 0.5 mg-dosed groups were successfully identified. These proteins were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, electron transport, and stress response. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic analysis showed an increase in pyruvate, lactate, acetate, choline, and a variety of amino acids in the highest dose group. Furthermore, the profiles of free amino acids in the PFDoA treated groups were investigated quantitatively by high-coverage quantitative iTRAQ-LC MS/MS, which showed levels of sarcosine, asparagine, histidine, 1-methylhistidine, Ile, Leu, Val, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Cys, and Met increased markedly in the 0.5 mg dosed group, while homocitrulline, α-aminoadipic acid, β-alanine, and cystathionine decreased. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations provide evidence that disorders in glucose and amino acid metabolism may contribute to PFDoA nephrotoxicity. Additionally, α(2u globulin may play an important role in protecting the kidneys from PFDoA toxicity.

  8. Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and α,β -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katakura Masanori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production induced by α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation end products causes renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW increases the H2 level in blood and tissues, thus reducing oxidative stress in animals as well as humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of HRW on glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS generation in vitro and in vivo. Methods Kidney homogenates from Wistar rats were incubated in vitro with glucose and α,β-dicarbonyl compounds containing HRW, following which ROS levels were measured. In vivo animal models of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats, were treated with HRW for 16 weeks, following which renal ROS production and plasma and renal α,β-dicarbonyl compound levels were measured by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Results HRW inhibited glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS production in kidney homogenates from Wistar rats in vitro. Furthermore, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats treated with HRW showed a 34% decrease in ROS production. Moreover, their renal glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone levels decreased by 81%, 77%, and 60%, respectively. Positive correlations were found between renal ROS levels and renal glyoxal (r = 0.659, p = 0.008 and methylglyoxal (r = 0.782, p = 0.001 levels. Conclusion These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Antioxidant effects of melatonin and coenzyme Q10 on oxidative damage caused by single-dose ochratoxin A in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Aydin; Isikli, Burhanettin; Aral, Erinc; Degirmenci, Irfan; Sutken, Emine; Baycu, Cengiz

    2010-10-31

    In the study, the effects of relatively high single-dose of Ochratoxin A (OTA) and the antioxidant effects of Melatonin (Mel) and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on OTA-induced oxidative damages in rats were investigated. A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of 7 rats each: Control, OTA, Mel+OTA and CoQ10+OTA groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the plasma and glutathione (GSH) levels in whole blood were measured; kidneys (for histological inspection and for apoptosis detection by TUNEL method) and bone marrow samples (for chromosome aberration and mitotic index) were taken. The rats in the OTA group showed limited degeneration of tubular cells. In some tubules karyomegaly, desquamated cells and vacuolization were observed by light microscopy. Mel and CoQ10 treatment significantly reduced the severity of the lesions. MDA levels of the OTA group were significantly higher than the control, OTA+Mel and OTA+CoQ10 groups, while GSH levels were significantly lower than the control, OTA+Mel and OTA+CoQ10 groups. Higher incidences of apoptotic bodies were observed in the kidneys of the OTA group although OTA administration did not significantly change the incidence of apoptotic bodies when compared to the control and antioxidant administrated groups. Although the percentage of the mitotic index was lowest in the OTA group, no statistical difference was found among the groups. Additionally, OTA had no numerical and structural significant effects on chromosomes. It was observed that single-dose OTA administration caused oxidative damages in rat kidney and Mel or CoQ10 treatment appeared to ameliorate the OTA-induced tissue injuries.

  10. Microdissection studies of the structural alterations induced in rat kidneys by experimental postischemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, G H; Studnicki, F M; Hashida, Y

    1987-01-01

    A unique opportunity presented itself for a morphologic study of experimental unilateral acute renal failure (ARF) in male rats. The ARF had been induced in the rats by temporary occlusion (1h) of the left renal artery. Twenty-nine rats were divided into subsets as follows: 2-3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following release of occlusion. Microdissection showed a heterogeneous population of abnormally structured proximal tubules in which the regressive lesions of tubular necrosis were combined with the progressive reaction of repair. The lesions demonstrated are reminiscent of those which have been described in ARF in the human and in experimental animals. Many proximal tubules in the 2- to 3-hour subset presented 1-3 disruptive lesions (DLs) while greater numbers of proximal tubules from the 24-hour group presented 1-5 DLs. Many proximal tubules presented no DLs, but nearly all from the 24-hour subset (97-100%) displayed a squamate appearance which paralleled and was caused by acute tubular necrosis. At 1 week, a dilated pars recta was common, but by this time, the squamate pattern had disappeared. Many casts were present. At 2 weeks, many fewer casts were present in proximal tubules and none were seen at 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The nephrons, particularly the proximal tubules, presented a variety of structural alterations at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes of special interest include (1) the presence of swan-necks; (2) a distinctive squamate appearance of the proximal tubules in the animals killed at 24 h; (3) a spiral, curled appearance caused by differential hyperplasia in animals at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and (4) a tendency for ischemic lesions to involve all layers of the renal cortex.

  11. Estudo comparativo do comprimento renal em ratos obtido pelo ultra-som e pelo paquímetro Rats kidney length comparative study, obtained by ultrasound and pachimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mika Kamigawa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o comprimento renal em ratos obtido pelo ultra-som e pelo paquímetro. Foi medido o comprimento renal de 36 rins de 18 ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, com peso médio de 208 gramas. As medidas foram realizadas por dois observadores, denominados observador 1 e observador 2. Os valores obtidos por ultra-som dos observadores 1 e 2 foram, em média, respectivamente, 1.92 cm e 1.92 cm para o rim direito e 1.91 cm e 1.92 cm para o rim esquerdo. Essa diferença não foi significante. Os valores obtidos por ultra-som e por paquímetro, pelo observador 1, dos rins direito e esquerdo foram, em média, 1.92 cm e 1.80 cm. Essa diferença foi significante, mostrando que o comprimento obtido pelo ultra-som foi maior que pelo paquímetro. Concluiu-se que o comprimento renal no rato, obtido pelo ultra-som, é maior do que o observado pelo paquímetro.The aim of this experiment was to compare the kidney length in rats obtained by ultrasound and pachimeter. Length measurement was taken from 36 kidneys of 18 208-grams-average-weight Wistar male adult rats. The measurements were taken by two observers. The average values obtained by observer 1 and 2 through ultrasound were, respectively 1.92 cm / 1.92cm for the right kidney and 1.91 cm and 1.92 cm for the left kidney. This difference is not significant. The average values obtained through ultrasound and pachimeter by observer 1 were 1.92 cm for the right kidney and 1.80cm for the left kidney. This difference is significant. The conclusion is that the rat kidney length obtained through ultrasound is higher that the one observed by pachimeter.

  12. Impact of e-cigarette refill liquid exposure on rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golli, Narges El; Jrad-Lamine, Aicha; Neffati, Hajira; Dkhili, Houssem; Rahali, Dalila; Dallagi, Yosra; El May, Michele V; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2016-06-01

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette), the alternative to classic cigarettes are becoming extremely popular but their safety is not still established. Recent studies have showed cytotoxic effects of the electronic cigarette and its recharge e-liquid, in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate e-cigarette liquid nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 32 rats were treated for 28 days as follows: Control group was injected intraperitoneally with NaCl 9 g/l; e-cigarette 0% treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid without nicotine diluted in NaCl 9 g/l, e-cigarette treated group, received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid containing 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l and nicotine-treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l. In nicotine group, creatinine level was increased, whereas urea and acid uric levels were decreased. In e-liquid-exposed groups, levels of uric acid and mainly urea were lower. Interestingly, after e-liquid exposure, oxidative stress status showed increased total protein and sulfhydril content, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased. However, the levels of lipid peroxides were not increased after e-liquid exposure. Histological studies identified excess of cells with reduced and dark nuclei exclusively located in the renal collecting ducts. Thus, e-liquid seems to alter anti-oxidant defense and to promote minor changes in renal function parameters. This preliminary study raises some flags about possible nephrotoxicity of e-cigarette liquids in rats. As some features observed in rats may not be observed in human smokers, additional studies are needed to further qualify conclusions that might be applicable to actual users of e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of amber acid on the kidney function in gentamycin-induced nephropathy in white rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozhenko, A I; Vladymyrova, M P; Topor, O A

    2006-01-01

    The amber acid neutralized by 10 % solution of NaOH in a concentration of 250 mmoL/L was administered subcutaneously simultaneously with intraperitonal injection of gentamycin in a doze of 10 mg/kg(bw) once a day during 7 days to the ten nonlinear white male rats, weight 100-120 g exposed to the water-induced diuresis. In these experiments the positive action of an amber acid as energy substratum on some renal function tests was shown: improvement of reabsorbtion in proximal tubules, proved by proteinuria decrease, subsequent normalization of glomerular filtrations followed by uremia reduction and diminishing of other signs of acute renal failure.

  14. Effects of arotinolol, an alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, on renin release from rat kidney cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Miyawaki, N; Sasaki, Y; Matsumura, Y

    1986-06-01

    The effects of arotinolol on changes in renin release in rat kidney cortical slices in response to isoproterenol (IP) or norepinephrine (NE), were studied in comparison with those of AC-623, a main metabolite of arotinolol, and other typical adrenoceptor antagonists. Arotinolol, at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/l, inhibited the increasing effect of 10(-6) mol/l IP on renin release, in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar results were observed with AC-623, propranolol or labetalol, although the inhibitory potencies of these agents were considerably lower than that of arotinolol. The blocking effect of arotinolol on the 10(-5) mol/l NE-induced decrease in renin release was much less potent than seen with other alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agents such as prazosin, phenoxybenzamine and labetalol. These data suggest that the potent blocking effects of arotinolol and its metabolite on the increased renin release in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation may contribute to the antihypertensive effect of this agent.

  15. In vivo study of transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) in proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney by synchronization modulation electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, Mathis; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization modulation (SM) electric field has been shown to effectively activate function of Na(+)/K(+) pumps in various cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocyte, monolayer of cultured cell line, and peripheral blood vessels. We are now reporting the in vivo studies in application of the SM electric field to kidney of living rats. The field-induced changes in the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) or the lumen potential from the proximal convoluted tubules were monitored. The results showed that a short time (20 s) application of the SM electric field can significantly increase the magnitude of TEPD from 1-2 mV to about 20 mV. The TEPD is an active potential representing the transport current of the Na/K pumps in epithelial wall of renal tubules. This study showed that SM electric field can increase TEPD by activation of the pump molecules. Considering renal tubules, many active transporters are driven by the Na(+) concentration gradient built by the Na(+)/K(+) pumps, activation of the pump functions and increase in the magnitude of TEPD imply that the SM electric field may improve reabsorption functions of the renal tubules.

  16. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif O. Al-Harbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  17. Effect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1 h/d for 60 d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1 h/d for 60 d then left for 30 d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal.

  18. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage.

  19. Effects of anionic xenobiotics on rat kidney. I--Tissue and mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, J B; Krall, A R; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-15

    The polar 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) metabolite, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (DDA), and the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), were previously shown to be accumulated to high levels in liver and kidney via the organic acid transport system, raising the possibility of organ-specific toxicity secondary to transport. In these studies, accumulation of DDA was shown to depress oxygen consumption by renal cortical slices at high doses (0.1 and 1mM). Isolated renal and hepatic mitochondria were uncoupled by low doses of DDA (5-10 nmoles/mg mitochondrial protein. Maximal uncoupling was seen at 50-70 nmoles/mg. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T also produced uncoupling, but at doses of 70 nmoles/mg or higher. All agents were more effective with alpha-ketoglutarate or pyruvate-malate), all three agents also depressed State 3 (ADP-stimulated) respiration. Again, DDA was more effective than 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T. These results suggest that accumulation of these or other anionic xenobiotics may lead to toxicity in those tissues possessing the organic anion transport system.

  20. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  1. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Katiane, E-mail: katianeroversi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Benvegnú, Dalila M., E-mail: dalilabenvegnu@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Roversi, Karine, E-mail: karineroversi-@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Trevizol, Fabíola, E-mail: fatrevizol@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Vey, Luciana T., E-mail: luciana.taschetto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Elias, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.elias@uffs.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Fracasso, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.fra@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  2. Acute effects of methiocarb on oxidative damage and the protective effects of vitamin E and taurine in the liver and kidney of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sibel; Catalgol, Betul; Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Selda; Karatug, Ayse; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-02-01

    Methiocarb (MC) is a widely used carbamate pesticide in agriculture and health programs. Although the main molecular mechanism of carbamate toxicity involves acetylcholinesterase inhibition, studies have also implicated the induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of acute MC exposure on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems, histological changes in Wistar rats and the protective effect of pretreatment with vitamin E and taurine. A total of 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups. Rats in group I were given corn oil, while those in group III were dosed with vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and in group V were dosed with taurine (50 mg/kg b.w.). Rats in group II were administered with MC only (25 mg/kg b.w., 1/4 of median lethal dose (LD(50))), while those in groups IV and VI were pretreated with vitamin E (100 mg/kg b.w.) and taurine (50 mg/kg b.w.) for 20 days, respectively, and then exposed to MC (25 mg/kg b.w.). The rats administered with MC showed significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidney as an index of lipid peroxidation. Levels of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased, while activity of glutathione reductase remained unchanged in both the tissues after MC treatment. Mild degenerative histological changes were observed in liver tissue, while the changes in kidney tissue were more severe then liver after MC treatment. Pretreatment with vitamin E and taurine resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation and alleviating effects on antioxidant defense systems in both the tissues, while protective effects on the histological changes were shown only in kidney when compared with liver. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated that the acute MC exposure in Wistar rats caused oxidative damage on liver and kidney, which were partly ameliorated by the pretreatment of

  3. Structural evidence for counter-current flow in proximal tubules versus pertitubular capillaries in the rat kidney. Evaluation of the counter-current mechanism between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Hegedüs, V

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the very high exchange of water and solutes between the proximal tubules and the peritubular capillaries, very little is known about flow directions in these two interrelated structures. We therefore developed a morphological technique suitable for the quantitative...... evaluation of a counter-current system between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in rat renal cortex. METHODS: In male pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g), India ink was injected into the aorta above the renal arteries, followed by instant freezing...... of the right kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C, and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. In microscopic slides from kidneys in which only 20-55% of the cortical peritubular capillary loops was filled with ink--representing the arterial end of the capillaries--and in which the proximal tubular...

  4. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel

    2014-01-01

    with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which......Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment...... did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)‐diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) 1H‐MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin...

  5. Relationship between Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Biochemical and Bone Histomorphometric Alterations in a Chronic Kidney Disease Rat Model Undergoing Parathyroidectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wei Liao

    Full Text Available Phosphate burden in chronic kidney disease (CKD leads to elevated serum fibroblast factor-23 (FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. However dissociated hyperphosphatemia and low serum FGF-23 concentrations have been observed in experimentally parathyoridectomized rats. The relationships between serum mineral, hormone, and bone metabolism may be altered in the presence of CKD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether a consistent relationship existed between serum FGF-23 levels, specific serum biochemical markers, and histomorphometric parameters of bone metabolism in a parathyroidectomized CKD animal model.Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: parathyroidectomy (PTX and CKD (PTX+CKD, 9 rats, CKD without PTX (CKD, 9 rats, and neither PTX nor CKD (sham-operated control, 8 rats; CKD was induced by partial nephrectomy. At 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy, serum biomarkers were measured. Bone histomorphometries of the distal femoral metaphyseal bone were analyzed. The mean serum FGF-23 levels and mean bone formation rate were the highest in the CKD group and the lowest in the PTX+CKD group. Bone volume parameters increased significantly in the PTX+CKD group. Pearson's correlation revealed that serum FGF-23 levels associated with those of intact parathyroid hormone, phosphate, collagen type I C-telopeptide, and calcium. Univariate linear regression showed that serum FGF-23 values correlated with bone formation rate, bone volume, and osteoid parameters. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that circulating FGF-23 values were independently associated with bone volume and thickness (β = -0.737; p < 0.001 and β = -0.526; p = 0.006, respectively. Serum parathyroid hormone levels independently correlated with bone formation rate (β = 0.714; p < 0.001 while collagen type I C-telopeptide levels correlated with osteoid parameter.Serum FGF-23 levels

  6. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Kidney Disease Community Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  7. Ultrasound-Microbubble-Mediated Gene Transfer of Inducible Smad7 Blocks Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling and Fibrosis in Rat Remnant Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Wansheng; Huang, Xiao R.; Fu, Ping; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Lan, Hui Y.

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to play a critical role in hypertensive nephropathy. We hypothesized that blocking TGF-β1 signaling could attenuate renal fibrosis in a rat model of remnant kidney disease. Groups of six rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy and received renal arterial injection of a doxycycline-regulated Smad7 gene or control empty vector using an ultrasound-microbubble-mediated system. Smad7 transgene expression within the kidney was tightly controlled by the addition of doxycycline in the daily drinking water. All animals were euthanized at week 4 for renal functional and histological examination. Hypertension of equivalent magnitude (190 to 200 mmHg) developed in both Smad7- and empty vector-treated rats. However, treatment with Smad7 substantially inhibited Smad2/3 activation and prevented progressive renal injury by inhibiting the rise of 24-hour proteinuria (P < 0.001) and serum creatinine (P < 0.001), preserving creatinine clearance (P < 0.05), and attenuating renal fibrosis and vascular sclerosis such as collagen I and III expression (P < 0.01) and myofibroblast accumulation (P < 0.001). In conclusion, TGF-β/Smad signaling plays a critical role in renal fibrosis in a rat remnant kidney model. The ability of Smad7 to block Smad2/3 activation and attenuate renal and vascular sclerosis demonstrates that ultrasound-mediated Smad7 gene therapy may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of renal fibrosis in association with hypertension. PMID:15743788

  8. The Effects of Experimental Fresh Water Drowning on the Organ Weights of the Lungs Livers Brains Hearts and Kidneys of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşin Canoğulları Kul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to compare the organ weights in experimentally drowned and post-mortem immersed rats. The experimentations were conducted on 50 rats divided into 5 groups including 10 rats with the consent of Faculty Ethical Committee. The autopsies were done in a total of 50 Wistar Albino adult rats that sacrificed by an anesthetics overdose and subsequently dissected (Group 1: control group, experimental drowned (Group 2, anesthetized and sacrificed with ante-mortem open wounds, immersed for 24 hours (Group 3, sacrificed with an overdose of anesthetics and then immersed for 24 hours (Group 4 and 72 hours (Group 5. The weights of organs obtained during the autopsies were compared among experimentation groups. Whereas lung, liver, brain and right kidney weights decreased in the 72 hours post-mortem immersion group compared to the 24 hours post-mortem immersion group, the mean organ weights for the lung, liver, brain and right kidney increased (with mean increases of 55.1%, 24.3 %, 14.9 % and 10.5 % respectively in the experimental drowning group compared to 24 hours post-mortem immersion group. Only the mean heart weight was not statistically different among the groups. The amount of fluid influx into the alveoli due to hydrostatic pressure is not as much as exogenous water inhaled into the lungs during experimental drowning. The decrease of lung, liver, brain and kidney weights in the 72 hours immersion group might be associated with the effects of putrefaction compared to the 24 hours post-mortem immersion group. Key words: Drowning, post-mortem changes, organ weight.

  9. A Study of the Modulating Action of Quercetin on Biochemical and Histological Alterations Induced by Lead Exposure in the Liver and Kidney of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ghena M.; Sedky, Azza; Elsawy, Hany

    2017-06-30

    Lead is a highly toxic metal and a very potent poison. Lead poisoning is a serious condition but can be treated. Quercetin is a flavonoid with many beneficial uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible modulating action of quercetin as a model of an antioxidant against the toxic effects of lead acetate on liver and kidneys of rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) saline group (control); (ii) lead group received i.p. lead acetate (20 mg/kg b.w.); (iii) quercetin group received i.p. quercetin (50 mg/kg b.w.); (iv) lead and quercetin group received i.p. lead acetate (20 mg/kg b.w.) followed by i.p. quercetin (50 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 weeks. The lead concentrations were determined in the liver and kidney tissues. Liver marker enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, uric acid and urea, were assessed in the serum and light microscopic studies were performed. The results showed that lead acetate administration was associated with an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, urea levels. Lead accumulation in kidneys and liver tissues was also found, but were associated with decrease in albumin and total protein in comparison with the respective mean values of the control. Lead acetate caused numerous histological alterations in the liver, including chronic inflammation, bilary hyperplasia, edema, congestion, Kupffer cells hyperplasia and hemosiderosis, and in the kidney, including tubular dilation, atrophy of glomerular tuft, widening of urinary space and mild fibroblast. In contrary, administration of lead acetate along with quercetin partially restored the studied parameters to normal values and improved structure of liver and kidney with significant decreases in the severity of histopathological changes when compared with the lead acetate group. In conclusion, treatment with quercetin may provide a

  10. Reduction of blood pressure by aronia berries through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aronia berries contain many important effects on potential health, with previous studies suggesting that aronia juice is useful for the treatment of hypertension. Objective:To examine whether aronia berries have improvement effects on hypertension through the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEactivity.Method:The normal diet containing 10% freeze-dried aronia berries was administered to five spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs in each group for 28 days, with their body weight, food intake,and systolic blood pressure being measured. At 28 days after administration of aronia berry-containing diets, the serum, lungs,and kidneys were isolated and used for measurement of ACE activity.Results:In this study, we found that blood pressure in SHRs fed freeze-dried aronia berries-containing diet decreased compared with the blood pressure in SHRs fed normal diet. We also discovered that the catalytic activity of ACE was reduced in the kidney of SHRs fed freeze-dried aronia berries-containing diet but not in the lungs of aronia berries-administered rats. Conclusion: Aronia berries have beneficial effects on the amelioration of hypertension through inhibition of the kidney renin-angiotensin system.

  11. [Effects of total coumarins, essential oil and water extracts of Cnidium monnieri on plasma prostaglandin and cyclic nucleotide in the rats of kidney-yang insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L P; Wu, H; Zhou, Q H

    1993-02-01

    Effects of total coumarins, essential oil and water extracts of Cnidium monnieri on plasma prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2 alpha) and cyclic nucleotide levels in rats of Kidney-Yang insufficiency were studied. 55 rats were divided randomly into 5 groups, Group I was administered orally with saline (normal group), group II was injected with intraperitonally hydrocortison acetate to induce Kidney-Yang insufficiency (control group), group III, group IV and group V (experimental groups) were injected with hydrocortison acetate, the same as group II, and administered orally with the total coumarins, essential oil and water extracts of Fructus Cnidii respectively. The levels of plasma PGE2, PG2 alpha and plasma cAMP, cGMP were measured. In group II, in comparing with those of group I, the levels of plasma PGE2, and PGF2 alpha decreased significantly (P Cnidium monnieri are probably the effective ingredients to invigorate Kidney and strengthen Yang, while the efficacy of essential oil remained unconfirmed.

  12. Protective effect of Salvianolic acid A on ischaemia-reperfusion acute kidney injury in rats through protecting against peritubular capillary endothelium damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuokai; Qi, Dong; Wang, Xuekai; Gao, Zhenfang; Li, Peng; Liu, Wenbo; Tian, Xiao; Liu, Yue; Yang, Mingyan; Liu, Ke; Fan, Huaying

    2018-01-01

    Renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Peritubular capillary (PTC) endothelium damages are an important pathogenesis during I/R AKI. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) possesses various pharmacological activities. The study investigated whether SAA ameliorated I/R AKI through protecting against PTC endothelium damages. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups: control, sham, I/R, and I/R plus SAA (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Rats were subjected to bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 60 min, and killed at 24 hr after reperfusion. Kidney injury, PTC endothelium damages and factors affecting PTC endothelium were evaluated. SAA significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, and reduced urine kidney injury molecule-1 concentration. Simultaneously, SAA alleviated histological damages, prevented PTC endothelium damages, preserved the density of PTC and improved renal hypoxia. Furthermore, SAA inhibited platelet activation, elevated Klotho protein expression and up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. Overall, SAA has protective effects on AKI induced by I/R. Preventing PTC endothelium damages and preserving PTC integrity to improve the renal hypoxia may be the ways for SAA to ameliorate AKI. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for AKI. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. One-year chronic toxicity of madder color in F344 rats--induction of preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions in the kidney and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Shibutani, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Hironori; Takahashi, Miwa; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate chronic toxicity of madder color (MC), a natural food colorant extracted from the roots of Rubia tinctorum L., F344 rats were fed diet containing 0%, 0.2%, 1.0% or 5.0% MC for 53 weeks. Hematological changes including anemia and serum biochemical alterations indicating hepatotoxicity were demonstrated at 5.0% in both sexes. Relative weights of the liver were significantly increased from 1.0% in both sexes, and those of the kidney were significantly increased from 1.0% in males and from 0.2% in females. Histopathologically, atypical renal tubule hyperplasias were increased at 1.0% or higher in both sexes in association with increase of cell proliferative activity in the tubules. A renal cell adenoma was observed in a male rat receiving 5.0% MC. In addition, glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive liver cell foci were significantly increased at 5.0% in both sexes. These results indicate that MC has chronic toxicity targeting kidney, liver and blood cells. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that MC may have the carcinogenic potential in the kidney and the liver.

  14. Protective effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against acute kidney injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEASHAA, HUSSEIN; LOTFY, AHMED; ELHUSSEINI, FATMA; AZIZ, AZZA ABDEL; BAIOMY, AZZA; AWAD, SAMAH; ALSAYED, AZIZA; EL-GILANY, ABDEL-HADY; SAAD, MOHAMED-AHDY A.A.; MAHMOUD, KHALED; ZAHRAN, FATEN; SALEM, DALIA A.; SARHAN, AHMED; GHAFFAR, HASSAN ABDEL; SOBH, MOHAMED

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality and lacking effective management. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the leading causes of AKI in native and transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the prevention of renal IRI in rats. The study was conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) weighing 250–300 g. Rats were randomly assigned to three main groups: i) Sham-operated control group (n=24); ii) positive control group, in which rats were subjected to IRI and were administered culture media following 4 h of IRI (n=24); and iii) ADSC group (n=24), in which rats were administered 1×106 ADSCs via the tail vein following 4 h of IRI. Each main group was further divided according to the timing after IRI into four equal-sized subgroups. Renal function was tested via the measurement of serum creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum and renal tissue homogenate as an indicator of oxidative stress. Histopathological changes were analyzed in different regions of the kidney, namely the cortex, outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM), inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM) and inner medulla. In each region, the scoring system considered active injury changes, regenerative changes and chronic changes. The ADSCs were assessed and their differentiation capability was verified. IRI resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine, serum and tissue MDA levels and a significant reduction in creatinine clearance compared with those in sham-operated rats,. These changes were attenuated by the use of ADSCs. The prominent histopathological changes in the cortex, ISOM and OSOM were reflected in the injury score, which was significantly evident in the positive control group. The use of ADSCs was associated with significantly lowered injury

  15. Long Term Study of Protective Mechanisms of Human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Induced Kidney injury in Sprague-Daweley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhusseini FM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long-term evaluation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the probable renal protective activities of stem cells are lacking up until now. We evaluated the early and long-term role of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this, we determined the kidney tissue level of oxidative stress markers in conjugation with a renal histopathological scoring system of both acute and chronic renal changes. Methods: This study used eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD rats weighing 250-300g. They were assigned into four equal groups (each group n=20: (I Negative control group, rats injected with single dose of 1 ml normal saline. (II Positive control cisplatin, rats injected with a single dose of 5 mg/kg I.P in 1 ml saline. (III Cisplatin and culture media group, rats injected with 0.5 ml of culture media single dose into the tail vein and (IV Cisplatin and ADMSCs group, rats injected with a single dose of 0.5 ml of culture media containing 5 x106ADMSCs into the tail vein one day after cisplatin administration. Each main group was further divided according to the timing of sacrifice into four subgroups (each subgroup n=5. Rats in the subgroup A were sacrificed after 4 days; subgroup B were sacrificed after 7 days; subgroup C were sacrificed after 11 days; and subgroup D were sacrificed after 30 days. Before sacrifice, 24 hrs.-urine was collected using a metabolic cage. Renal function was evaluated through blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Kidney tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide dismutase (SOD and Glutathione (GSH were determined. In addition, histopathological analysis for active injury, regenerative and chronic changes was performed. Results: ADMSCs were characterized and their capability of differentiation was proved. Cisplatin induced a significant

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Kynurenine Aminotransferase II in the Adult Rat Brain Reveals High Expression in Proliferative Zones and Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Clark, Sarah M; Vaughn, Chloe N; Nicholson, James D; Murphy, Kelley J; Mou, Ta-Chung M; Schwarcz, Robert; Hoffman, Gloria E; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2018-01-15

    Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking. Here, we employed quantitative in situ hybridization to analyze the relative expression of KAT II mRNA in the brain of rats under normal conditions and 6 h after the administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Specific hybridization signals for KAT II were detected, with the highest expression in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the rostral migratory stream and the floor of the third ventricle followed by the corpus callosum and the hippocampus. This pattern of mRNA expression was paralleled by differential protein expression, determined by serial dilutions of antibodies (up to 1:1 million), and was confirmed to be primarily astrocytic in nature. The mRNA signal in the SVZ and the hippocampus was substantially increased by the LPS treatment without detectable changes elsewhere. These results demonstrate that KAT II is expressed in the rat brain in a region-specific manner and that gene expression is sensitive to inflammatory processes. This suggests an unrecognized role for kynurenic acid in the brain's germinal zones. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

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    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  18. Gender-related differences in kidney of rats with chronic renal failure.

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    Lemos, Carla C S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Carvalho, Jorge J; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by adaptive mechanisms secondary to the loss of functioning nephrons. Clinical and experimental studies suggest participation of gender-related hormones on renal function and progression of chronic renal failure. We evaluated the effect of castration on renal alterations in male and female Wistar control rats and after 30 days of chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The CRF male group showed higher proteinuria. Glomerular hypertrophy was similar among groups. Podocyte morphology showed disorders of foot processes and thickening of the basement membrane in the CRF male group. The CRF female group showed fewer alterations compared to males. Castration changed the profile in CRF male animals and the filtration barrier was preserved. CRF males showed the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin suggesting an early prefibrotic event in this group. After castration this phenomenon was not observed. Noteworthy, in females, castration exacerbated the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin. In summary, proteinuria was higher in males and appeared early in the course of CRF, probably contributing to fibrotic events. Data were influenced by gender suggesting that male sex hormones aggravate renal alterations.

  19. The Prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes Following Exposure to Radio Frequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model in Rat Liver and Kidney

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    Gholamali Jelodar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency wave (RFW generated by base transceiver station (BTS has been reported to make deleterious effects on liver and kidney, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency wave (RFW-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on this organs by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity including: glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: control, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage, test (exposed to 900MHz RFW and the treated group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW. At the end of the experiment all animals were sacrificed and their liver and kidney were removed and were used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. Results: The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p<0.05. In the treated group vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared to the test group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in liver and kidney, and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  20. Morphometric analysis of muscle fibre types in rat locomotor and postural skeletal muscles in different stages of chronic kidney disease.

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    Flisinski, M; Brymora, A; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Bogucka, J; Walasik, K; Stefanska, A; Strozecki, P; Manitius, J

    2014-08-01

    Muscle weakness and progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass are serious complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenesis of this condition is still poorly understood. The study investigated fibre type distribution and diameter in functionally different skeletal muscles: locomotor, gastrocnemius muscle (MG) and postural, longissimus thoracis muscle (ML) together with an evaluation of metabolic disturbances and nutritional parameters of rats with different stages of CKD. Wistar rats were randomized to a sham operation - CON, uninephrectomy - CKD1/2 or subtotal nephrectomy - CKD5/6. After 4 weeks, serum concentration haemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin (Hp), MCP-1, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured. Muscle specimens were stained for myofibrillary ATPase and NADH-diaphoreses activity according to Ziegan's method. There was a significant increase in the percentage of IID/X with a concomitant decrease of IIB fibres in ML in CKD1/2 vs. CON and CKD5/6. IIB fibre diameters in ML were smaller (53.4±7.3 vs. 58.1±8.1 and 59.8±11.2; p=0.08) for CKD5/6 vs. CKD1/2 and CON, respectively. There were significant differences for CKD5/6 and CKD1/2 vs. CON in: Hb (11.4±3.1; 13.7±0.7 and 14.1±1 g/dl), Hp (1.6±0.6; 1.6±0.6 and 0.7±0.4 mg/ml), AGEs (5.1±0.6; 4.3±1.2 and 4.6±0.9 AU), Hcy (7.2±1.2; 5.1±0.5 and 4.9±0.5 M), MCP-1 (609±255; 489±265 and 292±113 pg/ml), respectively. We concluded that early stages of CKD could induce the process of compensatory fast to slow fibre transformation, while in more advanced CKD this process may be blocked and atrophy of fast-twitch fibres may occur, predominantly in non-locomotor muscles. These disturbances can be secondary to CKD-related metabolic burden and inflammation.

  1. Maternal protein restriction that does not have an influence on the birthweight of the offspring induces morphological changes in kidneys reminiscent of phenotypes exhibited by intrauterine growth retardation rats.

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    Yuasa, Ko; Kondo, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Okada, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Severe restriction of maternal protein intake to 6-8% protein diet results in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birthweight and high risk of metabolic syndrome in the adult life of the offspring. However, little information is available on the effects of maternal protein restriction on offspring under the conditions that does not have an influence on their birthweight of the offspring,. In the present study, pregnant rats were kept on a diet consisting of either 9% (low-protein, Lp rats) or 18% (normal-protein, Np rats) protein by weight/volume/etc. After birth, both Lp and Np rats were kept on a diet containing 18% protein. Neonatal body weight was significantly lower in Lp rats compared to Np rats from 4 days to 5 weeks after birth. While glomerular number per unit volume (1 mm(3) ) of the kidney (Nv) was comparable between Lp and Np rats 4 weeks after birth, the Nv was significantly decreased in Lp rats at 20 weeks after birth. Four and 20 weeks after birth, glomerular sclerosis index, interstitial fibrosis score, and ratio of ED1-positive cell ratio were all significantly higher in Lp compared to Np rats. Transforming growth factor-β1-positive cells were observed in the distal tubules in the kidney of 4- and 20-week-old Lp rats kidneys, but not in those of age-matched Np rats. Altogether, these findings revealed that maternal protein restriction that does not have an influence on the birthweight of the offspring, induces similar changes as those seen in the kidneys of IUGR neonates. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Maternal Hypercholesterolemia Associated with Nicotine Exposure in Adulthood May Induce Kidney Injury in Male Rats if Hypomagnesemia Occurs

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    Claudia M.B. Helou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Maternal hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor to renal injury in rat pups at adulthood, especially if they feed a cholesterol-enriched diet after weaning. However, the renal function of male pups of dams with hypercholesterolemia (PH that were fed a regular chow from weaning to adulthood needs investigation, particularly those exposed to an adverse risk such as nicotine. Methods: We evaluated the renal function of PH animals and we compared the data with those found in male pups of control dams (PC at 3- and 6-month-old by inulin clearance. Moreover, we investigated the effect of nicotine treatment for 8 days in both PH and PC animals at 6 months old via metabolic function studies and by renal histological analysis. Results: Inulin clearance and other renal function parameters were similar in PH and PC animals at 3 and 6 months old. Nevertheless, the PH group showed significant differences with regard to histological analysis despite a similar number of glomeruli. The glomerular area of PH animals was significantly smaller than that measured in PC animals, and the fractional interstitial area was significantly larger in PH animals than that measured in PC animals at 3 months old. With regard to nicotine treatment, we observed a trend for a reduction in creatinine clearance in both PC and PH groups, but only PH animals showed hypomagnesemia and the highest fractional interstitial area. Conclusions: The offspring exposed to a high cholesterol milieu during intrauterine and neonatal life may show a silent kidney injury at adulthood that may be aggravated by nicotine exposure if hypomagnesemia occurs.

  3. Coupled transport of p-aminohippurate by rat kidney basolateral membrane vesicles

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    Pritchard, J.B. (National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1988-10-01

    p-Aminohippuric acid (PAH) transport by basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles isolated from rat renal cortex was stimulated very little by a Na{sup +} gradient (out > in). However, when micromolar concentrations of glutaric acid or {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid were added in the presence of a out > in Na{sup +} gradient, PAH uptake was accelerated >20-fold and an overshoot of greater than fivefold was produced. Other anions, e.g., fumarate, stimulated PAH uptake very modestly under these conditions, and that stimulation was totally prevented by short circuiting, i.e., with K{sup +} (in = out) and valinomycin. Glutarate-stimulated uptake was inhibited by 4-acetamide-4{prime}-({sup 14}C)-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (SITS) and probenecid and was slightly stimulated by the imposition of an inside-negative membrane potential. Furthermore, even in the absence of a Na{sup +} gradient, glutarate-loaded vesicles exhibited a marked acceleration of ({sup 3}H)-PAH uptake (5-fold) and a modest overshoot (2.5-fold). These results suggest an indirect coupling of BLM PAH uptake to the Na{sup +} gradient by a cyclic accumulation (Na{sup +}-dependent) of glutarate followed by its efflux from the vesicle in exchange for PAH. This coupled system was absent in apical membranes. Thus net secretory transport of PAH may entail Na{sup +}-dependent, glutarate-driven PAH uptake at the BLM, followed by the exit of PAH into the lumen down its electrochemical gradient, probably in exchange for other anions, e.g., {sup 36}Cl{sup {minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or OH{sup {minus}}.

  4. Expression of basolateral organic anion and cation transporters in experimental cadmium nephrotoxicity in rat kidney.

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    Ljubojević, Marija; Breljak, Davorka; Herak-Kramberger, Carol M; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolić, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd)-intoxicated experimental animals exhibit impaired renal secretion of organic anions (OA) and cations (OC), indicating their transporters (Oats and Octs) in the proximal tubule (PT) basolateral membrane as possible targets of Cd. To correlate transport data from the literature with the expression of relevant transporters, we performed immunochemical and RT-PCR studies of renal Oats and Octs in the subchronic (treatment with CdCl2; 2 mg Cd/kg b.m./day, for 2 weeks) and acute (treatment with Cd-metallothionein (CdMT); 0.4 mg Cd/kg b.m., 6 or 12 h before killing) models of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the subchronic model, PT exhibited a minor loss of basolateral invaginations and overall unchanged expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and GAPDH proteins and mRNAs, while the expression of Oat and Oct proteins and their mRNAs was strongly downregulated. In the acute model, a time-related redistribution of basolateral transporters to the intracellular vesicular compartment was a major finding. However, 6 h following CdMT treatment, the total abundance of Oat and Oct proteins in the renal tissue remained unchanged, the expression of mRNAs decreased only for Oats, while a limited Oat1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity in the PT apical membrane indicated loss of cell polarity. As tested in rats treated with colchicine, the observed loss/redistribution of basolateral transporters in both models may be independent on microtubules. Therefore, the diminished renal secretion of OA and OC via PT in Cd nephrotoxicity may result from (a) limited loss of secretory surface (basolateral invaginations), (b) selective loss of Oats and Octs, and (c) loss of cell polarity.

  5. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

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    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  6. Genotoxicity of phenacetin in the kidney and liver of Sprague-Dawley gpt delta transgenic rats in 26-week and 52-week repeated-dose studies.

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    Kawamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Masumura, Kenichi; Numazawa, Satoshi; Nohmi, Takehiko

    2014-10-03

    Transgenic rat mutation assays can be used to assess genotoxic properties of chemicals in target organs for carcinogenicity. Mutations in transgenes are genetically neutral and accumulate during a treatment period; thus, assays are suitable for assessing the genotoxic risk of chemicals using a repeated-dose treatment paradigm. However, only a limited number of such studies have been conducted. To examine the utility of transgenic rat assays in repeated-dose studies, we fed male and female Sprague-Dawley gpt delta rats with a 0.5% phenacetin-containing diet for 26 and 52 weeks. A long-term feeding of phenacetin is known to induce renal cancer in rats. Phenacetin administration for 52 weeks in males significantly increased gpt (point mutations) mutant frequency (MF) in the kidney, the target organ of carcinogenesis. In the liver, the nontarget organ of carcinogenesis, gpt MFs were significantly elevated in phenacetin treatment groups of both genders during 26- and 52-week treatments. Furthermore, sensitive to P2 interference (Spi(-)deletions) MF increased in the liver of both genders following 52-week treatment. MFs were higher after treatment for 52 weeks than after treatment for 26 weeks. Frequencies of phenacetin-induced mutations were higher in the liver than in the kidney, suggesting that the intensity of genotoxicity does not necessarily correlate with the induction of tumor formation. Results from gpt delta rat assays of repeated-dose treatments are extremely useful to elucidate the relationship between gene mutations and carcinogenesis in the target organ induced by cancer-causing agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent downregulation of calcium-sensing receptor mRNA in rat parathyroids when severe secondary hyperparathyroidism is reversed by an isogenic kidney transplantation.

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    Lewin, Ewa; Garfia, Bartolome; Recio, Fernando Luque; Rodriguez, Mariano; Olgaard, Klaus

    2002-08-01

    Experimental severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is reversed within 1 wk after reversal of uremia by an isogenic kidney transplantation (KT) in the uremic rats. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in uremia is related to downregulation of CaR and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the parathyroid glands (PG). The aim of this investigation was to examine the expression of CaR and VDR genes after reversal of uremia and HPT in KT rats. 5/6 nephrectomized rats were kept on a normal or high-phosphorus (hP) diet for 8 wk to induce severe HPT (n = 8 in each group). In another group of seven uremic hP rats, uremia was reversed by an isogenic KT and PG were harvested within 1 wk posttransplant. Plasma urea, creatinine, total calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels were measured. Parathyroid CaR and VDR mRNA were measured by quantitative PCR. Uremic hP rats had significantly elevated levels of creatinine, urea, and phosphorus (P rats. After KT, the levels were normalized from day 3 to 7: creatinine from 0.117 +/- 0.016 to 0.050 +/- 0.002 mmol/L; urea from 23 +/- 4 to 7 +/- 0.3 mmol/L; phosphorus from 3.9 +/- 0.6 to 1.5 +/- 0.06 mmol/L; calcium from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 2.5 +/- 0.02 mmol/L. Plasma PTH levels fell from 849 +/- 224 to a normal level of 38 +/- 9 pg/ml (P rats on a standard diet, CaR mRNA was similar to that of normal control rats, whereas VDR mRNA was significantly decreased. In uremic rats kept on hP diet, CaR mRNA was significantly decreased to 26 +/- 7% of control rats (P = 0.01) and VDR mRNA reduced to 36 +/- 11% (P rats, both CaR mRNA and VDR mRNA remained severely reduced (CaR, 39 +/- 7%; VDR, 9 +/- 3%; P rats. In conclusion, circulating plasma PTH levels normalized rapidly after KT, despite persisting downregulation of CaR and VDR gene expression. This indicates that upregulation of CaR mRNA and VDR mRNA is not necessary to induce the rapid normalization of PTH secretion from hyperplastic parathyroid glands.

  8. Protective effect of red wine on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain and kidney induced by feeding high cholesterol in rats.

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    Montilla, Pedro; Espejo, Isabel; Muñoz, Maria C; Bujalance, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Tunez, Isaac

    2006-02-01

    The effect of red wine (400 ml/70 kg) on brain and kidney oxidative stress and antioxidative enzymes activities induced by cholesterol-enriched diet (supplemented with 1.65% of cholesterol (w/w) for 4 weeks) was studied in rats. When red wine (Montilla-Moriles, Cordoba, Spain) was simultaneously supplemented to high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, total cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products in the brain, kidney and erythrocytes significantly decreased compared with the high-cholesterol, while GSH content and antioxidative enzymes activities enhanced. On the other hand, the urinary excretion of urea, creatinine and albumin decreased significantly. These results suggest that red wine may have a neuro-nephroprotective effect against oxidative stress and hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

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    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs a