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Sample records for rat histochemical autoradiographic

  1. Autoradiographic studies of the protein metabolism and histochemical demonstration of the zinc content of the brain in diabetic rats. 1

    Gatzke, H.D.; Wildmeister, W.

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by application of streptozotocin: 40 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin produced a fairly serious diabetes with minimal ketosis, 125 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin caused a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. After 72 hours these animals and also a group of control animals received 308 MBq/animal 3 H-leucine intraperitoneally. By means of stripping film autoradiograms the rates of uptake of 3 H-leucine in different areas of the rat brain were measured. The values of the control animals were compared with those of a fairly serious diabetes and those of a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. In the regions of the neocortex parietalis and of the thalamus the 3 H-leucine values of the diabetic animals were considerably lower in comparison with the controls, and that irrespective of the degree of severity of the diabetic disease. Compared with the control animals the 3 H-leucine values as well as the zinc content of diabetic animals decreased according to the degree of severity of the disease within the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia. The particular significance of the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia concerning diabetic metabolic conditions was discussed. (author)

  2. Electron histochemical and autoradiographic studies of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Kameyama, Kohji; Aida, Takeo; Asano, Goro

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the vascular smooth muscle cell in the aorta and the arteries of brain, heart in autopsied cases, cholesterol fed rabbits and canine through electron histochemical and autoradiographic methods, using 3 H-proline and 3 H-thymidine. The vascular changes are variable presumably due to the functional and morphological difference of vessels. Aging, pathological condition and physiological requirement induce the disturbances of vascular functions as contractility. According to various pathological conditions, the smooth muscle cell altered their shape, surface properties and arrangement of subcellular organelles including changes in number. The morphological features of arteries during aging is characterized by the thickening of endothelium and media. Decreasing cellularity and increasing collagen contents in media. The autoradiographic and histochemical observations using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and ruthenium red stains demonstrated that the smooth muscle cell is a connective tissue synthetic cell. The PAM impregnation have proved that the small bundle of microfilaments become associated with small conglomerate of collagen and elastic fibers. Cytochemical examination will provide sufficient evidence to establish the contribution of subcellular structure. The acid phosphatase play an important role in vascular disease and they are directly involved in cellular lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed animals, and the activity of Na-K ATPase on the plasma membrane may contribute to the regulation of vascular blood flow and vasospasms. Direct injury and subsequent abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cell may initiate increased permeability of plasma protein and lipid in the media layer and eventually may developed and enhance arteriosclerosis. (author)

  3. Autoradiographic studies of the protein metabolism and histochemical demonstration of the zinc content of the brain in diabetic rats. 1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Gatzke, H D [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.); Wildmeister, W [Krankenhaus Kempen (Germany, F.R.). Innere Klinik

    1979-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by application of streptozotocin: 40 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin produced a fairly serious diabetes with minimal ketosis, 125 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin caused a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. After 72 hours these animals and also a group of control animals received 308 MBq/animal /sup 3/H-leucine intraperitoneally. By means of stripping film autoradiograms the rates of uptake of /sup 3/H-leucine in different areas of the rat brain were measured. The values of the control animals were compared with those of a fairly serious diabetes and those of a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. In the regions of the neocortex parietalis and of the thalamus the /sup 3/H-leucine values of the diabetic animals were considerably lower in comparison with the controls, and that irrespective of the degree of severity of the diabetic disease. Compared with the control animals the /sup 3/H-leucine values as well as the zinc content of diabetic animals decreased according to the degree of severity of the disease within the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia. The particular significance of the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia concerning diabetic metabolic conditions was discussed.

  4. Histochemical demonstration of mercury induced changes in rat neurons

    Danscher, G; Schrøder, H D

    1979-01-01

    A histochemical method modified for ultrastructural studies of mercury induced changes is described. Rat neurons from areas known to be influenced by mercury are used as examples. The histochemical reaction, suggested to be caused by polymercury sulphide complexes, is localized to "dense bodies......" where it is visible 14 days after initiation of peroral mercury treatment (20 mg HgCl2/l drinking water)....

  5. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    Negro Alvarez, M.J.; Saez Angulo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide- 3 H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  6. Autoradiographic changes in the kidney of the whole-body sublethally x-ray irradiated rat

    Olinic, A; Uray, Z

    1977-01-01

    203Hg-hydroxymersalyl uptake/gram of kidney (HU), renal autoradiographic and histologic aspect after 800 R x-ray whole-body rat irradiation was studied. Twenty-four to seventy-two hours after irradiation, HU increased, while tubular autoradiographic granularity decreased. Their return to the control levels occurred gradually within two weeks. The relations of these findings to the early circulatory and dystrophic changes, as well as to the subsequent postirradiation restoring renal process are discussed.

  7. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  8. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of 3 H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium. (author)

  9. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.R.; Green, D.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1) Uranium is initially deposited on to all types of bone surface, but preferentially on to those that are accreting. 2) Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3) Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4) Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5) Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6) Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7) The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium. (author)

  10. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat.

    Priest, N D; Howells, G R; Green, D; Haines, J W

    1982-03-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1 Uranium is initially deposited onto all types of bone surface, but preferentially onto those that are accreting. 2 Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3 Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4 Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5 Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6 Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7 The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium.

  11. Electron autoradiographic study of intracellular conversion of fatty acids into glycogen in rats with alloxan diabetes

    Lebkova, N.P.; Bobkov, Y.I.; Gorbonova, V.D.; Kolesova, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    An electron-autoradiographic study was undertaken of the intracellular distribution of hydrogen of fatty acids in alloxan diabetes. Alloxan diabetes was induced in rats; between 2 weeks and 2 months after development of the disease 0.1 ml of tritium-oleic or tritium-arachidonic acid was injected into the caudel vein of the rats. After decapitation, myocardial tissue from the subendocardial zone of the left ventricle, liver tissue, and glycogen isolated from the liver by a biochemical method, were taken for electron-autoradiographic investigation. Analysis of the data showed that a radioactive isotope, injected into the blood stream of the animals in the form of oleic or arachidonic acids, is incorporated into various structures of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. Direct proof is obtained to show that glycogen in hepatocytes and cardiomyoctyes of diabetic rats may be formed from fatty acids

  12. Autoradiographic localization of benzomorphan binding sites in rat brain

    Crain, B.J.; Kwenjen Chang; McNamara, J.O.; Valdes, F.

    1985-07-17

    The benzomorphan subpopulation of opiate binding sites was labeled by (TH)diprenorphine in the presence of unlabeled ligands selected to quench and delta opiate binding sites. The distribution of benzomorphan binding sites was then localized autoradiographically. The distribution differs from the distributions of , delta and kappa opiate binding and is quite similar to the distribution of US -endorphin immunoreactivity. These observations support the hypothesis, based on biochemical studies in brain membranes, that benzomorphan binding sites may represent the ligand recognition sites of putative epsilon receptors. (Auth.). 34 refs.; 3 figs.

  13. An autoradiographic map of (3H)diprenorphine binding in rat brain: effects of social interaction

    Panksepp, J.; Bishop, P.

    1981-01-01

    (3H)Diprenorphine binding was analyzed autoradiographically in the brains of 33 day old rat pups. A photographic atlas of diprenorphine binding in the coronal plane is provided to highlight the dispersion of opioid receptor systems through the brain. To determine whether brain opioid release may be induced by social interactions, half the animals were sacrificed following a 30 min period of social interaction while the other half were sacrificed following 30 min of social isolation. Opioid binding was higher in isolate-tested animals than socially-tested ones, suggesting that social interaction may promote endogenous brain opioid release

  14. Neuropeptide Y receptors in rat brain: autoradiographic localization

    Martel, J.C.; St-Pierre, S.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor binding sites have been characterized in rat brain using both membrane preparations and receptor autoradiography. Radiolabelled NPY binds with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of sites in rat brain membrane preparations. The ligand selectivity pattern reveals strong similarities between central and peripheral NPY receptors. NPY receptors are discretely distributed in rat brain with high densities found in the olfactory bulb, superficial layers of the cortex, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, various thalamic nuclei and area postrema. The presence of high densities of NPY and NPY receptors in such areas suggests that NPY could serve important functions as a major neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system

  15. Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats

    Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; EL-Malkh, N.M.; Ashry, M.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

  16. Electrophysiological, histochemical, and hormonal adaptation of rat muscle after prolonged hindlimb suspension

    Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Kyparos, Antonios; Albani, Maria; Frossinis, Athanasios; Papadelis, Christos L.; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Vivas, Ana; Guiba-Tziampiri, Olympia

    2004-05-01

    The perspective of long-duration flights for future exploration, imply more research in the field of human adaptation. Previous studies in rat muscles hindlimb suspension (HLS), indicated muscle atrophy and a change of fibre composition from slow-to-fast twitch types. However, the contractile responses to long-term unloading is still unclear. Fifteen adult Wistar rats were studied in 45 and 70 days of muscle unweighting and soleus (SOL) muscle as well as extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were prepared for electrophysiological recordings (single, twitch, tetanic contraction and fatigue) and histochemical stainings. The loss of muscle mass observed was greater in the soleus muscle. The analysis of electrophysiological properties of both EDL and SOL showed significant main effects of group, of number of unweighting days and fatigue properties. Single contraction for soleus muscle remained unchanged but there was statistically significant difference for tetanic contraction and fatigue. Fatigue index showed a decrease for the control rats, but increase for the HLS rats. According to the histochemical findings there was a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism during HLS. The data suggested that muscles atrophied, but they presented an adaptation pattern, while their endurance in fatigue was decreased.

  17. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  18. A histochemical study of rat salivary gland acid phosphatase.

    Isacsson, G

    1986-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 mg pilocarpine/100 g body wt intraperitoneally or physiological saline as control and were killed at various intervals. Acid phosphatase was reacted on frozen sections from soft palate, parotid and submandibular glands using sodium-alpha-naphthyl acid phosphate as substrate. Various inhibitors were added to the incubation medium. The strongest acid phosphatase activity was in the parotid gland acinar and proximal secretory duct cells; the mucous minor glands of the palate were completely negative. Activity was found in the acinar cells, proximal secretory duct cells, granular and striated duct and excretory duct cells. Pilocarpine injection slightly reduced the activity up to 6 h after injection. Cupric chloride added to the incubation medium lowered the overall activity. Fluoride and molybdate inhibited the acid phosphatase reaction in all structures. Tartrate inhibited the reaction in all structures except the submandibular striated duct cells. The tartrate-resistant activity may be a Na+K+-dependent ATPase involved in re-absorbing water and electrolytes from the primary saliva.

  19. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine receptors in rat brain using [3H]cyclohexyladenosine

    Goodman, R.R.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine (A1) receptor binding sites have been localized in rat brain by an in vitro light microscopic autoradiographic method. The binding of [ 3 H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to slide-mounted rat brain tissue sections has the characteristics of A1 receptors. It is saturable with high affinity and has appropriate pharmacology and stereospecificity. The highest densities of adenosine receptors occur in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the molecular and polymorphic layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the medial geniculate body, certain thalamic nuclei, and the lateral septum. High densities also are observed in certain layers of the cerebral cortex, the piriform cortex, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. Most white matter areas, as well as certain gray matter areas, such as the hypothalamus, have negligible receptor concentrations. These localizations suggest possible central nervous system sites of action of adenosine

  20. Autoradiographic localization of 131I-labelled thyroxine in the tissues of rat

    Prakash, P.; Romack, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt was made to visualize the sites of localization of 131 I-labelled thyroxine in the tissues of the rat by autoradiographic dipping techniques. The maximal uptake of 131 I-thyroxine in rats occured at 12 hours in all the tissues examined. The radioactivity continued to decrease from 12 to 36 hours after the injection. In the liver and kidney, the decline after 12 hours was rather marked. The radioactivity decreased only slightly from 12 to 36 hours in the spleen. After 3 hours of injection, the radioactivity was consistently higher in the thyroid follicular epithelial cells than in the interfollicular connective tissue. A high concentration of radioactivity was found at the periphery of the colloid areas. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    Beaumont, K.; Healy, D.P.; Fanestil, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated.

  2. Autoradiographic and cytochemical studies on the intracellular transport of secreted proteins in the lacrimal ducts (glandula extraorbitalis) of the rat

    Vogel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Azini was isolated from the glandula lacrimalis of the rat. Its vitality was proven by oxygen use measurements. In autoradiographic studies isolated Azini was marked with L-(4,5- 3 H)-leucine and fixed at various times thereafter. The light microscopic autoradiography showed a time dependent distribution of the silver grains whose association with membrane-enclosed compartments made the electron microscopic autoradiography possible. This distribution allows an analysis of the kinetics of the intracellular transport of secreted proteins. Because of its limited spatial resolution the autoradiographic research methods were combined with the cytochemical presentation of the peroxidase, a secreted protein, of the lacrimal duct. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [ 3 H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  4. Origin of the somatic cells in the rat gonad: An autoradiographic approach

    Merchant-Larios, H [Departamento de Biologia del Desarrollo, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Mexico City

    1979-01-01

    Gonads from rats of 11 and 12 days of gestation that had been given a pulse of /sup 3/H-thymidine were studied at different times using autoradiographic techniques. When the animals were labeled before the formation of the gonadal blastema (11 days), the percentage of labeled cells in this structure was greater than in the coelomic epithelium and mesenchyme. However, when /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected after the gonadal blastema was already established (12 days), very few of these cells took up the compound; they remained in this conditions until the sexual differentiation of the gonad. From this characteristic, which is an indication of the early differentiation of the blastemal cells, one may conclude that the seminiferous cords arise from this initial cellular line. On the other hand, there appears to be a contribution of coelomic epithelial cells during the formation of the sex cords in the ovary.

  5. A quantitative histochemical study of D-amino acid oxidase activity in rat liver in relationship with feeding conditions

    Patel, H. R.; Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; Best, A. J.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    The histochemical method for the demonstration of D-amino acid oxidase activity in rat liver, based on the use of cerium ions and the diaminobenzidine-cobalt-hydrogen peroxide procedure, was improved by the application of unfixed cryostat sections and a semipermeable membrane interposed between

  6. Protective role of garlic against gamma radiation induced histological and histochemical changes in rat liver

    Abdel Motaal, N.A.; Abdel Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was planned to evaluate the radioprotective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against the hazardous action of gamma radiation on liver of rat one and ten days post-exposure. Garlic was orally administered (100 mg/ kg body wt) to rats daily for two weeks before exposure to single dose whole body gamma-irradiation (5Gy). The results showed that exposure of rats to gamma- irradiation caused massive portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, dilatation of blood sinusoids, an increase in the number of Kupffer cells, vacuolation of some hepatocytes as well as pyknosis and karyolysis of hepatic nuclei in the liver tissue. Histochemical examination of liver one day post- irradiation illustrated weak to moderate glycogen particles. While, on ten days post-irradiation, a strong activity for glycogen was detected. The disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism is closely related to the radiation induced histological damage in the liver tissue. Administration of garlic for 2 weeks pre-irradiation reduced the radiation induced histopathological changes and showed marked protection against the tissue damaging effect of radiation. It could be concluded that treatment of rats with garlic before exposure to gamma-irradiation offered a noticeable radioprotective effect of the studied organ

  7. In vitro autoradiographic localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    Besson, J.; Dussaillant, M.; Marie, J.C.; Rostene, W.; Rosselin, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the autoradiographic distribution of VIP binding sites in the rat central nervous system using monoiodinated 125I-labeled VIP. High densities of VIP binding sites are observed in the granular layer of the dorsal dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the dorsolateral and median geniculate nuclei of the thalamus as well as in the ventral part of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus

  8. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  9. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin

  10. Thiazide diuretic receptors: Autoradiographic localization in rat kidney with [3H]metolazone

    Beaumont, K.; Vaughn, D.A.; Healy, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The localization of binding sites for [ 3 H]metolazone, a quinazolinesulfonamide diuretic with thiazide-like actions, was determined by in vitro autoradiography. [ 3 H]Metolazone bound saturably to rat kidney sections incubated in vitro with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 3.4 nM and binding site density = 0.14 pmol/mg of protein. Incubation conditions were used that excluded binding to low affinity sites and carbonic anhydrase. Pharmacological specificity of binding was consistent with labeling of physiologically relevant thiazide diuretic receptors, as identified in previous studies of [ 3 H]metolazone binding to renal membranes. Autoradiographs obtained with tritium-sensitive film demonstrated that binding sites were limited to the renal cortex and were relatively sparsely distributed. Higher resolution autoradiography indicated that [ 3 H] metolazone binding sites were localized in a highly specific manner over short lengths of tubular segments, which by their morphology and distribution most likely represented distal convoluted tubules. In the short sections of tubule that contained receptors, labeling was very dense and appeared to be more prevalent over luminal than peritubular surfaces. The intrarenal distribution of [ 3 H]metolazone binding sites provides further evidence for their identity as thiazide diuretic receptors. These results are consistent with physiological studies demonstrating that the early distal tubule is the location of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport

  11. Effects of anpirtoline on regional serotonin synthesis in the rat brain: an autoradiographic study

    Watanabe, Arata; Nakai, Akio; Tohyama, Yoshihiro; Nguyen, Khnah Q.; Diksic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Anpirtoline has been described as an agonist at 5-HT 1B receptors with a relatively high potency. It also acts as an agonist at 5-HT 1A receptors, but has a lower potency than at the 5-HT 1B sites. There is very little known about the mechanism by which anpirtoline influences regional 5-HT synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acutely and chronically administered anpirtoline on 5-HT synthesis in the rat brain using the autoradiographic α-[ 14 C]methyl-L-tryptophan method. In the acute study, anpirtoline (2.0 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before the tracer injection. The control rats were injected with the same volume of saline. In the chronic study, anpirtoline (2 mg/kg per day) was injected subcutaneously in saline once a day for 10 days. There were no significant differences between the plasma-free and total tryptophan concentrations between the anpirtoline treatment and the respective control groups. In the acute experiment, 5-HT synthesis rates in all of the brain areas investigated were significantly decreased by anpirtoline when compared to the saline-treated group. In the chronic anpirtoline experiment, 5-HT synthesis rates of almost all of the projection areas, as well as the raphe nuclei, were normalized or had a tendency to be normalized. These results suggest that it is likely that the terminal 5-HT 1B receptors are involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthesis in the projection areas and that 5-HT synthesis, in the raphe, is likely influenced by anpirtoline's 5-HT 1A and/or 5-HT 1B agonistic properties

  12. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  13. Histochemical responses of rats exercised in two weekly frequencies and ingesting standard or hypercaloric diet

    FI Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if overfed rats present morphological and histochemical muscle adaptation similar to normally fed, both submitted to two different weekly frequencies of training. Thirty male Wistar rats were fed either with standard chow (SCØ or with hypercaloric diet (HCØ. They were subdivided into six subgroups: sedentary (SCØ and HCØ, trained twice/week (SC2 and HC2 and trained five times/week (SC5 and HC5. The trained groups swam 60 min/day, during 10 weeks. Twenty four hours after the last training, samples of Gastrocnemius were excised and stained with HE, NADH-TR and m-ATPase, and the capillary density was calculated. Total heart mass (HM and the mass of atrium (AM, left (LV and right (RV ventricles were excised and weighted. The comparisons were made by ANOVA and by Covariance analysis, adjusting the variables by body weight. The results showed that the HCØ achieved higher BM, however, absolute HM did not differ post training. Irrespective of the diet, rats that were trained twice a week presented significantly greater increase in the AM. In general, the SC5 and HC5 groups showed higher HM, LV, RV, proportion of oxidative fibres and capillary density, compared to the sedentary and twice week trained groups. A higher proportion of injuries (splitting was noted in the HC2 and HC5 compared to SC2 and SC5. These results indicate that the frequency of training influenced the skeletal and heart adaptation and larger changes were observed in the 5x/week group, which ingested the standard diet. The 5x/week training groups also presented large amount of muscle fibres damage.

  14. Histochemical alternations in the Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the spinal, gangalion neurones of gamma irradiated rats

    Mousa, Tohamy A.; Roushdy, Hamed M.; Raid, Nahed A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmady S.; Sanad, Samia M.

    1984-01-01

    Four groups of adult male albino rats were subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at the exposure levels of 200, 400, 600 and 1000 rads and the spinal ganglia were dissected out after different intervals of 3 hr., 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 days. Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid were demonstrated histochemically. Gamma irradiation may cause a decrease in RNA synthesis which was reflected in a reduced amount of Nissl substance visible in toluidine blue stained you thick sections of spinal ganglion of gamma irradiated rats and in the total amount of cytoplasmic RNA in pyronin-methyl green stained sections compared with control animals

  15. Quantitative autoradiographic localization of cholecystokinin receptors in rat and guinea pig brain using 125I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8

    Niehoff, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The autoradiographic localization of receptors for the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has shown differences in receptor distribution between rat and guinea pig brain. However the full anatomical extent of the differences has not been determined quantitatively. In the present study, 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8 ( 125 I-BH-CCK8) was employed in a comparative quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of CCK receptors in these two species. The pharmacological profile of 125 I-BH-CCK8 binding in guinea pig forebrain sections was comparable to those previously reported for rat and human. Statistically significant differences in receptor binding between rat and guinea pig occurred in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, amygdala, several cortical areas, ventromedial hypothalamus, cerebellum, and a number of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. The results of this study confirm the presence of extensive species-specific variation in the distribution of CCK receptors, suggesting possible differences in the physiological roles of this peptide in different mammalian species

  16. In vivo binding and autoradiographic imaging of (+)-3-[125I]Iodo-MK-801 to the NMDA receptor-channel complex in rat brain

    Gibson, R.E.; Burns, H.D.; Thorpe, H.H.; Waisi Eng; Ransom, R.; Solomon, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a high affinity radioligand for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-channel complex. We have demonstrated in vivo localization in the CNS of rat which is stereoselective and blocked by coinjection of unlabeled MK-801. Autoradiography indicates localization in vivo which is in concordance with in vitro autoradiographic studies. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a useful probe for in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic studies and suggest that radioligands for the NMDA receptor may be developed which will provide in vivo images of receptor distribution in man. (author)

  17. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical assessment of the protective role of selenium against γ -radiation damage in rats salivary glands

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation affects the biological tissues through either direct or indirect action. Both types of actions occur together when a charged particle passes through a cell and can cause cell damage by different mechanisms . Radiation protection is based on physical principles which aim at lowering the radiation exposure dose and subsequently the risk of radiation injury. As radiation injury to living cells is, to large extent, due to oxidative stresses, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of selenium, a naturally occurring antoxidant nutrient, as a a free radical scavenger against γ- radiation damage in rats' salivary glands by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical assessment. A total of 120 male albino rats were used in the present study. The rats were divided into 6 groups (20 rats each): Control group:- rats received neither radiation nor selenium. Group I :- rats were exposed to a single whole body γ -irradiation at dose of 4 gray(Gy). Group l l:- as group I, but with radiation dose of 6 Gy. Group lll:- rats were injected intraperitoneally by a daily dose of sodium selenite (15 μg./ kg.b.w. )for three weeks. Group IV:- rats were injected intraperitoneally by a daily dose of sodium selenite (15 μg./ kg.b.w.) for one week before exposure to gamma rays at dose of 4 Gy and two weeks after. Group V:- as group IV, but with radiation dose of 6 Gy.

  18. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral...... artery (MCAO) in rats. In halothane anesthesia, the left middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Two hours after MCAO an i.v. bolus injection of 14C-deoxyglucose and 3H-leucine was given and circulated for 45 min. Two sets of brain sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography....... Neighboring brain sections exposed an X-ray film (3H-insensitive), and a 3H-sensitive for determination of rCMRglc and PS, respectively. Sections for PS determination were washed in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) prior to film exposure in order to remove 14C-deoxyglucose and unincorporated 3H-leucine. Regional...

  19. Autoradiographic localization of target cells for 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bones from fetal rats

    Narbaitz, R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Huang, S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Thaw-mount autoradiographic studies after injection of 3 H-1,25-D 3 were conducted on 18- and 20-day-old rat fetuses. In maxillary bones, ribs, and tibia, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Osteocytes and chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates were either unlabeled or weakly labeled. In competition experiments, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was blocked by the injection of a high dose of nonradioactive 1,25-D 3 prior to the administration of the labeled hormone, but not by a similar dose of nonradioactive 25-D 3 . The results are interpreted as indicating that osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts are target cells for the direct action of 1,25-D 3 on fetal bone. (orig.)

  20. Autoradiographic localization of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in rat brain after in vivo injection of [3H]RU 28362

    Sarrieau, Alain; Dussaillant, Monique; Rostene, William

    1988-01-01

    The autoradiographic distribution of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in the brain of adrenalectomized rats was studied following in vivo injection of a potent synthetic glucocorticosteriod agonist [ 3 H]RU 28362. Analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a specific and dense labelling in the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn and in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the hypothalmus, the labelling was particularly high in the paraventricular nucleus (site of CRF synthesis), the arcuate, periventricular and the supraoptic nuclei as well as in the median eminence. Autoradiograms also revealed the presence of[ 3 H]RU 28362 binding sites in several brain regions including the amygdala, the pineal gland, the entorhinal cortex, the interpeduncular, interfascicular and dorsal raphe nuclei, the central grey and the substantia nigra suggesting possible effects of glucocorticosteriods in these structures (author)

  1. Structural and histochemical considerations of parotid gland from adult rats (Holtzmann) submitted to x-rays exposure

    Sposto, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A histomorphological and histochemical study of the parotid gland of adult rats was carried out after subjecting the animals to a single X-ray irradiation dose of 900 R directed to the cervical region. The samples for the histological analysis were obtained at 2, 7, 15, 21, 30 and 45 days after radiation through desiccation and removal of the glands. The results showed clearly that the parotid gland is quite sensitive to X-ray irradiation with the serous acinar cells presenting heavier injuries than the mucous ones. A maximum in the deleterial action of the irradiation was detected at 15 days during the observation period. A comparative analysis of the glandular ducts showed that both of the types intercalated and striated were damaged, with the last presenting severe alterations in morphology and volume. By interpretation of the histochemical results it was concluded that a reduction in protein metabolism of the parotid gland occurred as a consequence of the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  2. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    Ramadan, F.L.; Othman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  3. A quantitative histochemical procedure for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in rat and human liver using Tetranitro BT and xanthine oxidase as auxiliary enzyme

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.; van Gulik, T.

    1993-01-01

    A quantitative histochemical procedure was developed for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in rat liver using unfixed cryostat sections and the auxiliary enzyme xanthine oxidase. The optimum incubation medium contained 18% (w/v) poly(vinyl alcohol), 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH

  4. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    Smith, D.M.; Sidhu, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3 H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3 H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  5. Cholecystokinin receptors: Biochemical demonstration and autoradiographical localization in rat brain and pancreas using [3H] cholecystokinin8 as radioligand

    Van Dijk, A.; Richards, J.G.; Trzeciak, A.; Gillessen, D.; Moehler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Since cholecystokinin8 (CCK8) seems to be the physiological ligand of CCK receptors in the brain, it would be the most suitable probe for the characterization of CCK receptors in radioligand binding studies. [ 3 H]CCK8 was synthetized with a specific radioactivity sufficient for the detection of high affinity binding sites. [ 3 H]CCK8 binds saturably and reversibly to distinct sites in rat brain and pancreas with nanomolar affinity. While the C-terminal tetrapeptide of CCK is the minimal structure required for nanomolar affinity in the brain, the entire octapeptide sequence is required for binding affinity in pancreas. Desulfated CCK8 and several gastrin-I peptides, which are likewise unsulfated, show virtually no affinity to the binding sites in pancreas but high affinity in cerebral cortex. The ligand specificity of the CCK peptides corresponds to their electrophysiological potency in the brain and their stimulation of secretion in pancreas, respectively. Autoradiographically, high densities of [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites were found in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, medium levels in nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and striatum with virtually no labeling in cerebellum. This pattern is similar to the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity in the brain. In pancreas, equally high levels of [ 3 H]CCK8 labeling were found in the exocrine and endocrine region. [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites differ from those identified previously with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33 by their sensitivity to guanyl nucleotides in the brain, their ion dependency in the brain, and pancreas, and their different autoradiographical localization in some parts of the brain. The distribution of CCK binding sites labeled with [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to correlate better with the CCK immunoreactivity than those labeled with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33. Thus, [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to be the radioligand of choice for the investigation of CCK receptors

  6. The influence of temperature on the distribution and intensity of the reaction product in rat muscle fibers obtained with the histochemical method for myosin ATPase

    Kirkeby, S; Tuxen, A

    1989-01-01

    The influence of temperature in the incubation medium on the localization and intensity of myosin ATPase was investigated in striated muscles from the rat using a conventional histochemical technique. It was found that the enzyme reaction was temperature-dependent since the activity in some fibers...... was raised and in others was depressed by alteration of the incubation temperature. There was no obvious correlation between the temperature sensitivity of ATPase in the muscle fibers and their activity for succinic dehydrogenase. It is proposed that the histochemical method for myosin ATPase can be used...

  7. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  8. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min

    2005-01-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1- 14 C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in any

  9. Autoradiographic research on cell proliferation of prenatal rat lung cells and their influence using the mitogen Kallikrein

    Bock-Lamberlin, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In this work autoradiographic experiments were carried out on the kinetics of proliferation of four cell populations of the prenatal rat lung with the help of the determination of the 3 H-thymidine marker indices, with the following results: 1. The four studied cell populations exhibited variable proliferation rates on the twentieth or twenty-first day of development. 2. The strongest affect of the exogenously applied mitogen Kallikrein was demonstrated on the vessel wall cells, the next strongest on the bronchial epithelial cells, then the cartilage cells and finally the alveolar wall cells. 3. The mitogenic effect is dependent on dose. Higher doses significantly increased the 3 H-thymidine marker indices of the four cell populations tested in this work. 4. When the exposure time of the Kallikrein was extended by one hour this lead partially to stronger mitogenic effects than by the shorter exposure times at the same and higher dose levels of mitogen. 5. The 3 H-thymidine marker indices are dependent on the exposure time. 6. With increasing litter size, the 3 H indices as a rule decrease. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Histochemical detection of the in vivo produced cellular aldehydes by means of direct Schiff's reaction in CCl/sub 4/ intoxicated rat liver

    Taper, H.S.; Somer, M.P.; Lans, M.; Gerlache, J. de; Roberfroid, M.

    1988-04-01

    A histochemical technique for detection of the in vivo induced cellular aldehydes based on the direct Schiff's reaction is reported in this paper. CCl/sub 4/-intoxicated rat liver was used as an experimental model. Fresh and non-pretreated rat liver cryostat sections fixed in 10% formol calcium solution and washed in distilled water were exposed to Schiff's reagent. The sections were then immersed in two baths of sodium bisulphite solution, then in water, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene and mounted in a synthetic anhydrous mounting medium. As Schiff positive areas presented well circumscribed foci which increased with time following intoxication, semiquantitative planimetric measurements were feasible. The direct Schiff's reaction detects cellular aldehydes in a sensitive, rapid histologically and topographically estimable way. The appearance of these aldehydes precedes distinctly morphological alterations detectable by other histochemical of histological techniques. No positive results were obtained in control, non-intocicated rat livers. Inhibitons of this direct Schiff's was obtained in positive control rat liver sections preincubated in solutions of aldehyde blockers. Histochemical detection of aldehydes may give useful information on different aspects of tissue and organ intoxication such as their topography, appearance, evolution, extension, consequences and effects of treatment. The direct Schiff's reaction can be considered as a valuable tool in fundamental and applied reasearch dealing with various toxicological, environmental, pathological, cancer-related and therapeutic problems.

  11. Diurnal variation in glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat liver. A quantitative histochemical study

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; Bosch, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The diurnal variations of the glycogen content and of glycogen phosphorylase activity in periportal and pericentral areas of rat liver parenchyma have been analyzed in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained cryostat sections using quantitative microdensitometry. Glycogen content and phosphorylase

  12. Structural and histochemical studies on the effect of injectable contraceptive on some parenchymatous organs of female albino rats

    Essa, O.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    This work was planned to evaluate the histopathological and histochemical changes induced by gamma irradiation and or long acting injectable contraceptive ( depo-provera) MPa on some parenchymatous organs of female rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may be develop in such organs. The plan of this study was designed for the following: 1- Study of the morphological changes in the liver, kidney and gonadotrophs cell. 2- study of the effect of gamma radiation and/or MPa on the vascular distribution in the liver and kidney tissues, using indian ink injection technique. 3- evaluation of the activity of two enzymes ( acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase) in the liver and kidney tissues. This was accomplished using frozen sections . Moreover, evaluation of the Pas + ve materials using paraffin sections in the same organs. 4- quantitative study was performed for P As + ve materials, acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase in addition to the vascular distribution in the liver and kidney tissues. furthermore, quantitative measurement for FSH and LH cells using immunostaining method

  13. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  14. Quantitative autoradiographic localization of cholecystokinin receptors in rat and guinea pig brain using sup 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8

    Niehoff, D.L. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The autoradiographic localization of receptors for the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has shown differences in receptor distribution between rat and guinea pig brain. However the full anatomical extent of the differences has not been determined quantitatively. In the present study, {sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8 ({sup 125}I-BH-CCK8) was employed in a comparative quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of CCK receptors in these two species. The pharmacological profile of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK8 binding in guinea pig forebrain sections was comparable to those previously reported for rat and human. Statistically significant differences in receptor binding between rat and guinea pig occurred in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, amygdala, several cortical areas, ventromedial hypothalamus, cerebellum, and a number of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. The results of this study confirm the presence of extensive species-specific variation in the distribution of CCK receptors, suggesting possible differences in the physiological roles of this peptide in different mammalian species.

  15. Mercury-selenium interactions in relation to histochemical staining of mercury in the rat liver

    Baatrup, E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O; Nielsen, H L

    1989-01-01

    micrograms of Se g-1 body weight as sodium [75Se]selenite. All the rats were killed 1 h later. Homogenized liver samples were prepared for mercury analysis by two different methods: alkaline digestion and ultrasonic disintegration. Quantitative chemical analysis based on benzene extraction...

  16. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization of somatostatin-28 in the rat pituitary gland

    Morel, G.; Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1985-01-01

    To identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing somatostatin-28 (SS-28)-binding sites and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, autoradiography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after iv injection of the [ 125 I]iodo-SS-28 agonist [Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SS-28 into intact, adrenalectomized, or castrated male rats. At the light microscopic level, the silver grains were found in 75% of cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled peptide prevented the binding of label, verifying the specificity of binding. No specific labeling could be detected in the adrenocorticotrophs of adrenalectomized rats or gonadotrophs (castration cells) of castrated rats. At the electron microscopic level, three cell types (somatotrophs, thyrotrophs, and mammotrophs) appear to contain radiolabeled SS-28. The time-course study in somatotrophs of intact animals showed that 2 min after injection, most silver grains were associated with the plasma membrane. Five to 15 min after injection, label was found over both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic organelles, especially the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and secretory granules. At the longest time interval (60 min), labeling was mostly associated with the cytoplasmic organelles. These results indicate that SS-28-binding sites are present only in those cell types in which somatostatin is known to regulate secretory functions. The present data also show that a rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptide occurs

  17. Binding sites for endothelin-1 in rat tissues: An autoradiographic study

    Koseki, C.; Imai, M.; Hirata, Y.; Yanagisawa, M.; Masaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    By tissue autoradiography in the rat, we demonstrated that receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1) were distributed not only in the cardiovascular system but also in the noncardiovascular organs including the brain, lung, intestine, etc. In the brain, the receptors were mainly found in the basal ganglia and brainstem, in which nuclei are known to be cardiovascular regulatory sites. In addition to its direct vasoconstricting action, ET-1 may exert neural cardiovascular control as a neuropeptide

  18. Histological and autoradiographic studies on rat joints after experimental nervous shock

    Kohl, C.

    1981-01-01

    22 SPF-Wistar-rats of both sexes, ranging in age from 49 to 56 days, were used in this investigation. Of these, 6 served as controls. The remaining 16 rats received i.v. injections of E. coli-neurotoxin serotyp 0 139 : K 82 (B). 6 rats died in acute shock. The surviving animals received 4 injections of the neurotoxin. The maximum weight loss 24 h p.i. amounted to an average of 8.3% in the females and 10.4% in the males. The clinical symptoms after the inducement of skock are slight to severe apathy, rough coat, dyspnoe and nervous symptoms which are expressed in various degrees of oversensitivity to touch or sound. The light microscopic examination of the synovial membrane from control animals coincides with the findings of previous investigations. In acute shock the joints show a middle to high degree of hyperemia, slight sticking effect, and isolated microthrombi in the vessels of the subsynoviocytic tissue as well as increased exsudation in the joint cavities. Edemas of the subsynoviocytic tissue are found to a small extent. The joints of animals in protracted shock show none of the changes evident in acute shock. Autoradiological examinations were performed on 13 rats which had been injected with 1 μCi/g body weight 3H-thymidine 1 hour before killing. Joints were embedded in paraffin- and methyl-methacrylat. Comparison cuts from the same stifle joint resulted each time in reproducable labeling indices. This can be taken as a confirmation of the applicability of 3H-autoradiography in the case of joint cuts embedded in methacrylat. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Autoradiographic visualization of insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in rat brain

    Mendelsohn, L.G.; Kerchner, G.A.; Clemens, J.A.; Smith, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The documented presence of IGF-II in brain and CSF prompted us to investigate the distribution of receptors for IGF-II in rat brain slices. Human 125 -I-IGF-II (10 pM) was incubated for 16 hrs at 4 0 C with slide-mounted rat brain slices in the absence and presence of unlabeled human IGF-II (67 nM) or human insulin (86 nM). Slides were washed, dried, and exposed to X-ray film for 4-7 days. The results showed dense labeling in the granular layers of the olfactory bulbs, deep layers of the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, anterior pituitary, hippocampus (pyramidal cells CA 1 -CA 2 and dentate gyrus), and the granule cell layers of the cerebellum. Unlabeled IGF-II eliminated most of the binding of these brain regions while insulin produced only a minimal reduction in the amount of 125 I-IGF-II bound. These results indicate that a specific neural receptor for IGS-II is uniquely distributed in rat brain tissue and supports the notion that this peptide might play an important role in normal neuronal functioning

  20. Autoradiographic investigation of the effects of low-dose colchicine on dentinogenesis in rat incisors

    Oliveira Nogueira, T. de; Rossetini, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve wistar rats received 0.5 mg/kg colchicine (CLC) i.v. Three animals were sacrified 5 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the injection. Ninety minutes before sacrifice all animals received tritiated proline intraperitoneally. Autoradiograms of sections from the maxillary incisor were subjected to quantitative, and statistical analysis. These results revealed an increased secretory activity in the odontoblasts in the more incisal parts of the tooth, indicating a stimulatory effect of CLC on collagen production and secretion after 3 days. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland

    Ruehle, H.J.; Ermisch, A.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats received [ 3 H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

  2. Histological and histochemical studies on liver of rat subjected to synergistic effect of natural and synthetic food colorants and/or gamma irradiation

    Soliman, O.; Hafez, M. N.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rats after oral administration of a mixture of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and/ or gamma-irradiation (5 Gy). The possible ameliorative effect of the natural food colorant beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) orally administered with the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and irradiation was evaluated. Rats were divided into five groups: 1- Control group. 2- Group received a food colorant mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue (100 mg/ kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma-irradiation at 5 Gy. 4-Animals received the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were irradiated. 5- Animals received beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) with the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were then irradiated (5 Gy). Administration of tartrazine and brilliant blue caused histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of rat manifested by haemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, dilatation of blood sinusoids, scattered necrotic areas and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharides content. The radiation caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area, necrosis with pyknosis and karyolysis of nuclei and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharide content of hepatic cells 1 and 3 days post-irradiation. The present work also showed that the natural food colorant beta-carotene reduced the toxicity of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and gamma-irradiation when the natural pigment was given together with the synthetic dyes used as food additives. In conclusion, synthetic food colours and/ or radiation induced histopathological and histochemical disturbances in rats. On the other hand, administration of the natural food colorant beta-carotene had a significant protective role against the damaging effects induced by these synthetic colours mixture

  3. Histological, Histochemical, and Protein Changes after Induced Malocclusion by Occlusion Alteration of Wistar Rats

    Carolina de Souza Guerra

    2014-01-01

    rats (left side, and the animals were sacrificed after either 14 or 26 days. The masseter muscle was processed for histological analysis, conventional and in situ zymography, and immunohistochemistry. The morphological analysis showed unique and specific characteristics for the experimental group. By conventional zymography no significant values of 72 kDa MMP-2 (P< 0.05 were found in both of the sides of masseter muscle after 14 and 26 days of unilateral extraction. The in situ zymography showed gelatinolytic activity on all deep masseter muscles, with significant increase on the contralateral side after 14 and 26 days (P< 0.05. The immunohistochemistry demonstrated greater expression of MMP-2 than MMP-9 and MMP-14 in all masseter muscles and there were few differences in the staining of 4 TIMPs. This knowledge about morphology and molecular masticatory muscle remodeling following environmental interventions can be used to develop clinically successful treatments.

  4. Histochemical study of reaction of the nucleus supraopticus of rat brain to irradiation with 500 Gy

    Dosoudilova, M.; Kamarad, V.

    1987-01-01

    The activities were described of some enzymes in nucleus supraopticus of the rat brain at an early interval (5 min) after gamma irradiation with 500 Gy, at a dose rate of 6.9 Gy per minute. The study was performed using cryostat sections. The activities of the following enzymes were shown: alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, ATP-splitting enzyme, thiaminepyrophosphatase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, glycero-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, acid nonspecific esterase, and beta glucuronidase. After irradiation, increased activities of acid phosphatase, thiaminepyrophosphatase, and acetylcholinesterase was observed in perikarya of magnocelullar neurons of the nucleus, whereas the activities of other enzymes were weak when compared to controls. A significant decrease in the activity of acidic nonspecific esterase was found. In contrast to the controls, blood capillaries showed increased activities of ATP-splitting enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase, thiaminepyrophosphatase. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were not changed. No activity of other enzymes was observed in that site. (author). 13 refs

  5. Autoradiographic investigation of age-dependent proliferation kinetics in the mucosa of rat small intestine

    Kranz, D.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    Aging of cells depends on mitotic activity which is particularly evident in multicellular organisms. The cell kinetics of the mucosa of the small intestine in a total of 244 Wistar rats aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23 and 28 months, resp., were studied histoautoradiographically. It could be demonstrated that the regeneration rate of cells per hour in the crypts of the small intestine and the migration velocity of the enterocytes differ in young and old individuals, and that the intermitotic cells have age-dependent properties as well. In addition, it could be proved that intermitotic cells have a non growth fraction, too, which, at an advanced age, decreases only slightly although significantly in terms of statistics. For the easily vulnerable crypt epithelium it is a reserve capacity and ban be included in the proliferating pool if necessary. (author)

  6. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. II. Serotonin-2 receptors

    Pazos, A.; Cortes, R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-2 (5-HT 2 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with four ligands: [ 3 H]ketanserin, [ 3 H]mesulergine, [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]spiperone, which are reported to show high affinity for 5-HT 2 receptors. Very high concentrations were localized in the claustrum, olfactory tubercle and layer IV of the neocortex. The anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex and layer I of neocortex were also rich in 5-HT 2 receptors. The specificity of the different ligands used is discussed in terms of the other populations of sites recognized by them. The distribution of 5-HT 2 receptors here reported is discussed in correlation with (a) the known distribution of serotoninergic terminals, (b) the specific anatomical systems and (c) the central effects reported to be mediated by 5-HT 2 -selective drugs. (Auth.)

  7. Histological and autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells of fetal rat lungs

    Aue, L.; Schneider, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells was investigated in 14- to 20-days old rats of an inbred strain (Wistar-WU, Mueller/Haan). In agreement with the data of the relevant literature, light microscopy revealed a successive evolution of the bronchial tree which consists of a glandular, a canalicular, and an alveolar part. Prophases, metaphases and reconstruction phases are relatively long mitotic phases, while anaphases and telophases are relatively short ones. Combined nuclear volumetry and autoradiography showed that the G-1 phase nuclei are smaller than the 3 H-labelled nuclei at the onset of the S phase and these, in turn, are smaller than the nuclei at the end of the S phase with double 14 C- or 3 H-label or with 'strong' 3H label. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  9. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Diksic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α- 14 C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  10. AMP deaminase histochemical activity and immunofluorescent isozyme localization in rat skeletal muscle

    Thompson, J. L.; Sabina, R. L.; Ogasawara, N.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The cellular distribution of AMP deaminase (AMPda) isozymes was documented for rat soleus and plantaris muscles, utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation methods. AMPda is a ubiquitous enzyme existing as three distinct isozymes, A, B and C, which were initially purified from skeletal muscle, liver (and kidney), and heart, respectively. AMPda-A is primarily concentrated subsarcolemmally and intermyofibrillarly within muscle cells, while isozymes B and C are concentrated within non-myofiber elements of muscle tissue. AMPda-B is principally associated with connective tissues surrounding neural elements and the muscle spindle capsule, and AMPda-C is predominantly associated with circulatory elements, such as arterial and venous walls, capillary endothelium, and red blood cells. These specific localizations, combined with documented differences in kinetic properties, suggest multiple functional roles for the AMPda isozymes or temporal segregation of similar AMPda functions. Linkage of the AMPda substrate with adenosine production pathways at the AMP level and the localization of isozyme-C in vascular tissue suggest a regulatory role in the microcirculation.

  11. Histological, Histochemical, and Protein Changes after Induced Malocclusion by Occlusion Alteration of Wistar Rats

    de Souza Guerra, Carolina; Carla Lara Pereira, Yamba; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel Guimarães, Elaine A.; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2014-01-01

    Although disorders of the stomatognathic system are common, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Our objective was to study the changes in the masseter muscles after unilateral exodontia. Molar extraction was performed on Wistar rats (left side), and the animals were sacrificed after either 14 or 26 days. The masseter muscle was processed for histological analysis, conventional and in situ zymography, and immunohistochemistry. The morphological analysis showed unique and specific characteristics for the experimental group. By conventional zymography no significant values of 72 kDa MMP-2 (P zymography showed gelatinolytic activity on all deep masseter muscles, with significant increase on the contralateral side after 14 and 26 days (P < 0.05). The immunohistochemistry demonstrated greater expression of MMP-2 than MMP-9 and MMP-14 in all masseter muscles and there were few differences in the staining of 4 TIMPs. This knowledge about morphology and molecular masticatory muscle remodeling following environmental interventions can be used to develop clinically successful treatments. PMID:25028660

  12. Histochemical changes of capillaries in rat brain cortex after irradiation with supralethal doses of gamma radiation

    Kamarad, V.; Dosoudilova, M.

    1987-01-01

    Changes were studied in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, ATP-splitting enzyme, thiaminepyrophosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and of butyrylcholinesterase in the capillary sheet of the rat brain cortex of the laterobasal section of a parietal lobe following irradiation with 150 and 300 Gy. The animals were exposed to local irradiation of the head with gamma radiation using 60 Co at a dose rate of 6.9 Gy per min. The material was removed at the intervals of 30 and 60 mins after irradiation. All the studied enzymes, except the ATP-splitting enzyme, showed identical reaction to irradiation. At both intervals, the reaction after irradiation with 300 Gy was lower when compared to that after irradiation with 150 Gy. 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy an increased enzyme activity was shown followed by a marked decrease in the activity 60 mins after irradiation, compared with findings obtained from control animals. No similar time dependence was observed after irradiation with 300 Gy. The ATP-splitting enzyme showed a significant decrease in the activity 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy. On the other hand, 60 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy and at both time intervals after irradiation with 300 Gy, the activity was higher than that in control animals. (author). 6 figs., 14 refs

  13. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. I. Serotonin-1 receptors

    Pazos, A.; Palacios, M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-1 (5-HT 1 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with [ 3 H]serotonin (5-[ 3 H]HT), 8-hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino- 3 H]tetralin (8-OH-[ 3 H]DPAT), [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]mesulergine, and the densities quantified by microdensitometry with the aid of a computer-assisted image-analysis system. Competition experiments for 5-[ 3 H]HT binding by several serotonin-1 agonists led to the identification of brain areas enriched in each one of the three subtypes of 5-HT 1 recognition sites already described. The existence of these 'selective' areas allowed a detailed pharmacological characterization of these sites to be made in a more precise manner than has been attained in membrane-binding studies. Very high concentrations of 5-HT 1 receptors were localized in the choroid plexus, lateroseptal nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, dentate gyrus, dorsal subiculum, olivary pretectal nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular and external layer of the entorhinal cortex. The distribution of 5-HT 1 receptors reported here is discussed in correlation with the distribution of serotoninergic neurons and fibers, the related anatomical pathways and the effects which appear to be mediated by these sites. (Auth.)

  14. Visualization of μ1 opiate receptors in rat brain by using a computerized autoradiographic subtraction technique

    Goodman, R.R.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed a quantitative computerized subtraction technique to demonstrate in rat brain the regional distribution of μ 1 sites, a common very-high-affinity binding site for both morphine and the enkephalins. Low concentrations of [D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin selectively inhibit the μ 1 binding of [ 3 H]dihydromorphine, leaving μ 2 -sites, while low morphine concentrations eliminate the μ 1 binding of [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin, leaving sigma sites. Thus, quantitative differences between images of sections incubated in the presence and absence of these low concentrations of unlabeled opioid represent μ 1 binding sites. The regional distributions of μ 1 sites labeled with [ 3 H]dihydromorphine were quite similar to those determined by using [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin. High levels of μ 1 binding were observed in the periaqueductal gray, medial thalamus, and median raphe, consistent with the previously described role of μ 1 sites in analgesia. Other regions with high levels of μ 1 binding include the nucleus accumbens, the clusters and subcallosal streak of the striatum, hypothalamus, medial habenula, and the medial septum/diagonal band region. The proportion of total specific binding corresponding to μ 1 sites varied among the regions, ranging from 14% to 75% for [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin and 20% to 52% for [ 3 H]dihydromorphine

  15. Modulation of [3H]-glutamate binding by serotonin in the rat hippocampus: An autoradiographic study

    Mennini, T.; Miari, A.

    1991-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) added in vitro increased [ 3 H]-glutamate specific binding in the rat hippocampus, reaching statistical significance in layers rich in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. This effect was explained by a significant increase in the apparent affinity of [ 3 H]-glutamate when 5-HT is added in vitro. Two days after lesion of serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus with 5,7- Dihydroxytryptamine [ 3 H]-glutamate binding was significantly decreased in the CA3 region and stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus, this reduction being reversed by in vitro addition of 10 μM 5-HT. The decrease observed is due to a significant reduction of quisqualate-insensitive (radiatum CA3) and kainate receptors (strata oriens, radiatum, pyramidal of CA3). Five days after lesion [ 3 H]-glutamate binding increased significantly in the CA3 region of the hippocampus but was not different from sham animals in the other hippocampal layers. Two weeks after lesion [ 3 H]-glutamate binding to quisqualate-insensitive receptors was increased in all the hippocampal layers, while kainate and quisqualate-sensitive receptors were not affected. These data are consistent with the possibility that 5-HT is a direct positive modulator of glutamate receptor subtypes

  16. Autoradiographic study of the regional distribution of gastric blood flow in portal hypertensive rats

    Geraghty, J.G.; Angerson, W.J.; Carter, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study measures regional gastric blood flow in portal hypertensive rats at three separate periods after portal vein ligation using quantitative autoradiography with 14C-labeled iodoantipyrine. The level of corpus mucosal blood flow was significantly reduced in 3-day portal vein-ligated animals compared with sham-operated control animals (30.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 47.1 +/- 5.6 ml/100 g.min). There was no significant difference in corpus mucosal blood flow between portal vein-ligated and sham-operated animals at 7- and 28-day periods, although the level of perfusion was higher in the 28-day portal vein-ligated group. There was no significant difference in antral mucosal or muscle blood flow between portal hypertensive and control animals at any of the study periods. We conclude that the acute period after portal vein ligation is associated with a reduced corpus mucosal microcirculation but that this effect is not sustained in portal hypertensive animals studied at later intervals after portal vein ligation

  17. Autoradiographic evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by granulocytopoiesis in the rat

    Gerecke, D.; Gross, R.

    1976-01-01

    The proliferating granulocyte precursor pool of rat bone marrow was labelled during DNA synthesis by continuous infusion and by single injection of 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR), as well as by single injection of 125 I-iododeoxyuridine ( 125 I-UdR). The appearance of neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood stream after these various labelling procedures was studied by autoradiography. Labelling patterns of blood neutrophils were identical during continuous infusion and after single injection of 3 H-TdR, and 100 percent labelling of the blood compartment was achieved. This result indicated reutilization of DNA catabolites to occur in granulocytopoiesis leading to continuous availability of 3 H-labelled DNA precursors even after a single injection of 3 H-TdR. Attempts to suppress reutilization of label by infusion of cold thymidine 1 h after injection of 3 H-TdR were unsuccessful. However, a change in the labelling pattern of blood neutrophils was seen after single injection of 125 I-UdR, a DNA precursor poorly reutilized in comparison to 3 H-TdR. This result provided further evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by the cell system investigated. A comprehensive discussion of the results indicates that thymidinemonophosphate is the biochemical level of reutilization in granulocytopoiesis. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by granulocytopoiesis in the rat

    Gerecke, D; Gross, R [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik

    1976-01-01

    The proliferating granulocyte precursor pool of rat bone marrow was labelled during DNA synthesis by continuous infusion and by single injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR), as well as by single injection of /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine (/sup 125/I-UdR). The appearance of neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood stream after these various labelling procedures was studied by autoradiography. Labelling patterns of blood neutrophils were identical during continuous infusion and after single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR, and 100 percent labelling of the blood compartment was achieved. This result indicated reutilization of DNA catabolites to occur in granulocytopoiesis leading to continuous availability of /sup 3/H-labelled DNA precursors even after a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR. Attempts to suppress reutilization of label by infusion of cold thymidine 1 h after injection of /sup 3/H-TdR were unsuccessful. However, a change in the labelling pattern of blood neutrophils was seen after single injection of /sup 125/I-UdR, a DNA precursor poorly reutilized in comparison to /sup 3/H-TdR. This result provided further evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by the cell system investigated. A comprehensive discussion of the results indicates that thymidinemonophosphate is the biochemical level of reutilization in granulocytopoiesis.

  19. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in rat central nervous system

    Greenamyre, J.T.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Autoradiography was carried out in the presence of Cl- and Ca2+ ions. Scatchard plots and Hill coefficients of glutamate binding suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites having a K-D of about 300 nM and a capacity of 14.5 pmol/mg of protein. In displacement studies, ibotenate also appeared to bind to a single class of non-interacting sites with a KI of 28 microM. However, quisqualate displacement of [3H]glutamate binding revealed two well-resolved sites with KIS of 12 nM and 114 microM in striatum. These sites were unevenly distributed, representing different proportions of specific glutamate binding in different brain regions. The distribution of glutamate-binding sites correlated very well with the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. This technique provides an extremely sensitive assay which can be used to gather detailed pharmacological and anatomical information about L-[3H]glutamate binding in the central nervous system

  20. Autoradiographic localization of putative nicotinic receptors in the rat brain using 125I-neuronal bungarotoxin

    Schulz, D.W.; Loring, R.H.; Aizenman, E.; Zigmond, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT), a snake venom neurotoxin, selectively blocks nicotinic receptors in many peripheral and central neuronal preparations. alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha BT), on the other hand, a second toxin isolated from the venom of the same snake, is an ineffective nicotinic antagonist in most vertebrate neuronal preparations studied thus far. To examine central nicotinic receptors recognized by NBT, we have characterized the binding of 125I-labeled NBT (125I-NBT) to rat brain membranes and have mapped the distribution of 125I-NBT binding in brain sections using quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The binding of 125I-NBT was found to be saturable, of high affinity, and heterogeneously distributed in the brain. Pharmacological studies suggested that more than one population of sites is labeled by 125I-NBT. For example, one component of 125I-NBT binding was also recognized by alpha BT, while a second component, not recognized by alpha BT, was recognized by the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The highest densities of these alpha BT-insensitive, nicotine-sensitive sites were found in the fasciculus retroflexus, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. alpha BT-sensitive NBT binding sites were found in highest density in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the medial mammillary nucleus (lateral part). The number of brain regions with a high density of 125I-NBT binding sites, blocked either by alpha BT or by nicotine, is low when compared with results obtained using other approaches to studying the central distribution of nicotinic receptors, such as labeling with 3H-nicotine or labeling with cDNA probes to mRNAs coding for putative receptor subunits

  1. Postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]iodoantipyrine technique in freely moving rats

    Nehlig, A.; Pereira de Vasconcelos, A.; Boyet, S.

    1989-01-01

    The postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow in freely moving rats were measured by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine method. The animals were studied at 10, 14, 17, 21 and 35 days and at the adult stage. At 10 days after birth, rates of blood flow were very low and quite homogeneous in most cerebral structures except in a few posterior areas. From these relatively uniform levels, values of local cerebral blood flow rose notably to reach a peak at 17 days in all brain regions studied. Rates of blood flow decreased between 17 and 21 days after birth and then increased from weaning time to reach the known characteristic distribution of the adult rat. The postnatal evolution of local cerebral blood in the rat is in good agreement with previous studies in other species such as dog and humans that also show higher rates of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization at immature stages. However, in the rat, local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization are not coupled over the whole postnatal period studied, since blood flow rates reach peak values at 17 days whereas glucose utilization remains still quite low at that stage. The high rate of cerebral blood flow in the 17-day-old rat may reflect the energetic and biosynthetic needs of the actively developing brain that are completed by the summation of glucose and ketone body utilization

  2. Autoradiographic visualization of A 1-adenosine receptors in brain and peripheral tissues of rat and guinea pig using 125I-HPIA

    Weber, R.G.; Lohse, M.J.; Jones, C.R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A 1 -adenosine receptors were identified in sections of rat brain and guinea pig kidney with the radioiodinated agonist 1 25I-N 6 -p-hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine ( 1 25I-HPIA) using in vitro autoradiography. The affinities of adenosine receptor ligands in competing with 1 25I-HPIA binding to tissue sections were in good agreement with those found in membranes and indicate that the binding site represents an A 1 pattern of [ 3 H]N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine ([ 3 H]CHA) binding sites determined previously, with highest densities in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the cerebellar cortex, some thalamic nuclei and certain layers of the cerebral cortex. In the guinea pig kidney 1 25I-HPIA labelled longitudinal structures in the medulla. This study demonstrates that 1 25I-HPIA allows the autoradiographic detection of A-1 adenosine receptors in the brain and peripheral organs and has the advantage of short exposure times (author)

  3. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on local cerebral glucose utilization, by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy [14C] glucose method, in conscious and pentobarbitalized rats

    Nagai, Y.; Narumi, S.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakurada, O.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of TRH and pentobarbital alone, and in combination, on local cerebral glucose utilization of rats were studied by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy[ 14 C] glucose method. TRH (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the rate of cerebral glucose utilization slightly in the whole brain. Locally, significant depression was observed in the following structures: frontal and visual cortices, hippocampus Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, medial and lateral geniculate bodies, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, superior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus, vestibular nucleus, lateral lemniscus and cerebellar cortex. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg i.v.) produced a marked and diffuse reduction in the rate of glucose utilization throughout the brain. TRH given 15 min after the administration of pentobarbital markedly shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time and caused some reversal of the depression in local cerebral glucose utilization produced by pentobarbital., These effects were almost completely abolished by pretreatment with intracerebroventricular injection of atropine methyl bromide (20 μg/rat). These results indicate that although TRH acts to cause a reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, it reverses the depression induced by pentobarbital, via a cholinergic mechanism, in a number of structures, some of which are related to monoaminergic systems and the reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system. (author)

  4. An animal model for human masseter muscle: histochemical characterization of mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, and cow masseter muscle

    Tuxen, A; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    The masseter muscle of several animal species was investigated by use of a histochemical method for the demonstration of acid-stable and alkali-stable myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The following subdivisions of fiber types were used: Type I fibers show weak ATPase activity at pH 9...... II and I fibers, with type II predominating. Cow masseter muscle consisted mainly of type I fibers, although some cow masseter muscles contained a very small number of type II fibers. Pig masseter muscle had both type I, II, and IM fibers. One of the characteristics of human masseter muscle is type...... IM fibers, which are rarely seen in muscles other than the masticatory muscles. Therefore, pig masseter muscle might be a suitable animal model for experimental studies, such as an investigation of the distribution and diameter of fiber types in the masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic...

  5. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  6. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.; Priestley, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3 H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3 H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3 H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3 H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3 H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  7. Hypothalamic projections to the ventral medulla oblongata in the rat, with special reference to the nucleus raphe pallidus: a study using autoradiographic and HRP techniques

    Hosoya, Yasuhiko

    1985-10-07

    Hypothalamic descending projections to the medullary ventral surface were studied autoradiographically in the rat. A small amount of (/sup 3/H)leucine was injected unilaterally into various parts of the hypothalamus by air pressure. Abundant and characteristic terminal labelings were observed bilaterally in the nucleus raphe pallidus, the ventral surface to the pyramidal tract and the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi, after injections into the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area caudal to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Conspicuous, but less numerous labelings were observed in the nucleus raphe obscurus and the ipsilateral raphe magnus. After an injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine into the hypothalamus and injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the spinal cord in the same animal, silver grains were densely distributed around HRP-labeled neurons in the nucleus raphe pallidus including the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi. The present results suggest that the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area projects directly to the spinal-projecting neurons of the nucleus raphe pallidus. 53 refs.; 9 figs.

  8. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    Uche

    Key words: Monosodium glutamate; histochemical effect; liver enzymes; hepatocytes; atrophic and degenerative changes;. Wistar rats. ... disease, Huntington‟s disease, and amyotrophic ... ascending grade of alcohol (ethanol), cleared in.

  9. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigations on the antioedematous and radioprotective effect of 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the brain of rats after single dose irradiation. Pt. 2

    Thiel, H.J.; Sauer, R.; Lierse, W.; Lehmann, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of acid phosphatases with and without protection by 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (HR) were studied in irradiated rat brains by means of the light microscope. The histochemically demonstrable deposition of glycogen and acid mucopolysaccarides serves as a criterion for a reversible lesion of the irradiated cerebral tissue. The extent of local activation of repair processes following to irradiation can be determined by the quantity of acid phosphatases in the lysosomes. For the dose range of 1 to 5 Gy, HR seems to exert a protective effect on the cellular metasbolism of the irradiated cerebral tissue shown by ba slight decrease of glycogen and mucopolysaccharide deposits compared to the untreated animals. However, when exceeding a threshold dose of 10 Gy, the deposition of carbohydrates in the HR group is strongly increased. A slightly increased activity of acid phosphatases induced by HR can be supposed at best for the dose range of 5 to 7.5 Gy. If the dose is even more increased, the reverse effect found in the carbohydrate metabolism, too, and an increased activation of acid phosphatases in the control group will be observed. This unexpected reversion of the protective effect could be related to the assumed inhibitory effect of HR on the ATPases and thus on the anaerobic part of glycolysis or to a breakdown of the cell interaction system of endothelial cells, glia cells, and neurons. (orig.) [de

  10. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  11. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand [3H]PK 14105

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with [ 3 H]PK 14105. In thymus sections, [ 3 H]PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands

  12. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  13. Direct action of the X-ray on the submandibular and sublingual glands. Histologic and histochemical study in rats

    Santos-Pinto, M.C. dos; Martinelli, C.; Santos-Pinto, R. dos

    1991-01-01

    The submandibular and sublingual glands of rats are surgically exposed and irradiated by X-ray. A simulated group with surgical exposition of the glands is performed. In the irradiated submandibular glands occurred atrophy, architectural disorder and degenerative processes. RNA reduction in the nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of the acini cells and a decrease of protein synthesis are described. (M.A.C.)

  14. The effects of storage on the retention of enzyme activity in cryostat sections. A quantitative histochemical study on rat liver

    Frederiks, W. M.; Ouwerkerk, I. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Marx, F.; Kooij, A.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage of unfixed cryostat sections from rat liver for 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days at -25 degrees C was studied on the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidoreductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (all demonstrated

  15. Autoradiographic analysis of regional alterations in brain receptors following chronic administration and withdrawal of typical and atypical neuroleptics in rats

    See, R.E.; Ellison, G.; Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were administered haloperidol, clozapine, raclopride, or no drug for 28 days or 8 months. Following a 3 week withdrawal period, in vitro autoradiography was utilized to examine receptor binding for dopamine D2([ 3 H]spiperone and [ 3 H]raclopride), dopamine D1([ 3 H]SCH23390), GABA A ([ 3 H]muscimol), benzodiazepine ([ 3 H]RO15-1788), and muscarinic ACh receptors ([ 3 H]QNB). [ 3 H]spiperone was elevated in striatal subregions only in haloperidol-treated rats, with the largest increases seen in the 8 month duration animals. Striatal [ 3 H]raclopride binding was increased after both short- and long-term treatment in both haloperidol and raclopride, but not clozapine-treated animals. Clozapine-treated rats showed significant increases in [ 3 H]SCH23390 in the nucleus accumbens after 28-day administration; otherwise no changes were seen for this ligand in any other groups. Increases in [ 3 H]muscimol binding in the substantia nigra reticulata were seen in haloperidol-treated rats after 8 month treatment. Binding of [ 3 H]QNB and [ 3 H]RO15-1788 were not significantly different from control for any of the drug-treated groups. These data suggest that persisting alterations in receptor binding are primarily seen in dopamine D2 and GABA receptors after withdrawal from chronic administration of haloperidol but not the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride. (Authors)

  16. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3- 125 I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci

  17. Effects of Melatonin on the Cerebellum of Infant Rat Following Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: a Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Turgut, Mehmet; Baka, Meral

    2017-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i.p. exogenous melatonin at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight after kaolin injection. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after the induction of hydrocephalus and melatonin administration. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was stained by immunohistochemical method. TUNEL method was used to define and quantitate apoptosis in the cerebellar tissues. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, and once significance was determined among means, post hoc pairwise comparisons were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. We found that melatonin administration significantly ameliorated ratio of substantia grisea area/substantia alba area in the cerebellum of infantile rats. Histologically, there was a significant reduction in the number of cerebellar apoptotic cells after the hydrocephalus induced by kaolin (P cerebellum were reversed by systemic melatonin administration in infantile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to suggest melatonin as a candidate protective drug in children with hydrocephalus.

  18. Autoradiographic analysis of regional alterations in brain receptors following chronic administration and withdrawal of typical and atypical neuroleptics in rats

    See, R E; Ellison, G; Toga, A W [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Rats were administered haloperidol, clozapine, raclopride, or no drug for 28 days or 8 months. Following a 3 week withdrawal period, in vitro autoradiography was utilized to examine receptor binding for dopamine D2(({sup 3}H)spiperone and ({sup 3}H)raclopride), dopamine D1(({sup 3}H)SCH23390), GABA{sub A}(({sup 3}H)muscimol), benzodiazepine (({sup 3}H)RO15-1788), and muscarinic ACh receptors (({sup 3}H)QNB). ({sup 3}H)spiperone was elevated in striatal subregions only in haloperidol-treated rats, with the largest increases seen in the 8 month duration animals. Striatal ({sup 3}H)raclopride binding was increased after both short- and long-term treatment in both haloperidol and raclopride, but not clozapine-treated animals. Clozapine-treated rats showed significant increases in ({sup 3}H)SCH23390 in the nucleus accumbens after 28-day administration; otherwise no changes were seen for this ligand in any other groups. Increases in ({sup 3}H)muscimol binding in the substantia nigra reticulata were seen in haloperidol-treated rats after 8 month treatment. Binding of ({sup 3}H)QNB and ({sup 3}H)RO15-1788 were not significantly different from control for any of the drug-treated groups. These data suggest that persisting alterations in receptor binding are primarily seen in dopamine D2 and GABA receptors after withdrawal from chronic administration of haloperidol but not the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride. (Authors).

  19. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 μM. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide

  20. Autoradiographic studies of the distribution of radium-226 in rat bone: their implications for human radiation dosimetry and toxicity

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.; Green, D.

    1983-01-01

    A solution containing 226 Ra chloride was injected into young female rats via the saphenous vein. Subsequently, the distribution and retention of the 226 Ra in the skeleton was studied. The results show that 226 Ra is initially deposited in the rat femur as a volume deposit and is fairly evenly distributed throughout the bone matrix. Much of the 226 Ra initially deposited in the skeleton is lost within a few days of its administration. During the first week 226 Ra gradually accumulates at sites of bone deposition including accreting surfaces. Subsequent bone growth results in the burial of contaminated bone surfaces. Following bone resorption some of the 226 Ra released from individual bones is recycled systemically so that all skeletal components tend towards a uniform 226 Ra concentration per unit of bone mineral. Of the two models conventionally used for radiation dosimetry purposes, these results reported for rats suggest that though neither is ideal, the volume distribution model is preferable to the surface model at all times after the uptake of radium by the skeleton. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of fetal supporting cells and wall cells in rats 19 days after conception

    Lugani-Mehta, S.

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the S-phase of supporting cells and wall cells of rat fetuses aged 19 days was determined by the ''labelled mitosis'' method. The supporting cells are predecessors of the sertoli cells while the wall cells are predecessors of the boundary tissue and, possibly, of part of the peritubular Leydig cell system. The S-phase of the supporting cells was found to last 10.1 h while the S-phase of the wall cells lasted 9.2 h. The data were not in agreement with the data of other authors. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    Kameyama, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p 3 H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  3. Neuroprotective effect of quercetin in a model of Parkinson’s disease in rat: A histochemical analysis

    Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Parkinson's disease (PD is a neuropathological disorder involving the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, with the subsequent loss of their terminals in the striatum. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant and radical scavenger. Therefore, its neuroprotective effect in a model of Parkinson’s disease in rat was evaluated.Methods: For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with quercetin (20 mg/kg; i.p. 1 hour before surgery and treated once a day for one month. Nissl-stained neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC were counted. Results: Number of Nissl-stained neurons in left side of SNC of lesion group was lower relative to sham-operated group (p<0.005 and it was higher in quercetin-treated lesion group as compared to untreated lesion group (p<0.01.Discussion: Flavonoid quercetin administration for one month could protect the neurons of SNC against 6-OHDA toxicity. 

  4. Neuroprotective effect of quercetin in a model of Parkinson’s disease in rat: A histochemical analysis

    Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Parkinson's disease (PD is a neuropathological disorder involving the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, with the subsequent loss of their terminals in the striatum. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant and radical scavenger. Therefore, its neuroprotective effect in a model of Parkinson’s disease in rat was evaluated.Methods: For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p. 1 hour before surgery and treated once a day for one month. Nissl-stained neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC were counted. Results: Number of Nissl-stained neurons in left side of SNC of lesion group was lower relative to sham-operated group (p<0.005 and it was higher in quercetin-treated lesion group as compared to untreated lesion group (p<0.01.Discussion: Flavonoid quercetin administration for one month could protect the neurons of SNC against 6-OHDA toxicity.

  5. Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of 14C-5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the brain of new-born rat

    Lappe, U.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of intracisternally injected 14 C-5,7-dihydroxy tryptamine (5,7-DHT) in the central nervous system of new-born rat is studied by means of autoradiography. The radio-active neurotoxin is incorporated into the neurones of all known serotonine nucleus groups. This labelling allows a detailed demonstration of the topography of the serotonine neurones in the brain stem of the new-born rat and to compare it with systems obtained by other methods. Serotonine neurones were mapped in 22 representative frontal sections through the brain stem. 14 C-5,7-DHT is incorporated into noradrenergic neurones, too. However, labelling is less marked than in serotonergic neurones. 14 C-5,7-DHT is incorporated at small quantities into the following extraneural elements: fibroblasts of the pia mater/arachnoidea, some endothelical cells of pial vessels, epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus, and subependymal macrophages. 6 h after injection of 25 μg 14 C-5,7-DHT, the vast majority of serotonergic neurones reveal strong degenerative changes which are irreversible. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Development of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive neurons in the rat occipital cortex: A combined immunohistochemical-autoradiographic study

    Cavanagh, M.E.; Parnavelas, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The postnatal development of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons, previously labeled with [3H]thymidine on embryonic days E14-E21, has been studied in the rat occipital cortex. Immunohistochemistry combined with autoradiography showed evidence of a modified inside-out pattern of maturation. NPY-neurons are generated between E14 and E20 and are found in layers II-VI of the cortex and the subcortical white matter. NPY neurons from all these birthdates are overproduced at first, although cells generated at E16 produce the greatest excess, followed by E15 and E17. Some of these transient neurons are found in the wrong layer for their birthdates, and their elimination produces a more correct alignment at maturity. However, most of the NPY neurons that survive are generated at E17, and these cells are found throughout layers II-VI with a preponderance in layer VI. This evidence is strongly suggestive of cell death rather than merely cessation of production of NPY

  7. Lateral hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone neurons: distribution and relationship to histochemically defined cell populations in the rat.

    Horjales-Araujo, E; Hellysaz, A; Broberger, C

    2014-09-26

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) constitutes a large component of the hypothalamus, and has been implicated in several aspects of motivated behavior. The LHA is of particular relevance to behavioral state control and the maintenance of arousal. Due to the cellular heterogeneity of this region, however, only some subpopulations of LHA cells have been properly anatomically characterized. Here, we have focused on cells expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a peptide found in the LHA that has been implicated as a promoter of arousal. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were used to map the LHA TRH population in the rat, and cells were observed to form a large ventral cluster that extended throughout almost the entire rostro-caudal axis of the hypothalamus. Almost no examples of coexistence were seen when sections were double-stained for TRH and markers of other LHA populations, including the peptides hypocretin/orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone and neurotensin. In the juxtaparaventricular area, however, a discrete group of TRH-immunoreactive cells were also stained with antisera against enkephalin and urocortin 3. Innervation from the metabolically sensitive hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was investigated by double-staining for peptide markers of the two centrally projecting groups of arcuate neurons, agouti gene-related peptide and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, respectively; both populations of terminals were observed forming close appositions on TRH cells in the LHA. The present study indicates that TRH-expressing cells form a unique population in the LHA that may serve as a link between metabolic signals and the generation of arousal. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain distribution of 14C-melatonin in rat: a biochemical and autoradiographic study

    Vitte, P.A.; Harthe, C.; Lestage, P.; Claustrat, B.; Bobillier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 14C-Melatonin (14C-MT) after systemic injection was studied in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain of rats. Chromatographic analysis (thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography) indicated that the radioactivity from biological samples taken at various times following the injection of label was mainly associated with 14C-MT. Computer analysis of plasma 14C-MT kinetics showed a three-compartment system with half-lives of 0.21 +/- 0.05, 5.97 +/- 1.11, and 47.52 +/- 8.86 min. The volume of distribution and the clearance were 1,736 +/- 349 ml.kg-1 and 25.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1.kg-1 respectively. The entry of 14C-MT into the CSF was rapid and reached a maximum at 5 min. The decay followed a two-compartment system with half-lives of 16.5 +/- 2.9 and 47.3 +/- 8.6 min. The CSF/plasma concentration ratio was 0.38 at the steady state (30 min). At 2 min the level of 14C-MT in the brain was 3.8 higher than in the CSF. Representative autoradiograms revealed an heterogeneous localization of 14C-MT in the grey matter. The highest regional values, as evaluated by the permeability area product technique, were found in cortex, thalamic nuclei, medial geniculate nucleus, anterior pretectal area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, choroid plexuses, and bulb-pons. Thirty minutes later 14C-MT was still detected in most of the brain regions analyzed. These results point to a low but rapid penetration of circulating MT into the brain and the CSF. The heterogeneous distribution and the partial retention of 14C-MT in the brain are compatible with the hypothesis of a central action of this hormone mediated via binding sites

  9. The autoradiographic localization of paraquat in the lung

    Webb, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning in mammals results in a characteristic lung lesion manifested principally as progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Paraquat is actively concentrated into the lung but the site of uptake remains undefined. A method is described for the autoradiographic localization of paraquat in rats. Preliminary evidence for the site of uptake implicates the bronchiol. (author)

  10. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  11. Calcium antagonist binding sites in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic mapping using the 1, 4-Dihydropyridines [3H]PN 200-110 and [3H]PY 108-068

    Cortes, R.; Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.; Palacios, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    An in vitro autoradiographic technique has been used for the quantitative mapping of calcium antagonist binding sites (CABS) in the rat brain, using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines [ 3 H]PN 200-110 and [ 3 H]PY 108-068 as ligands. CABS were distributed throughout the brain in a highly heterogeneous fashion. The highest densities of CABS were observed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and parts of the amygdala. The neocortex was also rich in CABS. The basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus presented intermediate levels of CABS while low densities of sites were seen in areas such as the cerebellum, pons and white matter tracts. The distributions of CABS in brain does not correlate with indexes of brain blood flow, regional glucose utilization or the distributions of receptor binding sites for drugs and neurotransmitters analyzed until now. No correlation exists between CABS distribution and that of any neurotransmitter or brain enzyme described so far. The heterogeneous distributions of CABS is suggestive of a neuronal localization, an idea supported by lesion experiments. (Author)

  12. Calcium antagonist binding sites in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic mapping using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines (TH)PN 200-110 and (TH)PY 108-068

    Cortes, R.; Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.; Palacios, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    An in vitro autoradiographic technique has been used for the quantitative mapping of calcium antagonist binding sites (CABS) in the rat brain, using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines (TH)PN 200-110 and (TH)PY 108-068 as ligands. CABS were distributed throughout the brain in a highly heterogeneous fashion. The highest densities of CABS were observed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and parts of the amygdala. The neocortex was also rich in CABS. The basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus presented intermediate levels of CABS while low densities of sites were seen in areas such as the cerebellum, pons and white matter tracts. The distributions of CABS in brain does not correlate with indexes of brain blood flow, regional glucose utilization or the distributions of receptor binding sites for drugs and neurotransmitters analyzed until now. No correlation exists between CABS distribution and that of any neurotransmitter or brain enzyme described so far. The heterogeneous distributions of CABS is suggestive of a neuronal localization, an idea supported by lesion experiments. (Author).

  13. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  14. The Preotective effects of Okra Powder (Abelmoschus esculentus on Histological and Histochemical Changes of Pancreatic Beta Cells and Liver Tissue of Diabetic Rat

    Naeim Erfani Majd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Since Abelmoschus esculentus plant has many medical benefits, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Okra Powder (Abelmoschus esculentus against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: I: control group; II: healthy rats receiving A. esculentus (200 mg/kg; III (HFD/STZ group: Rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks and then injected low-dose STZ (35 mg/kg; IV: diabetic rats receiving A. esculentus (200mg/kg and V: diabetic rats receiving metformin (200 mg/kg. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters, including Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG, insulin levels, Homa-IR index, ALT, AST and lipid profile were measured. Pancreas and Liver samples were removed, and 5-6 µ sections were prepared and stained by H&E and aldehyde fuchsin staining. Results: All the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and insulin, were increased in diabetic rats, while these parameters were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared to diabetic rats (p<0.05. Furthermore, Okra improved the histological impairments of pancreas and liver, including vacuolization, and decrease of β-cells as well as hypertrophy and vacuolization of hepatocytes in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Okra powder improved biochemical parameters, liver structure and restoration of beta cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Thus, it can be considered a complementary therapy to improve diabetic patients.

  15. Automated analysis of autoradiographic imagery

    Bisignani, W.T.; Greenhouse, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    A research programme is described which has as its objective the automated characterization of neurological tissue regions from autoradiographs by utilizing hybrid-resolution image processing techniques. An experimental system is discussed which includes raw imagery, scanning an digitizing equipments, feature-extraction algorithms, and regional characterization techniques. The parameters extracted by these algorithms are presented as well as the regional characteristics which are obtained by operating on the parameters with statistical sampling techniques. An approach is presented for validating the techniques and initial experimental results are obtained from an anlysis of an autoradiograph of a region of the hypothalamus. An extension of these automated techniques to other biomedical research areas is discussed as well as the implications of applying automated techniques to biomedical research problems. (author)

  16. Early morphological and histochemical alterations in rats subjected to ileocystoplasty Alterações morfológicas e histoquímicas precoces em ratos submetidos à ileocistoplastia

    Edinaldo Gonçalves de Miranda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study morphologic and histochemical alterations arising at the ileocystoplasty site. METHODS: Sixteen Wistar female rats were subjected to ileocystoplasty and sacrificed after eight weeks. Material collected was divided into four groups for histological and histochemical studies: Group I (control - isolated ileum segment removed during ileocystoplasty; Group II - ileoileal anastomosis; Group III - ileovesical anastomosis and Group IV - ileal segment from the neobladder. Histological and histochemical study assessed dysplasia, metaplasia, acute and chronic inflammation, fibrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, total mucins, sialomucins and sulfomucins. The non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed in statistical analysis. RESULTS: None of the groups presented dysplasia. Acute inflammation and atrophy occurred in Groups II, III and IV, not reaching statistical significance. Metaplasia was significant only in Group III (p=0.012. Chronic inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy were significant in Groups II, III and IV. There was a significant increase in total mucin content in Group IV (p=0.014 and a reduction in Group III (p=0.016. Increases in sialomucins were observed in samples for Groups III (p=0.003 and IV (p=0.002 along with reduced sulfomucins in samples from Groups III (p=0.013 and IV (p=0.008. CONCLUSION: Ileocystoplasty in female rats caused squamous metaplasia, chronic inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increase in sialomucin content, reduction in sulfomucins, and alterations in total mucin content with statistical significance, as well acute inflammatory infiltration and muscular atrophy with less intensity.OBJETIVO: Estudar alterações morfológicas e histoquímicas nas ileocistoplastias em ratos fêmea. MÉTODOS: 16 ratos fêmea foram submetidos à ileocistoplastia, sacrificadas após oito semanas. O material coletado foi e dividido em quatro grupos para análise morfológica e histoquímica: Grupo

  17. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  18. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 2. Regularities of the post-irradiation death of differentiating and proliferating cells of the rat brain subependimal zone

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-01-01

    A wave-like character of death of proliferating and differentiating (D) cells is shown autoradiographically using 3 H-thymidine introduced 60-80 min before the whole body X-ray irradiation in doses of 50, 150 or 300 R on subependymal cells of rat brain. Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G 2 and S-phases, resulted in 4 peaks of death in mitosis by following the first postradiational mitotic cycle (MC). Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G 1 -phase lost ability for DNA synthesis as cells irradiated in a dose of 300 R did not include additionally introduced (3 hrs before death) 14 C-thymidine from 12 to 17 hrs after 3 H-thymidine injection. However, in the first 4 hrs after irradiation there were no cells irradiated in G 1 -phase among dead ones, as indirec showed the calculations of data obtained tly/ while studying Pliss lymphosarcoma. A supposition is made that the death of cells irradiated in G 1 -phase is attributed to mitotic phase of the first MC after irradiation. Waves of death of lethally damaged D-cells repeated the peaks of death and corresponded to the mitotic peaks of proliferating cells, which permitted to presuppose the presence of ''short cycle'' (SC) in D-cells, which have the rhythm similar to MC and their death has been attributed to the final SC phase, which corresponds to MC mitotic phase in time. According to the peaks of cell death position of one hour block independent of dose in six MC(SC) points is determined. The cells have experienced the block in the point of MC(SC) in subphase of which they were caught by irradiation. Dose effect is manifested in the number of dead cells

  19. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303 ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  20. Characterization and autoradiographic visualization of (+)-[3H]SKF10,047 binding in rat and mouse brain: further evidence for phencyclidine/sigma opiate receptor commonality

    Sircar, R.; Nichtenhauser, R.; Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The binding specificity of (+)-[ 3 H]N-allylnormetazocine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the prototypical sigma opiate SKF10,047, was determined in rat and mouse brain and the neuroanatomical distribution of its binding sites elucidated by quantitative autoradiography in sections of rat brain. Computer-assisted Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent two-site fit of the binding data in both species and in all rat brain regions examined. In whole rat brain, the Kd values were 3.6 and 153 nM and the maximum binding values were 40 fmol and 1.6 pmol/mg of protein for the apparent high- and low-affinity binding sites, respectively. (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol and pentazocine were among the most potent inhibitors of 7 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding to the higher affinity sites; rank orders of ligand potencies at these sites differ sharply from those that have been reported for the [ 3 H]phencyclidine (PCP) site, or for eliciting PCP-like or SKF10,047-like behaviors. By contrast, rank orders of potency of sigma opiods, PCP derivatives and dioxolanes for displacement of 100 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 from the more numerous lower affinity sites in the presence of 100 nM haloperidol agreed closely with their potencies in the [ 3 H]PCP binding assay as well as their potencies in exerting PCP- or SKF10,047-like behavioral effects. In order to compare directly the anatomical localizations of PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 binding sites, quantitative light microscopy autoradiography utilizing tritium-labeled PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 was carried out in rat brain sections. (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding was observed to follow the regional pattern of [3H]PCP binding but also to bind in other regions not associated with PCP receptors

  1. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine A1 receptors in rat brain using [3H]XCC, a functionalized congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine

    Jarvis, M.J.; Williams, M.; Jacobson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to visualize the anatomical distribution of adenosine receptors labeled by the carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine, [ 3 Hi](8-(p-carbonxymethyloxy) phenyl-1,3 dipropylxanthine)([ 3 H]XCC) in rat brain. [ 3 H]XCC was observed to specifically bind to rat brain sagittal sections in a heterogenous pattern. Saturation experiments revealed that [ 3 H]XCC binds with nanomolar affinity to 20μm frozen tissue sections with the highest binding densities occurring in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Both the binding characteristics and regional receptor distribution obtained with [ 3 H]XCC demonstrate the potential usefulness of this new ligand in the study of adenosine A 1 receptors. 13 refs. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of cellular viability by quantitative autoradiographic study of myocardial uptake of a fatty acid analogue in isoproterenol-induced focal rat heart necrosis

    Humbert, T.; Luu-Duc, C.; Comet, M.; Demenge, P.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies led us to hypothesize that a fatty acid analogue, 15-p-iodophenyl-β-methyl pentadecanoic acid (IMPPA or BMIPP), which is taken up but not quickly metabolized by heart cells, would be a more suitable tracer of cellular viability that 201 Tl. Biodistribution studies of 1- 14 C-IMPPA in conscious, freely moving rats showed that the concentration ratio of radioactivity in the heart with respect to the blood was about 8 for at least 60 min after intravenous administration, permitting its use as a putative tracer in these conscious, freely moving rats. Thereafter, the myocardial uptake of 14 C-IMPPA was studied in isoproterenol-treated rats (daily treatment for 10 days in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy and necrotic foci) with respect to control ones. Comparison of myocardial localizations by quantitative autoradiography of the uptake of 201 Tl and 14 C-IMPPA with that of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining enabled comparative evaluation of nutritional blood flow, localization and uptake of 14 C-IMPPA and necrotic foci size. Distributions of 14 C-IMPPA and 201 Tl in control rats' hearts were homogenous, like TTC staining. In infarcted hearts, areas of decreased 14 C-IMPPA uptake were nearly the same (100%±5%) as those unstained by TTC. These areas were larger than those showing a decrease in thallium uptake (about 70%±5% of the total scar size). Therefore, IMPPA seems to be a more accurate and sensitive indicator of necrosis localization compared with thallium. It may be a useful agent for assessment of myocardial viability by single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. (orig.)

  3. Comparative autoradiographic investigations on the tissue distribution of benfotiamine versus thiamine in mice.

    Hilbig, R; Rahmann, H

    1998-05-01

    The tissue distribution of two therapeutically applied preparations of B-vitamins were investigated in blood and selected organs (liver, brain, muscle, kidney) of laboratory mice using autoradiographic techniques. Incorporation of lipid-soluble 3H-benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2) and water-soluble 3H-thiaminehydrochloride (CAS 67-03-8) (200 microCi, equivalent to 105 mg vitamin/kg body weight) was monitored between 0.75 and 168 h after an oral or subcutaneous administration. The labelled tissue slices were autoradiographically analysed after a differential histochemical extraction procedure to evaluate the respective total radioactivity, the uptake into lipid-soluble, water-soluble and residual macromolecular compounds. Evaluation of these autoradiographic data (given as mumol vitamin preparation/mg tissue equivalent) proved that benfotiamine is incorporated much better than thiaminehydrochloride independent of the administration mode. In muscle and brain tissue a 5 to 25 fold higher amount of tracer incorporation was registered following benfotiamine as compared with the thiamine application, whereas in all other organs the difference in the label was mostly between 10 and 40%. Concerning the organ specific distribution, liver and kidney were the structures labelled highest by both substances and administration procedures. In the liver, concerning all incorporation times, a higher proportion of residual macromolecular compounds was found, whereas in the kidney the proportions of lipid- as well as of water-soluble materials prevailed. These data should be clinically relevant.

  4. The role of rosemary extract in degeneration of hippocampal neurons induced by kainic acid in the rat: A behavioral and histochemical approach.

    Naderali, Elahe; Nikbakht, Farnaz; Ofogh, Sattar Norouzi; Rasoolijazi, Homa

    2018-01-01

    Systemic Kainic Acid (KA) administration has been used to induce experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract (RE, 40% Carnosic acid) against KA-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampus and impaired learning and memory. Animals received a single dose of KA (9.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) (KA group) and were observed for 2 h and were scored from 0 (for normal, no convulsion) to 5 (for continuous generalized limbic seizures). RE (100 mg/kg, orally) was administered daily for 23 days, starting a week before KA injection (KA+RE group). Neuronal degeneration in hippocampus was demonstrated by using Fluoro-Jade B immunofluorescence. The number of pyramidal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by Nissl staining. Also, the Morris Water Maze and Shuttle box have been used to assess spatial memory and passive avoidance learning, respectively. Our results revealed that, after treatment with RE, neuronal loss in CA1 decreased significantly in the animals in KA+RE group. The Morris water navigation task results revealed that spatial memory impairment decreased in the animals in KA+RE group. Furthermore, results in Shuttle box test showed that passive avoidance learning impairment significantly, upgraded in the animals in KA+RE group. These results suggest that RE may improve the spatial and working memory deficits and also neuronal degeneration induced by toxicity of KA in the rat hippocampus, due to its antioxidant activities.

  5. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II: autoradiographic localization in rat brain and comparison to receptors for insulin

    Lesniak, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Kiess, W.; Rojeski, M.; Pert, C.B.; Roth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in rat brain were visualized using autoradiography with [125I]IGF-I. The binding of the labeled peptide was competed for fully by high concentrations of unlabeled IGF-I. At intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptide the binding of [125I]IGF-I was competed for by unlabeled IGF-I more effectively than by IGF-II or insulin, which is typical of receptors for IGF-I. Essentially every brain section shows specific binding of IGF-I, and the pattern of binding of IGF-I to its receptors correlated well with the cytoarchitectonic structures. In parallel studies we showed that [125I]IGF-II was bound to tissue sections of rat brain and that the binding was competed for by an excess of unlabeled IGF-II. However, intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptides gave inconclusive results. To confirm that the binding of [125I]IGF-II was to IGF-II receptors, we showed that antibodies specific for the IGF-II receptor inhibited the binding of labeled IGF-II. Furthermore, the binding of the antibody to regions of the brain section, visualized by the application of [125I]protein-A, gave patterns indistinguishable from those obtained with [125I]IGF-II alone. Again, the binding was very widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, and the patterns of distribution corresponded well to the underlying neural structures. Densitometric analysis of the receptors enabled us to compare the distribution of IGF-I receptors with that of IGF-II receptors as well as retrospectively with that of insulin receptors

  6. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord

  7. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  8. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [ 125 I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([ 125 I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh differ from that of [ 125 I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [ 3 H]nicotine, [ 3 H]ACh, and [ 125 I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [ 125 I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [ 125 I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  9. On coherent optical evaluation of autoradiographs

    Birkholz, W.; Freyer, K.

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiography imaging process can be described through the imaging equation s(y 1 ,y 2 ) = ∫ a(x 1 ,y 2 )h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 )dx 1 dx 2 where s(y 1 ,y 2 ) in the density distribution of the autoradiograph, a(x 1 ,x 2 ) is the activity distribution over a plane sample and h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 ) transfer fuction of the system. Light transfer through a lens system may be characterized in an analogous way. By application of the Fourier transformation to the imaging equation, the autoradiographic imaging process becomes a filter process with the function H (= Fourier transformer of h). If autoradiographs are imaged through a lens system by means of coherent light the Fourier transform of the autoradiograph is formed in the Fourier plane. Through suitable arrangement of filters in the Fourier plane, systematic imaging errors can be corrected or the autoradiographic imaging be changed. The possibilities of coherent-optical filtration in the evaluation of autoradiographs are considered. (author)

  10. Immuno-histochemical localization of LH-RH during different phases of estrus cycle of rat, with reference to the preoptic and arcuate neurons, and the ependymal cells.

    Naik, D V

    1976-10-06

    Immunohistochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), during different phases of the estrus cycle, in the preoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei, and in the OVLT of rats, with special emphasis on the ependymal cells, was studied by light, fluorescent and electron microscopy, by using rabbit anti serum to synthetic LH-RH. The LH-RH neurons in the above mentioned areas, were very active during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Specialized ependymal cells bordering the 3rd ventricle also showed varied LH-RH positive reaction during different phases of the estrus cycle. Immunofluorescent studies showed cyclic variations in the LH-RH material in the CSF of the preoptic and infundibular recesses, as well as in the 3rd ventricle near OVLT, in that, it was maximum during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Immediately after this, the LH-RH late proestrus was reached. We have also observed that during the proestrus phase, as the LH-RH material started declining in the CSF, it had started building up in the specialized ependyma. Estrus, metaestrus and early diestrus phases showed very weak immunofluorescent LH-RH material in the lumen of the infundibular recess and in the specialized ependyma. Our immuno-electron microscopic observations showed pleomorphic LH-RH granules in the specialized ependyma during late kiestrus and proestrus phases. All these observations lead us to believe that LH-RH is not synthesized in the ependymal cells,but is phagocytosed from the CSF of the 3rd ventricle by the specialized ependyma, which transports it to the ME portal system. In males, the fluorescent LH-RH material did not show any noticeable changes. With the present and previous work,it is concluded that the neurons in differentnuclei synthesize LH-RH and transport it to the ME portal system,primarily through the nerve fibers and secondarily by the ventricular route. It is also suggested that the ependymal transport of LH-RH to the ME

  11. Autoradiographic Study of Incorporation of Tritiated Thymidine in the Rat; Etude Autoradiographique de l'Incorporation de Thymidine Tritiee chez le Rat; 0420 0430 0434 0438 043e 0430 0432 0442 043e 0414 ; Estudio Autorradiografico de la Incorporacion de Timidina Tritiada en la Rata

    Maldague, P.; Hong-Que, Pham; Maisin, J. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, Institut du Cancer, Louvain (Belgium)

    1962-02-15

    The authors used tritiated thymidine to evaluate desoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in various rat organs. They show by autoradiographs that this synthesis takes place mainly in tissue having intensive mitotic activity (bone marrow, seminiferous tubules of the testis, mucous membrane of the intestine, oesophagus and tongue). The authors also studied the regeneration of the convoluted renal tubules during the months following local irradiation of the kidney at various doses. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont utilise de la thymidine tritiee pour evaluer la synthese de l'acide desoxyribonucleique au niveau de differents organes chez le rat. Ils montrent par autoradiographies que cette synthese s'effectue principalement au niveau des tissus presentant une activite mitotique intense (moelle osseuse, tubes seminiferes du testicule, muqueuse intestinale, oesophagienne et de la lingue). Les auteurs ont en outre etudie la regeneration des tubes contournes du rein apres irradiation locale de cet organe, a differentes doses et dans les mois qui suivent cette irradiation. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han utilizado timidina tritiada para evaluar la sintesis del acido desoxirribonucleico en distintos organos de la rata. Demuestran mediante autorradiografias que esta sintesis se produce principalmente en los tejidos de intensa actividad mitotica (medula osea, tubos seminiferos de los testiculos, mucosas intestinal, del esofago y de la lengua). Finalmente, los autores han estudiado la regeneracion de los tubos y convolvulados del rinon en los meses que siguen a la irradiacion local de este organo con distintas dosis. (author) [Russian] Avtory pol'zovalis' mechennym tritiem timidinom dlja ocenki sin- teza dezoksiribonukleinovoj kisloty v razlichnyh organah krysy. Pri po- moshhi radioavtografii avtory pokazyvajut, chto jetot sintez proishodit glavnym obrazom v tkanjah s intensivnoj mitoticheskoj dejatel'nost'ju (kostnyj mozg, semenenosnye kanaly testikula, slizistaja obolochka

  12. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  13. The possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H 3 -thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough inestigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient [ru

  14. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    Pollitt, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  15. Cytogenetic and autoradiographic investigations in gonadal dysgenesis

    Baron, J.; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Medical Academy, Poznan

    1977-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in 23 patients with Turner's syndrome and in 33 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis consisted of sex chromatin determination and karyotype studies employing autoradiography in questionable cases. Here autoradiography is used as an indispensable complement to cytogenetic techniques. The labelling behaviour of aberrant chromosomes is described. After treatment of the autoradiographic films for more differentiation in results is employed

  16. Histological and histochemical alterations in the kidney induced by lead

    Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead intoxication is one of the most common forms of metal intoxication,the histochemichal alterations in renal tissues due to chronic lead exposure is limited and has not yet been well identified. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were exposed to lead acetate trihydrate( 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2% for 1 to 12 months) in drinking water to investigate the histological and histochemical alterations in renal tissues due to lead. Chronic exposure to the subtoxic doses of lead produced distinct progressive tubular, glomerular and interstitial damages. Tubular changes occured earlier than the glomerular and interstitial ones,and included anisokaryosis, nuclear pyknosis,karyomeglay, development of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions together with tubular dilation, necrosis,vacuolization, tubular hyperplasia and solid tubular adenoma. The glomrular alterations were mainly mesangial hypercellularity, segmental glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hyalinization and glomerular tuft alterations. The findings indicate that lead produces significant histological and histochemical changes in the kidney that lead to severe complications. (author)

  17. Relationship of histochemically detectable altered hepatocyte foci to hepatic tumorigenesis

    Peraino, C.; Staffeldt, E.F.; Carnes, B.A.; Ludeman, V.A.; Blomquist, J.A.; Vesselinovitch, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new experimental system was used to examine the stages of chemically induced hepatic neoplasia in the rat. The treatment protocol involved the intraperitoneal injection of a single non-necrogenic dose of carcinogen (N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) or benzo(a)pyrene (BP)) into male and female rats within one day after birth, followed by dietary exposure to promoter (0.05% phenobarbital) from weaning. Rats were killed at intervals, and their livers were examined for tumors and for histochemically detectable foci of altered hepatocytes. The data showed that (1) the new treatment protocol was highly efficient in foci and tumor production; (2) growth rates and incidence levels of foci were directly related to hepatocarcinogenic effectiveness (NDEA > BP), whereas both carcinogens had similar effects on foci phenotypic properties; (3) after their formation, foci at a given level of phenotypic complexity did not become progressively more complex; (4) incidence levels of foci were sex-dependent (females > males), but growth rates of foci were the same for both sexes; (5) growth rates and growth capacities (ranges of possible growth rates) of foci were directly related to phenotypic complexity levels of foci; (6) frequencies and phenotypic complexities of foci were inversely related; the reverse was true for tumors, although 10% of the tumors were relatively simple (three markers or fewer); (7) marker frequency distribution patterns were completely different in foci and in tumors.

  18. Autoradiographic study of corrosion of refractories

    Lisenenkova, S.B.; Kucheryavyi, M.N.; Bursteva, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the character of the interaction between a container-glass melt consisting of sodium calcium silicate and refractories in various furnace sections using an autoradiographic method. Static tests were conducted on specimens of the following refractories: chrome-aluminum-zircon, Bakor 41, corundum, a high alumina refractory, and a refractory based on tin dioxide. The specimens were activated by calcium 45. Autoradiography and photomicrography indicated that an intrinsic feature of all refractories was that calcium from the melt penetrated the refractories along the weak link; for fused-cast refractories, the glass phase; and for sintered refractories, through the binder and cracks

  19. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    Haeusler, D.; Fuchshuber, F.; Girschele, F.; Hacker, M.; Wadsak, W.; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grassinger, L. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Biomedical Analytics, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Hoerleinsberger, W.J. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Cognitive Science Research Platform, Vienna (Austria); Hoeftberger, R.; Leisser, I. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [University of Vienna, Department of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Vienna (Austria); Gerdenitsch, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Biomedicinal Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [{sup 125}I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET

  20. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-( 125 I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment

  1. An autoradiographic method of mapping the distribution and density of monoamine neurons in mouse brain

    Masuoka, D.T.; Alcaraz, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    A combined in vitro uptake and autoradiographic procedure as an important complement to the histochemical fluorescence method is described. Slabs of fresh mouse brain were incubated with 14 C-NE, 14 C-DA or 14 C-5-HT, freeze-dried, and placed against X-ray film for autoradiography. Catecholamine nerve terminals were labeled by in vitro incubation with 14 C-NE or 14 C-DA. Dopaminergic terminals were labeled by 14 C-NE incubation preceded by desipramine (to block uptake into NE terminals). With 14 C-5-HT incubation, the uptake pattern indicated the possibility that 5-HT nerve terminals were being labeled. Advantages of this method are that it allows the visualization of overall density and distribution of selected monoamine nerve terminals or uptake sites of other putative neurotransmitters in whole coronal or sagittal sections, so that data are obtained from many areas of brain or spinal cord rather than in only those areas preselected for microscopic viewing

  2. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    Portu, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Schwint, A.; Saint Martin, G.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  3. Pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in guinea pig brain

    Dam, T.V.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Substance P ([ 3 H]SP) was used to characterize substance P (SP) receptor binding sites in guinea pig brain using membrane preparations and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Curvilinear Scatchard analysis shows that [ 3 H]SP binds to a high affinity site (Kd = 0.5 nM) with a Bmax of 16.4 fmol/mg protein and a low affinity site (Kd = 29.6 nM) with a Bmax of 189.1 fmol/mg protein. Monovalent cations generally inhibit [ 3 H]SP binding while divalent cations substantially increased it. The ligand selectivity pattern is generally similar to the one observed in rat brain membrane preparation with SP being more potent than SP fragments and other tachykinins. However, the potency of various nucleotides is different with GMP-PNP greater than GDP greater than GTP. The autoradiographic distribution of [ 3 H]SP binding sites shows that high amounts of sites are present in the hippocampus, striatum, olfactory bulb, central nucleus of the amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei and superior colliculus. The cortex is moderately enriched in [ 3 H]SP binding sites while the substantia nigra contains only very low amounts of sites. Thus, the autoradiographic distribution of SP binding sites is fairly similar in both rat and guinea pig brain

  4. Tissue distribution of epimucosally applied 3H DNFB: an autoradiographic study

    Warfvinge, G.; Larsson, Aa.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 3 H-labeled 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) has been autoradiographically investigated in buccal mucosa after topical application to sensitized or nonsensitized rats. The rats were killed between 3 min and 24 h after challenge. No significant labeling pattern differences were found between plastic embedded and frozen sections. Surface epithelium was heavily labeled and labeled cells were observed in the lamina propria shortly (3-6 min) after application. These cells were clearly dendritic. Specific accumulation of hapten in epithelial Langerhans cells (LC) could not be clearly demonstrated. The connective tissue labeling gradually diminished and at 24 h post-elicitation, remaining label could be detected only in the epithelial surface layers. (author)

  5. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective 125 I-labeled OT antagonist ( 125 I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of 125 I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that 125 I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration

  6. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-08-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective {sup 125}I-labeled OT antagonist ({sup 125}I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of {sup 125}I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that {sup 125}I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration.

  7. Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for (/sup 3/H). gamma. -aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H) muscimol, (+) (/sup 3/H) bicuculline methiodide and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam in cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord

    Hoesli, E; Hoesli, L [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Moehler, H; Richards, J G [Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland)

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord were used to visualize sites for (/sup 3/H)..gamma..-aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H)muscimol, (/sup 3/H)bicuculline methiodide and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam by autoradiography. In cerebellar cultures, many large neurons (presumably Purkinje cells) and interneurons were labelled. In spinal cord cultures, these compounds were mainly bound to small and medium-sized neurons, whereas the majority of large neurons were unlabelled. No binding sites for these radioligands were found on glial cells. Binding of (/sup 3/H)..gamma..-aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H)muscimol and (/sup 3/H)bicuculline methiodide was markedly reduced or inhibited by adding unlabelled ..gamma..-aminobutyrate, muscimol and bicuculline (10/sup -3/M) respectively to the incubation medium. Addition of a thienobenzazepine markedly reduced binding with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. It is concluded that tissues cultures are an excellent tool to visualize the cellular localization of binding sites for neurotransmitters and drugs using autoradiography.

  8. Alterações histoquímicas das glicosaminoglicanas na cérvice uterina no final da prenhez da rata albina após ministração local de hialuronidase Histochemical changes of the glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix of pregnant rats after local injection of hyaluronidase

    Viviane Almeida de Alcântara Lopes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar as alterações histoquímicas relacionadas às glicosaminoglicanas da cérvice uterina da rata albina, após ministração local de hialuronidase no final da prenhez. MÉTODOS: dez ratas com teste de prenhez positivo foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos, numericamente iguais. O Grupo Controle (Gc foi constituído pelas ratas que receberam 1 mL de água destilada, dose única, no 18º dia da prenhez, sob anestesia, ministrado na cérvice uterina. O Grupo Experimental (Gex constou de ratas que receberam, sob as mesmas condições do Gc, 0,02 mL de hialuronidase, diluído em 0,98 mL de água destilada (total de 1 mL. No 20º dia de prenhez, as ratas foram novamente anestesiadas e submetidas à dissecção, preparando-se a cérvice uterina para estudo histoquímico com coloração de alcian blue e seus bloqueios (pH=0,5, pH=2,5, metilação e saponificação. RESULTADOS: verificou-se na lâmina própria no Gc, reação fortemente positiva (+3 e, no Gex, reação negativa, na coloração de alcian blue no pH=0,5. Em pH=2,5 a coloração também se apresentou fortemente positiva (+4 no Gc e fracamente positiva (+1 no Gex. Após metilação, tanto o Gc quanto o Gex mostraram reação negativa após coloração de alcian blue no pH=2,5. Com a reação de metilação seguida de saponificação e na digestão enzimática em lâmina, a coloração da lâmina própria se mostrou negativa em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: há uma nítida predominância de glicosaminoglicanas sulfatadas no Gc em relação ao Gex e uma tênue quantidade de glicosaminoglicanas carboxiladas identificadas no Gex. As modificações evidenciadas na matriz extracelular sugerem que a hialuronidase injetada localmente na cérvix uterina promoveu alterações bioquímicas compatíveis com maturação cervical.PURPOSE: to study the histochemical changes related to the uterine cervix glycosaminoglycan of the albino female rat, after local ministration of

  9. Elastofibroma dorsi: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study

    A. Di Vito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (ED is considered a member of a heterogeneous group of benign fibrous (fibroblastic or myofibroblastic soft-tissue tumors, frequently localized in the periscapular region in middle aged or older individuals. However, the pathogenesis of ED is still unclear and many authors believe that ED results from a reactive hyperproliferation of fibroblastic tissue, while others suggest that it may be a consequence of a mechanical friction. In our study, we examined 11 cases of ED using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, in order to extend the knowledge about extracellular matrix composition and histopathogenesis of ED. From the results it appeared that stroma and interspersed spindle cells of ED were positive for both periostin and tenascin-C. Mast cells tryptase-positive were also abundant throughout the lesion. The perivascular distribution of periostin and tenascin-C, associated with the CD34 positivity, suggest that endothelial-mesenchymal transition events can account for neovascularization and production of fibroelastic tissue characteristic of elastofibroma. Our data obtained in endothelial cells cultures demonstrated that elastin production is higher when the status of confluence of the cells is low. So, we can assume that such a phenomenon is a characteristic of mesenchymal/endothelial cells CD34 positive, in which elastin production results to be inversely proportional to the vascular differentiation of cellular elements. In the light of these considerations, we think that a cancerous nature of ED is unlikely. Overall, our study report, for the first time, a detailed description of extracellular matrix composition in ED, suggesting that a mechanical strain-dependent reactivation of periostin and tenascin-C expression, as well as of elastin deposition, could be responsible for development of ED.

  10. Some remarks on the evaluation of autoradiographs by means of microdensitometer ''Scanding 3''

    Mysak, F.; Spunda, J.

    1980-01-01

    Some factors, which influence the evaluation of autoradiographs by means of microdensitometer ''Scanding 3'' are described. The effect of pixel's area (area of picture element) used for digitalization of autoradiographs was studied. Experiments were carried out to explain the phenomena which are connected with scanning of fine details of structure. Attention is drawn to the influence of quantification of the optical density during digitalization of an autoradiograph on its evaluation. (author)

  11. Autoradiographic studies of actinide sorption in groundwater systems

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiography is a convenient and sensitive technique for the study of spacial distributions of alpha radioactive nuclides on slabs of rock or on other planar surfaces. The autoradiographic camera contains an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a plastic scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of the specimen. As an example of the use of the autoradiographic method, a series of sorption experiments were carried out in which synthetic groundwater solutions of americium, neptunium, uranium, and plutonium were contacted with Climax Stock granite under aerated and anoxic conditions at pH 8 to 9. The sorption observed at specific mineral sites was correlated with data on sorption of these actinides on pure minerals

  12. A new approach to the autoradiographic study of proliferating lymphocytes

    Zweiman, B.; Lisak, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An adaptation of a cell filtration method for the autoradiographic study of cultured lymphocytes has been developed. The percentages of labelled cells are very similar in the filtered cell population to those obtained from replicate cultures processed by centrifugation. The filter method permitted a higher recovery of cells from small numbers in culture with better cytological detail than seen when cells were washed by repeated centrifugation, then suspended and smeared. (author)

  13. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  14. Histochemical Characterization of Rain-Forest Strain of Onchocerca ...

    Abstract: The histochemical characterization of rain-forest strain of Onchocerca volvulus isolated in Akamkpa of Cross River State, Nigeria was studied. In a preliminary survey of 350 persons from eight villages, 75(21.4%) were found to be positive for the parasite. Males (23.6%) were more infected than the females but there ...

  15. Xanthine, hypoxanthine and muscle pain. Histochemical and biochemical observations

    Isaacs, H; Badenhorst, M; Pickering, A [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiology; Heffron, J J.A. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiological Chemistry; Berman, L

    1975-06-21

    A suspected case of xanthine oxidase deficiency has been further investigated. The patient complained of arthralgia and myalgia. Further studies included histochemical and ultramicroscopic analysis of muscle sarcoplasmic recticulum, and biochemical studies. High levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine were found, while uric acid was absent in the muscle extracts.

  16. Application of autoradiographic methods for contaminant distribution studies in soils

    Povetko, O.G.; Higley, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine physical location of contaminants in soil, solidified soil 'thin' sections, which preserve the undisturbed structural characteristics of the original soil, were prepared. This paper describes an application of different autoradiographic methods to identify the distribution of selected nuclides along key structural features of sample soils and sizes of 'hot particles' of contaminant. These autoradiographic methods included contact autoradiography using CR-39 (Homalite Plastics) plastic alpha track detectors and neutron-induced autoradiography that produced fission fragment tracks in Lexan (Thrust Industries, Inc.) plastic detectors. Intact soil samples containing weapons-grade plutonium from Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site and control samples from outside the site location were used in thin soil section preparation. Distribution of particles of actinides was observed and analyzed through the soil section depth profile from the surface to the 15-cm depth. The combination of two autoradiographic methods allowed to distinguish alpha- emitting particles of natural U, 239+240 Pu and non-fissile alpha-emitters. Locations of 990 alpha 'stars' caused by 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were recorded, particles were sized, their size-frequency, depth and activity distributions were analyzed. Several large colloidal conglomerates of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were found in soil profile. Their alpha and fission fragment 'star' images were micro photographed. (author)

  17. Autoradiographic demonstration of unscheduled DNA synthesis in oral tissues treated with chemical carcinogens in short-term organ culture

    Ide, F.; Umemura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.

    1981-01-01

    A system in which oral tissues of inbred F344 adult rats and Syrian golden hamster embryos were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). For this, oral mucosa, submandibular gland, tooth germ and mandible in short-term organ cultures were treated with 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea plus (methyl- 3 H)thymidine. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected over the nuclei of cells of all these tissues except rat salivary gland after treatment with carcinogens. This autoradiographic method is suitable for detection of UDS in oral tissues in conditions mimicking those in vivo. Results obtained in this study indicated a potential use of this system for studies on the mechanism of carcinogenesis at a cellular level comparable to in vivo carcinogenesis studies on oral tissues. (author)

  18. Double-label autoradiographic deoxyglucose method for sequential measurement of regional cerebral glucose utilization

    Redies, C; Diksic, M; Evans, A C; Gjedde, A; Yamamoto, Y L

    1987-08-01

    A new double-label autoradiographic glucose analog method for the sequential measurement of altered regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two boluses of glucose tracer labeled with two different isotopes (short-lived /sup 18/F and long-lived /sup 3/H, respectively). An operational equation is derived which allows the determination of glucose utilization for the time period before the injection of the second tracer; this equation corrects for accumulation and loss of the first tracer from the metabolic pool occurring after the injection of the second tracer. An error analysis of this operational equation is performed. The double-label deoxyglucose method is validated in the primary somatosensory (''barrel'') cortex of the anesthetized rat. Two different rows of whiskers were stimulated sequentially in each rat; the two periods of stimulation were each preceded by an injection of glucose tracer. After decapitation, dried brain slices were first exposed, in direct contact, to standard X-ray film and then to uncoated, ''tritium-sensitive'' film. Results show that the double-label deoxyglucose method proposed in this paper allows the quantification and complete separation of glucose utilization patterns elicited by two different stimulations sequentially applied in the same animal.

  19. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of (/sup 3/H)estradiol ((/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received (/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/-cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior.

  20. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of [ 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received [ 3 H]E 2 -cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior

  1. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoradiographic detection of [125I]-secondary antiserum: a sensitive light and electron microscopic labeling method compatible with peroxidase immunocytochemistry for dual localization of neuronal antigens

    Pickel, V.M.; Chan, J.; Milner, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    We examined whether autoradiographic localization of [ 125 I]-antirabbit immunoglobulin (IgG) was suitable for light and electron microscopic detection of a rabbit antiserum to the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and whether autoradiographic and peroxidase labeling could be combined for simultaneous immunocytochemical identification of TH and neuropeptides in brain. Adult rat brains were fixed by aortic arch perfusion with acrolein and paraformaldehyde. Vibratome sections of the fixed tissues were incubated with various dilutions of TH antiserum followed by [ 125 I]-secondary IgG. These sections were then directly processed for autoradiography or were incubated with rabbit antiserum to substance P (SP) or methionine [Met5]-enkephalin (ME). These latter sections were then processed by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) or conjugated peroxidase methods followed by autoradiography. Exposure periods of 12-20 days for light microscopy or 90 days for electron microscopy yielded substantial accumulations of silver grains even at the highest (1:30,000) dilution of TH antiserum. At this dilution, immunoreactivity for TH was virtually nondetectable by PAP and conjugated peroxidase methods. The differential sensitivities of the autoradiographic versus peroxidase methods provided a means for separable identification of rabbit antiserum to TH and to SP or ME. Ultrastructural analysis of the catecholaminergic neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) showed selective cytoplasmic localization of silver grains for [ 125 I]-labeling of TH in perikarya, dendrites, and terminals. Within single thin sections prepared for dual labeling, the peroxidase marker for SP and for ME was differentially localized with respect to autoradiographic labeling of TH

  3. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961)

    Cohen, Y.; Wepierre, J.

    1961-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 μ thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 μ section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C 14 ) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors) [fr

  4. Is there still room for novelty, in histochemical papers?

    Carlo Pellicciari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Histochemistry continues to be widely applied in biomedical research, being nowadays mostly addressed to detect and locate single molecules or molecular complexes inside cells and tissues, and to relate structural organization and function at the high resolution of the more advanced microscopical techniques. In the attempt to see whether histochemical novelties may be found in the recent literature, the articles published in the European Journal of Histochemistry in the period 2014-2016 have been reviewed. In the majority of the published papers, standardized methods have been preferred by scientists to make their results reliably comparable with the data in the literature, but  many papers (approximately one fourth of the published articles described novel histochemical methods and procedures.  It is worth noting that there is a growing interest for minimally-invasive in vivo techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, autofluorescence spectroscopy which may parallel conventional  histochemical analyses to obtain information not only on the morphological features of living organs and tissues, but also on their functional, biophysical and molecular characteristics. Thanks to this unceasing methodological refinement, histochemistry will continue to provide innovative applications in the biomedical field.

  5. Autoradiographical investigations of the proliferation of gynaecological carcinomas

    Wehweck, H.

    1981-01-01

    23 biopsies and operation preparations of gynaecological tumours were examined autoradiographically: 8 with an external short-time preirradiation of up to 750 R, one with a curative radiotherapy 1 1/2 years ago. Besides the determination of quantitative parameters of growth kinetics another main concern was to find out the interdependence between the proliferation behaviour of the tumour cells and the histological differentiation of the tumour parenchyma and the topographical location of the malignant cells in the tissue. Possible effects of a previous radiotherapy on the cell proliferation are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  6. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; O' Brien, Julie A. [Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lemaire, Wei [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); O' Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Zhao Zhijian [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Wallace, Michael A. [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065 (United States); Raab, Conrad [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lindsley, Craig W. [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [{sup 35}S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([{sup 35}S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [{sup 14}C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K{sub d}=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [{sup 35}S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [{sup 35}S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop

  7. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    Zeng Zhizhen; O'Brien, Julie A.; Lemaire, Wei; O'Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J.; Zhao Zhijian; Wallace, Michael A.; Raab, Conrad; Lindsley, Craig W.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [ 35 S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([ 35 S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [ 14 C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K d =1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [ 35 S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [ 35 S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop positron emission

  8. The autoradiographic observation of neutron activated plant samples

    Koyama, Motoko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    Imaging Plate (IP) is a radiography apparatus of applying photostimulable luminescence. IP has some advantages in comparison with X-ray film, for example, high sensitivity, wide latitude and high fidelity for radiations. The high sensitivity of IP makes it possible to observe the distribution of short-lived nuclides. We obtained autoradiographs of Azuki bean cuttings. In the basal region of Azuki bean cuttings, the intensity of autoradiographs of indole acetic acid (IAA)-treated samples were higher than that of water- and Gibbereline(GA)-treated ones. The high intensity parts of IAA-treated cuttings were extended upwards. The high intensive imaging of basal region treated in IAA indicated that high elemental concentrations were in existence for adventitious root formations. The measurement results by γ-ray spectrometry showed that the Ca content in the Azuki bean cuttings basal region increased in IAA treatment. It seems that the cell division for adventitious root formation needs Ca. In Azuki bean epicotyls, Ca content showed an increase to basal region, though Mg content increased to upper region. (author)

  9. Autoradiographic study of the permeability characteristics of the small intestine

    Kingham, J G.C.; Baker, J H; Loehry, C A [Royal Victoria Hospital, Bournemouth (UK)

    1978-02-01

    This autoradiographic study demonstrates the distribution of a range of small solutes and macromolecules in the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine after intracardiac injection. The substances investigated were: /sup 14/C-urea, /sup 3/H-mannose, /sup 3/H-inulin, and /sup 125/I polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Small bowel biopsies were taken at intervals from one to 60 minutes after injection and the tissues processed for autoradiography. Light microscopic examination of the autoradiographs showed that the compartmental distribution depended on the molecular size of the substances being studied. Urea and mannose, as small solutes, were uniformly distributed throughout the intravascular, extravascular, and epithelial compartments. Inulin was evenly distributed in the vessel lumen and extravascular space but there was a considerable drop in concentration in the epithelium. PVP exhibited the most marked gradients, the concentration being greatest in the vascular lumina, lower in the extravascular space, least in the epithelium. Thus there appear to be two barriers to macromolecular passage which are freely permeable to small solutes: the capillary wall and the epithelium. At a light microscopical level it was not possible to observe whether the limiting membrane of each of these barriers is the cell plasmalemmal membrane or the basement membrane. The selectivity of the epithelial barrier was greater than that of the capillary barrier.

  10. Autoradiographic study of nuclear protein acetylation during Locust spermiogenesis

    Bouvier, D.; Chevaillier, P.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies, at the light and electron microscope level, demonstrate that spermatid nuclei of the Locust Locusta migratoria incorporate 3 H-acetate, especially during the first stages of spermiogenesis. The highest level of acetate incorporation is observed during stage II of spermiogenesis. During this stage and the following, the spermatid nucleus undergoes a number of structural and chemical modifications: chromatin decondenses and somatic histones are progressively replaced by newly synthesized arginine-rich proteins. Therefore, the higher degree of acetylation of nuclear components coincides with chromatin decondensation and precedes the protein transition occurring in later stages. Cytochemical and autoradiographic tests have been realized so as to localize 3 H-acetate in the nuclear components. Trichloracetic acid was used at various concentrations: the action of hydrochloric acid, pronase and DNase was also tested. The results support the idea that proteins, and among them histones, are the only nuclear components to be acetylated during spermiogenesis. Thus, histone acetylation seems to play an important role in modulating histone-DNA interactions and allowing histone replacement [fr

  11. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit [ 3 H]-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M 1 subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M 2 subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M 1 selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function

  12. Autoradiographic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    By combining and adapting various methodologies, it is possible to develop radiohistochemical methods for the light microscopic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. These methods are valuable complements to other histochemical methods for mapping neurotransmitters; they provide a unique view of neuroanatomy and they can be used to provide valuable new hypotheses about how drugs produce various effects. Interesting 'hot spots' of receptor localizations have been observed in some sensory and limbic areas of the brain. Because most available methods are light microscopic, the development of ultrastructural methods will be a necessary and important extension of this field. (Auth.)

  13. Automated analysis of autoradiographic grains density with scanning microspectrophotometer

    Han Pingrong

    1988-01-01

    The mouse ascites tumour cells were used as the specimen, and 3 H-thymidine was used as the tracer. The smears were treated without staining or with Eosin or Giemsa-Wright staining. The automatic analysis of autoradiographic silver grains was performed with UNIVAR-MSPM. The relationship between integrated optical density (IOD) and silver grain density (SGD) in cell nuclei was studied. The results showed that the IOD could reflect the SGD basically, the correlation coefficients being 0.922, 0.9118 and 0.6218. Since the G-W stained cell nuclei appeared blue, their IOD was influenced strongly, whereas the Eosin stained cell nuclei appeared light red, their IOD was influenced only slightly. The latter was recommended. This method could be used for studying the DNA synthesis and cell proliferating kinetics

  14. Autoradiographic analysis of protein regeneration in striated skeleton muscle

    Dadoune, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    An autoradiographic study was conducted of protein regeneration in striated muscles aimed at clarifying the contradictions in the literature: while some authors hold that the regeneration rate is identical for all types of myofibril proteins and the myofibril is thus regenerated as a whole, others claim that the regeneration rate differs depending on the type of the myofibril protein. Tritium-labelled leucine incorporation experiments showed the existence of at least 2 pools of newly formed proteins in striated muscles in both adult and young animals. One pool is regenerated in 1 to 2 weeks, the other roughly in a month. The regeneration of proteins is initially more significant in red fibres; thus the rate of myofibril protein regeneration is not uniform. In adult animals regeneration seems to be slower in filaments than in the sarcoplasm and in the mitochondria. (A.K.)

  15. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of 125 I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with 125 I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes

  16. Histochemical Study of the Progenetic Trematode Alloglossidium renale

    Craig A. Schimmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A histochemical study of the progenetic trematode Alloglossidium renale has demonstrated the absence of any secreted material between the adult worm and the host (freshwater shrimp antennal gland tubules. Host tissue is affected only by the compression, abrasion, and ingestion by the parasite, and host tubule cells near the worm have the same staining patterns as those distant from the parasite. The trematode sometimes dies within the host, leaving a necrotic mass whose histochemical staining differs significantly from the living organism. In the necrotic mass, the only recognizable features were the ova and the vitellarium, which atrophied and resulted in tyrosine-positive staining within the mass. A melanin reaction was not observed in the host using a specialized ferro-ferricyanide stain. The only apparent host response to infection was a layer of damaged squamous host cells adhering to the necrotic worm. The results confirm benign host-parasite effects and a highly evolved relationship between the host and parasite, perhaps bordering on commensalism.

  17. Histochemical alterations in colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in Egyptian patients

    Saber A Sakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the histochemical alterations in DNA and total carbohydrates, in colorectal cancer cells. Methods: This study was carried out on 48 colorectal carcinoma and 10 adenoma specimens. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was carried out for histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of tumor. Histologic grade and pathologic stage was assessed according to TNM staging system. Staging was also assessed according to original Dukes’ staging system. DNA was demonstrated by Feulgen method and carbohydrates were demonstrated by periodic acid Schiff’s reaction. Results: Adenoma cases showed that the cells lining the glands of the polyp have more crowded, irregular and darker nuclei (hyperchromatic, anisonucleosis, abnormal mitotic figures with prominent nucleoli and variability in the size and shape of nuclei. Colorectal carcinoma cases showed a condensation and reduction in the size of a cell nucleus associated with hyperchromatosis, pyknotic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, anisonucleosis, irregular nuclear membrane and inequality in the size of the nuclei (Pleomorphosis. There was a statistical significant differences between adenoma and carcinoma regarding number of mitotic cells (P = 0.03 that was in favour of malignant group. Adenoma and colorectal carcinoma cases showed periodic acid Schiff’s reactivity with different degree. Conclusions: These histochemical alterations can be so characteristic of a given tumor type and stage that they are used in cancer diagnosis and might also be related to the altered functional properties of cancer cells.

  18. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  19. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Villaschi, S.; Spagnoli, L.G. (Universita degli Studi, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia Patologica)

    1983-07-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells.

  20. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Villaschi, Sergio; Spagnoli, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells. (author)

  1. Histochemical and functional parameters in Nordic combination athletes.

    Matolín, S; Vaverka, F; Lunák, J; Novák, J; Horák, V; Krejcí, P

    1994-01-01

    Bioptic samples from the vastus lateralis muscle were analyzed in a group of Czechoslovak representatives in the Nordic combination (ski-jumping and 15 km cross-country skiing). The distribution of individual muscle fibre types (FG, FOG and SO) was detected and correlated with values obtained by motor and functional performance tests. Histochemical analysis of the bioptic samples revealed a considerably heterogeneous distribution of muscle fibre types in the group studied. No typical profilation for this sport discipline was found. Weak correlation between the proportion of fast muscle fibres and explosive strength parameters was ascertained. The correlation between the proportion of slow muscle fibres and the capacity of O2 utilization (VO2max) was statistically significant. Strong correlation between the proportion of fast twitch fibres and relative maximal strength of knee extensors (N/kg) was disclosed. A non-linear relation between the area of fast twitch fibres and vigour of take-off was found.

  2. Histochemical effects of γ radiation on soft fruit cell walls

    Foa, E.; Jona, R.; Vallania, R.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation effects in peaches, tomatoes, cherries and grapes on the composition of cell wall polysaccharides were investigated by histochemical techniques. Cell wall polysaccharides, separated by a modified Jensen's method were pectins, hemicellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and cellulose. The extinction values of Periodic Acid Schiff stained tissues was measured by microscopical photometry. Irradiation induced highly significant changes in polysaccharide composition of mesocarp cell walls; these changes were found to be a function of time of irradiation after harvest and of the species tested. A general influence on polysaccharide molecules was not found. Variations produced by irradiation are postulated to be an interference with a regulatory system rather than a breakdown of a functional molecule (metabolic enzyme or polysaccharide. (author)

  3. Microscopic and histochemical manifestations of hyaline cartilage dynamics.

    Malinin, G I; Malinin, T I

    1999-01-01

    Structure and function of hyaline cartilages has been the focus of many correlative studies for over a hundred years. Much of what is known regarding dynamics and function of cartilage constituents has been derived or inferred from biochemical and electron microscopic investigations. Here we show that in conjunction with ultrastructural, and high-magnification transmission light and polarization microscopy, the well-developed histochemical methods are indispensable for the analysis of cartilage dynamics. Microscopically demonstrable aspects of cartilage dynamics include, but are not limited to, formation of the intracellular liquid crystals, phase transitions of the extracellular matrix and tubular connections between chondrocytes. The role of the interchondrocytic liquid crystals is considered in terms of the tensegrity hypothesis and non-apoptotic cell death. Phase transitions of the extracellular matrix are discussed in terms of self-alignment of chondrons, matrix guidance pathways and cartilage growth in the absence of mitosis. The possible role of nonenzymatic glycation reactions in cartilage dynamics is also reviewed.

  4. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  5. Significance of local cerebral glucose utilization determined by the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method in experimentally induced coma

    Sakurada, O.; Kobayashi, M.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S. (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral lesions made in the midbrain reticular formation of the rat produced behavioral akinesia. These animals neither ate nor drank. EEGs of these animals usually showed high voltage slow waves at rest. Slight EEG arousal response was demonstrated by clapping, touching and pinching only in rats with moderate impairment. Concerning the rates of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) measured by means of the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C) deoxyglucose method, 13 structures exhibited significant reductions in 28 gray structures examined when compared with sham operated rats. Lesions in the midbrain reticular formation resulted in reduction of LCGU in the neocortex, ventral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and medial and lateral geniculated bodies, mamillary body, septal nucleus and caudateputamen. Structures which did not show any significant change in LCGU were those related to the paleo and archi-cortices. These findings suggest the existence of two types of ascending activating systems. Administration of 30 mg/kg of pentobarbital reduced LCGU diffusely throughout the brain. When thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was administered to rats with lesions in the midbrain reticular formation, reversal of the reduction of LCGU was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mamillary body. Reversal of LCGU in the dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus was especially significant and its level exceeded the level of the sham control value. This suggests TRH might exert its function through the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and mamillary body. When TRH was administered to rats treated with pentobarbital, significant reversal was observed in the following structures: the lateral and ventral nucleus of the thalamus, dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, pontine gray matter, and raphe nucleus.

  6. Autoradiographic study of actinide sorption on climax stock granite

    Beall, G.W.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Allard, B.

    1980-06-01

    An autoradiographic technique that employed an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of a specimen was applied to a study of the sorption of americium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium on Climax Stock granite under varying conditions of pH and Eh. Qualitative agreement was found between the sorption of americium on crushed, pure minerals and on the minerals comprising the specimen of Climax Stock granite. The observations also supported a mechanism for reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) by Fe(II)-containing minerals. There was no evidence for reduction of U(VI) by the Fe(II)-containing minerals, although the uranium, assumed to be present as UO 2 2+ , appeared to be the only actinide species to exhibit sorption by a simple, cation-exchange mechanism at particular mineral sites. Some implications of these results for nuclear waste isolation are discussed briefly

  7. Neurogenesis in spinal cord of mouse: an autoradiographic analysis

    Nornes, H.O.; Carry, M.

    1978-01-01

    An autoradiographic analysis of the time and sites of origin, and the migration and setting patterns of neurons was made in the spinal cord of the mouse. The neurons originated on days 10-15 of gestation with temporal gradients along the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal axes. The motor neurons originated on days 10-11 of gestation; the neurons in the intermediate gray region originated on days 11-14 of gestation; the neurons of the head of the dorsal horn originated on days 12-14 of gestation. The neurons that originated on days 10 and 11 originated and migrated primarily from the basal plate, and they settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone; those neurons formed on days 12-14 originated and migrated primarily from the alar plate, and it was concluded that these neuroblasts similarly settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone. Extraventricular proliferation, which presumably signaled the initial stages of gliogenesis, was first observed on day 12 of gestation. This study supports the classical idea of the mosaic pattern of neurogenesis in the embryonic spinal cord. (Auth.)

  8. In situ autoradiographic detection of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity

    Sussman, D.J.; Milman, G.; Osborne, C.; Shane, B.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the conversion of folate (pteroylmonoglutamate) to the polyglutamate forms (pteroylpolyglutamates) that are required for folate retention by mammalian cells. A rapid in situ autoradiographic assay for FPGS was developed which is based on the folate cofactor requirement of thymidylate synthase. Chinese hamster AUX B1 mutant cells lack FPGS activity and are unable to accumulate folate. As a result, the conversion of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine to thymidine via the thymidylate synthase reaction is impaired in AUX B1 cells and no detectable label is incorporated into DNA. In contrast, FPGS in wild-type Chinese hamster CHO cells causes folate retention and enables the incorporation of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine into DNA. Incorporation may be detected by autoradiography of monolayer cultures or of colonies replica plated onto polyester discs. Introduction of Escherichia coli FPGS into AUX B1 cells restores the activity of the thymidylate synthase pathway and demonstrates that the E. coli FPGS enzyme can provide pteroylpolyglutamates which functions in mammalian cells

  9. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischemia using hypoxic marker: Tc-99m-HL91 in animal models

    Jiang, N.Y.; Zhu, C.S.; Hu, X.K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of Tc-99m-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods: 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected Tc-99m-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result: The ischemic territory accumulated more Tc-99m-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of Tc-99m-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion : Tc-99m-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. Tc-99m-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and Tc-99m-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  10. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischaemia using hypoxic marker: 99mTc-HL91 in animal models

    Ningyi, J.; Cansheng, Z.; Xiaoke, H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of 99mTc-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected 99mTc-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result The ischemic territory accumulated more 99mTc-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of 99mTc-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion 99mTc-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. 99mTc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and 99mTc-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  11. Direct comparison of enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to localize an enzyme

    van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of enzymes is compared directly with localization of enzyme activity with (catalytic) enzyme histochemical methods. The two approaches demonstrate principally different aspects of an enzyme. The immunohistochemical method localizes the enzyme protein whether it is

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in intermediate lobe of the pituitary: Biochemical characterization and autoradiographic localization

    Grigoriadis, D.E.; De Souza, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    CRF receptors were characterized using radioligand binding and chemical affinity cross-linking techniques and localized using autoradiographic techniques in porcine, bovine and rat pituitaries. The binding of 125I-[Tyr0]-ovine CRF (125I-oCRF) to porcine anterior and neurointermediate lobe membranes was saturable and of high affinity with comparable KD values (200-600 pM) and receptor densities (100-200 fmoles/mg protein). The pharmacological rank order of potencies for various analogs and fragments of CRF in inhibiting 125I-oCRF binding in neurointermediate lobe was characteristic of the well-established CRF receptor in anterior pituitary. Furthermore, the binding of 125I-oCRF to both anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary was guanine nucleotide-sensitive. Affinity cross-linking studies revealed that the molecular weight of the CRF binding protein in rat intermediate lobe was identical to that in rat anterior lobe (Mr = 75,000). While the CRF binding protein in the anterior lobes of porcine and bovine pituitaries had identical molecular weights to CRF receptors in rat pituitary (Mr = 75,000), the molecular weight of the CRF binding protein in porcine and bovine intermediate lobe was slightly higher (Mr = 78,000). Pituitary autoradiograms from the three species showed specific binding sites for 125I-oCRF in anterior and intermediate lobes, with none being apparent in the posterior pituitary. The identification of CRF receptors in the intermediate lobe with comparable characteristics to those previously identified in the anterior pituitary substantiate further the physiological role of CRF in regulating intermediate lobe hormone secretion

  13. Detection, Quantification, and Microlocalisation of Targets of Pesticides Using Microchannel Plate Autoradiographic Imagers

    Mabruka H. Tarhoni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP compounds are a diverse chemical group that includes nerve agents and pesticides. They share a common chemical signature that facilitates their binding and adduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE within nerve synapses to induce cholinergic toxicity. However, this group diversity results in non-uniform binding and inactivation of other secondary protein targets, some of which may be adducted and protein activity influenced, even when only a relatively minor portion of tissue AChE is inhibited. The determination of individual OP protein binding targets has been hampered by the sensitivity of methods of detection and quantification of protein-pesticide adducts. We have overcome this limitation by the employment of a microchannel plate (MCP autoradiographic detector to monitor a radiolabelled OP tracer compound. We preincubated rat thymus tissue in vitro with the OP pesticides, azamethiphos-oxon, chlorfenvinphos-oxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and malaoxon, and then subsequently radiolabelled the free OP binding sites remaining with 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate (3H-DFP. Proteins adducted by OP pesticides were detected as a reduction in 3H-DFP radiolabelling after protein separation by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative digital autoradiography using the MCP imager. Thymus tissue proteins of molecular weights ~28 kDa, 59 kDa, 66 kDa, and 82 kDa displayed responsiveness to adduction by this panel of pesticides. The 59 kDa protein target (previously putatively identified as carboxylesterase I was only significantly adducted by chlorfenvinphos-oxon (p < 0.001, chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001, and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.01, the 66 kDa protein target (previously identified as serum albumin similarly only adducted by the same three pesticides (p < 0.0001, (p < 0.001, and (p < 0.01, and the 82 kDa protein target (previously identified as acyl peptide hydrolase only adducted by chlorpyrifos-oxon (p

  14. Histochemical characterisation of oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of growing oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius. The presence and distribution of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, vitellogenin/Vg, zona radiata protein/Zrp, metallothionein/Mt, and thyroid hormones/T3-T4 were studied during oogenesis (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk-granules, cytoplasm, follicular and radiata envelopes. During the initial vitellogenic phase, the oocytes showed cortical alveoli and oil globules containing neutral lipids exclusively. During this phase, small yolk granules appeared around the peripheral cytoplasm, and they increased through exogenous vitellogenesis. Yolk granules were composed of glycoproteins, calcium, iron, and proteins rich in lysine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, cysteine and cystine. Vg and Mt were immunohistochemically detected in yolk. The follicular envelope contained proteins rich in amino acids. Moreover, calcium and thyroid hormones (triiodotyronine and thyroxine/T3, T4 were detected in this cell envelope. Cortical alveoli, which contained carboxylated and neutral glycoconjugates, were especially rich in N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, galactose and sialic acid. Finally, the zona radiata was mainly proteinaceous in nature and was composed of calcium and neutral glycoproteins. The egg envelope or chorion and the liver showed specific immunoreactivities by using anti-salmon Zrp as the primary antiserum.

  15. Histochemical Analysis of Renal Dysplasia with Ureteral Atresia

    Kawate, Toyoko; Kawamura, Ryuki; Uchida, Takenori; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Hasegawa, Tomohiro; Futamata, Haruo; Katoh, Ryohei; Takeda, Sen

    2009-01-01

    Unilateral small kidney with ureteral obstruction was discovered in a 74-year-old female cadaver during an anatomical dissection course. In order to elucidate the histogenesis of renal dysplasia, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. On macroscopic view, the kidney was approximately 3 cm in length, 2 cm in width and weighed only 9 g. Although the ureter ran from the renal hilus to the bladder, its width was under 2 mm. The renal parenchyma was extremely thin and there was a large congested vein in the renal sinus. On microscopic examination of the kidney, we observed that numerous developing renal tubules had cytokeratin-positive epithelia, most of which were surrounded by concentric fibrosis. However, we could not detect any structures resembling the collecting duct, renal tubules, renal pelvis, or glomeruli. The concentric mesencymal fibrous tissue surrounding the immature renal tubules contained the smooth muscles that were positive for h-caldesmon. Serial sections of the ureter revealed several small and discontinuous lacunae lined by cuboidal and transitional epithelium, which did not constitute a patent lumen through the bladder. This case is a rare case of renal dysplasia with defect in recanalization of the ureteral bud during the early developmental stage

  16. C14 Assays and Autoradiographic Studies on the Rooster Comb

    Balazs, Endre A.; Szirmai, John A.; Bergendahl, Gudrun

    1959-01-01

    The distribution of C14 was studied in various parts of the rooster comb following treatment with testosterone. The value of gas-phase assay of C14 in tissue has been demonstrated and the results compared with those of autoradiographic studies on the same tissue. The results of these experiments showed that androgen treatment significantly increases the rate of incorporation of C14 in various parts of the comb. The specific activity of carbon in the comb, cornea, and liver differed, depending on which precursor, viz. glucose-6-C14, glucose-1-C14, and glucuronolactone-U-C14, was administered. The highest values were obtained after the administration of glucose-6-C14; glucuronolactone-U-C14 gave the lowest specific activity. The specific activity of carbon in different parts of the comb showed considerable variation. Carbon assay of serial sections of the comb cut at various planes showed that the specific activity of carbon was highest in the mucoid layer. Both C14 assays and autoradiograms indicate that C14 is also present in other parts of the comb. As seen in autoradiography, the concentration of C14 was highest in the epithelium, in the blood vessel walls, and in the avascular collagenous tissue. These results, and indications from previous studies, suggest that the high specific activity of carbon in the mucoid layer is due mainly to the presence of C14-labelled hyaluronic acid. Autoradiograms and PAS staining suggest that a significant amount of C14 is also incorporated into the glycoproteins associated with the collagen fibers. PMID:13654453

  17. Quantitation of DNA repair in brain cell cultures: implications for autoradiographic analysis of mixed cell populations

    Dambergs, R.; Kidson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitation of DNA repair in the mixed cell population of mouse embryo brain cultures has been assessed by autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis following UV-irradiation. The proportion of labelled neurons and the grain density over neuronal nuclei were both less than the corresponding values for glial cells. The nuclear geometries of these two classes of cell are very different. Partial correction for the different geometries by relating grain density to nuclear area brought estimates of neuronal and glial DNA repair synthesis more closely in line. These findings have general implications for autoradiographic measurement of DNA repair in mixed cell populations and in differentiated versus dividing cells. (author)

  18. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  19. CD68/macrosialin: not just a histochemical marker.

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Killingsworth, Murry C; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2017-01-01

    CD68 is a heavily glycosylated glycoprotein that is highly expressed in macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes. Traditionally, CD68 is exploited as a valuable cytochemical marker to immunostain monocyte/macrophages in the histochemical analysis of inflamed tissues, tumor tissues, and other immunohistopathological applications. CD68 alone or in combination with other cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages showed a good predictive value as a prognostic marker of survival in cancer patients. Lowression of CD68 was found in the lymphoid cells, non-hematopoietic cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc), and tumor cells. Cell-specific CD68 expression and differentiated expression levels are determined by the complex interplay between transcription factors, regulatory transcriptional elements, and epigenetic factors. Human CD68 and its mouse ortholog macrosialin belong to the family of LAMP proteins located in the lysosomal membrane and share many structural similarities such as the presence of the LAMP-like domain. Except for a second LAMP-like domain present in LAMPs, CD68/microsialin has a highly glycosylated mucin-like domain involved in ligand binding. CD68 has been shown to bind oxLDL, phosphatidylserine, apoptotic cells and serve as a receptor for malaria sporozoite in liver infection. CD68 is mainly located in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment but can rapidly shuttle to the cell surface. However, the role of CD68 as a scavenger receptor remains to be confirmed. It seems that CD68 is not involved in binding bacterial/viral pathogens, innate, inflammatory or humoral immune responses, although it may potentially be involved in antigen processing/presentation. CD68 could be functionally important in osteoclasts since its deletion leads to reduced bone resorption capacity. The role of CD68 in atherosclerosis is contradictory.

  20. Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunohistochemistry. A comparison between autoradiographic and lectin tracing of neuronal efferents

    Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The autoradiographic pattern of anterograde labeling as a result from injections with tritiated amino acids is compared to the labeling of efferents with Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin after lectin injections in the same nucleus visualized by immunohistochemical methods. This comparison is made

  1. Autoradiographic detection of radionuclides on the epithelial surfaces of pulmonary airways

    Pappin, J.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Madison, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    We are developing an autoradiographic method for detection of radionuclide deposition sites on the internal surfaces of pulmonary airways. The method is expected to generate information on the distribution as well as on the quantity of radionuclides deposited in pulmonary airways

  2. Computerized pattern recognition used for grain counting in high resolution autoradiographs with low grain densities

    Schellart, N. A.; Zweijpfenning, R. C.; van Marle, J.; Huijsmans, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a video-image system coupled to a minicomputer with commercial image handling software, autoradiographic grains displayed in dark-field are counted with a fast (ca. 3.5 min for 120,000 microns 2) and reliable (false scores less than 5%) grain-recognizing FORTRAN program executed in the users

  3. Biochemical characterization of an autoradiographic method for studying excitatory amino acid receptors using L-[3H]glutamate

    Cincotta, M.; Summers, R.J.; Beart, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for radiolabeling excitatory amino acid receptors of rat brain with L-[ 3 H]glutamate. Effective labeling of glutamate receptors in slide-mounted 10-microns sections was obtained using a low incubation volume (0.15 ml) and rapid washing: a procedure where high ligand concentrations were achieved with minimal waste. Saturation experiments using [ 3 H]glutamate revealed a single binding site of micromolar affinity. The Bmax was trebled in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Cl- (20 mM) with no change in the Kd. Binding was rapid, saturable, stereospecific, and sensitive to glutamate receptor agonists. The proportions of [ 3 H]glutamate binding sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) were 34, 54, and 51%, respectively. NMDA inhibited binding at a distinct subset of L-[ 3 H]glutamate sites, whereas AMPA and kainate competed for some common sites. Labeling of sections with L-[ 3 H]glutamate in the presence of the selective agonists allowed autoradiographic visualization of glutamate receptor subtypes in brain tissue

  4. Histochemical study of brown-fat cells in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in cultures

    Sokolov, V.E.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhailova, A.; Koncheva, L.; Angelova, P.; Evgen'eva, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors undertake the task of studying the synthesis of certain hormones by brown-fat cells. The authors used brown-fat cells from the golden hamster. The metabolism of brown-fat cells was studied on precultured cells, which made it possible to detect the synthesis of the studied substances rather than their accumulation in the organ. The authors conducted three experiments. First, fragments of brown fat were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo. Pieces of brown fat were cultivated in parallel in vitro on agar (organotypic cultures) and on plasma (histotypic cultures). During cultivation in diffusion chambers, the chambers were implanted in the abdominal cavity of young white rats. For in vitro cultivation, TCM 199 plus 15-20% calf serum was used. A total of 36 cultures with 12 cultures in each series of experiments were performed. The auto-radiographic studies of brown-fat cells were conducted on 24-hour cultures and on brown-fat fragments taken from the intact animal. The cultures were incubated with isotopes for 1 h. Either [ 3 H]lysine (87.3 Ci/mM specific activity), [ 3 H]arginine (16.7 Ci/mM), [ 3 H]glycerol (43 Ci/mM), or [ 3 H]cholesterol (43 Ci/mM) were added to the medium. After incubation, the cultures were washed three times in pure medium, fixed in Sierra fluid, and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were covered with Ilford K 2 emulsion, and the preparations were exposed for 20 days at 4 0 C temperature. Radio-immunological methods were used to study the accumulation of estradiol-17-beta in the culture medium by the Dobson method and that of testerone. The culture medium was taken on cultivation days 2,4,6,8, and 10. The medium was changed during cultivation every third day, which made it possible to judge the rates of accumulation of material with increase in the cultivation times

  5. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischemia using hypoxic marker: 99mTc-HL91 in animal models

    Zhu Cansheng; Jiang Ningyi; Hu Xiaoke

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of 99m Tc-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods; 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected 99m Tc-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Results: The ischemic territory accumulated more 99m Tc-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of 99m Tc-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. The OD ratios (T/N) were 1.2691±0.0189, 1.3542±0.0119, 2.1201±0.0616, 2.5369±0.1214 respectively at 1, 2, 4 hours after 99m Tc-HL91 injection. Conclusion: 99m Tc-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. 99m Tc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and 99m Tc-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  6. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose: a high-resolution marker for autoradiographic localization of brain metabolism

    Hammer, R.P. Jr.; Herkenham, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for autoradiographic localization of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake has become a useful method for observing alterations of functional brain activity resulting from experimental manipulation. Autoradiographic resolution is improved using tritiated ([3H]) rather than carbon-14 ([14C)]2DG, due to the lower energy and shorter path of tritium emissions. In addition, lower 2DG uptake by white matter relative to gray matter is exaggerated in the [3H]2DG autoradiographs due to the greater absorption of tritium emissions by lipids. Using [3H]2DG, it is possible to observe differential metabolic labeling in various individual nuclei or portions of nuclei that is unresolvable using [14C]2DG in the awake, normal animal. Heterogeneous patterns of 2DG uptake seen only with [3H]2DG are found in the nucleus accumbens, the anterior portion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, specific nuclei of the inferior olivary complex, various hypothalamic regions, and a region straddling the border of the medial and lateral habenular nuclei. The lamination of differential 2DG uptake in the hippocampus is better localized using [3H]2DG. Autoradiographic resolution of labeled 2DG is further improved when the brain is perfused prior to frozen sectioning, due perhaps to selective fixation and retention of intracellular labeled 2-deoxy-glycogen. A series of [3H]2DG autoradiographs are presented together with views of the Nissl-stained sections that produced the autoradiographs

  7. Alkylmercurial encephalopathy in the monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Macaca Arctoides); a histopathologic and autoradiographic study

    Garman, R H; Weiss, B; Evans, H L

    1975-01-01

    Histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera Saimiri and Macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg). Neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 203/Hg was greatest within glial cells (particularly Nissl-plump astrocytes, subependymal glia and Bergmann's glia) and mast cells. High levels of label within normal appearing large neurons (particularly those within Gasserian and dorsal root ganglia) indicate a lower susceptibility of these neurons to the toxic effects of MeHg. Blood and brain levels of mercury correlated well with the degree of neuropathologic change, but individual variations in susceptibility to intoxication also existed. (auth)

  8. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-glycine in clonorchis sinensis

    Lee, S.H.; Song, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To study an aspect of protein metabolism in chinese liverfluke, Clonorchis sinensis, an autoradiographic study was performed. A batch of 25 ml erlenmeyer flasks, each flask containing 10 worms of C. sinensis and 10 ml of Tyrode medium with 2.5 μCi/ml of 14 C-glycine, was incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 37 0 C. Those worms were processed for microautoradiography immediately after the incubation, and following results were obtained from the autoradiographs. The densities of black silver grains derived from 14 C-glycine were the most apparent in the subparenchymal cells, intestinal epithelium, vitelline gland cells, ovary and the wall of the seminal vesicle. Moderate grade of densities were observed in the tegument, oral sucker, pharynx, intestinal content and in the testes. The reticular tissue, ventral sucker, uterus with eggs, seminal receptacle and the content of seminal vesicle showed trace amount of silver grains. (author)

  9. Autoradiographic study of gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in bean root meristem cells

    Liu Zhenshen; Qiu Quanfa; Chen Dongli

    1989-01-01

    The gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in root meristem cells of Vica faba was studied autoradiographically by calculating the number of cells with different 3H-thymidine labelling degree. It was found that the level of unscheduled synthesis in cells with intermediate dose (500 R) irradiation was higher than that in cells with lower dose (250 R) irradiation; however, higher dose (1000 R) irradiation would inhibit the reparative replication

  10. Autoradiographical Detection of Tritium in Cu-Ni Alloy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    高安, 紀; 中野, 美樹; 竹内, 豊三郎

    1981-01-01

    The autoradiograph of tritium dispersed in Cu-Ni alloy sheet by 6Li(n,α)3H reaction was obtained by a scanning electron microscope. Prior to the irradiation of neutrons 6Li was deposited on the sheet by evaporation. The liquid emulsion, Fuji-ER, was used in this study. The distribution of tritium was detected by the dispersion of silver grains remaining in the emulsion after the development was carried out.

  11. Development of autoradiographic method for measuring sorption of radionuclides on natural fracture surfaces

    Muuronen, S.

    1983-11-01

    On the basis of positive results about sorption of radionuclides in rock thin sections an autoradiographic method applicable for measurement sorption of radionuclides on rough rock surfaces was developed. There is no method available because 1) a plane film cannot be used because due to the roughness of rock surfaces 2) rock samples used in this investigation cannot be studied with microscopes and 3) autoradiogram cannot be studied fixed on the surface of a rock sample because the colours of the minerals in the sample will interfere with the interpretation. This report discusses experimental work done to find an useful proedure. In the development of the method main emphasis was put on investigation of the following steps: 1) preparation of the sample for equilibration and spiking; 2) properties of the covering paint for the rock surface and 3) testing of autoradiographic methods using different nuclear emulsions. As the result of these experiments promising autoradiograms with gel emulsion for sawed rock surfaces and with stripping film for rough rock surfaces were obtained. The mineralogic disribution of sorbed activity is easily seen in autoradiograms. Much work must still be done to get reliable quantitative information from autoradiograms. For developing of the autoradiographic method sawed plane rock samples of quartz feldspar intergrowth, pegmatite and limestone were used. In addition core samples of tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto were utilized. The distribution coefficients (Ksub(a)) obtained for cesium were 560 x 10 -4 and 620 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 for tonalite and mica gneiss, respectively. The results are little higher but of the same order of magnitude as obtained by the autoradiographic method using rock thin sections and by the batch method using crused samples. The natural fracture surface sorption study is a logical step in determining the scaling factor from laboratory to field studies. Field data will be needed to determine whether laboratory

  12. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples.

  13. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples

  14. Detection of antisalivary duct antibody from Sjoegren's syndrome by an autoradiographic method

    Cummings, N.A.; Tarpley, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique to detect anti-salivary duct antibody (ASDA) has been developed by using autoradiographic, rather than immunofluorescent methods. The antibody activity detected by autoradiography is probably classic ASDA. Both techniques may be consecutively performed on the same tissue section without attenuation of either. Some of the potential advantages of the radiolabelling of ASDA are pointed out, and a few preliminary experiments using the labelled antibody as a marker are presented. (Auth.)

  15. Detection of antisalivary duct antibody from Sjögren's syndrome by an autoradiographic method.

    Cummings, N A; Tarpley, T M

    1978-01-01

    A new technique to detect anti-salivary duct antibody (ASDA) has been developed by using autoradiographic, rather than immunofluorescent methods. The antibody activity detected by autoradiography is probably classic ASDA. Both techniques may be consecutively performed on the same tissue section without attenuation of either. Some of the potential advantages of the radiolabelling of ASDA are pointed out, and a few preliminary experiments using the labelled antibody as a marker are presented.

  16. Metallographic and autoradiographic investigation of the structure of centrifugally cast steel

    Singh, K.N.; Krishna Rao, P.

    1981-01-01

    Metallographic and autoradiographic investigations were carried out on the structure of steel tubes cast in a horizontal axis centrifugal casting machine. In chill castings the chill and columnar zones showed significantly lower sulphur contents than the equiaxed zone. Mould rotational speed was found to have an important influence on sulphur segregation. Sulphur-depleted bands, which were often observed in the castings were found to arise due to minor variations in the mould rotational speed. (auth.)

  17. Autoradiographic studies on glucose metabolism in the salivary gland of Lygaeus SP. (Heteroptera, Lygalidae)

    Kumar, D.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies using 3H-glucose in the salivary glands of Lygaeus sp.were carried out. It has been observed that the radioactivity appears in the cell cytoplasm and lumen within a short period of incubation and attains its peak after 30 min of incubation. Afterwards, the radioactivity is exhausted from the cell and lumen suggesting a very high rate of glucose metabolism in this species. (author) [pt

  18. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait

  19. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere.

  20. Ultra-high performance, solid-state, autoradiographic image digitization and analysis system

    Lear, J.L.; Pratt, J.P.; Ackermann, R.F.; Plotnick, J.; Rumley, S.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a Macintosh II-based, charge-coupled device (CCD), image digitization and analysis system for high-speed, high-resolution quantification of autoradiographic image data. A linear CCD array with 3,500 elements was attached to a precision drive assembly and mounted behind a high-uniformity lens. The drive assembly was used to sweep the array perpendicularly to its axis so that an entire 20 x 25-cm autoradiographic image-containing film could be digitized into 256 gray levels at 50-microns resolution in less than 30 sec. The scanner was interfaced to a Macintosh II computer through a specially constructed NuBus circuit board and software was developed for autoradiographic data analysis. The system was evaluated by scanning individual films multiple times, then measuring the variability of the digital data between the different scans. Image data were found to be virtually noise free. The coefficient of variation averaged less than 1%, a value significantly exceeding the accuracy of both high-speed, low-resolution, video camera (VC) systems and low-speed, high-resolution, rotating drum densitometers (RDD). Thus, the CCD scanner-Macintosh computer analysis system offers the advantage over VC systems of the ability to digitize entire films containing many autoradiograms, but with much greater speed and accuracy than achievable with RDD scanners

  1. Detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine by modified autoradiographic test

    Stepanek, J; Hampl, J; Franz, J; Mensik, P; Skrobak, F [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-08-01

    A modified method of autoradiographic determination of virus antibodies of gastroenteritis of swine was developed. It is based on the actual reaction between antigen bound in cells of the infected cell cultures and antibodies in tested sera, which is visualized by rabbit antibodies labelled with /sup 125/I (/sup 125/I RaSw IgG antibody) to porcine IgG, on a sensitive radiograph and evaluated by darkening at the point of positive immunological reaction. Specificity of the test and mutual comparability and reproducibility of the results were confirmed by examining the known positive and negative sera and by a comparison with the results of the virus-neutralization test. Of the 36 examined porcine blood sera, antibodies were only proved autoradiographically in the samples positive also by virus-neutralization. In experimentally infected pigs, the same dynamics of antibody production was recorded by the two tests. They were, however, demonstrated autoradiographically the eighth day after infection, while by virus neutralization test as late as 14th day. Their level increased gradually till 35th day after infection.

  2. Autoradiographic detection of diphtheria toxin resistant mutants in human diploid fibroblasts

    Gupta, R.S.; Singh, B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure for the detection of diphtheria toxin (DT) resistant (Dip/sub R/) mutants in human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells has been developed. The assay is based on the observation that when HDFs from confluent cultures are seeded in medium containing 0.01 flocculating units/ml or higher concentration of DT, protein synthesis in sensitive cells is severely inhibited by 4-6 hr. If at this or later time, a radiolabeled protein precursor (eg, 3 H-leucine) is added to the culture, it is almost exclusively incorporated into the resistant cells, which are then readily identified by autoradiography. These studies provide strong evidence that the labeled cells identified by autoradiography are bona fide Dip/sub R/ mutants. The detection of Dip/sub R/ cells by autoradiography is apparently not affected by the presence of the sensitive cells in the mixtures. The spontaneous frequency of Dip/sub R/ cells in HDFs has been found to be in the range of 1-5 x 10 -6 , and this increases in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. These results indicate that the autoradiographic assay could be used for quantitative mutagenesis. Since the autoradiographic assay does not depend on cell division, it may prove useful in estimating the incidence of pre-existing mutations in cell populations that either do not divide or have very limited growth potential (eg, lymphocytes, muscle cells, neurons, senescent fibroblasts, etc.)

  3. Carbohydrate specificity of lectin, purified from the fruiting bodies of Mycena pura /Fr./ Kumm. and its use in histochemical investigation

    Ambarova N. O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this investigation was to research carbohydrate specificity of a new lectin from fruiting body of Mycena pura and possibilities of its application in histochemical studies. Methods. The lectin has been purified by affinity chromatography on «îvomucine». The lectin carbohydrate specificity has been determined by a reaction of inhibiting haemagglutination by haptens. Histological materials were fixed in 4 % neutral formalin solution. Alkaline phosphatase was revealed in the cryostat unfixed microscopical sections. Results. The lectin yield from fresh fruit bodies of raw material was 9 mg/kg. Mol. mass of the lectin is 40 kDa. The lectin poorly interacted with D-glucose and D-mannose in contrast to lectins from Pisum sativum and Leucojum vernum. The peculiarity of this lectin is its strong interaction with alkaline phosphatase, the highest among twenty tested lectins. However, the receptors for Mycena lectin binding in mammalian tissues are not limited by this enzyme being presented also by glycoconjugates of another structure, as it was shown for fetus calf small intestine and kidney of rat. Conclusions. An important role in the lectin interaction with glycoproteins probably belongs to the disaccharide links of GlcNAcb(1-2Mana(1-6 or GlcNAcb(1- 2Mana(1-2, which not necessarily are terminal

  4. A functional study of the rat olfactory bulb through autoradiography with 14C-2-deoxyglucose

    Verrier, Marie; Leveteau, Jean; Giachetti, Ismene; MacLeod, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods has been used in the rat to map active regions in the olfactory bulb after a pulse of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose with electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. The highest optical densities were found at the external plexiform, mural, internal plexiform and granular layers: the lowest was found in the glomerular layer [fr

  5. Análise histológica e histoquímica das fibras dos músculos reto do abdome e intercostal paraesternal de ratos submetidos ao exercício da natação Histologic and histochemical analysis of fibers of rectus of abdomen and paraesternal intercostal muscles of Wistar rats after swimming exercise

    Paulo César Bálade Saad

    2002-08-01

    ção aeróbica, com conseqüente aumento do percentual de fibras oxidativas, induzindo maior resistência à fadiga.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on metabolic and contractile abilities of rectus of abdomen and the paraesternal intercostal muscle fibers. Adult Wistar rats were initially submitted to an adaptation period and then divided into control and exercise groups. Exercised animals were submitted to swimming for 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, 1 hr/day, 5days/week. At the end of each period, the animals were killed. Small segments of the above muscles were frozen in N-hexane at -70ºC, pre-cooled with liquid nitrogen for two minutes. Histological transverse sections (7 µm were obtained in a cryostat microtome at -20ºC. Some serial sections were stained with HE. Subsequent sections were reacted for NADH-TR to evaluate the oxidizing capacity, and for m-ATPase, after acid and alkaline pre-incubations mediums. Under microscopic examination, the frequencies of fiber types were sampled. Muscle fibers revealed to be grouped in different fascicles, presenting polygonal outlines, with different diameters. Three kind of fibers were detected: SO (slow oxidative, FOG (fast oxidative glycolytic and FG (fast glycolytic, presenting a mosaic pattern distribution. The analysis of the results demonstrated that after 60 days of exercise, the abdominal muscles showed a significant increase in the frequency of SO fibers. After 15 days, a significant decrease in frequency of intermediate FOG fibers and an increase of FG fibers. The paraesternal intercostal muscles revealed a significant increase in the percentage of SO fibers in the 60 day-exercised animals, a percentage increase of FOG fibers in the animals of 45 and 60 days, and a percentage decrease of FG fibers in those of 30, 45 and 60 days. So, due to hydrostatic pressure in swimming exercise, the degree of work was greater in the inspiration muscles. This increase was parallel with

  6. Autoradiographic analysis of iodoamphetamine redistribution in experimental brain ischemia

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Shiba, K.; Terada, H.; Kinuya, K.; Mori, H.; Sumiya, H.; Hisada, K.

    1990-01-01

    The pathophysiologic significance of iodoamphetamine (IMP) redistribution was analyzed using a double radionuclide autoradiography technique in experimental brain ischemia in the rat. Within 4 hr after unilateral arterial occlusion, IMP almost completely redistributed at 150 min postinjection in the affected areas. At 2 min postinjection, both a remarkable decrease of IMP accumulation and histopathologic change of diminished staining were observed in these areas. The redistribution amplitude was higher in the affected hemisphere, especially in the regions surrounding the ischemic core than in the unaffected hemisphere. These findings were consistent with computer simulation studies of the time course of brain activity based on the standard diffusible tracer model. The results suggest that IMP redistribution in the ischemic area is due to differences of the temporal changes of the brain activity between the unaffected and affected areas and that it is a physical phenomenon (only flow related) rather than a biologic one

  7. Cysteine proteinase activity in the development of arthritis in an adjuvant model of the rat

    Meijers, M. H.; Koopdonk-Kool, J.; Meacock, S. C.; van Noorden, C. J.; Bunning, R. A.; Billingham, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Cathepsin B and L activity was studied histochemically in arthritic rat ankle joints using specific synthetic substrates in a post coupling method on unfixed and undecalcified cryostat sections of rat ankle joints. Activity was strongly increased in chondrocytes and cells of the inflamed synovium

  8. Histochemical investigation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves and chemical composition of its essential oil.

    Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Paz, Tiago Antunes; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves (CR-EO) has been extracted by hydrodistillation; we analysed the CR-EO by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We also conducted histochemical analysis on cross-sections of the central vein of young and adult leaves. A total of 32 compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed, which represented 94.87% of the total CR-EO oil content. The CR-EO basically consisted of sesquiterpenes (96.87%); its main component was β-copaen-4-α-ol (18.73%), followed by viridiflorol (12.67%). The histochemical analyses identified the main classes of compounds present in both young and adult leaves.

  9. Fabry's disease: biochemical and histochemical studies on hair roots for carrier detection.

    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Spierenburg, G T; vanBennekom, C A; Wirtz, P; deBruyn, C H; Oei, T L

    1978-02-01

    A method of assay alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase activities in single hair roots is described. Enzyme histochemical studies show that the distribution of acid phosphatase in the human hair root matches that of alpha-galactosidase. Histochemically, the main activity is located in the upper part of the sheath near the orifice of the duct of the sebaceous gland. This is confirmed by enzyme assays on different parts of the hair root after dissection. The variation in the values found in individual hair roots is improved by relating alpha-galactosidase to acid phosphatase activities. Storage experiments indicate a remarkable stability of both alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase in human hair roots.

  10. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' ovarian from the mothers with pregnancy complications

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-02-01

    Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkov, Ukraine   Abstract As a material of our research, we took into account foetuses' ovarian at the gestation term from 21 to 42 weeks; and, as a result, all types of material we divided into few groups: foetuses from healthy mothers; foetuses from mothers with pre-eclampsia complications of pregnancy of different stages; foetuses from mothers with pregnancy's complications as a chronical infection. Research methods: organomethrical, histochemical, immuno-histochemical, statistical. As a result of the complex research, in foetuses' ovarian from mothers with pregnancy complications of different types, we can see reducing of indicators of structural and functional activity of organs, increasing of apoptotic index; increasing of endothelin-1 production; decreasing of hormones production. Key words: fetus, pregnancy, pre-eclampsia; infection, ovary.

  11. Histochemical characterization of human osteochondral tissue: comparison between healthy cartilage, arthrotic tissues, and cartilage defect treated with MACI technique

    F. Tessarolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-induced sutologous chondrocytes implantation (MACI is a promising technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions, but long time outcome have to be established. We developed and optimized specific techniques of histochemical staining to characterize healthy and pathologic osteochondral tissue. Seven different staining protocols were applied to assess tissue architecture, cells morphology, proteoglycan content, and collagen fibers distribution. Potentialities of histochemical staining and histomorphology of biopsies from second look arthroscopy will be presented.

  12. Study of the histochemical detection of cysteine desulfhydrase in the vitellin sac of birds (1961)

    Chapeville, F.; Khau Van Kien, L.

    1961-01-01

    We have developed a method for the histochemical detection of cysteine desulfhydrase in the vitellin sac of the chicken embryo. The enzyme is localized in the presence of a lead salt by lead sulphide formed in situ from hydrogen sulphide liberated from the cysteine. The micrographs obtained are histological and show the presence of the enzyme in the different types of endoderm cell. (authors) [fr

  13. Micromorphology and histochemical traits of staminal osmophores in Asphodelus aestivus Brot. flower

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Mirosława Chwil; Thomas Sawidis

    2012-01-01

    The conducted studies pertained to micromorphology of the surface of epidermis cells and histological traits of staminal filaments of Asphodelus aestivus Brot. flowers. The structure of the filaments was analyzed in a light microscope (LM) using various histochemical techniques. The morphology of the surface of the epidermis of filaments was observed in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Filaments Asphodelus aestivus accrete together with the basal part of the abaxial surface with the leaves...

  14. Case report. Sclerosing peritoneal mesothelioma in a dog: histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations

    Anna Rita D'Angelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesotheliomas are rare neoplasm affecting on rare occasions both animals and humans and which arise from the mesothelial cells lining the coelomic cavities. We report herein the histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings in a dog affected by sclerosing peritoneal mesothelioma, a rare variant of canine mesothelioma, and submitted to laparotomy in December 2012 (Teramo, Italy. Our data confirm that mesothelioma still represents a diagnostic challenge and that immunohistochemistry can be extremely useful as supportive diagnostic technique.

  15. Pythiosis cutaneous in horses treated with triamcinolone acetonide. Part 2. Histological and histochemical description

    José Cardona-Álvarez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study aimed to evaluate the histomorphometry tissue recovery process of the skin granuloma of skin pythiosis in horses treated with triamcinolone acetonide. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive study, not probabilistic in convenience animals with cutaneous pythiosis. 24 horses were used with cutaneous pythiosis, a group of 12 animals was administered 50 mg of intramuscular injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TG and the other group was not applied any treatment (CG. Are tissue biopsies performed for histological and histochemical evaluation and stained with hematoxylin eosin (HE, Gomori trichrome (GT, picrosirius red polarization (PR/P, Grocott methenamine silver (GMS and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. Results. It is noted that in TG inflammation was gradually decreasing, as evidenced in decreased fibrin layer leukocyte, PMN and phenomena Splendore Hoepli, also in increased angiogenesis, epiteliogénesis, and increasing the overall amount of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, anyway in the progressive replacement of collagen type III to type I collagen at the end of the process, and that the presence of intralesional pseudohyphae of Pythium insidiosum reduces it to the second week. Neither of the animals in the CG showed improvement in histological and histochemical characteristics of pythiosis and maintained equal to the first day throughout the study. Conclusions. The use of triamcinolone acetonide is a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of granulomatous pythiosis wounds in horses with 100% clinical recovery and demonstrated with histological and histochemical findings.

  16. Finding an optimum immuno-histochemical feature set to distinguish benign phyllodes from fibroadenoma.

    Maity, Priti Prasanna; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Das, Raunak Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhalaxmi; Maity, Ashok; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Dhara, Santanu; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-05-01

    Benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma are two well-known breast tumors with remarkable diagnostic ambiguity. The present study is aimed at determining an optimum set of immuno-histochemical features to distinguish them by analyzing important observations on expressions of important genes in fibro-glandular tissue. Immuno-histochemically, the expressions of p63 and α-SMA in myoepithelial cells and collagen I, III and CD105 in stroma of tumors and their normal counterpart were studied. Semi-quantified features were analyzed primarily by ANOVA and ranked through F-scores for understanding relative importance of group of features in discriminating three classes followed by reduction in F-score arranged feature space dimension and application of inter-class Bhattacharyya distances to distinguish tumors with an optimum set of features. Among thirteen studied features except one all differed significantly in three study classes. F-Ranking of features revealed highest discriminative potential of collagen III (initial region). F-Score arranged feature space dimension and application of Bhattacharyya distance gave rise to a feature set of lower dimension which can discriminate benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma effectively. The work definitely separated normal breast, fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes, through an optimal set of immuno-histochemical features which are not only useful to address diagnostic ambiguity of the tumors but also to spell about malignant potentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  18. Development of the indusium griseum. 3. An autoradiographic study of cell production

    Sturrock, R R [Dundee Univ. (UK)

    1978-05-01

    An autoradiographic study of neuronal and glial production was carried out in the indusium griseum of mice whose mothers had received an intraperitoneal injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine during gestation. Most neurons were produced between 13 and 15 days post-conception. One part of the glial population underwent its last or second-last divisions between 14 and 16 days post-conception, while the other continued to undergo a number of divisions into postnatal life. It is suggested that the former were astrocytes and the latter oligodendrocytes.

  19. JULIDE: a software tool for 3D reconstruction and statistical analysis of autoradiographic mouse brain sections.

    Delphine Ribes

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce JULIDE, a software toolkit developed to perform the 3D reconstruction, intensity normalization, volume standardization by 3D image registration and voxel-wise statistical analysis of autoradiographs of mouse brain sections. This software tool has been developed in the open-source ITK software framework and is freely available under a GPL license. The article presents the complete image processing chain from raw data acquisition to 3D statistical group analysis. Results of the group comparison in the context of a study on spatial learning are shown as an illustration of the data that can be obtained with this tool.

  20. Autoradiographic technique for rapid inventory of plutonium-containing fast critical assembly fuel

    Brumbach, S.B.; Perry, R.B.

    1977-10-01

    A nondestructive autoradiographic technique is described which can provide a verification of the piece count and the plutonium content of plutonium-containing fuel elements. This technique uses the spontaneously emitted gamma rays from plutonium to form images of fuel elements on photographic film. Autoradiography has the advantage of providing an inventory verification without the opening of containers or the handling of fuel elements. Missing fuel elements, substitution of nonradioactive material, and substitution of elements of different size are detectable. Results are presented for fuel elements in various storage configurations and for fuel elements contained in a fast critical assembly

  1. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zhang Lansheng; Kang Baoan

    1988-08-01

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  2. Autoradiographic localization of Na+-K+-ATPase with 3H-ouabain

    Dormans, J.A.M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Using 3 H-ouabain as an inhibitor, the site of the Na + -K + -ATPase system in cells was determined autoradiographically. Experiments were performed woth guinea pig's kidney tissue. The application of light microscopical autoradiography to freeze-dried tissue showed that especially the distal tubule, and to a smaller extent the proximal tubule and the collecting tubule have Na + -K + -ATPase. Electron microscopical autoradiography showed that this activity is restricted to the baso-lateral plasmamembranes. The quantity of specific bound ouabain turns out to be correlated to the quantity of baso-lateral plasmamembrane's surface

  3. An improved autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells

    Mason, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells has been developed for the assay of anti-DNP responses. The lymphoid cell suspension to be assayed was allowed to sediment on to a glass slide coated with DNP-conjugated gelatin to which the secreted antibody bound during subsequent incubation. The bound antibody and its Ig class was revealed by a second incubation using 125 I-anti-immunoglobulin reagents followed by autoradiography. Studies on the sensitivity and specificity of the method are presented and its advantages over other techniques described. The technique should be readily applicable to other haptens

  4. Autoradiographic measurement of low concentrations of alpha-active nuclides using CR-39 track detectors

    Freyer, K.; Dietze, K.; Weisse, S.; Kummer, G.

    1991-01-01

    An autoradiographic method for the determination of alpha emission rates from plastic packaging materials for VLSI silicon memory devices based on long-time exposure of the samples on CR-39 detectors has been tested. The lower limit of detection will be strongly influenced by the background of the detector material and amounts at times to 0.002 alpha particles cm -2 h -1 after 200 days exposure. A mathematical method for the interpretation of very low track densities is discussed. The first results of its application are presented. (author)

  5. Diffusion and autoradiographic investigations of the tritium--304 stainless steel system

    Downs, G.L.; Braun, J.D.; Chaney, K.F.; Powell, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of tritium in 304-stainless steel at low temperatures (100 to 300 0 C) was determined. Autoradiography was used to establish the concentration as well as the distribution of tritium in the alloy. The autoradiographic study shows that tritium is distributed heterogeneously at room temperature in the cold-worked alloy and also in the fusion zone of weldments. Tritium partitions preferentially to the delta ferrite in weldments and to martensite produced by the cold working of 304-stainless steel. (auth)

  6. Sensitivity of an autoradiographic film to ionizing radiation of different types and energies

    Kras, A.B.; Lutzke-Birk, A.; Kalicki, A.

    1984-01-01

    The ORWO-AF3 autoradiographic film has been studied with regard to its sensitivity to beta radiation (E/sub max/ = 0.155 and 0.306 MeV, resp.), gamma radiation of more than 1 MeV and K/sub α/ and K/sub β/ radiation of about 5.9 KeV. The obtained data can be used for the correction of depth distribution profiles if elements are labelled with radioisotopes emitting mixed radiation, e.g., beta and gamma radiation

  7. Age-related ultrastructural and monoamine oxidase changes in the rat optic nerve.

    Taurone, S; Ripandelli, G; Minni, A; Lattanzi, R; Miglietta, S; Pepe, N; Fumagalli, L; Micera, A; Pastore, F S; Artico, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the morphology and the distribution of the monoamine oxidase enzymatic system in the optic nerve of 4 month-old Wistar (young) and 28 month-old Wistar (old) rats. The optic nerve was harvested from 20 young and old rats. The segment of optic nerve was divided longitudinally into two pieces, each 0.1 mm in length. The first piece was used for transmission electron microscopy. The second piece was stained with histochemical reaction for monoamine oxidase. The agerelated changes in the optic nerve of rats include micro-anatomical details, ultrastructure and monoamine oxidase histochemical staining. A strong decrease of the thin nerve fibers and a swelling of the thick ones can be observed in optic nerve fibers of old rats. Increased monoamine oxidase histochemical staining of the optic nerve of aged rats is well demonstrated. The increase of meningeal shealth and the decrease of thin nerve fibers of the optic nerve in old rats are well documented. Morphological, ultrastructural and histochemical changes observed in optic nerve fibers of the old rats show a close relation with aging.

  8. Axonal transport and axon sprouting in the adult rat dentate gyrus: an autoradiographic study

    Goldowitz, D.; Cotman, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    In response to an entorhinal lesion, the commissural and associational afferents to the dentate gyrus have been shown to expand beyond their normal terminal zone into the area denervated by the entorhinal lesion. The present study has investigated the axonal transport of [ 3 H]-labeled proteins in the commissural and associational projections following an entorhinal lesion. Injections of [ 3 H]proline, [ 3 H]leucine or [ 3 H)fucose were given in the vicinity of the commissural and associational cells of origin before, immediately subsequent to, or at 5 to 15 days after the entorhinal lesion. The disposition of previously- or newly-synthesized proteins was examined in the commissural and associational terminal field at different times after an entorhinal lesion by light-microscopic autoradiography. (author)

  9. Autoradiographic study of the efferent connections of the entorhinal cortex in the rat

    Wyss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The major findings can be summarized as follows. Whereas the projection of the lateral entorhinal area (LEA) to the dentate gyrus is broad in its longitudinal extent, the medial entorhinal area (MEA), and especially the ventral portion of this zone, projects in a more lamellar fashion. In the transverse plane the LEA preferentially projects to the inner (dorsal) blade of the dentate gyrus, while the MEA innervates both blades equally. Within the radial dimension, the entorhinal cortex projects to the dentate gyrus according to a medial to lateral gradient, with lateral portions of the LEA projecting along the pial surface and successively more medial portions of the entorhinal projecting closer to the granule cells. The commissural entorhinal to dentate projections are similar to the ipsilateral projections in location; however, they are considerably reduced in septotemporal extent and do not arise from cells in the ventral half of either LEA or the intermediate entorhinal area (IEA). The projection of the entorhinal cortex to Ammon's horn reflects the same longitudinal characteristics as the dentate projections. An alvear input which extends only to the pyramidal cells at the CA1-subicular junction was most noticeable at ventral hippocampal levels. The extrahippocampal projections arise predominantly from cells in the LEA and project forward along the angular bundle to the piriform and periamygdaloid cortices, as well as the endopiriform nucleus, the lateral, basolateral, and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the olfactory tubercle, the anterior olfactory nucleus, the taenia tecta, and the indusium griseum

  10. Axonal transport and axon sprouting in the adult rat dentate gyrus: an autoradiographic study

    Goldowitz, D; Cotman, C W [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1980-12-01

    In response to an entorhinal lesion, the commissural and associational afferents to the dentate gyrus have been shown to expand beyond their normal terminal zone into the area denervated by the entorhinal lesion. The present study has investigated the axonal transport of (/sup 3/H)-labeled proteins in the commissural and associational projections following an entorhinal lesion. Injections of (/sup 3/H)proline, (/sup 3/H)leucine or (/sup 3/H)fucose were given in the vicinity of the commissural and associational cells of origin before, immediately subsequent to, or at 5 to 15 days after the entorhinal lesion. The disposition of previously- or newly-synthesized proteins was examined in the commissural and associational terminal field at different times after an entorhinal lesion by light-microscopic autoradiography.

  11. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-lactate in clonorchis sinensis

    Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of the exogeneous 14 C-lactate by chines liverfluke Clonorchis sinensis was investigated by autoradiography. The radioactive substance, sodium-DL-lactate-1- 14 C (specific activity; 20-40 mCi/mM) dissolved in Tyrode solution at the concentration of 2.5 μCi/ml was designated as incubation medium. Twenth worms of healthy fluke with 10 ml incubation medium were incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff shaking incubator at 37 0 C. After incubation, the flukes were rapidly removed from the flask and freed of external radioactivity by a series of washing in cold Tyrode solution. The flukes were fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated and embeded in paraffin, and were sectioned at the thickness of 5 microns. Then the specimen mounted slides were covered with Kodak AR-10 stripping film and were exposed for 30 days in cold dark room. After the exposure, the film was developed and fixed. Autoradiographs were then stained with hematoxylin and brought to microscopy. The autoradiographs of C. sinensis showed apparent densities of black silver grains derived from the 14 C-lactate in regard to various anatomical structure of the worm. The possible reasons for the appearance radioactive substance in respective organs and tissues of the fluke were discussed. (author)

  12. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of mercury and its transfer to the egg in the laying quail

    Nishimura, M; Urakawa, N; Ikeda, M

    1971-01-01

    Autoradiographic and tracer techniques were employed to investigate the distribution and movement of radiomercury in the form of /sup 203/Hg-nitrate, and its transfer to eggs in laying quails. After injection, the radiomercury tended to concentrate in the kidneys and ova, plateauing about 12 hours after injection. Within the egg, the mercury concentrated in the yolk.

  13. Polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum in Rhoeo discolor. Cytochemical and autoradiographic study (/sup 3/H-glucose)

    Albertini, L; Souvre, A [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1978-01-01

    In Rhoeo discolor, we have been studying the evolution of cytoplasmic and wall polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum by cytochemical and autoradiographic (6-/sup 3/H glucose) methods with particular attention to the meiocyte special wall, microspore intine, pollen generative cell wall, microsporocyte plastids and tapetum cytoplasm.

  14. Histochemical study of the distribution of a few enzymes in the digestive system of Indian parrot.

    Mohan, K; Agrawal, V P; Goel, K A

    1977-01-01

    Acid-and alkaline phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase and lipase have been localized histochemically in the gizzard, intestine liver and pancreas of Indian parrot, Psittacula krameri. In the gizzard and intestine, the mucosal epithelial cells are the main sites for the enzyme production. The tubular glands of the gizzard show intense reaction for all the enzymes tested. The hepatic sinusoid cells of the liver and the acinii of pancreas give positive reaction. Like pancreas, the intestine has also been found responsible for the production and secretion of lipase. Functional significance of phosphatases in the tissues tested has been discussed.

  15. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  16. Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Lingual Salivary Glands of the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta

    Almansour, Mansour I.; Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the morphological, histological and histochemical characterizations of the lingual salivary glands of the little egret, Egretta garzetta. The glands are composed of two posterior entities at the base of the tongue and one anterior entity on the dorsal surface of the free lingual part. These glands are made of mucoserous cells that elaborate sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but they are devoid of glycogen and neutral mucosubstances. The findings of the present study were compared with those reported for other birds in correlation with their phylogeny and feeding habits. (author)

  17. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  18. A study of water in glass by an autoradiographic method that utilizes tritiated water

    Knickerbocker, S.H.; Brown, S.D.; Joshi, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter determines water concentration and spatial distribution in glass by an autoradiographic method that makes use of tritiated water as the tagged species. Describes the method and presents some typical results. Lists advantages and disadvantages associated with the method and examines other methods that might be used for the study of water in glass. Discusses dry glass preparation, the addition of tritiated water to glass, glass preparation, film selection, and film analysis. Shows tritium autoradiography to be a valuable technique for measuring the content and spatial distribution of water in inorganic glasses. Finds that the technique yields unique information, particularly in regard to spatial distribution, when compared with techniques of IR spectroscopy, SIMS, SIPS, NRRA, ESR and NMR. Points out that large areas (e.g., several square inches) of sample can be mapped in a single exposure. Notes that the spatial resolution of water in the glass network can be 10 -7 m, so very accurate diffusion profiles are obtainable

  19. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  20. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients

  1. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)

  2. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D. (Texas Univ., Galveston (USA). Medical Branch)

    1982-02-25

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought.

  3. An autoradiographic study of the projections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala

    Price, J.L.; Amaral, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent connections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala have been studied using the autoradiographic method for tracing axonal projections. Small injections of 3H-amino-acids which are largely confined to the central nucleus lead to the labeling of several brainstem nuclei as far caudally as the spinomedullary junction. A number of intra-amygdaloid connections between the basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the central nucleus are also described. The present findings, taken together with recently reported widespread projections from the temporal association cortex to the amygdala, point out a potentially trisynaptic route between neocortical association regions and a variety of brainstem nuclei, many of which are related to autonomic function

  4. Descriptive, cytochemical and autoradiographic data on the paranucleolar mass. Electron microscopic study in several Lacertilians

    Hubert, Jean

    1975-01-01

    In several Lacertilians, a nuclear fibrillar area, called paranucleolar mass in previous works, is a constant cytological feature of germ cells and certain somatic cells. This nuclear area shows many similarities with the nuclear area called in different animals nuclear vacuole, paranucleolar vacuole or light area. The ultrastructure and development of the paranucleolar mass is described. The cytochemical study indicates that it is composed of proteins. The autoradiographic results show that it does not incorporate thymidine 3 H or uridine 3 H, which is in agreement with the lack of DNA and RNA proved with cytochemical procedures. It is rarely labelled with leucine 3 H. This last result which seems to be at variance with the proteinaceous nature of the paranucleolar mass is probably due to our short experimental periods in proportion to the long formation of the paranucleolar mass [fr

  5. High resolution autoradiographic studies of RNA, protein and DNA synthesis during human eosinophil granulocytopoiesis

    Wickramasinghe, S.N.; Hughes, M.

    1978-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells which had been incubated with [ 3 H] uridine or [ 3 H]leucine for 1 h were studied using the technique of electron microscope-autoradiography. The autoradiographs revealed the presence of newly-synthesized RNA and protein molecules within or on a proportion of (1) the primary and secondary granules in all classes of eosinophil precursors and (2) the secondary granules in eosinophil granulocytes. It is suggested that the granule-associated RNA molecules may be concerned with the synthesis of at least some of the new protein molecules which were incorporated into the limiting membrane or substance of eosinophil granules long after the immature primary granule stage. Studies of eosinophil precursors which had been incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for 1 h showed that the eosinophil granules did not label with this DNA precursor. (author)

  6. Autoradiographic measurement of Pu distribution in mixed-oxide nuclear fuel

    Green, D.R.; Rasmussen, D.E.; Gray, W.H.

    1976-09-01

    The autoradiographic method described was developed for rapid, economical determination of the Pu distribution and microhomogeneity in mixed oxide fuel. High Pu concentration regions of any size down to 13 microns in diameter can be reproducibly resolved using this method. The new method uses computerized scanning and analysis, and includes automatic self-calibration to virtually elimate variations resulting from photographic film and processing. The speed of this new method allows analysis of enough data to ensure statistical reliability of occurrence frequencies, even for sparse populations of Pu-rich regions with diameters greater than 60 microns. Determination of these occurrence frequencies is an important factor in controlling fuel quality to ensure safe, efficient operation in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

  7. Autoradiographic evidence of 2-methylindole covalent binding to pulmonary epithelial cells in the goat

    Becker, G.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Carlson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    3-Methylindole (3MI), the main ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan, causes acute pulmonary edema and interstitial emphysema in ruminants. Intravenous infusion of 3MI in goats causes necrosis and sloughing of pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Previous studies indicate that a reactive metabolite or metabolites of 3MI bind covalently to tissue macromolecules in the lung and this binding is associated with the pneumotoxicity of 3MI. We undertook this autoradiographic study of 3MI covalent binding to test the hypothesis that reactive 3MI metabolite(s) bind to the lung cells susceptible to 3MI-induced injury. We infused goats with ( 3 H)3MI and killed them either 0.5, 2 or 6 h after start of the infusion. Sections of fixed lung were extensively washed, alcohol dehydrated and embedded in plastic. Only covalently bound radioactivity remained. Silver grains were quantitated per area in the developed autoradiographs. There was a 2:1 ratio of binding to the small airway epithelium compared to the interalveolar septa in all the goats. Both ciliated and non-ciliated bronchiolar cells were labelled, as were both types I and II pneumocytes. Normal goat lung slices incubated in vitro with ( 3 H)3MI were labeled in the same pattern. Inclusion of either of the inhibitors of cytochrome P-450, SKF-525-A or piperonyl butoxide significantly reduced this binding to both the pneumocytes and the bronchiolar cells. We consider these results supportive of our hypothesis that 3MI is metabolized to reactive intermediates by the epithelial cells of the lung, where they bind to macromolecules, which may cause cellular damage. (author)

  8. Histochemical approaches to assess cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative diseases

    G. Natale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation, aggregation and transmission of abnormal proteins are common features in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. The mechanisms underlying protein alterations in neurodegenerative diseases remain controversial. Novel findings highlighted altered protein clearing systems as common biochemical pathways which generate protein misfolding, which in turn causes protein aggregation and protein spreading. In fact, proteinaceous aggregates are prone to cell-to-cell propagation. This is reminiscent of what happens in prion disorders, where the prion protein misfolds thus forming aggregates which spread to neighbouring cells. For this reason, the term prionoids is currently used to emphasize how several misfolded proteins are transmitted in neurodegenerative diseases following this prion-like pattern. Histochemical techniques including the use of specific antibodies covering both light and electron microscopy offer a powerful tool to describe these phenomena and investigate specific molecular steps. These include: prion like protein alterations; glycation of prion-like altered proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs; mechanisms of extracellular secretion; interaction of AGEs with specific receptors placed on neighbouring cells (RAGEs. The present manuscript comments on these phenomena aimed to provide a consistent scenario of the available histochemical approaches to dissect each specific step.

  9. Detection of human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in dogs by histochemical staining and molecular techniques.

    Ambily, V R; Pillai, Usha Narayana; Arun, R; Pramod, S; Jayakumar, K M

    2011-09-27

    Human filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is still a public health problem in many countries of Asia including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted to eliminate filariasis by the year 2020 by Mass annual single dose Diethylcarbamazine Administration (MDA). Results of the MDA programme after the first phase was less satisfactory than expected. Malayan filariasis caused by B. malayi is endemic in the south of Thailand where domestic cat serves as the major reservoir host. There is no report about the occurrence of B. malayi in dogs. The present work was carried out to find out the incidence of microfilariasis in dogs and also to detect the presence of human filarial infection in dogs, if any. One hundred dogs above 6 months of age presented to the veterinary college Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala, with clinical signs suggestive of microfilariasis - fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, limb and scrotal oedema - were screened for microfilariae by wet film examination. Positive cases were subjected to Giemsa staining, histochemical staining and molecular techniques. Results of the study showed that 80% of dogs had microfilariasis; out of which 20% had sheathed microfilaria. Giemsa and histochemical staining character, PCR and sequencing confirmed it as B. malayi. High prevalence of B. malayi in dogs in this study emphasized the possible role of dogs in transmission of human filariasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  11. Histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of Bagrus bayad caused by environmental pollution.

    Gaber, Hanan S; Ibrahim, Seham A; El-Kasheif, Midhat A

    2015-09-01

    This study focused on two areas (Abu-Zaabal and El-Tal El-Kabir) of the Ismailia canal. The samples represented the effect of the factories' effluent discharge onto the canal. Physical characteristics (water temperature and pH) and chemical characteristics (total hardness, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) were measured to identify the water quality in the two areas of the Ismailia canal. These measurements showed slight variations between the two stations. Additionally, the histological and histochemical analyses in the liver of Bagrus bayad fish samples were done. Histological studies of liver showed more severe degeneration in the fish samples of El-Tal El-Kabir station. Histochemical studies on protein and glycogen contents in the liver of B. bayad showed a progressive decrease in their staining intensity to bromophenol blue and periodic acid Schiff at two stations. This study, therefore, concludes that Ismailia canal water (Abu-Zaabal and El-Tall El-Kabir) stations create metabolic crisis and impairment in fish liver. The depletion in the levels of protein and glycogen points leads to the exhaustion of cell energy that is of high demand for fish during stressful conditions. Therefore, it is imperative for the authorities concerned to ensure that treated effluent discharge comply with acceptable standards to save our environment from destruction. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. A Structural and Histochemical Study of Actinorhizal Nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.

    Mohammad Athar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. is an introduced actinorhizal plant grown as roadside ornamental tree and as forest plantation in Pakistan. Actinorhizal nodules are formed on the roots of C. equisetifolia as a response to infection by Frankia. Structure of C. equisetifolia nodules is described using histochemical methods to elucidate the nature of micro-symbiont within the nodules. C. equisetifolia nodules were similar to a root in general anatomical structure and resembled with Myrica-type nodules. The nodule consisted of a distinct periderm enclosing the cortex. The cortex showed patches of infected cells interspersed among uninfected ones. Inside the cortex there was a stele bounded by an endodermis, which contained tannins. The phloem-xylem relationship was amphicribral. A poorly defined meristem was also observed. Apart from simple nodules, dichotomously branched and coralloid nodules were also observed. The stele in simple and branched nodules reached up to the tip of the nodules. The micro-symbiont was observed in the nodule tissues in hyphal form only. The histochemical tests revealed absence of vacuoles and starch grains, and presence of tannins and lignin.

  13. Histochemical and molecular evaluation of the prevalence of Leishmania spp. in hematophagous insects

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence study of Leishmania spp. in hematophagous insects captured from the environment in bat roosts and pigeon nests, or feeding their hosts (cattle, pigs, horses, dogs and humans in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, between 2012 and 2014. For this study, the amastigotes present in these insects were detected by histochemical and PCR techniques. Positive gene amplification for Leishmania was found in two horseflies of the species Tabanus importunus collected in the environment, and amastigote forms of Leishmania spp., as well as erythrocytes and leukocytes, were histochemically detected in one of that insect. The other analyzed insects were not positive by PCR our by direct parasitological examination. Only horseflies captured in urban and peri-urban areas were positive. During the collection, no phlebotomine sand flies were captured in rural areas far from the city limits. It can be concluded that the discovery of horseflies positive for Leishmania spp. in urban and peri-urban areas indicates the likelihood that urban areas and their surroundings provide vector parasites with an environment suitable for the spread and consequent perpetuation of the biological cycle of this protozoan.

  14. Death following the ingestion of detergent: an autopsy case with special regard to the histochemical findings.

    Kawamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Kuramoto, Yuko; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    We report an autopsy case of death due to accidental ingestion of a liquid laundry detergent with special regard to the histochemical findings. A female inpatient suffering from schizophrenia in a psychiatric institution, was found unconscious lying on the floor of her room, with a container of detergent nearby, and died despite intensive life-support measures. At autopsy, the stomach and duodenum contained whitish translucent foamy viscous fluid, and the mucous membranes, from the esophagus to the duodenum, had diffuse erosions with congestion and edema. There was otherwise no significant pathology other than signs of acute death and hemolysis. Toxicological investigations detected 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene (detergent additive) in the gastric contents using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a nonionic surfactant by a color identification test. Although these substances could not be detected in the blood, body fluid or viscera, histochemical examination using Oil red O demonstrated droplet-like staining in the pulmonary alveoli, suggesting aspiration of detergent, and similar staining in the vasculature of the lung, Kupffer cells of the liver, Bowman capsules of the kidney, and capillaries of the brain, suggesting the systemic effect of ingested/aspirated detergent. These findings were in keeping with death from ingestion of detergent and demonstrated the importance of preventing accidents such as this in healthcare facilities for elderly people.

  15. A difference in [14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic patterns in striate cortex between Macaca and Saimiri monkeys following monocular stimulation

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Wilson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the apparent absence of ocular dominance columns (ODC) in some New World primates could be caused by deficiencies of the transsynaptic autoradiographic technique, such as spillage of label in the poorly laminated dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the authors have examined this question using a functional autoradiographic tracing technique based on the uptake of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose ([ 14 C]dG) by active neurons. When only one eye is stimulated, this innovative method graphically demonstrates a repetitive pattern in Macaca monkey striate cortex which has been interpreted to be the ODC driven by the open eye. They now report on the results of a comparative study of Old World Macaca and New World Saimiri monkeys using [ 14 C]dG autoradiography in which evidence is found for repetitive patterns of [ 14 C]dG in Saimiri for layers above, but not in, layer IV. (Auth.)

  16. Lemna minor exposed to fluoranthene: growth, biochemical, physiological and histochemical changes.

    Zezulka, Stěpán; Kummerová, Marie; Babula, Petr; Váňová, Lucie

    2013-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent one of the major groups of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is a common aquatic plant widely used in phytotoxicity tests for xenobiotic substances. The goal of this study was to assess the growth and the physiological, biochemical and histochemical changes in duckweed exposed for 4 and 10 days to fluoranthene (FLT, 0.1 and 1 mgL(-1)). Nonsignificant changes in number of plants, biomass production, leaf area size, content of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids and parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence recorded after 4 and 10 days of exposure to FLT were in contrast with considerable changes at biochemical and histochemical levels. Higher occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by an exposure to FLT after 10 days as compared to control (hydrogen peroxide elevated by 13% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and by 41% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT; superoxide anion radical by 52% and 115% respectively) reflected in an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase by 3% in both treatments, catalase by 9% and 1% respectively, ascorbate peroxidase by 21% and 5% respectively, guaiacol peroxidase by 12% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT). Even the content of antioxidant compounds like ascorbate (by 20% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT) or total thiols (reduced forms by 15% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and 8% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT, oxidized forms by 36% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT) increased. Increased amount of ROS was followed by an increase in malondialdehyde content (by 33% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and 79% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT). Whereas in plants treated by the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT the contents of total proteins and phenols increased by 15% and 25%, respectively, the 1 mgL(-1) FLT caused decrease of their contents by 32% and 7%. Microscopic observations of duckweed roots also confirmed the presence of ROS and related histochemical changes at the cellular and tissue levels. The assessment of phytotoxicity of organic

  17. An autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    Kasubuchi, Yasuo; Mino, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tomoichi

    1979-01-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    Kasubuchi, Y; Mino, M; Yoshioka, H; Kusunoki, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1979-10-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status.

  19. Loss of peroxisomes causes oxygen insensitivity of the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to detect cancer cells

    Frederiks, Wilma M.; Vreeling-Sindelárová, Heleen; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen insensitivity of carcinoma cells and oxygen sensitivity of non-cancer cells in the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enables detection of carcinoma cells in unfixed cell smears or cryostat sections of biopsies. The metabolic background of oxygen insensitivity is

  20. Molecular extinction coefficients of lead sulfide and polymerized diaminobenzidine as final reaction products of histochemical phosphatase reactions

    van Noorden, C. J.; Jonges, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of precipitated lead sulfide (PbS) and polymerized diaminobenzidine (polyDAB) have been determined at wavelengths of 450 nm and 480 nm, respectively, for quantitative histochemical analysis of phosphatase reactions. These values are essential for the conversion of

  1. In vitro autoradiographic studies for determination of mitotic index and labelling index in biopsies of the human oral mucosa

    Etzbach, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find the most favourable method of incubation for in-vitro autoradiographies of biopsies of human oral mucosa, tissue biopsies were taken from oral mucosa transplants of 10 patients (7 females, 3 males) and either fixed or incubated at once. The author then investigated the mitotic index of the non-incubated tissue specimens, the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated in atmospheric conditions (A), and the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated under pressure (B). Simultaneously, autoradiographs of the incubated tissue specimens were prepared in order to determine their labelling indices. The mitotic indices of the non-incubated tissue specimen were found to differ significantly from those of the A-incubated tissue specimens. A similar difference was found between the mitotic indices of the A- and B-incubated tissue biopsies. Further, the labelling indices of A autoradiographs differed significantly from the labelling indices of B autoradiographs. The findings suggest that incubation with an excess oxygen pressure of 2 bar is the method of choice for in-vitro studies of human oral mucosa as the cells retain their specific activity and cell processes will continue unhindered. Further, the findings can be transferred to in-vivo conditions with a reasonable error rate. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 241Am in the shell of the freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    Zuykov, M.; Pelletier, E.; Rouleau, C.; Popov, L.; Fowler, S.W.; Orlova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to identify α-track distributions in a series of shell sections from live mussels Dreissena polymorpha Pallas and dissected shells of dead mussels obtained from laboratory experiments using relatively high concentrations of 241 Am in the exposure media, a required condition for successful use of this autoradiographic technique. A comparable distribution of α-tracks was recorded on autoradiographs from both live and dead shells suggesting that metabolism does not lead to any sizable changes in the process of 241 Am adsorption (present in the extrapallial fluid) onto the inner surface of shell. Autoradiographs showed a preferential accumulation of 241 Am in the organic periostracum, whereas the outer and inner shell layers were characterized by a relatively low α-tracks density. No α-tracks were observed in the central part of the shell in any of the samples. These observations will be useful for the development of a general model to explain bioaccumulation and biosorption processes of radionuclides into mollusk shells. (author)

  3. Dynamics of pathomorphological changes in rat brain as a function of γ-radiation dose

    Fedorov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Neurohistological, histochemical, electron-microscopic and biometric techniques were used to study the response of rat brain to irradiation within a wide range of doses. Nerve cells were shown to be highly radioresistant. At the same time, synapses and blood-brain barrier structures were highly radiosensitive. The pathomorphologic changes in different brain areas followed a dose-time function

  4. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the glycogen and lipid contents of the rat liver cells

    Nahed, R H.A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmmady, S.; Sanad, S M.K.; Roushdy, H M

    1986-01-01

    Histochemical changes in the glycogen and lipid contents of the rat liver cells were studied at different intervals following whole body gamma-irradiation at the exposure dose level of 600 rads. The glycogen and lipid contents were significantly altered, the changes were time-dependent.

  5. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    in the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc (Danscher 1984...

  6. Proximo-distal organization and fibre type regionalization in rat hindlimb muscles

    Wang, LC; Kernell, D

    Five muscles of the rat's lower hindlimb were compared with regard to their histochemical fibre type distribution at seven different proximo-distal levels. The muscles were: extensor digitorum longus (ED), flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FD), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), peroneus longus (PE)

  7. Histochemical Structure of Stomach (Proventriculus and Gizzard in Some Bird Species

    Emel DEMİRBAĞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomach samples (proventriculus and gizzard of sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus, crow (Corvus corone and sparrow (Passer domesticus were investigated in this study. In histochemical investigations, strong sulfated mucins were not determined in compound glands of proventriculus, but a little reaction to AB (pH 0.5 in compound glands was observed in proventriculus of sparrow hawk and crow. While weak AB (pH 1.0 (+ character was found in sparrow gizzard, it was found as dense in superficial glands of sparrow hawk. However, it was not observed in crow gizzard. While AF (+ character (sulfated mucins was detected as dense in epithelium and as weak in glands of gizzard of sparrow hawk, this character was not observed in glands of gizzards of crow and sparrow. Any reactivity to Periodic Acid-Shiff (PAS staining was not observed in both epithelium and glands of sparrow proventriculus

  8. Histomorphological and mucin histochemical study of the alimentary canal of pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton 1822

    Javd Sadeghinezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the alimentary canal (AC of the pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius. The results revealed that the mucosa of the oesophagus was lined by a stratified epithelium containing chloride cells and taste buds which suggested mechanic, gustatory and physiologic roles of the oesophagus in this species. The stomach mucosa was lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The lamina propria-submucosa in cardiac and fundic stomach contained gastric glands. The pyloric stomach had the thickest muscularis layer among all the parts of the AC. The villi showed the maximum height and width in the middle intestine. The tunica muscularis and serosa showed the thinnest thickness among all parts of AC. The mucin histochemistry showed that the goblet cells of oesophagus and intestine contained both neutral and acidic with carboxylated and sulfated mucins and there was not acidic mucins in epithelial cells of the stomach.

  9. Histochemical, phytochemical and biological screening of Plinia cauliflora (DC. Kausel, Myrtaceae, leaves

    Tatiana M. Souza-Moreira

    Full Text Available In this work, chemical and biological activities of crude extracts obtained with 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol, acetone:water (7:3; v/v and chloroform of Plinia cauliflora (DC. Kausel, Myrtaceae, leaves, a native tree from several regions of Brazil, was investigated. Histochemical and phytochemical screenings were done according to characterization reactions and thin layer chromatography. To assist in extracts standardization, total phenol and flavonoids content spectrophotometric was performed. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by percentage of radical scavenging using DPPH solution. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and species of Candida using agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determination methods according to standard methods. The leaves presented lipids at secretory cavity and phenols, mainly tannins, in nervures and palisade parenchyma. Polar extracts showed flavonoids, tannins and high content of phenols and flavonoids. The extracts showed great antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity was better against Candida species than against bacteria.

  10. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi coexisting with a high grade spindle cell sarcoma

    M Alberghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral fibroproliferative lesion characterized by polymorphic fiber-like deposits of elastinophilic material. Several theories have been reported explaining the pathogenesis of elastofibroma. Recent cytogenetic studies have demonstrated chromosomal instability in elastofibromas, not normally observed in non-neoplastic tissues. These chromosomal defects are commonly observed in aggressive fibromatosis too. Such clinical observations suggest a multistage pathogenetic mechanism for the onset of elastofibroma. This study, using histochemical, immunohistochemical staining techniques, and ultrastructural examination, describes the detection of an otherwise typical elastofibroma contextual to a high grade sarcoma. Hence, the coexistence of elastofibroma and high-grade sarcoma may suggest a causal link between the two pathological entities. The results obtained suggest that the coexistence of the two pathological entities is conceivably coincidental.

  11. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A

    1992-01-01

    was mainly confined to the neuropil, but both moderately and intensely stained nerve cell bodies were of common occurrence. Stained fibers were never observed. The staining revealed a specific distribution pattern which could easily be correlated with the telencephalic nuclei defined on the basis......The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The staining...... of cytoarchitectural features. However, the telencephalon stained much more weakly than the rest of the brain, in striking contrast to the situation in the reptilian, mammalian, and avian brain. In these classes, high staining intensities are observed almost exclusively in the telencephalon. The staining...

  12. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Matsuno, Akira; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Yamada, Shoko M.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Nishido, Hajime; Ide, Fuyuaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugaya, Mutsumi; Hirohata, Toshio; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  13. The Histological And Histochemical Changes In The Gonads Of The Cotton Leaf Worm SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    HAZAA, M.A.M.; ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sub-sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (125 Gy) alone or in combination with different concentrations of Tafla leaves extract (Nerium oleander) on the histology and histochemistry of the male and female reproductive systems were studied. The treatment caused histopathological changes in the ovaries including vacuolation, absence of nurse cells, shrinkage of oocyte tissue, clumped of chromatin material and thickness of epithelial cells at some areas. The vacuolation of the testes and absorbation of sperm bundles also represent the damage of germ cells, and disintegration of spermatocytes was most prominent in these organs. Histochemical studies showed clear increment in the protein content of male testes while it showed clear decrement in the female ovaries. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) showed a pronounced increase in both male and female gonads in spite of DNA showed a pronounced decrement.

  14. Ahistological and histochemical study of the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis

    JM Arellano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A histological and histochemical study was performed in the buccal cavity and papillae, which were around the teeth, as well as in the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis adult specimens. The oesophagus and oesogaster were made up of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscular and serous. Two morphological types of epithelial cells were distinguishable in the oesophageal mucosa: the more numerous type cells possessed an electron-dense cytoplasm, whereas the cytoplasm was electron-clear in the other cells. Mucussecreting cells were the dominant feature of the epithelium throughout the oesophagus. These goblet cells were filled with numerous mucous droplets of low electron-density. The oesophagus was devoid of taste buds.

  15. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  16. [Histochemical and histoenzymatic study of experimental endarteritis in rabbits. I. Femoral endarteritis].

    Abou-Haila, A; Hadjiisky, P; Roland, J; Orcel, L

    1978-04-01

    The parietal reaction after placing a cuff of polyethylene around the femoral artery has been studied in 18 (2,5 - 3 months old) male rabbits by using histologic, histochemical (4 macromolecular substances) and histoenzymatic techniques (16 enzymatic activities). Studies were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 15th and 21st day, and every 15 days during the 3 months of the experiment. This process induced rapidly in each animal a parietal reaction with adventitial oedema (1st day), hypoxia of the media (1st -5th day), cytoenzymatic activation followed by a cellular transformation and proliferation of the intima-media, that forms a diffuse intimal thickening (adaptation). Most cells of the thickening were, by their enzymatic activities, quite comparable to immature smooth muscle cells, which probably emigrated from the media: intense LDH, NADH2 - TR; moderate G6P-DH, SDH, NADPH2 - TR, alpha-GP-DH, ATP/ase; weak ICHD, beta-HB-DH. Moreover, some reactions (accentuation of beta-Glu/ase, UDGP-DH, Glu-DH, 5'N/ase) besides suggested the active participation of the cells in the production of extracellular conjonctive constituents, because the histochemical studies revealed the presence of metachromatic glycosamino-glycanes and positive APS substances during the edification of the diffuse intimal thickening. In advanced thickening, an histoenzymatic duality was observed, that might prove the double origin of the thickening cells: some superficial cells had the enzymatic characteristics of endothelial cells (increased activity of aerobic oxydoreductases). At every stage of the study, the thickening cells differed from the atherocytes by a lack of lipids in their cytoplasm.

  17. Long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys

    Oberdorster, G.; Cox, C.; Baggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes experiments to determine the long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys. The rats and monkeys were exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 aerosols, and one monkey was exposed to 115 CdO particles. The thoracic activity of the respective Cd isotopes was measured with time after exposure, for both species. Accumulation of 109 Cd in the kidneys of the monkeys exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 was also examined, and autoradiographs of lung sections of these monkeys were also prepared. The results showed that the cadmium accumulated differently in the lungs of the rats and primates. (U.K.)

  18. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [ 3 H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [ 3 H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [ 3 H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [ 3 H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  19. Autoradiographic determination of catechol estrogen binding sites in brain, pituitary and uterus

    Parvizi, N.; Sar, M.; Duncan, G.E.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical pattern of nuclear binding of 2-OH[6,9- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]2-OHE 2 ) in brain, pituitary and uterus have been studied autoradiographically. Autoradiograms of forebrain, pituitary and uterus show nuclear concentrations of radioactivity in certain cells. This nuclear concentration is abolished when unlabelled 2-OHE 2 or E 2 was injected prior to the injection of [ 3 H]2-OHE 2 . In the brain nuclear labelling is observed in the septal-preoptic region, in the anterior hypothalamic area, and in the central hypothalamic area. Some estrogen-sensitive nuclear groups, such as lateral septum and hippocampus, do not show accumulation of radioactivity. In the uterus, luminal and glandular epithelium, stromal cell and muscle cells are labelled. A comparison of the quantitative nuclear uptake of radioactivity and of the different time intervals after the injection of different doses shows similar uptake of nuclear radioactivity. This is comparable to data obtained after [6,7- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) injection. The results provide clear evidence for nuclear binding of catechol estrogens of the same magnitude as [ 3 H]E 2 after in vivo treatment. (Auth.).0

  20. Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice

    Lachance, M.P.; Marlowe, C.; Waddell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interaction

  1. Autoradiographic studies of chromosome replication during the cell cycle of Streptococcus faecium

    Higgins, M.L.; Koch, A.L.; Dicker, D.T.; Daneo-Moore, L.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of autoradiographic grains around cells of Streptococcus faecium which had been either continuously or pulse-labeled with tritiated thymidine (mass doubling time, 90 min) showed a non-Poisson distribution even when the distribution of cell sizes in the populations studied was taken into account. These non-Poisson distributions of grains were assumed to reflect the discontinuous nature of chromosome replication. To study this discontinuous process further, an equation was fitted to the grain distribution observed for the pulse-labeled cells that assumed that in any population of cells there were subpopulations in which there were zero, one, or two replicating chromosomes. This analysis predicted an average time for chromosome replication and for the period between completion of rounds of chromosome replication and division of 55 and 43 min, respectively, which were in excellent agreement with estimates made by other techniques. The present investigation extended past studies in indicating that the initiation and completion of rounds of chromosome replication are poorly phased with increases in cell volume and that the amount of chromosome replication may be different in different cell halves

  2. A study on measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow using autoradiographic method in moyamoya disease

    Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kiya, Katsuzo; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Mizoue, Tatsuya; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Uozumi, Tohru; Ikawa, Fusao

    1997-01-01

    Development of Autoradiographic method (ARG) has provided measurement of cerebral blood flow in moyamoya disease. We evaluate a cerebral vasodilatory capacity (CVC) for moyamoya disease using ARG method. We used 5 patients with moyamoya disease as a candidate for measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) who admitted to Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital during the past one year. There were 3 patients in an adult age and 2 patients in a young age. We tried to measure the regional CBF (rCBF) using ARG method which was a easy way to estimate the rCBF on SPECT. The CVC was calculated from the difference of the rCBF between resting SPECT and Diamox-loading SPECT. Results were as follows; Reactivity of cerebral vessels to CO 2 loading and CVC weakened in moyamoya disease. The rCBF and CVC in the territories of anterior and middle cerebral arteries reduced in comparison with those in the area supplied by the posterior cerebral artery. The CVC at the treated side with surgical reconstruction recovered somewhat in an adult type. From these results, measurement of CBF using ARG method seems to be useful for evaluation of the CVC in moyamoya disease. (author)

  3. Registration and three-dimensional reconstruction of autoradiographic images by the disparity analysis method

    Zhao, Weizhao; Ginsberg, M.; Young, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography is a powerful radio-isotopic-imaging method for neuroscientists to study local cerebral blood flow and glucose-metabolic rate at rest, in response to physiologic activation of the visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor systems, and in pathologic conditions. Most autoradiographic studies analyze glucose utilization and blood flow in two-dimensional (2-D) coronal sections. With modern digital computer and image-processing techniques, a large number of closely spaced coronal sections can be stacked appropriately to form a three-dimensional (3-d) image. 3-D autoradiography allows investigators to observe cerebral sections and surfaces from any viewing angle. A fundamental problem in 3-D reconstruction is the alignment (registration) of the coronal sections. A new alignment method based on disparity analysis is presented which can overcome many of the difficulties encountered by previous methods. The disparity analysis method can deal with asymmetric, damaged, or tilted coronal sections under the same general framework, and it can be used to match coronal sections of different sizes and shapes. Experimental results on alignment and 3-D reconstruction are presented

  4. A unit density method of grain analysis used to identify GABEergic neurons for electron microscopic autoradiographs

    Burry, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of electron microscopic autoradiographic grains over neurons in cerebellar cultures incubated with [ 3 H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([ 3 H]GABA) was examined. With the unit density method of grain analysis, the number of grains over each structure was tested against the total grain density for the entire section. If an individual structure has a grain density higher than the expected grain density, it is considered one of the group of heavily labeled structures. The expected grain density for each structure is calculated based on the area for that structure, the total grain density and the Poisson distribution. A different expected grain density can be calculated for any P value required. The method provides an adequate population of structures for morphological analysis but excludes weakly labeled structures and thus may underestimate the number of labeled structures. The unit density method of grain analysis showed, as expected, a group of cell bodies and synapses that was labeled heavily. Cultures incubated with other [ 3 H]amino acids did not have any heavily labeled synaptic elements. In addition, serial section analysis of sections showed that synapses heavily labeled with [ 3 H]GABA are seen in adjacent sections. The advantage of the unit density method of grain analysis is that it can be used to separate two groups of metabolically different neurons even when no morphological differences are present. (Auth.)

  5. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  6. Quantitative autoradiographic characterization of GA-BAB receptors in mammalian central nervous system

    Chu, D.Chin-Mei.

    1989-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the amino acid neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within the nervous system appear to be mediated through two distinct classes of receptors: GABA A and GABA B receptors. A quantitative autoradiographic method with 3 H-GABA was developed to examine the hypotheses that GABA A and GABA B sites have distinct anatomical distributions, pharmacologic properties, and synaptic localizations within the rodent nervous system. The method was also applied to a comparative study of these receptors in postmortem human brain from individuals afflicted with Alzheimer's disease and those without neurologic disease. The results indicated that GABA B receptors occur in fewer numbers and have a lower affinity for GABA than GABA A receptors in both rodent and human brain. Within rodent brain, the distribution of these two receptor populations were clearly distinct. GABA B receptors were enriched in the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, cerebellar molecular layer and olfactory glomerular layer. After selective lesions of postsynaptic neurons of the corticostriatal and perforant pathway, both GABA B and GABA A receptors were significantly decreased in number. Lesions of the presynaptic limbs of the perforant but not the corticostriatal pathway resulted in upregulation of both GABA receptors in the area of innervation. GABA B receptors were also upregulated in CA3 dendritic regions after destruction of dentate granule neurons

  7. Follicle and oocyte growth in early postnatal calves: cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical studies

    Mhawi, A.J.; Kaňka, J.; Motlík, J.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of oocyte and follicle growth was studied in 1- and 3-d-old calf ovaries using cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical approaches. Attention was only paid to unilaminar ovarian follicles that were classified into 3 categories: unilaminar flattened (UF), unilaminar flatto-cuboidal (UFC) and unilaminar cuboidal (UC) ovarian follicles when the oocyte was surrounded by 1 layer of flattened, a mixture of flattened and cuboidal and entirely cuboidal follicle cells, respectively. Our findings suggested that oocytes within each of these follicle categories were in different developmental stages. Furthermore, electron microscopic observations revealed that early after birth, oocyte nuclei characteristic of diplotene configuration (aggregation of the nuclear chromatin into moderately electron-dense small patches and fibrillo-granular texture of the nucleolus) were encountered in 41% of the UF follicles. The rest of the UF as well as all of the UFC and UC follicles were found to contain dictyate oocytes in which the chromatin was highly decondensed and the nucleolus differentiated into fibrillar, fibrillo-granular and granular components. The present results also indicated that the complete transition of the surrounding follicle cells from flattened to cuboidal shape and the morphological changes of the oocyte endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were 2 complementary events essential for initiation of oocyte growth

  8. DNA synthesis and pronucleus development in pig zygotes obtained in vivo: an autoradiographic and ultrastructural study

    Laurincik, J.; Hyttel, P.; Kopecny, V.

    1995-01-01

    Porcine zygotes flushed from oviducts 48, 52, 56, 60, or 64 hr after hCG were incubated 30 min in 3H-thymidine, transferred to nonradioactive medium for 2 hr, and incubated for 30 min with 14C-thymidine. After this procedure, ova were prepared (i.e., at 51, 55, 59, 63, or 67 hr after hCG) for autoradiography and ultrastructural observations, respectively. The first autoradiographic labelling, i.e., DNA synthesis, was observed at 56-56.5 hr after hCG, while the latest labelling was seen at 60-60.5 hr. At 51 hr after hCG, formation of the pronuclear envelope was observed, while no nucleolus precursor bodies or prestages to these structures were found. At 55 hr a few clusters of small electron-dense granules were observed, together with condensed chromatin in the pronuclei. At 59 hr the apposed regions of both pronuclei contained nucleolus precursor bodies and condensed chromatin, in close contact with both clusters of small granules and clusters of an additional category of large granules and the nuclear envelope. Additionally, large accumulations of the small granules were found in the vicinity of similarly sized accumulations of the large granules without chromatin association. At 63 hr the spherical accumulations of large granules on some occasions presented a central vacuole, and condensed chromatin and clusters of small granules were attached to its periphery. Within the vacuole, electron-dense material was found

  9. Autoradiographic studies of the adaptative behaviour of the oral flora to xylit

    Schmidt, R.

    1980-01-01

    Fasten saliva samples of 22 test persons were aerobically incubed with radio-labeled xylit and sorbit for 24 hours at 37 0 C. It was determined by thin-layer chromatography and by the autoradiographic detection of the sugar alcohols, after what incubation time the sugar substitutes were completely metabolised. In order to provide intensive contact between the organisms of the oral cavity and the xylit the test persons rinsed their mouth three times per day with a xylit solution over a period of one month. Then a second saliva sample was examined. By adding the bacteriostaticum chloramphenicol to the cultures, it was proved that in the majority of the test persons the decompensation of xylit and sorbit is enzymatically induced when the organisms living in the oral cavity get into contact with sugar alcohol. Between the decompensation time before and after 30 days of xylit contact no significant difference could be found. These results permit the conclusion that after the contact over one month the organisms of the oral cavity do not adapt to xylit. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Autoradiographic assay of mutants resistant to diphtheria toxin in mammalian cells in vitro

    Ronen, A.; Gingerich, J.D.; Duncan, A.M.V.; Heddle, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Diptheria toxin kills mammalian cells by ribosylating elongation factor 2, a protein factor necessary for protein synthesis. The frequency of cells able to form colonies in the presence of the toxin can be used as an assay for mutation to diphtheria toxin resistance. Resistance to diphtheria toxin can also be detected autoradiographically in cells exposed to [ 3 H]leucine after treatment with the toxin. In cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells, the frequency of such resistant cells is increased by exposure of the cells to γ-rays, ultraviolet light, ethylnitrosourea, mitomycin c, ethidium bromide, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The resistant cells form discrete microcolonies if they are allowed to divide several times before intoxication which indicates that they are genuine mutants. The assay is potentially adaptable to any cell population that can be intoxicated with diphtheria toxin and labeled with [ 3 H]leucine, whether or not the cells can form colonies. It may be useful, therefore, for measuring mutation rates in slowly growing or nondividing cell populations such as breast, brain, and liver, as well as in cells that do divide but cannot be readily cloned, such as the colonic epithelium. 23 references, 6 figures

  11. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the myocardial scar fallowing acute myocardial infarction

    Tatić Vujadin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The heart has traditionally been considered as a static organ without capacity of regeneration after trauma. Currently, the more and more often asked question is whether the heart has any intrinsic capacities to regenerate myocytes after myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to present the existence of the preserved muscle fibers in the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction as well as the presence of numerous cells of various size and form that differently reacted to the used immunohistochemical antibodies. Methods. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of myocardial sections taken from 177 patients who had died of acute myocardial infarction and had the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction, were carried out. More sections taken both from the site of acute infarction and scar were examined by the following methods: hematoxylin-eosin (HE, periodic acid schiff (PAS, PAS-diastasis, Masson trichrom, Malory, van Gieson, vimentin, desmin, myosin, myoglobin, alpha actin, smoth muscle actin (SMA, p53, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Ki-67, actin HHF35, CD34, CD31, CD45, CD45Ro, CD8, CD20. Results. In all sections taken from the scar region, larger or smaller islets of the preserved muscle fibers with the signs of hypertrophy were found. In the scar, a large number of cells of various size and form: spindle, oval, elongated with abundant cytoplasm, small with one nucleus and cells with scanty cytoplasm, were found. The present cells differently reacted to histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Large oval cells showed negative reaction to lymphocytic and leukocytic markers, and positive to alpha actin, actin HHF35, Ki-67, myosin, myoglobin and desmin. Elongated cells were also positive to those markers. Small mononuclear cells showed positive reaction to lymphocytic markers. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel walls

  12. Quantitative aspects of enzyme histochemistry on sections of freeze-substituted glycol methacrylate-embedded rat liver

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    Freeze-substituted rat liver embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) has been used to demonstrate the activities of several enzymes. The following enzymes could be detected in GMA-sections by the indicated histochemical procedure(s): 5'-nucleotidase (lead salt, cerium-diaminobenzidine), alkaline

  13. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  14. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    A histochemical avidin-biotin technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms showed pronounced alterations in the cellular localization of two alpha 1-acid glycoprotein lectin-like receptors during cell differentiation in the developing rat testis. The binding of alpha 1-acid...

  15. Morphological and histochemical study of cleft palate induced in CD-1 mice by whole body x-radiation

    Lewis, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Palatogenesis in CD-1 mice exposed to 300 or 400 rads of x-radiation in utero was compared with palate development of unirradiated fetuses to determine whether any correlation exists between time of irradiation (days nine through twelve) and the incidence of morphological or histochemical variations in fetal palate tissues. Data accumulated indicate that although x-radiation reduces fetal weight and crown-rump length and retards palate closure, growth, ossification and SDH activity, fetuses exhibit some recovery from radiation damage

  16. The human amygdaloid complex: a cytologic and histochemical atlas using Nissl, myelin, acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase staining.

    Sims, K S; Williams, R S

    1990-01-01

    We examined the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase enzyme activity in the human amygdala using histochemical techniques. Both methods revealed compartments of higher or lower enzyme activity, in cells or neuropil, which corresponded to the nuclear subdivisions of the amygdala as defined with classical Nissl and myelin methods. The boundaries between the histochemical compartments were usually so sharp that the identification of these nuclear subdivisions was enhanced. There was also variation of staining intensity within many of the nuclear subdivisions, such as the lateral and central nuclei, anterior amygdaloid area and the intercalated groups. This histochemical difference corresponded to more subtle differences in Nissl and myelin staining patterns, and suggests further structural subdivisions of potential functional significance. We present a revised scheme of anatomical parcellation of the human amygdala based upon serial analysis with all four techniques. Our expectation is that this will allow the delineation of a clearer homology between the cytoarchitectonic subdivisions of the human amygdala and those of experimental animals.

  17. Autoradiographic investigation of the removal of non-metallic inclusions in connection with the steel remelting process in vacuum furnaces

    Kolaski, H.; Siewierski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled radioactive non-metallic inclusions in steel were obtained through deoxidation of steel with an activated aluminium alloy containing 1% rare earths. Quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions in the steel were determined by applying autoradiography to the longitudinal and cross sections of the steel slabs. After remelting in an electronic furnace the distribution of non-metallic inclusions was determined by autoradiography of the lateral surfaces and the cross section of the slabs. It was found that 50 - 70% of the inclusions could be removed. The results obtained from autoradiographic investigation allow the exploration of the mechanism of the removal of inclusions. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. [3H]QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with [3H]pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies

  19. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  20. Heterogeneity of uridine incorporation along the rabbit nephron. I. Autoradiographic study

    Vandewalle, A.; Farman, N.; Cluzeaud, F.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of uridine labeling in tubular segments microdissected from the rabbit kidney is presented. Kidney pyramids were incubated for 60 min with low (66 nM) and high (66μM) [ 3 H]-uridine concentration. At the two concentrations studied the labeling was almost exclusively nuclear in all segments studied. At the low concentration, labeling predominated in the macula densa (MD = 63.88 +/- 6.15 silver grains/100 μm 2 , n = 11), cortical ascending limb (CAL = 19.65 +/- 1.65, n = 15), and initial distal tubule (DCT/sub a/ = 24.31 +/- 2.70, n = 6). It was minimal in the proximal tubule (PCT 2 = 9.14 +/- 1.61, n = 16) and in the cortical (CCT = 5.23 +/- 0.75, n = 18) and medullary (MCT = 5.52 +/- 1.10, n = 12) collecting ducts. At a high concentration, the profile of labeling was roughly similar except for a relative increase in labeling much more pronounced in collecting ducts (CCT = +373, MCT = +323%) than in the other structures (MD = -14, CAL = +66, DCT/sub a/ = +49, PCT = +9%). Pulse-chase experiments do not show evidence for differences in turnover or degradation rates of RNA between segments, at least in the PCT and the connecting part of the CCT. Analysis of the results at low and high concentration suggests that the observed heterogeneity in uridine labeling depends on both variable endogenous nucleoside pools and different rates of uridine incorporation into RNA from one segment to another

  1. Heterogeneity of uridine incorporation along the rabbit nephron. I. Autoradiographic study

    Vandewalle, A.; Farman, N.; Cluzeaud, F.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1984-04-01

    An autoradiographic study of uridine labeling in tubular segments microdissected from the rabbit kidney is presented. Kidney pyramids were incubated for 60 min with low (66 nM) and high (66..mu..M) (/sup 3/H)-uridine concentration. At the two concentrations studied the labeling was almost exclusively nuclear in all segments studied. At the low concentration, labeling predominated in the macula densa (MD = 63.88 +/- 6.15 silver grains/100 ..mu..m/sup 2/, n = 11), cortical ascending limb (CAL = 19.65 +/- 1.65, n = 15), and initial distal tubule (DCT/sub a/ = 24.31 +/- 2.70, n = 6). It was minimal in the proximal tubule (PCT/sub 2/ = 9.14 +/- 1.61, n = 16) and in the cortical (CCT = 5.23 +/- 0.75, n = 18) and medullary (MCT = 5.52 +/- 1.10, n = 12) collecting ducts. At a high concentration, the profile of labeling was roughly similar except for a relative increase in labeling much more pronounced in collecting ducts (CCT = +373, MCT = +323%) than in the other structures (MD = -14, CAL = +66, DCT/sub a/ = +49, PCT = +9%). Pulse-chase experiments do not show evidence for differences in turnover or degradation rates of RNA between segments, at least in the PCT and the connecting part of the CCT. Analysis of the results at low and high concentration suggests that the observed heterogeneity in uridine labeling depends on both variable endogenous nucleoside pools and different rates of uridine incorporation into RNA from one segment to another.

  2. Cytological and histochemical gradients on two Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae)--Cecidomyiidae gall systems.

    de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Previous ultrastructural and histochemical analysis proposed patterns in the accumulation of substances in galls of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in some plant species of the temperate region. Similar analyses were done to verify the conservativeness of these patterns in the Neotropical region, where a great number of species of Cecidomyiidae is responsible for a wide diversity of morphotypes. Two gall morphotypes induced by Cecidomyiidae in a unique host plant, Copaifera langsdorffii, were studied. The gradients of carbohydrates and the activity of invertases and acid phosphatases were similar, but the cytological gradients and distribution of proteins evidenced that the sites of the induction as well as the amount of neoformed tissues may be peculiar to each gall system. The production of lipids just in the secretory cavities either in the non-galled or galled tissues indicated a potentiality of the host plant which could not be manipulated by the galling insects. Further, the absence of nucleus in the nutritive tissue, an exclusive feature of the horn-shaped galls, indicates cell death attributed to the feeding habit of the galling herbivore.

  3. Histological, surface ultrastructural, and histochemical study of the stomach of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner

    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.

  4. Histochemical localization of cholinesterase activity in the dental epithelium of guinea pig teeth.

    Jayawardena, C K; Takano, Y

    2004-07-01

    Cholinesterase is known for its remarkable diversity in distribution and function. An association of this enzyme with proliferative and morpho-differentiating tissues has been reported in several species. Here we report on the first evidence of the presence of cholinesterase in the enamel organ of continuously erupting incisors and molars of the guinea pig. Frozen sections of the incisors and molars of the guinea pig were incubated for histochemical demonstration of cholinesterase activity by means of the thiocholine method as described by Karnovsky and Root. The cholinesterase activity was observed in several types of cells of the dental epithelium; cells forming the basal portion of the enamel organ, outer enamel epithelium and maturation stage ameloblasts of both the incisors and molars. In the crown analogue side, the outer enamel epithelial cells gained strong reactions for cholinesterase and maintained the reaction throughout the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis. In contrast, cholinesterase reactions were lacking in the inner enamel epithelium, pre-ameloblasts, and secretory ameloblasts. In the early stage of enamel maturation, ameloblasts began to show positive reactions for cholinesterase, which was upregulated in the incisal direction. Although both tooth types showed similar reactive patterns for cholinesterase at the growing ends, maturation ameloblasts depicted a different pattern of staining displaying the reactions only sporadically in molars. These data indicate the role of cholinesterase in the enamel organ in tooth morphogenesis and function of guinea pig teeth. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  5. Recombinant adenylate kinase 3 from liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis for histochemical analysis and serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Kwon, Soon Bin; Kim, Paul; Woo, Hae Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Lee, Hye Min; Jang, Yun Soo; Kim, Eun-Min; Yong, Tai-Soon; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-03-27

    Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

  6. Glycoconjugate sugar residues in the chick embryo developing lung: a lectin histochemical study.

    Gheri, G; Sgambati, E; Bryk, S G

    2000-03-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the distribution and changes of the oligosaccharidic component of the glycoconjugates in the lung of chick embryos, of 1-day-old chick, and of the adult animal. For this purpose, a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, Con A, LTA, and UEA I) were employed. During the first phase of parabronchi and atria formation, D-galactose-(beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, alpha-D-mannose, and sialic acid, present at the level of the surface and of cytoplasmic granules of the lining epithelial cells, seem to play a role in regulating morphogenetic phenomena. In the subsequent phases, the parabronchial lumen and the atrial cavities were characterized by the presence of lectin-reactive material rich in terminal D-galactose-(beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine and alpha-D-mannose. From day 18 onwards and immediately after hatching, the free border of the cells lining the air capillaries was characterized by the presence of beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-D-mannose. The appearance of these sugar residues was concomitant with the beginning of respiratory activity. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Slow and fast fatigable frog muscle fibres: electrophysiological and histochemical characteristics.

    Vydevska-Chichova, M; Mileva, K; Todorova, R; Dimitrova, M; Radicheva, N

    2005-12-01

    Continuous activity of isolated frog gastrocnemius muscle fibres provoked by repetitive stimulation of 5 Hz was used as an experimental model for fatigue development in different fibre types. Parameter changes of the elicited intracellular action potentials and mechanical twitches during the period of uninterrupted activity were used as criteria for fatigue evaluation. Slow fatigable muscle fibre (SMF) and fast fatigable muscle fibre (FMF) types were distinguished depending on the duration of their uninterrupted activity, which was significantly longer in SMFs than in FMFs. The normalized changes of action potential amplitude and duration were significantly smaller in FMFs than in SMFs. The average twitch force and velocity of contraction and relaxation were significantly higher in FMFs than in SMFs. Myosin ATPase (mATPase) and succinate dehydrogenase activity were studied by histochemical assessment in order to validate the fibre type classification based on their electrophysiological characteristics. Based on the relative mATPase reactivity, the fibres of the studied muscle were classified as one of five different types (1-2, 2, 2-3, 3 and tonic). Smaller sized fibres (tonic and type 3) expressed higher succinate dehydrogenase activity than larger sized fibres (type 1-2, 2), which is related to the fatigue resistance. The differences between fatigue development in SMFs and FMFs during continuous activity were associated with fibre-type specific mATPase and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  8. Histochemical characterization of CNS development in mice: A methodological contribution for evaluation of teratogenic effects

    Plendl, J.; Schmahl, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the NMRI-mouse strain Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) showed an outstanding histochemical affinity to some newly developed neuro-glial cells on gestation day 13 and in front of all to the vessel endothelium from gestation day 8 on. The latter affinity pattern, however, was not homogenously distributed within the embryo, but clearly showed varying intensities with advancing cell differentiation. The latter finding was intensely studied at the embryonal central nervous system during the late organogenesis stage (days 10 to 13). Two hours after X-irradiation with 1.0 Gy some irregular DBA-positive patches were found on the surface of neuronal cells which otherwise seemed to be still unaffected. The DBA-affinity of these cells was intensified until 6 hours post irradiation. Simultaneously it was evident that these cells were pre-necrotic. After phagocytotic elimination of these cells the remaining nervous structures were completely DBA-negative. These findings indicate to a possible use of DBA for evaluation of an early lesion pattern in neuroteratological studies. (orig.)

  9. Combined histochemical staining, RNA amplification, regional, and single cell cDNA analysis within the hippocampus.

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli

    2004-08-01

    The use of five histochemical stains (cresyl violet, thionin, hematoxylin & eosin, silver stain, and acridine orange) was evaluated in combination with an expression profiling paradigm that included regional and single cell analyses within the hippocampus of post-mortem human brains and adult mice. Adjacent serial sections of human and mouse hippocampus were labeled by histochemistry or neurofilament immunocytochemistry. These tissue sections were used as starting material for regional and single cell microdissection followed by a newly developed RNA amplification procedure (terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification) and subsequent hybridization to custom-designed cDNA arrays. Results indicated equivalent levels of global hybridization signal intensity and relative expression levels for individual genes for hippocampi stained by cresyl violet, thionin, and hematoxylin & eosin, and neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Moreover, no significant differences existed between the Nissl stains and neurofilament immunocytochemistry for individual CA1 neurons obtained via laser capture microdissection. In contrast, a marked decrement was observed in adjacent hippocampal sections stained for silver stain and acridine orange, both at the level of the regional dissection and at the CA1 neuron population level. Observations made on the cDNA array platform were validated by real-time qPCR using primers directed against beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, this report demonstrated the utility of using specific Nissl stains, but not stains that bind RNA species directly, in both human and mouse brain tissues at the regional and cellular level for state-of-the-art molecular fingerprinting studies.

  10. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  11. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' uterus from the mothers with pregnancy complications

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Material of the research includes uterus of foetuses, that were dead on the gestational term between 21 and 41 weeks. According to peculiarities in the pregnancy course this material was divided into groups: foetuses from mothers with physiological pregnancy; foetuses from mothers. whose pregnancy takes its course on the background of the PE with different stages of the severity; and, finally, foetuses from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by the chronic infection of lower genital tracts. Research methods: macroscopic, histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical. It was shown an excessive proliferation of the connective tissue in all structural components, in the composition of which prevails an immature collagen of the III type. It was also increased a production of the endothelin-1 by the vascular component of organs. In addition, it was defined an oppression of the functional activity of epithelial component by mucosa, which was expressed like decreasing of the hormonal activity of the the organ and increasing of the manifestation stage of apoptosis changes.

  12. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with [ 14 C]glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 x 10 4 daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline

  13. Histochemical differentiation between unirradiated and gamma-irradiated tissue in commercial use of some irradiated vegetables

    Foa, E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation as a commercial method for the preservation of fruits and vegetables calls for methods of differentiation between unirradiated and irradiated products. A new approach to studying the influence of gamma irradiation on vegetable tissue at the cellular level by histochemical techniques has been developed by the authors and already applied to a number of fruits and vegetables. The possibility of evidencing radiation effects in the polysaccharide components of the cell wall suggested that these detected differences could be applied to differentiate irradiated from unirradiated tomatoes and potatoes. Some work done to determine changes in the cell wall polysaccharides of gamma-irradiated potatoes and tomatoes and to relate these changes to some other factors, such as storage time and vegetable variety, is reported here. While significant differences have been found in the optical densities of the total polysaccharides of the cell wall as a function of irradiation and of the other variables mentioned, it is not yet possible to use these values as a means of reliable differentiation. (author)

  14. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

    Marcella L. dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  15. Double-radionuclide autoradiographic method using N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine for sequential measurements of local cerebral blood flow

    Obrenovitch, T.P.; Clayton, C.B.; Strong, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A double-radionuclide autoradiographic method has been assessed for sequential determinations of local CBF (LCBF). It is based on two successive intravascular injections of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labelled with different radionuclides, whose concentrations can later be differentiated in the same tissue section using double-radionuclide autoradiography. Previous studies suggested that the distribution of IMP, up to 30 min after its administration, still represents LCBFs. Our data indicate that, provided the tracer is injected directly into the left ventricle, there is little back diffusion from normal brain to blood under physiological conditions for at least 35 min following the tracer injection and an injection of unlabelled IMP, in a dose larger than that used for blood flow determination, does not displace any labelled IMP previously taken up by the brain, nor does it displace any labelled IMP previously accumulated in the lung that would lead to secondary brain uptake. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sequential autoradiographic determinations of LCBF using IMP labelled with different radionuclides is possible. This is a promising experimental method for the simultaneous investigation of changes in LCBF in several CNS structures

  16. Implementation of different histochemical methods in diagnostics of brain Aspergillosis in turkey chicks

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    histochemical methods, in addition to isolation.

  17. Immunohistochemical, lectin histochemical and ultrastructural studies of canine transmissible venereal tumor in Brazil

    Mariana B. Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT is a naturally occurring contagious round-cell neoplasia, with poorly understood origin and transmission. This study aims to further investigate the tumor nature through immunohistochemistry, lectin histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis, and to provide support for diagnostic and differential diagnoses of CTVT. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 10 genital and six exclusively extragenital tumors, which were previously diagnosed by citology and histopathology. CTVT samples were incubated with biotinylated antibodies to specific membrane and cytoplasmic antigens (anti-lysozyme, anti-macrophage, anti-vimentin, anti-CD18, monoclonal anti-CD117, monoclonal anti-CD3, polyclonal anti-CD117, polyclonal CD3 and anti-CD79a, followed by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique. The lectins Con A, DBA, SBA, PNA, UEA-1, WGA, sWGA, GSL, JSA, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E and RCA were additionally tested in four genital CTVTs and TEM was performed in eight genital tumors. The anti-vimentin antibody revealed strong immunoreactivity to neoplastic cells in all the assessed samples (16/16. The polyclonal anti-CD3 antibodies showed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in fourteen (14/16 and the polyclonal anti-CD117 in fifteen cases (15/16. There was no immunoreactivity to anti-lysozyme, anti-macrophage, anti-CD18, monoclonal anti-CD117, monoclonal anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies. At lectin histochemistry, it was observed strong staining of tumor cells to Con-A, PHA-L and RCA. There was no histopathological and immunoreactivity differences between genital and extragenital CTVTs. These findings do not support the hypothesis of histiocytic origin of CTVT. In contrast, the lectin histochemical results were similar to cells from lymphoid/myeloid origin.

  18. Porcine intestinal mast cells. Evaluation of different fixatives for histochemical staining techniques considering tissue shrinkage

    J. Rieger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Staining of mast cells (MCs, including porcine ones, is critically dependent upon the fixation and staining technique. In the pig, mucosal and submucosal MCs do not stain or stain only faintly after formalin fixation. Some fixation methods are particularly recommended for MC staining, for example the fixation with Carnoy or lead salts. Zinc salt fixation (ZSF has been reported to work excellently for the preservation of fixation-sensitive antigens. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable histological method for counting of MCs in the porcine intestinum. For this purpose, different tissue fixation and staining methods that also allow potential subsequent immunohistochemical investigations were evaluated in the porcine mucosa, as well as submucosa of small and large intestine. Tissues were fixed in Carnoy, lead acetate, lead nitrate, Zamboni and ZSF and stained subsequently with either polychromatic methylene blue, alcian blue or toluidine blue. For the first time our study reveals that ZSF, a heavy metal fixative, preserves metachromatic staining of porcine MCs. Zamboni fixation was not suitable for histochemical visualization of MCs in the pig intestine. All other tested fixatives were suitable. Alcian blue and toluidine blue co-stained intestinal goblet cells which made a prima facie identification of MCs difficult. The polychromatic methylene blue proved to be the optimal staining. In order to compare MC counting results of the different fixation methods, tissue shrinkage was taken into account. As even the same fixation caused shrinkage-differences between tissue from small and large intestine, different factors for each single fixation and intestinal localization had to be calculated. Tissue shrinkage varied between 19% and 57%, the highest tissue shrinkage was found after fixation with ZSF in the large intestine, the lowest one in the small intestine after lead acetate fixation. Our study emphasizes that MC counting results from

  19. Micromorphology and histochemical traits of staminal osmophores in Asphodelus aestivus Brot. flower

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies pertained to micromorphology of the surface of epidermis cells and histological traits of staminal filaments of Asphodelus aestivus Brot. flowers. The structure of the filaments was analyzed in a light microscope (LM using various histochemical techniques. The morphology of the surface of the epidermis of filaments was observed in scanning electron microscope (SEM. Filaments Asphodelus aestivus accrete together with the basal part of the abaxial surface with the leaves of perianth. Their lower, wider, and flattened part surrounds the ovary. The epidermis of the staminal osmophores creates papilliose cells and unicellular hairs of various sizes. In the uppermost part of these structures, round marks in the cuticle layer after the emission of discharge were observed with the SEM. The outside, convex wall of the isodiametric cells of the epidermis, papillae and hairs was significantly thicker from the remaining walls. It was covered with cuticle of different ornamentation. The cells that created papillae and hairs had a large, centrally located vacuole and a thin layer of cytoplasm with numerous small vacuoles as well as large, often lobed nuclei. In the protoplasts of these cells the presence of plastids and lipid droplets was noted. During the time of secretion of elicitor between the wall and cuticle of the epidermis cells, convex bubbles were formed, in which the secreted substance was accumulated. At the end of secretion, on the surface of papillae, hairs and other cells of the epidermis, irregularly protruding cuticle was observed. It was noted that the composition of staminal osmophores in the flowers of Asphodelus aestivus includes papillae, hairs and cells of the epidermis that do not form papillae.

  20. Collagen synthesis in rat gingiva during tooth movement

    Boisson, M.; Gianelly, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The response of the gingiva to an increased interdental space was studied by creating a diastema between the central incisors of rats and analyzing autoradiographically the incorporation of H3 proline in the gingiva to detect increased collagen production. In addition, conventional histologic methods were used to determine changes in the gingival architecture. The results indicate that the gingiva responds to an increased space in at least two ways. One is the production of more collagen fibers. The other involves the reorientation of the existing fibers in a horizontal plane as the gingival papilla becomes flattened

  1. Effect of irradiation on unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline in tracheal epithelium of rats

    Hahn, F.F.; Kennedy, R.; Brooks, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was determined in rat epithelium by autoradiographic techniques to determine the influence of prior irradiation on the ability of the cells to repair mutagenic damage induced by 4-nitroquionoline (4NQO). UDS was stimulated by in vitro exposure to 4NPO. However, prior whole-body irradiation of rats with either 50 or 300 rad did not alter the UDS induced by 4NQO. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that irradiation can induce DNA repair enzymes in respiratory tract epithelium. 5 references, 3 figures

  2. The effect of chronic ethanol on glutamate binding in human and rat brain

    Cummins, J.T.; Sack, M.; von Hungen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic techniques demonstrate that chronic alcohol administration causes a decrease in [ 3 H]-glutamate binding to hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. A 14% decrease in [ 3 H]-glutamate binding in the hippocampal CA 1 region is seen both in the rat after five days of ethanol administration and in postmortem hippocampal tissues from alcoholics. In the rat, 24 hr ethanol withdrawal values are intermediate between control and alcohol binding levels. There was no significant effect of ethanol on [ 3 H]-glutamate binding in the cortex or caudate

  3. Imaging of water distribution in the rat brain by activation autoradiography

    Kogure, K.; Kawashima, K.; Iwata, R.; Ido, T.

    1990-01-01

    Regional water distribution in the rat brain was obtained autoradiographically by activation analysis. The autoradiogram obtained for the normal rat brain showed high accumulation of water in the areas of sensory-motor cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdaloid cortex, whereas corpus callosum and internal capsule showed low water contents as expected. The estimated values of water content were 78.6 +/- 4.9 weight % for gray matter, and 73.5 +/- 4.9 weight % for white matter, respectively. The mean values of the water content were consistent with those obtained by a conventional drying-weighing method

  4. Metabolism and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT: a Comparison with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haeusler, Daniela; Wadsak, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Girschele, Friedrich; Sindelar, Karoline M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, Johanna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut; Kletter, Kurt; Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Since the late 1980s, cocaine analogues based on the phenyltropane structure, such as [{sup 11}C]CFT and [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT have been used for the imaging of the dopamine transporter. FE-CIT (fluoropropyl ester) and FP-CIT (N-fluoropropyl derivative) are further analogues. The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate and compare the metabolic stability of {beta}-CIT, FP-CIT and FE-CIT against carboxyl esterases and (2) evaluate selectivity of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT compared to [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT using autoradiography. Methods: In vitro enzymatic hydrolysis assays were performed using different concentrations of {beta}-CIT, FE-CIT and FP-CIT with constant concentrations of carboxyl esterase. Autoradiography was performed on coronal 20-{mu}m rat brain sections incubated with different radioactivity concentrations of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT or [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT and, additionally, with 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [serotonin transporter (SERT)] and nisoxetine [norepinephrine transporter (NET)] for blocking experiments. Results: In vitro assays showed Michaelis-Menten constants of 175 {mu}mol ({beta}-CIT), 183 {mu}mol (FE-CIT) and 521 {mu}mol (FP-CIT). Limiting velocities were 0.1005 {mu}mol/min ({beta}-CIT), 0.1418 {mu}mol/min (FE-CIT) and 0.1308 {mu}mol/min (FP-CIT). This indicates a significantly increased stability of FP-CIT, whereas carboxyl esterase stability of {beta}-CIT and FE-CIT showed no significant difference. Autoradiographic analyses revealed a good correlation between dopamine transporter (DAT)-rich regions and the uptake pattern of FE-CIT. Blocking experiments showed a higher DAT selectivity for [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT than for the other two tracers. Conclusion: We found that (1) the metabolic stability of FE-CIT was comparable to that of {beta}-CIT, whereas FP-CIT showed higher resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis; and (2) the overall uptake pattern of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT on

  5. Radioactive choline uptake in the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. A biochemical and autoradiographic study

    Veldsema-Currie, R.D.; van Marle, J.; Langemeijer, M.W.; Lind, A.; van Weeren-Kramer, J.

    1984-10-01

    When hemidiaphragms are stimulated via the phrenic nerve in the presence of 10 microM radioactive choline (Ch), the rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the endplate-rich area (EPA) is greater than that in the endplate-poor muscle (M). Ch uptake in the EPA is temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of 2.9 and an activation energy of 19.5 kcal/mol. It is inhibited in a Na+-depleted medium, in the absence of Ca2+, and by 10-20 microM hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) and it is not inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin even when the muscle is completely paralyzed. In the absence of stimulation the rate of uptake in the EPA is slightly, but not significantly, greater than in M. Using autoradiography, we find an enhanced amount of isotope in the nerve terminals and their immediate vicinities compared with the muscle fibres, in both stimulated and unstimulated hemidiaphragms. There is no enhanced uptake of isotope into the nerve terminals in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3. The uptake of isotope into the muscle is not altered by any of these treatments. There is a positive correlation between the initial rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the EPA and the amount of isotope in the nerve terminals (the mean corrected grain density above the nerve terminals). Without correcting for the large amount of diffusion that occurs, the ratio of the grain density above the synapses to that above the muscle fibres is 1.66 in tissue stimulated at 1 Hz, 1.04 in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3, and 1.31 in unstimulated tissues.

  6. Histochemical analysis of glycoconjugates in the skin of a catfish (arius tenuispinis, day).

    Al-Banaw, A; Kenngott, R; Al-Hassan, J M; Mehana, N; Sinowatz, F

    2010-02-01

    A histochemical study using conventional carbohydrate histochemistry (periodic-acid staining including diastase controls, alcian blue staining at pH 1 and 2.5) as well as using a battery of 14 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled lectins to identify glycoconjugates present in 10 different areas of the skin of a catfish (Arius tenuispinis) was carried out. The lectins used were: mannose-binding lectins (Con A, LCA and PSA), galactose-binding lectins (PNA, RCA), N-acetylgalactosamine-binding lectins (DBA, SBA, SJA and GSL I), N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectins (WGA and WGAs), fucose-binding lectins (UEA) and lectins which bind to complex carbohydrate configurations (PHA E, PHA L). Conventional glycoconjugate staining (PAS staining, alcian blue at pH 1 and 2.5) showed that the mucous goblet cells contain a considerable amount of glycoconjugates in all locations of the skin, whereas the other unicellular gland type, the club cells, lacked these glycoconjugates. The glycoproteins found in goblet cells are neutral and therefore stain magenta when subjected to PAS staining. Alcian blue staining indicating acid glycoproteins was distinctly positive at pH 1, but gave only a comparable staining at pH 2.5. The mucus of the goblet cells therefore also contains acid glycoproteins rich in sulphate groups. Using FITC-labelled lectins, the carbohydrate composition of the glycoproteins of goblet cells could be more fully characterized. A distinct staining of the mucus of goblet cells was found with the mannose-binding lectins LCA and PSA; the galactosamine-binding lectins DBA, SBA and GLS I; the glucosamine-binding lectin WGA; and PHA E which stains glycoproteins with complex carbohydrate configurations. No reaction occurred with the fucose-binding lectin UEA and the sialic acid-specific lectin SNA. In addition, the galactose-binding lectins PNA and RCA showed only a weak or completely negative staining of the mucus in the goblet cells. The specificity of the lectin staining

  7. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J. (Neuropatologia, Depto. Anatomia Patologica, C.S. ' Principes de Espana' , Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses.

  8. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J.

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses. (author)

  9. Can cadaverous pollution from environmental lead misguide to false positive results in the histochemical determination of gunshot residues? Study on cadaveric skin samples.

    Boracchi, Michele; Andreola, Salvatore; Collini, Federica; Gentile, Guendalina; Maciocco, Francesca; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Histochemical determination of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) raises the question of possible environmental contamination by heavy metals. Authors assess the specificity of the Sodium Rhodizonate Test in the search of lead derived from environmental pollution. Sodium Rhodizonate Test and 5% HCl Sodium Rhodizonate test were applied to skin samples taken from two groups of victims, whose cause of death was not related to gunshot wounds: group A included 25 corpses found in open spaces after a long time; group B included 16 corpses exhumed after a period of 11 years. The use of these histochemical tests to skin samples from these two groups did not show metal debris histochemically similar to the lead present in GSR. These tests were confirmed to be specific in highlighting the GSR coming from gunshot, without being affected by the potential environmental contamination of the heavy metal pollutants, coming from air or soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  11. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Brandao, P.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author) [pt

  12. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  13. Quantification of the histochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase activity using the indoxyl-tetranitro BT method

    van Noorden, C. J.; Jonges, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    The indoxyl-tetranitro BT method for the demonstration of alkaline phosphatase activity has been optimized and its validity for quantitative histochemistry tested. The study has been performed with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating homogenate of rat liver and with cryostat sections

  14. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  15. Qualitative-feed-restricted heavy swine: meat quality and morpho-histochemical characteristics of muscle fibers

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of qualitative feed restriction (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% on pork quality and muscle morpho-histochemical characteristics, 60 castrated male swines were used. Ten animals were slaughtered at 89 kg BW. Other 50 pigs were fed experimental diets and slaughtered at 128 kg BW. Qualitative restriction increased pH45, and water holding capacity, and reduced the redness, yellowness and cholesterol concentrations of Longissimus lumborum. Quadratic tendency for oleic acid contents of loin and fiber cross-section area of Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 were observed, with maximum point at 11-12% of restriction. No effect (P>0.1 on percentage of M. dorsi fibers SO, FG and FOG was found. The meat from 128-kg-BW pig showed numerically higher values for colorness, water losses, and lipid content and lower shear force than 89-kg-BW pigs. Qualitative feed restriction for finishing swines neither affected negatively pork quality nor modified the muscle fiber profile.Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de restrição alimentar qualitative (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% sobre a qualidade da carne e características morfohistoquímicas musculares, sessenta suínos machos castrados foram utilizados. Dez suínos formaram o grupo abatido inicialmente (89 kg PV e outros 50 suínos foram alimentados com as dietas experimentais e foram abatidos aos 128 kg PV. A restrição qualitativa aumentou o pH45, e a capacidade de retenção de água, bem como reduziu a coloração vermelha e amarela, e o teor de colesterol do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Tendência quadrática para conteúdo de ácido oléico do lombo e da área de seção transversal do músculo Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 foram observada, com ponto de máxima em11-12% de restrição. Não foi encontrado efeito (P>0.1 na porcentagem de fibras SO, FG e FOG no músculo Multifidus. A carne dos animais abatidos aos 128 kg PV apresentou valores numericamente maiores para coloração, perda de

  16. Exploration of central dopamine D2 receptors by autoradiography, pathology and functional behaviour observation in rat model with experimental parkinsonism

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rat model with experimental parkinsonism mimic the course of human parkinsonism were made by cerebral-stereotaxic techniques. 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the D 2 receptors distribution by autoradiographic analysis of coronal brain section. In 6 parkinsonism model rats, on the lesioned side the striatum/frontal cortex ratio was 5.32 +- 0.37, it was significantly (P 125 I-IBZM as the ligand of D 2 receptor can well reflect the distribution and changes of D 2 receptors, and also as the theoretical basis for the clinical imaging diagnosis

  17. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  18. Selective retrograde transport of D-aspartate in spinal interneurons anc cortical neurons of rats

    Rustioni, A.; Cuenod, M.

    1982-01-01

    Retrograde labeling of neuronal elements in the brain and spinal cord has been investigated by autoradiographic techniques following injections of D-[ 3 H]aspartate (asp), [ 3 H]γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the medulla and spinal cord of rats. Twenty-four hours after D-[ 3 H]asp injections focused upon the cuneate nucleus, autoradiographic labeling is present over fibers in the pyramidal tract, internal capsule and over layer V pyramids in the forelimb representation of the sensorimotor cortex. After [ 3 H]GABA injections in the same nucleus no labeling attributable to retrograde translocation can be detected in spinal segments, brain stem or cortex. Conversely, injections of 30% HRP in the cuneate nucleus label neurons in several brain stem nuclei, in spinal gray and in layer V of the sensorimotor cortex. D-[ 3 H]Asp injections focused on the dorsal horn at cervical segments label a fraction of perikarya of the substantia gelatinosa and a sparser population of larger neurons in laminae IV to VI for a distance of 3-5 segments above and below the injection point. No brain stem neuronal perikarya appear labeled following spinal injections of D-[ 3 H]asp although autoradiographic grains overlie pyramidal tract fibers on the side contralateral to the injection. (Auth.)

  19. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared [ 125 I]PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of [ 125 I]NPY binding sites

  20. Autoradiographic assessment of [3H]proline uptake by neurons of epileptogenic mirror focus

    Khudoerkov, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptogenic mirror focus was produced in the left parietal area of the rat brain by cobalt implantation into the contralateral hemisphere. On the 14th day after cobalt implantation [ 3 H]proline was injected into both experimental and control rats (without cobalt). The incorporation of [ 3 H]proline in neurons of layers III and V of the parietal brain cortex and neurons of the nucleus lateralis thalami was investigated by the autoradiography technique. A statistically reliable increase in [ 3 H]proline uptake was observed in neurons of layer III (31%) and in neurons of layer V (41%) of the epileptogenic mirror focus. The other neuronal types revealed no reliable changes. The morphological and functional aspects of the altered protein metabolism during epileptogenesis are discussed. (author)

  1. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  2. Quantitation and histochemical localization of galectin-1 and galectin-1-reactive glycoconjugates in fetal development of bovine organs.

    Kaltner, H; Lips, K S; Reuter, G; Lippert, S; Sinowatz, F; Gabius, H J

    1997-10-01

    The display of cellular oligosaccharide chains is known to undergo marked developmental changes, as monitored histochemically with plant lectins. In conjunction with endogenous lectins respective ligand structures may have a functional role during fetal development. The assumption of a recognitive, functionally productive interplay prompts the study of the expression of a tissue lectin and of lectin-reactive glycoconjugates concomitantly. Focusing on common beta-galactosides as constituents of oligosaccharide chains and the predominant member of the family of galectins in mammals, namely galectin-1, the question therefore is addressed as to whether expression of lectin and lectin-reactive glycoconjugates exhibits alterations, assessed in three morphologically defined fetal stages and in adult bovine organs. Using a sandwich ELISA, the level of the rather ubiquitous galectin-1 is mostly increased in adult organs relative to respective fetal stages, except for the case of kidney. This developmental course is seen rather seldom, when the amounts of lectin-reactive glycoproteins or glycolipids are quantitated in solid-phase assays after tissue homogenization. Western blotting, combined with probing by labeled galectin-1, discloses primarily quantitative changes in the reactivity of individual glycoproteins. Performing the same assays on extract aliquots with a plant agglutinin, namely the galactoside-binding mistletoe lectin, whose fine specificity is different from galectin-1, its reduced extent of binding in solid-phase assays and the disparate profile of lectin-reactive glycoproteins reveal a non-uniform developmental alteration within the group of structural variants of beta-galactosides. Although sample preparation can affect ligand preservation and/or presentation and thus restricts the comparability of biochemical and histochemical results, especially for soluble reactants, the histochemical studies on frozen and paraffin-embedded sections of bovine heart

  3. Quantification of histochemical stains using whole slide imaging: development of a method and demonstration of its usefulness in laboratory quality control.

    Gray, Allan; Wright, Alex; Jackson, Pete; Hale, Mike; Treanor, Darren

    2015-03-01

    Histochemical staining of tissue is a fundamental technique in tissue diagnosis and research, but it suffers from significant variability. Efforts to address this include laboratory quality controls and quality assurance schemes, but these rely on subjective interpretation of stain quality, are laborious and have low reproducibility. We aimed (1) to develop a method for histochemical stain quantification using whole slide imaging and image analysis and (2) to demonstrate its usefulness in measuring staining variation. A method to quantify the individual stain components of histochemical stains on virtual slides was developed. It was evaluated for repeatability and reproducibility, then applied to control sections of an appendix to quantify H&E staining (H/E intensities and H:E ratio) between automated staining machines and to measure differences between six regional diagnostic laboratories. The method was validated with laboratories from 0.57 to 0.89. A simple method using whole slide imaging can be used to quantify and compare histochemical staining. This method could be deployed in routine quality assurance and quality control. Work is needed on whole slide imaging devices to improve reproducibility. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. IV: Cellular localization of androgen sensitive nonspecific esterase in the epididymis

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1981-01-01

    Nonspecific esterase of mouse epididymis has previously been studied histochemically, using alpha naphthyl-acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate techniques, as well as certain inhibitors. Epithelial cell types of the epididymis have been characterized, and certain esterase isozymes in a particular...

  5. Histochemical study on effects of low dose γ-irradiation on acid phosphatase in liver of the pigeons Columbus livia intermedia Strickland

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of total body γ-irradiation with sub-lethal dose (400 rads) on acid phosphatase have been studied in the liver of pigeon. The histochemical study showed increased activity of acid phosphatase in liver after 48 hr and 72 hr of irradiation. (author)

  6. Immunoassay of poliovirus antigens by single-radial-diffusion: development and characteristics of a sensitive autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) technique

    Schild, G.C.; Wood, J.M.; Minor, P.D.; Dandawate, C.N.; Magrath, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of polioviruses in single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) tests were investigated with a view to developing accurate and sensitive antigen assay systems. In direct SRD tests, the reactions were type-specific for polioviruses of types 1, 2 and 3 but the tests were of low sensitivity, being applicable only to the assay of virus concentrates. A novel autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) test was developed which increased the sensitivity of the SRD assay 40-to 100-fold. The ZE test was dependent upon the ability of unlabelled poliovirus to co-migrate with the radioactive marker virus and so enhance the zone size detected autoradiographically. The areas of the autoradiographic zones were directly proportional to the concentration of unlabelled antigen. The ZE test was capable of detecting poliovirus D antigens in amounts corresponding to 10sup(3.3) to 10sup(4.3) TCID 50 of infectious virus. Studies with poliovirus type 3 strains indicated that the ZE test was narrowly strain-specific for the D-antigen of poliovirus type 3 strains when homologous type 3 D-antigen was used as radioactive marker, but broadly cross-reactive for the D-antigen of type 3 viruses when heterologous poliovirus type 3 D-antigen was used as marker. (author)

  7. Autoradiographic detection of mutation to exotoxin-A resistance in mouse fibroblasts treated with ethyl methanesulfonate, X-rays and ultraviolet light

    Tiah, M.; Ronen, A.

    1989-01-01

    P. aeruginosa exotoxin-A (PE) blocks protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Toxin-resistant mutant cells can be detected autoradioraphically, in cultures grown on microscope coverslips in the presence of PE, and exposed to [ 3 H]leucine. The frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay in non-mutagenized cells of the established mouse cell line LTKA is 9.7 j 0.6 x 10 -5 . Upon treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), X-rays of ultraviolet (UV) light it increases in a dose-dependent fashion. The mutational nature of the resistance detected by the assay is indicated by its clonal inheritance, and by the dose-dependent increase in the frequency of resistant cells after utagenesis. On the basis of the high frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay, and their cross-resistance to diphteria toxin (DT), the authors suggest that the PE-resistant mutants detected by the autoradiographic assay are of class II, i.e., they are altered in the structural gene for EF-2. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Efeitos do esteróide anabólico nandrolona sobre o músculo sóleo de ratos submetidos a treinamento físico através de natação: estudo histológico, histoquímico e morfométrico Efectos del esteróide anabólico nandrolona sobre el músculo soleo de ratones sometidos a entrenamiento físico a través de natación: estudio histológico, histoquímico y morfométrico Effects of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the soleum muscle of rats submitted to physical training through swimming: histological, histochemical and morphometrical study

    José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho

    2006-10-01

    cuales recibieron inyección intramuscular del esteróide (5 mg/kg y 10 recibieron aceite mineral (5 mg/kg, dos veces por semana. Los animales fueron sometidos a 42 sesiones de natación durante nueve semanas (de lunes a viernes, con aumento progresivo de carga mediante el tiempo de natación. Después del sacrificio, el músculo soleo izquierdo fue retirado, colocado en n-hexana y acondicionado en nitrógeno líquido. Se hicieron cortes del tercio medio de ese músculo en micrótomo criostato (-20ºC y pigmentados por la técnica HE y por el método histoquímico NADH-TR. Los animales sometidos a entrenamiento físico y al esteróide (TA o aceite mineral (TO presentaron fibras musculares con mayor diámetro, cuando comparados con los animales control (NTA y NTO. No hubo diferencia significativa entre las medidas de los promedios de los diámetros de las fibras de los grupos NTA y NTO y entre TA y TO. En los Grupos TA y NTA se notó acentuado proceso de fagocitosis, redondeo y hialinización de las fibras musculares. Sin embargo, en los grupos TA, TO y NTA se observó pérdida de la actividad enzimática de oxidación. Los resultados sugieren que la natación produce hipertrofia muscular de forma semejante, tanto en el grupo que recibió esteróide como en el que recibió aceite mineral. A pesar de eso, el grupo que recibió esteróide presentó claras señales de mayor degeneración muscular.The objective of this study was to analyze the histological, histochemical and morphometrical alterations of the fibers from the soleum muscle of rats submitted to a swimming program, associated or not to the administration of the anabolic steroid decanoate of nandrolone. 22 male Wistar rats were used, 12 of which received a muscle injection of steroid (5 mg/kg and 10 received mineral oil (5 mg/kg, twice a week. The animals were submitted to 42 sessions of swimming during nine weeks (from Monday to Friday, with gradual load increase through the swimming time. After sacrifice, the

  9. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  10. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  11. A histochemical study of the posterior silk glands of Bombyx mori during metamorphosis from larvae to pupae using frozen sections.

    Kawamoto, K; Kawamoto, T; Shiba, H; Hosono, K

    2014-02-01

    The fine structures of the whole bodies and the posterior silk glands of Bombyx mori during metamorphosis from larvae to pupae in the cocoon were preserved virtually without damage when frozen sections were prepared using an adhesive plastic film. We used frozen sections for histochemical and enzyme histochemistry to characterize the metamorphosis of the posterior silk glands. Frozen sections were stained with DAPI to observe nuclear changes, examined using the TUNEL method to detect DNA fragments, and investigated using in situ hybridization to detect B. mori caspase expression. Both DNA fragments and expression of B. mori caspase increased with progressing metamorphosis. The degeneration of the posterior silk gland during metamorphosis appears to be an apoptotic event.

  12. Histochemical evidence for the relationship between peel damage and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in gamma-irradiated citrus fruit

    Riov, J.

    1975-01-01

    The first symptoms of radiation damage to citrus fruit were noted 24 to 48 hr after irradiation with 240 krad of gamma rays. At about the same time, radiation-damaged cells were observed in peel cross sections in the flavedo, the outer colored peel layers. The damaged cells were deformed and their protoplasts stained much darker with haematoxylin-safranin than protoplasts of intact cells. The cytoplasm in damaged cells either thickened at one side of the cell, sometimes filling up most of the cell space, or contracted into a small mass. Using several histochemical reagents, a considerable accumulation of phenolic compounds was found to occur in the damaged cells shortly after irradiation. No accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed in intact cells of irradiated fruit. It is suggested that the phenolic compounds which accumulate in flavedo cells following irradiation cause cell death and consequent peel necrosis (pitting). (author)

  13. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961); Methode.d'etude autoradiographique de substances marquees volatiles (1961)

    Cohen, Y; Wepierre, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 {mu} thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 {mu} section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C{sup 14}) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors) [French] Les methodes d'autoradiographies sur l'animal, proposees jusqu'a present, ne permettent pas de localiser de facon precise la distribution de molecules marquees volatiles. En effet, la methode de Ullberg (1954) que nous avons modifiee (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) necessite la dessiccation par le froid. La methode

  14. [Histochemical and histological investigations on the vagina of the beagle she-dog during various functional conditions (author's transl)].

    Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Günzel, P

    1975-01-01

    Histotopochemistry and histology of vaginal epithelium in female beagles were studied during oestrus, metoestrus-dioestrus, post partum period and at days 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 of pregnancy. During oestrus the epithelium is uniform throughout the whole vagina: it presents itself as a high, uncornified, stratified squamous epithelium with some glycogen and lipid droplets but devoid of leucocytes. The intercellular gaps of the stratum intermedium give strong reactions for ATPase and alkaline phosphatase. The activities of oxidoreductases studied decrease continuously from basal to apical. During gravidity, post partum period and metoestrus-dioestrus distinct morphological and histochemical differences can be stated between the cranial and caudal vaginal portions. Caudal vaginal epithelium outside oestrus remains of stratified squamous type. It exhibits strong mucification during pregnancy. The PAS-positive mucous substances prefer a position in the enlarged intercellular gaps of stratum intermedium and superficiale. During pregnancy the epithelium is relatively rich in acid and completely devoid of alkaline phosphatases. Outside oestrus the epithelium of the cranial vaginal region is a relatively flat, stratified columnar one and contains leucocytes with regularity. Also the cranial vaginal portion undergoes mucification during pregnancy with a maximum about day 33. The mucous material is situated intracellularly and not within the intercellular gaps. Further, larger intraepithelial mucus cysts are observed. Alkaline phosphatase is found during gravidity in the basal region and an adluminal border of the epithelium. The reactions for oxidoreductases are strongest in the columnar cell layer which shows more functional adaptations than the remainder of the epithelium. Histochemical tests for beta-D-glucuronidase and leucine aminopeptidase give negative results in the whole vagina during all different functional stages studied.

  15. Influence of intracerebral exposure to enriched uranium on neutron specific enolase and interleukin-1 β content in neonatal rats

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin; Zhu Lingli

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine biochemically the injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal rats. Methods: Neonatal rats were irradiated with single injection of 2 μl enriched uranium into the left lateral ventricle of the brain at postnatal day 1 ( 235 U, respectively. The micro-autoradiographic tracing was performed, somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters, and the neuron specific enolase (NSE) and interleukin-1 β(IL-1 β) levels in brains were determined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the neuronal nucleus, and autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and inter- cellular space. Neonatal rats showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of NSE, IL-1 β in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons showed a dose-dependent relationship that when the dose of irradiation was increased, the levels of NSE was decreased and the IL-1 β was increased. Conclusion: The nerve cell of developing brain of neonatal rats is sensitive, fragile and compensable to injurious effects of α-irradiation from enriched uranium

  16. Autoradiographic visualization on the role of central 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine in acupuncture analgesia

    Zhu Shoupeng; Shi Fuxi; Liu Zhonghao; Jiang Ji

    1990-10-01

    The role played by central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in electroacupuncture analgesia has been studied in rats by means of autoradiography with isotopic tracers 3 H-5-HT. The purpose of the study is to determine the localization of 3 H-5-HT in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. Parallel experiments were studied by freezing microautoradiographic method and histo-fixative microautoradiographic method. The analgesic effect of acupuncture can be enhanced or lowered by the increment or the decrement of the 5-HT level in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. The results show that when the rats were subjected to electro-acupuncture analgesia, the microautoradiographic intensities of 3 H-5-HT both in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the areas of mesencephalon aqueduct were significantly increased. It may be observed that the release of 5-HT in these regions of the brain is accelerated during acupuncture analgesia. From this it can be concluded that the midbrain raphe nuclei and the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as the periaquaeductal gray matter are closely related to acupuncture analgesia. The results imply that 5-HT in these areas may be one of the most important neurochemical agents mediating acupuncture analgesia

  17. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-ν-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man

  18. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin [Univ. of California Los Angeles, Dept. of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  19. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  20. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    Alfano, M C; Chasens, A I; Masi, C W [Block Periodontal Research Laboratories, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Dentistry, Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed.

  1. Autoradiographic study of the brain of the brambling (Fringilla montifringilla L.) after 3H-testosterone injection

    Luecke, J.; Haase, E.

    1980-01-01

    The topographic distribution of 3 H-testosterone and/or its metabolites in brains of brablings (Fringilla montifringilla L.) was studied autoradiographically and the intensity of labelling was estimated semiquantitatively. The highest accumulation of radioactivity was found in nuclei of the preoptic region and the hypothalamus. Cells of the nucleus preopticus medialis. Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and nucleus lateralis hypothalami posterioris showed medium or high intensity labelling, while cells of the nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus hypothalamicus anterior medialis, nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis, and the infundibular area contained low or medium concentrations of radioactivity. The role of these nuclei in the gonadal feedback on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, in the control of the annual reproductive cycle and as effective sites of testosterone on sexual behaviour are discussed. Moderate accumulations of radioactivity were also observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale of the telencephalon, the nucleus intercollicularis of the mesencephalon and the nucleus nervi hypoglossi of the medulla. These structures are known to influence bird song and other vocalisations. Low labelled cells were found in the periventricular zone of the neostriatum, in the lateral septum, and more irregularly in other areas. The pattern of distribution was similar to that in other birds. (author)

  2. Computer-assisted analyses of (/sup 14/C)2-DG autoradiographs employing a general purpose image processing system

    Porro, C; Biral, G P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisiologia Umana; Fonda, S; Baraldi, P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Lab. di Bioingegneria della Clinica Oculistica; Cavazzuti, M [Modena Univ. (Italy). Clinica Neurologica

    1984-09-01

    A general purpose image processing system is described including B/W TV camera, high resolution image processor and display system (TESAK VDC 501), computer (DEC PDP 11/23) and monochrome and color monitors. Images may be acquired from a microscope equipped with a TV camera or using the TV in direct viewing; the A/D converter and the image processor provides fast (40 ms) and precise (512x512 data points) digitization of TV signal with a 256 gray levels maximum resolution. Computer programs have been developed in order to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of autoradiographs obtained with the 2-DG method, which are written in FORTRAN and MACRO 11 Assembly Language. They include: (1) procedures designed to recognize errors in acquisition due to possible image shading and correct them via software; (2) routines suitable for qualitative analyses of the whole image or selected regions of it, providing the opportunity for pseudocolor coding, statistics, graphic overlays; (3) programs permitting the conversion of gray levels into metabolic rates of glucose utilization and the display of gray- or color-coded metabolic maps.

  3. An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate for the analyses of plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility

    Takasaki, Koji; Sagawa, Naoki; Kurosawa, Shigeyuki; Mizuniwa, Harumi

    2011-01-01

    An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate (IP) was developed to analyze plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility. The IPs were exposed to ten specimens having a single plutonium particle. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) images of the specimens were taken using a laser scanning machine. One relatively large spot induced by α-radioactivity from plutonium was observed in each PSL image. The plutonium-induced spots were discriminated by a threshold derived from background and the size of the spot. A good relationship between the PSL intensities of the spots and α-radioactivities measured using a radiation counter was obtained by least-square fitting, taking the fading effect into consideration. This method was applied to workplace monitoring in an actual uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. Plutonium contaminations were analyzed in ten other specimens having more than two plutonium spots. The α-radioactivities of plutonium contamination were derived from the PSL images and their relative errors were evaluated from exposure time. (author)

  4. An autoradiographic analysis of the cortical connections of the pallidal and cerebellar zones within the feline motor thalamus

    Wensel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The feline motor thalamus relays both basal ganglia and cerebellar inputs to the motor cortex. This complex is classically subdivided into three nuclei: the ventroanterior nucleus (VA), the ventrolateral nucleus (VL), and the ventromedial nucleus (VM). Poor correlation between recognized patterns of cortical and subcortical connectivity and traditional boundaries used to distinguish these nuclei complicate the elucidation of the role they play in the elaboration of motor behavior. The recent demonstration of complementarity for the pallidothalamic and dentatothalamic projections to the motor thalamus of the cat provided the foundation for a revision of these nuclear borders to reflect differences in subcortical connectivity. Using a revised topography, this study analyzed the afferent and efferent connections of the feline VA and VL through the application of both anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The extent of the cerebellothalamic projection, as revealed by the bidirectional transport of WGA-HRP, was used to demarcate the boundary between VA and VL. Injections of tritiated amino acids into VA and VL allowed for the autoradiographic tracing of their cortical projections. Autoradiography was also used to demonstrate the distributions of corticothalamic projections from selected pericruciate and posterior parietal subfields to the motor thalamus

  5. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    Alfano, M.C.; Chasens, A.I.; Masi, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed. (author)

  6. Autoradiographic localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites in human and guinea pig lung

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    125 I-Human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP) binding sites were localized in human and guinea pig lungs by an autoradiographic method. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments from slide-mounted sections of guinea pig lung displayed specific 125 I-hCGRP binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.72 +/- 0.05 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 133.4 +/- 5.6 fmol/mg protein. In both human and guinea pig lung, autoradiography revealed that CGRP binding sites were widely distributed, with particularly dense labeling over bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels of all sizes and alveolar walls. Airway smooth muscle and epithelium of large airways was sparsely labeled but no labeling was found over submucosal glands. This localization corresponds well to the reported pattern of CGRP-like immunoreactive innervation. The findings of localization of CGRP binding sites on bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels indicate that CGRP may be important in the regulation of airway and pulmonary blood flow

  7. The sensitivity testing of Wilms' tumors to cytostatic agents with an autoradiographic in vitro short-term test

    Willnow, U.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivity of 15 Wilms' tumors in children was tested towards cytostatic agents in vitro by means of an autoradiographic short-term test. Sensitivity was measured as the magnitude of the inhibition of 3 H-thymidine or 3 H-uridine incorporation. The test was performed with Adriamycin, Actinomycin D, Daunomycin, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Trenimon, and Arabinosylcytosine. None of the tumors is resistant to all substances, they are responsive against 2 or more drugs. The most effective drugs tested are Adriamycin, Actinomycin D and Cyclophosphamide. The tumors show a marked individual sensitivity pattern. This behavior is explained mainly by the usually high proliferative activity of Wilms' tumors. The possibilities and limits of long-term and short-term methods for sensitivity testing are discussed critically. For the evaluation of the results of in vitro testing and in vivo effectiveness the close correlation should be considered between the type of cytostatic agent and proliferation kinetics of the tumor, cytostatic agent and effect on tumor metabolism as well as the effect of the cytostatics and the nucleic acid precursors used for the short-term test. Despite the methodological limitations preclinical testing should be preferred to unselected chemotherapy. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic investigations on the prednisolone-induced atrophy and on interdependent reactions in different lymphatic tissues of rabbit

    Steigueber, F.

    1980-01-01

    Under the application of 3 H-thymidine the method of organ extirpation (thymectomy and appendectomy) was combined with the cell labeling technique. By autoradiographic evaluation of histologic specimens the content of labelled lymphocytes in the examined tissues was determined. Thymus, appendix, subcutaneous lymphatic nodes and spleen were examined. In the thymus the application of prednisolone induced organ atrophy. Appendectomy leads in the thymic marrow to an increase of the mitotic activity. In the appendix the application of prednisolone causes the emptying of basal lymphatic follicles. Thymectomy induces a large increase of the mitotic activity of the lymphatic tissue. Not all lymphatic nodes show identical changes after organ extirpation and after prednisolone application, but considerable differences. Only a decreased proliferation of labled lymphocytes, occuring under prednisolone application, can be detected in the marrow of the mesenteric lymphatic nodes and of the red splenic pulp in the animal with thymectomy. This result is also valid for the marrow of the remaining deep lymphatic nodes, after thymectomy and appendectomy. The lymphocyte counting in the peripheral blood done during prednisolone treatment, does not indicate that the lymphocyte values depend to a notable extent on the previous surgical treatment of the animals. (orig./MG) [de

  9. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    Karjalainen, S.; Soederling, E.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with ( 14 C)- or ( 3 H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm 2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  10. Autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    Karjalainen, S; Soederling, E [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (/sup 14/C)- or (/sup 3/H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm/sup 2/ in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen.

  11. The utilization of glutamine by the retina: an autoradiographic and metabolic study

    Voaden, M.J.; Lake, N.; Marshall, J.; Morjaria, B.

    1978-01-01

    The cells able to accumulate exogenously applied [ 3 H] glutamine in rat, cat, frog, pigeon and guinea pig retinas have been located by autoradiography, and the fate of the labelled glutamine, as regards its incorporation into aspartic, glutamic and γ-amino-butyric acids, followed for 60 min. The results support the notion of glutamine as a precursor of transmitter amino acids in some neurones. In particular, it would appear to be a source of a relatively stable pool of GABA which may be located, with species variation, in amacrine or ganglion cells. In the pigeon retina glutamate pool incorporates and retains a major percentage of the label, and perikarya in the middle of the inner nuclear layer of the tissue are predominantly labelled. (author)

  12. (/sup 3/H)Spiperone binding sites in brain: autoradiographic localization of multiple receptors

    Palacios, J M; Niehoff, D L; Kuhar, M J [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Spiperone ((/sup 3/H)SP) binding sites were localized by light microscopic autoradiography, after in vitro labelling. The kinetic and pharmacological characteristics of these binding sites were studied in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain, and optimal labeling conditions were defined. Autoradiograms were obtained by apposing emulsion-coated coverslips to labeled sections. Differential drug sensitivity allowed the selective displacement of (/sup 3/H)SP from dopamine receptors by ADTN, from serotonin receptors by cinanserin, from both by haloperidol and from unique spiperone sites by unlabeled spiperone. The various sites presented a differential anatomical localization. For example, only dopaminergic sites were found in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb; only serotonergic sites were found in lamina IV of the neocortex, and a high concentration of unique spiperone sites were found in parts of the hippocampus.

  13. Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of 14C-piracetam in the primate brain

    Ostrowski, J.; Keil, M.

    1978-01-01

    Autoradiography of the brain of the monkey Callithrix jacchus 2 and 6h after oral application of 200 mg 14 C-piracetam/kg (2-oxo-pyrrolidine-l-acetamide-2- 14 C) shows that the drug is preferably concentrated in the cortex of cerebrum and cerebellum. This specific affinity of piracetam which was observed earlier in dog and rats is thus confirmed in the primate and seems to be species independent. Besides the dominant cortical concentration there is a characteristic storage of piracetam in many nuclei of other brain areas, for instance, nucleus caudatus, hippocampus, n, anteriores thalami, n. dorsales thalami, corpus geniculatum laterale and mediale, corpora mamillaria, nucleus supraopticus, substantia grisea centralis, colliculi superiores and inferiores. Furthermore piracetam is stored in the blood vessel wall of the brain over 6h. The hypophysis and pineal body take up radioactivity intensively. (orig.) [de

  14. Utilization of glutamine by the retina: an autoradiographic and metabolic study

    Voaden, M J; Lake, N; Marshall, J; Morjaria, B [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (UK). Dept. of Visual Science

    1978-10-01

    The cells able to accumulate exogenously applied (/sup 3/H) glutamine in rat, cat, frog, pigeon and guinea pig retinas have been located by autoradiography, and the fate of the labelled glutamine, as regards its incorporation into aspartic, glutamic and ..gamma..-amino-butyric acids, followed for 60 min. The results support the notion of glutamine as a precursor of transmitter amino acids in some neurones. In particular, it would appear to be a source of a relatively stable pool of GABA which may be located, with species variation, in amacrine or ganglion cells. In the pigeon retina glutamate pool incorporates and retains a major percentage of the label, and perikarya in the middle of the inner nuclear layer of the tissue are predominantly labelled.

  15. The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain. 2

    Meaney, M.J.; Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report the results of an autoradiographic analysis of the postnatal development of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat brain. Quantitative analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a varied pattern of gradual development towards adult receptor concentrations during the second week of life. Receptor concentrations in the dentate gyrus increased dramatically between Days 9 and 15, while the changes during this period in the pyramidal layers of Ammon's horn seemed to reflect both structural changes in these regions as well as increases in receptor concentrations. (orig.)

  16. Phagocytosis of 131I labelled Salmonella typhymurium in splenic remnants. Experimental study in rats

    Rodrigues Junior, A.J.; Yamamuro, E.; Camargo, E.; Sato, M.; Rodrigues, C.J.; Birolini, D.; Manlio, B.S.; Oliveira, M.R. de

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: Group I - Normal animals; Group II - Animals submitted to total splenectomy with subsequent intraperitoneal splenic autotransplantion; Group III - Animals submitted to partial 50% splenectomy with subsequent autotransplantation of the removed fragment. After 40 weeks of close observation all animals were administred 70 Micro Ci of an 131 I - labelled ''Salmonella Typhymurium'' suspension. Twelve hours later all animals were sacrificed and a complete peritoneal cavity inventory was performed. Samples of both topic spleen and regenerated autotransplant were obtained, processed and autoradiographed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Fine structural observation on repair processes in experimental ulcer of the rat gastric mucosa

    Saito, Takiko

    1982-01-01

    Experimental stomach ulcer of the rat was produced by clamping method. Repair processes of the epithelial and glandular cells were examined by LM, SEM, TEM and autoradiograph with 3 H-thymidine at various times after removal of the clamp. The epithelial cells in the vicinity of the defect consisted of the surface cells with a few mucous granuls, parietal cells, endocrine cells and fibrillovesicular cells of Hammond and LaDuer during repair processes. The chief cells appeared after 12 days. After 5 weeks, the defect was completely covered with the epithelium. All kind of the epithelial cells except fibrillovesicular cells can incorporate thymidine precursor during regeneration. (author)

  18. Studies on the age-dependent proliferation kinetics of the epithelium of the rat small intestine

    Kranz, D.; Dietze, F.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    The small intestine of 244 Wistar rats, aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23, and 28 months, respectively. were investigated autoradiographically as to their age-dependent cell proliferation kinetics of the mucosal epithelial cells. There were age-dependent differences concerning the hourly regeneration ratio of the crypt cells and the migration velocity of the enterocytes. Both parameters became greater while the existing non growth fraction became smaller with increasing age. The non growth fraction seems to be a reserve being involved into the proliferating pool if required

  19. Morphological and histochemical changes in the brain stem in case of experimental hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage

    S. I. Tertishniy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of the extent of morphological changes and activity of biogenic amines (according to the intensity of luminescence in the neurons of the brain stem in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods and results. ICH was designed on 29 white rats of Vistar line by the administration of autologous blood in the cerebral hemisphere. It was revealed that increased luminescence intensity by 18.4±5.5% was registered in monoaminergic neurons in 1–6 hours after experimental ICH. After 12 hours – 1 day development of dislocation syndrome leads to mosaic focal ischemic neuronal injuries with maximum reduction in the level of catecholamines by 29.5±5.0% compared with control cases. Three–6 days after ICH on a background of selective neuronal necrosis in substantial number of neurons in the nuclei of the brainstem the level of catecholamines is significantly reduced. Conclusion. Disclosed observations reflect significant functional pathology of neurons responsible for the regulation of cardiorespiratory function and may underlie disturbances of integrative activity in the brain stem in general.

  20. Mast cells in the sheep, hedgehog and rat forebrain

    MICHALOUDI, HELEN C.; PAPADOPOULOS, GEORGIOS C.

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to reveal the distribution of various mast cell types in the forebrain of the adult sheep, hedgehog and rat. Based on their histochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics, mast cells were categorised as (1) connective tissue-type mast cells, staining metachromatically purple with the toluidine blue method, or pale red with the Alcian blue/safranin method, (2) mucosal-type or immature mast cells staining blue with the Alcian blue/safranin method and (3) serotonin immunopositive mast cells. All 3 types of brain mast cells in all species studied were located in both white and grey matter, often associated with intraparenchymal blood vessels. Their distribution pattern exhibited interspecies differences, while their number varied considerably not only between species but also between individuals of each species. A distributional left-right asymmetry, with more cells present on the left side, was observed in all species studied but it was most prominent in the sheep brain. In the sheep, mast cells were abundantly distributed in forebrain areas, while in the hedgehog and the rat forebrain, mast cells were less widely distributed and were relatively or substantially fewer in number respectively. A limited number of brain mast cells, in all 3 species, but primarily in the rat, were found to react both immunocytochemically to 5-HT antibody and histochemically with Alcian blue/safranin staining. PMID:10634696

  1. Glycine receptor: light microscopic autoradiographic localization with [3H]strychnine

    Zarbin, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Glycine receptors have been localized by autoradiography in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using [ 3 H]strychnine. The gross distribution of receptors is in excellent accord with the distribution determined by filtration binding assays. Specifically, the density of glycine receptors is greatest in the gray matter of the spinal cord and decreases progressively in regions more rostral in the neuraxis. Glycine receptors were found to be associated with both sensory and motor systems in the CNS. Moreover, there is a striking correlation between areas of high strychnine binding site density and areas in which glycine has been found to be electrophysiologically active. Finally, the anatomic localization of strychnine binding sites may help explain many of the signs and symptoms of strychnine ingestion. For example, individuals consuming subconvulsive doses of strychnine frequently experience altered cutaneous and auditory sensation. We have localized strychnine receptors in areas of the acoustic system known to influence discriminative aspects of audition and in areas of the spinal cord and trigeminal nuclei which modulate discriminative aspects of cutaneous sensation. The alteration of visceral functions (e.g., blood pressure and respiratory rate) associated with strychnine ingestion may be accounted for in a similar manner

  2. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of estradiol retention by cells in the preoptic area, hypothalamus and amygdala

    Morrell, J.I.; Krieger, M.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were done to compare quantitatively, on a cell-by-cell basis, estradiol retention by cells in the medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus, and the caudal half of the medial nucleus of the amygdala. The steroid autoradiograms were prepared from 2 μ sections of brains from overlectomized, adrenalectomized adult female rats that had been infused intravenously with [ 3 H] estradiol (E 2 ) in a regimen which kept circulating hormone concentration at or above proestrus levels for 3-4 h. Even in these brain regions, containing the most dense collections of E 2 -concentrating cells, a maximum of only 27-61% of the cells concentrated E 2 . Therefore, in these regions only a particular subset of the cells retain hormone; other cells in the region do not retain hormone. Frequency distribution histograms of the number of grains per cell versus the number of cells in each region showed a wide range in the amount of E 2 retained per cell, and no modes among E 2 -retaining cells. The data followed a distribution markedly different from that predicted by a simple Poisson distribution, confirming that E 2 -retention does not result from a random, passive process such as diffusion. The overall quantitative characteristics of the frequency distribution histograms were similar across the four brain areas. (orig./MG)

  3. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of [ 3 H]-3-methyl-histidine 2 -TRH ([ 3 H]-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS

  4. Curcumin reverses neurochemical, histological and immuno-histochemical alterations in the model of global brain ischemia

    Glaura Fernandes Teixeira de Alcântara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a curcuminoid from Curcuma longa, presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and, among pathological changes of cerebral ischemic injury, inflammation is an important one. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective action of curcumin, in a model of global ischemia. Male Wistar rats (sham-operated, ischemic untreated and ischemic treated with curcumin, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were anesthesized and their carotid arteries occluded, for 30 min. The SO group had the same procedure, except for carotid occlusion. In the 1st protocol, animals were treated 1 h before ischemia and 24 h later; and in the 2nd protocol, treatments began 1 h before ischemia, continuing for 7 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, animals were euthanized and measurements for striatal monoamines were performed, at the 1st and 7th days after ischemia, as well as histological and immunohistochemical assays in hippocampi. We showed in both protocols, depletions of DA and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA, in the ischemic group, but these effects were reversed by curcumin. Additionally, a decrease seen in 5-HT contents, 1 day after ischemia, was also reversed by curcumin. This reversion was not seen 7 days later. On the other hand, a decrease observed in NE levels, at the 7th day, was totally reversed by curcumin. Furthermore, curcumin treatments increased neuronal viability and attenuated the immunoreactivity for COX-2 and TNF-alpha, in the hippocampus in both protocols. We showed that curcumin exerts neuroprotective actions, in a model of brain ischemia that are probably related to its anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Autoradiographic studies and experiments on partical synchronization of human tumors, especially mammary carcinomas, in vitro and in vivo following xenotransplantation to NU/NU mice

    Nord, D.

    1980-01-01

    Human mammary carcinomes were evaluated radiographically in vitro in the native state. Penetration dephts up to 552 μm into the tissue were reached by the incubating medium. The labelling indices for the 3H-thymidine autoradiography lay between 1.5 and 19.3 percent. A correlation of the autoradiographic labelling indices with the findings of a simultaneously performed in vitro sensitivity test against cytostalics could not be proved. There seems to be a relation between the histomorphological tumour image and the proliferation behaviour expressed by the autoradiographic labelling index. Human mammary carcinomes were cultivated as xeno-transplant on thymus-aplastic NU/NU mice in parallel to this investigation. These heterotransplants show a remarkable correlation to the proliferation behaviour of the directly examined human tumours, after an autoradiographic in-vivo-labelling, with index values between 1.5 and 23.8 percent. This parallelism in the biological behaviour represents a further proof for the usefulness of the oncological test model of the NU/NU mouse as a carrier for human cacinomes. The application of this pre-therapeutical test model followed by determination of the synchronization behaviour of three human malignomas after xeno-transplantation onto NU/NU mice. For all three tumous an individual synchronization behaviour could be determined. Therapy attempts followed with cyclophosphonide or ionizing radiation by using the optimal cell-cycle therapy. Therefore an improvement of the therapeutical success by means of pre-therapeutical synchronization of human tumours can be reached in particular cases. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Autoradiographic observations of the induced vascular injuries by arachidonic acid in rabbit's brain and lung using 111In-oxine labeled platelets

    Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kuroiwa, Kyoko; Tanoue, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Hiroh.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiography using 111 In-oxine labeled autologous platelets was performed to observe the behavior of platelets in induced vascular injury by activated platelets in rabbit's brain and lung. Cerebrovascular injuries were induced by injection of arachidonic acid (AA) (0.7 mg/kg) into right internal carotid artery. Fourteen animals were pretreated with antiplatelet drug, ticlopidine (200 mg/kg) and 10 were controls. Before the AA injection, 111 In-oxine (300 μCi) labeled platelets were injected intravenously. Evans blue was given as a marker of disturbances of blood brain barrier. Sixty min after the AA injection, brains were removed and autoradiographic and electron microscopic studies were done. In the nontreated animals and some of the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was not suppressed, blue staining were seen in the cerebral hemisphere of injection side and hot radioactivity in autoradiogram were revealed in corresponding area. In the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was remarkably suppressed, no or slight blue staining or radioactivity were recognized. Only in hot radioactive area, platelet thrombi and vascular injuries were seen. Vascular injuries of lung were produced by decompression after keeping animals under hyperbalic condition (6 atomosphere absolute for 40 min). Before this procedure, 111 In-oxine labeled platelets were injected. Lungs of both 4 control and 4 decompression sickness animals were removed and autoradiographic and lightmicroscopic observations were performed. In lungs of decompression sickness animals remarkable spotty high radioactivity and prominent platelet aggregates in the vessels were seen. These findings were not seen in control animals. Our results suggested important roles of platelets in induced vascular injuries. And this autoradiographic approach seemed to be quite useful for observation of platelet's behavior in injured vessels and evaluation of antiplatelet drugs. (author)

  7. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array

  8. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in Petunia hybrida Hort. I. Localization of Ca2+ ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods.

    Bednarska, E; Butowt, R

    1994-01-01

    The localization of Ca2+ in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions from the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca2+ ions have been localized in the sporoderm and in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grain.

  9. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in 'Petunia hybrida Hor'. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca2+ ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R.

    1994-01-01

    The localization of Ca 2+ in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca 2+ ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs

  10. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in `Petunia hybrida Hor`. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca{sup 2+} ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R. [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The localization of Ca{sup 2+} in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca{sup 2+} ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs.

  11. The GABAA receptor complex in hepatic encephalopathy. Autoradiographic evidence for the presence of elevated levels of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Gammal, S.H.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Autoradiographic analysis was used to examine radioligand binding to benzodiazepine (BZ) and GABAA receptors in the brains of rabbits with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thin sections of whole brain from normal rabbits and rabbits with HE were mounted on slides and subdivided into two groups. One group was washed before incubation with radioligand, while the second group was not prewashed. (3H)Flunitrazepam binding to BZ receptors was decreased by 22% to 42% (p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, superior and inferior colliculi, and cerebellum of unwashed sections from rabbits with HE compared to all other groups. The binding of (3H)Ro 15-1788 to unwashed sections from rabbits with HE was reduced by a similar degree (18% to 37%, p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar cortex. Incubation of sections with the GABA-mimetic muscimol and NaCl produced an additional decrease in (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the cortex and hippocampus (25% to 31%, p less than 0.05) in unwashed HE rabbit brain, but increased radioligand binding (27% to 71%, p less than 0.05) to several regions in control rabbits. No changes in radioligand binding to either GABAA or peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed between HE and control rabbit sections. These findings are consistent with previous electrophysiologic and neurochemical observations indicating no significant changes in either the function or density of GABAA or BZ receptors in this model of HE. Further, they indicate that a reversible BZ receptor ligand with agonist properties is present in the brain in HE. This substance may contribute to the enhancement of GABAergic tone observed in this syndrome.

  12. Partial characterization of insulin-like growth factor I in primary human lung cancers using immunohistochemical and receptor autoradiographic techniques

    Shigematsu, K.; Kataoka, Y.; Kamio, T.; Kurihara, M.; Niwa, M.; Tsuchiyama, H.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated primary human lung cancers resected surgically or obtained at autopsy. Included were squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) (five cases), adenocarcinoma (ADC) (six cases), large cell carcinoma (LCC) (four cases), and small cell carcinoma (SCC) (two cases). The objective of the study was to search for the presence of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-like immunoreactivity using immunohistochemical staining and for the localization of IGF-I binding sites, using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiographic techniques. IGF-I-like immunostaining was present in all cases of SQC, ADC, and LCC, but not in cases of SCC. Strong immunostaining was observed in cases of SQC. On the other hand, ADC and LCC tissues showed a moderate or weak staining. Specific binding sites for IGF-I were present in all cases of SQC, ADC, LCC, and SCC examined. High densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites were localized in cases of SQC and SCC. Low to high densities of the binding sites were found in LCC. Cases of ADC showed low densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites. Specific binding obtained at a concentration of 80 pM 125I-IGF-I was competitively displaced by unlabeled IGF-I, with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 1.84 +/- 0.31 x 10(-10) mol, whereas human insulin was much less potent in displacing the binding. This specificity profile is consistent with characteristics of IGF-I receptors. Scatchard analysis showed the presence of a single class of high affinity binding sites for IGF-I, with a Kd of approximately 1 nmol. Thus, the possibility that IGF-I may play a role in the growth of human lung cancers would have to be considered

  13. Differential effects of axotomy on immature and mature hamster facial neurons: a tritiated-uridine autoradiographic study

    Jones, K.J.; LaVelle, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, tritiated-uridine incorporation was autoradiographically examined following axotomy of hamster facial motor neurons (HFMN) at the critical development age of 15 days postnatal and in the adult. The postoperative times selected were 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 days. In the 15-day operative series, no changes in incorporation were observed at any of the postoperative times, except at 4 days postoperative, when there was a decrease in tritiated-uridine incorporation in the axotomized neurons relative to the controls. In the adult operative series there were no changes in incorporation at 0.5 or 1 day postoperative, relative to the controls. At 2 days postoperative in the adult, there was a transient increase in tritiated-uridine incorporation that returned to control levels by 4 days postoperative. When axotomized and control cytoplasmic/nuclear grain densities were compared, no changes were found in either operative series. These results of the time course of axotomy-induced changes in RNA synthesis in HFMN corroborate our previous findings of an age-dependent reactive sequence in HFMN and lend support to the hypothesis that the young neurons are synthesizing at peak capacity related to final growth and cannot be stimulated further by axotomy. As discussed, the transient increase in RNA levels in the adult, the lack of any changes in the rate of transfer of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and the decrease in RNA levels in the 15-day neurons may be related to the presence of an unusual intranucleolar body within the nucleolus of HFMN that contains ribosomal precursors

  14. Classification of 27 Tumor-Associated Antigens by Histochemical Analysis of 36 Freshly Resected Lung Cancer Tissues

    Gene Kurosawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we identified 29 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and isolated 488 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that specifically bind to one of the 29 TAAs. In the present study, we performed histochemical analysis of 36 freshly resected lung cancer tissues by using 60 mAbs against 27 TAAs. Comparison of the staining patterns of tumor cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and normal pulmonary alveolus cells and interalveolar septum allowed us to determine the type and location of cells that express target molecules, as well as the degree of expression. The patterns were classified into 7 categories. While multiple Abs were used against certain TAAs, the differences observed among them should be derived from differences in the binding activity and/or the epitope. Thus, such data indicate the versatility of respective clones as anti-cancer drugs. Although the information obtained was limited to the lung and bronchial tube, bronchial epithelial cells represent normal growing cells, and therefore, the data are informative. The results indicate that 9 of the 27 TAAs are suitable targets for therapeutic Abs. These 9 Ags include EGFR, HER2, TfR, and integrin α6β4. Based on our findings, a pharmaceutical company has started to develop anti-cancer drugs by using Abs to TfR and integrin α6β4. HGFR, PTP-LAR, CD147, CDCP1, and integrin αvβ3 are also appropriate targets for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Histochemical response of `Grande naine' plants inoculated with M. fijiensis and Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 cell free filtrate

    Eilyn Mena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interest has won biocontrol Mycosphaerella fijiensis with the use of microorganisms or their products. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the biochemical events involved in Musa- M. fijiensis-microorganism interaction, is still limited. The objective was to determine the histochemical response of `Grande naine' (Musa AAA plants inoculated or not with the pathogen in the presence of culture filtrate of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5. For this, techniques that allow visualization of callose, superoxide anion, lignin and phenolic compounds in the early days post inoculation (dpi were used. As a result, at 6 dpi callose deposition were observed within the stomata in plants where the culture filtrate was applied regardless of the presence or absence of the pathogen. Furthermore, a blue halo was observed around stomas, indicative of the presence of superoxide anion. It was not possible to detect accumulation of lignin or phenolic compounds with the technique used. It was demonstrated the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to defense response of `Grande naine' plants to pathogen infection. Furthermore, it was shown that the plant responds in early infection with the use of bacterial culture filtrates. These results demonstrate the possible mechanism of induction of defense response in plants of Musa sp. in the presence of bacterial culture filtrate. Key words: Black Sigatoka, callose, lignin, phenols, superoxide anion

  16. Structural determination and histochemical localization of ghrelin in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takafumi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2004-08-01

    We purified ghrelin peptide and determined the cDNA sequence encoding the precursor protein from the stomach of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. The Trachemys ghrelin is comprised of 25-amino acids and has the sequence GSSFLSPEYQNTQQRKDPKKHTKLN. The third serine residue was modified by n-octanoic (C8:0), decanoic (C10:0) or unsaturated decanoic acid (C10:1). The carboxyl-terminal end of the peptide was not amidated, as seen in the ghrelins of other land vertebrates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of gene expression in the stomach and moderate levels in the large intestine and pancreas. Histochemical studies of turtle stomach revealed that ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells, which were small and round, were observed in the mucosal layer of the stomach but not in the myenteric plexus, and ghrelin-mRNA-expressing (ghrelin-ex) cells detected by in situ hybridization were scattered in a similar distribution as ghrelin-ip cells. These results indicate that ghrelin is present in reptiles.

  17. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' uterine tubes from the mothers with pregnancy complications.

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material of the research includes uterine tubes of foetuses, that were dead on the gestational term between 21 and 41 weeks. According to peculiarities in the pregnancy course this material was divided into groups: foetuses from mothers with physiological pregnancy; foetuses from mothers. whose pregnancy takes its course on the background of the PE with different stages of the severity; and, finally, foetuses from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by the chronic infection of lower genital tracts. Research methods: macroscopic, histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical. It was shown an excessive proliferation of the connective tissue in all structural components, in the composition of which prevails an immature collagen of the III type. It was also increased a production of the endothelin-1 by the vascular component of organs. In addition, it was defined an oppression of the functional activity of epithelial component by mucosa, which was expressed like decreasing of the hormonal activity of the the organ and increasing of the manifestation stage of apoptosis changes.

  18. Histochemical location of key enzyme activities involved in receptivity and self-incompatibility in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    Serrano, Irene; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-12-01

    Stigma-surface and style enzymes are important for pollen reception, selection and germination. This report deals with the histochemical location of the activity of four basic types of enzyme involved in these processes in the olive (Olea europaea L.). The detection of peroxidase, esterase and acid-phosphatase activities at the surface of the stigma provided evidence of early receptivity in olive pistils. The stigma maintained its receptivity until the arrival of pollen. Acid-phosphatase activity appeared in the style at the moment of anthesis and continued until the fertilization of the ovule. RNase activity was detected in the extracellular matrix of the styles of flowers just before pollination and became especially evident in pistils after self-pollination. This activity gradually decreased until it practically disappeared in more advanced stages. RNase activity was also detected in pollen tubes growing in pollinated pistils and appeared after in vitro germination in the presence of self-incompatible pistils. These findings suggest that RNases may well be involved in intraspecific pollen rejection in olive flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that evidence of enzyme activity in stigma receptivity and pollen selection has been described in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875, (Characiformes: Anostomidae: An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

    Marcella L. Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tracts of 44 specimens of Schizodon knerii were studied using anatomical, histological and histochemical techniques. The mouth has terminal position, the lip epithelium is squamous stratified with mucous, claviform cells and taste buds, teeth have an incisive form and the tongue has a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The oropharynx cavity is formed by gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth. The oesophagus presented pleated mucosa, a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells, oesophageal glands and taste buds. The stomach presented cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions, simple prismatic epithelium with tubular glands, with none in the pyloric region. The intestine contains 11-15 pyloric caeca, a simple prismatic epithelium with brush border, goblet cells and lymphocytes. Mucosal cells, oesophageal glands and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. Gastric prismatic cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, but only those in the pyloric region reacted positively to Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. The results improve the understanding of the anatomy of S. knerii feeding habits and the presence of mucosubstances in the epithelium, highlights the importance of glycoproteins for passing food through the digestive tract.

  20. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques.

    Baskin, Denis G

    2015-08-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effects of low doses of gamma radiation on DNA synthesis in the developing rat brain

    Cerda, H.

    1983-01-01

    Rats of one or ten days of age were irradiated with low doses of gamma radiation, and synthesis of DNA was examined by the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine in the cerebellum and the rest of the brain in vivo. DNA synthesis was depressed in both parts of the brain but the effects were larger in cerebellum. A minimum was found about 10 hours after irradiation in the older rats and later (18 h) in the younger ones. The dose response in 10 day-old rats, was biphasic and showed that cerebellum was more affected. Autoradiographs showed that fewer cells entered the cycle and those synthesizing showed a depressed rate of synthesis. These findings are discussed in relation to induction of cell death. (Auth.)

  2. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  3. Autoradiography after incubation of tissue slices in 111 In-pentetreotide. Demonstration of the feasibility of the technique on rat brain slices. Application in two cases of human renal cell carcinoma

    Montravers, F.; Allard, S.; Fouret, P.; Daty, N.; Talbot, J.N.; Bernaudin, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a macroscopic autoradiographic technique using 111 In-pentetreotide after in vitro incubation of the slices. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated by the actual labeling of the deeper layers of the rat cerebral cortex, corresponding to the known cerebral distribution of somatostatin subtype 2 receptor. This technique has subsequently been applied in two of human renal cell carcinoma and has proven the presence of somatostatin receptors in both tumours. In one of these cases, a preoperative scintigraphy using 111 In-pentetreotide showed the absence of tumour visualization. The mechanism proposed to explain this discrepancy between scintigraphic and autoradiographic results is a lack of accessibility of the somatostatin analog to the receptor in case of voluminous renal tumour. (authors). 19 refs., 2 figs

  4. Methylmercury intoxication and histochemical demonstration of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the striate cortex of adult cats

    R.B. Oliveira

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of methylmercury (MeHg on histochemical demonstration of the NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity in the striate cortex were studied in 4 adult cats. Two animals were used as control. The contaminated animals received 50 ml milk containing 0.42 µg MeHg and 100 g fish containing 0.03 µg MeHg daily for 2 months. The level of MeHg in area 17 of intoxicated animals was 3.2 µg/g wet weight brain tissue. Two cats were perfused 24 h after the last dose (group 1 and the other animals were perfused 6 months later (group 2. After microtomy, sections were processed for NADPHd histochemistry procedures using the malic enzyme method. Dendritic branch counts were performed from camera lucida drawings for control and intoxicated animals (N = 80. Average, standard deviation and Student t-test were calculated for each data group. The concentrations of mercury (Hg in milk, fish and brain tissue were measured by acid digestion of samples, followed by reduction of total Hg in the digested sample to metallic Hg using stannous chloride followed by atomic fluorescence analysis. Only group 2 revealed a reduction of the neuropil enzyme activity and morphometric analysis showed a reduction in dendritic field area and in the number of distal dendrite branches of the NADPHd neurons in the white matter (P<0.05. These results suggest that NADPHd neurons in the white matter are more vulnerable to the long-term effects of MeHg than NADPHd neurons in the gray matter.

  5. Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea.

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Chand, Ramesh; Navathe, Sudhir; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-09-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Qualitative analysis of connective tissue stroma in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study

    Smitha Kullage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of oral cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease morbidity and mortality. Tumor stroma plays a critical role during carcinogenesis. There is lack of information regarding the characteristics of the stroma in relation to the invading malignant epithelial cells and the interdependence between stroma and tumor cells in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the nature of stroma in the vicinity of invading tumor islands in different grades of OSCC, using a histochemical technique picrosirius-polarization method. The present study also evaluated and correlated the possible role of inflammatory response in determining the nature of the stroma. Subjects and Methods: The study included thirty cases of different grades of histologically diagnosed OSCC and ten sections of normal buccal mucosa as a control group. Nature of collagen was analyzed using picrosirius-polarization method, and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltrate was recorded using ImageJ software (1.42q, NIH, USA. The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Normal oral mucosa showed predominantly reddish birefringence. All cases of well-differentiated OSCC showed reddish-orange color. Nearly 70% moderately differentiated cases showed yellowish-orange (YO and 60% of poorly differentiated cases, showed greenish-yellow (GY. The mean inflammatory cell count was highest in well-differentiated group. There was shift to YO and GY collagen when the cell differentiation and inflammatory cell count decreased in moderate and poorly differentiated cases. Conclusion: Both inflammatory cells and tumor cells have a role in determining the nature of the collagen fibers in tumor stroma of OSCC, probably with opposing effects on stromal behavior and hence both are significant in predicting prognosis.

  7. Establishment of SHG-44 human glioma model in brain of wistar rat with stereotactic technique

    Hong Xinyu; Luo Yi'nan; Fu Shuanglin; Wang Zhanfeng; Bie Li; Cui Jiale

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish solid intracerebral human glioma model in Wistar rat with xenograft methods. Methods: The SHG-44 cells were injected into brain right caudate nucleus of previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rats with stereotactic technique. The MRI scans were performed at 1 week and 2 weeks later after implantation. After 2 weeks the rats were killed and pathological examination and immunohistologic stain for human GFAP were used. Results: The MRI scan after 1 week of implantation showed the glioma was growing, pathological histochemical examination demonstrated the tumor was glioma. Human GFAP stain was positive. The growth rate of glioma model was about 60%. Conclusion: Solid intracerebral human glioma model in previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rat is successfully established

  8. Comparative histochemical study of Bowen’s disease and actinic keratosis: preserved normal basal cells in Bowen’s disease

    H Ishida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of DNA-instability as revealed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytidine antibody after acid hydrolysis (DNA-instability test has been recently used as a marker of malignancy. This technique was applied to examine 17 skin tissue samples of Bowen’s disease, 47 of actinic keratosis, 15 of squamous cell carcinoma, 5 of seborrheic keratosis, and 10 of normal skin. All benign neoplastic cells of seborrheic keratosis and normal epidermal cells were negative. On the other hand, all cancer cells were positive with the DNA-instability test, indicating their malignancy, but all basal cells in Bowen’s disease were completely negative. Compatible with this result, the basal cells in Bowen’s disease were characteristically normal as evident in other histochemical examinations. Thus, they were negative with p53 immunohistochemistry, with normal signals of chromosome 17 in situ hybridisation and argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region, and showed slightly enhanced proliferative activity as revealed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining with 34 ß E12 (monoclonal antibody against cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14, which stains all normal epidermal keratinocytes including basal cells, showed that only the basal cells of Bowen’s disease stained strongly and homogeneously, while all cancer cells in the upper layers of Bowen’s disease and all layers of actinic keratosis were only sporadically or weakly stained. Staining with 34 ß B4 (monoclonal antibody against cytokeratin 1, which recognises the whole epidermis except for the basal layer in the normal epidermis, showed that the basal cells in the Bowen’s disease were completely negative, and lower layer cells in the actinic keratosis and upper layer cells in Bowen’s disease were only sporadically stained positive, although the superficial layer cells in actinic keratosis stained strongly and homogeneously. Our findings clearly

  9. Microscopic dose distribution around PuO2 particles in lungs of hamsters, rats and dogs

    Diel, J.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Syrian hamsters, Fischer-344 rats and Beagle dogs inhaled monodisperse aerosols of PuO 2 and were sacrificed 1 to 16 days after exposure. The microscopic distribution of dose and tissue-at-risk around individual particles in lung was studied using autoradiographs of the lungs. The dose pattern in dogs and rats was more diffuse than in hamsters, resulting in a calculation of about twice the tumor incidence in rats and dogs as in hamsters on the basis of dose pattern using the same dose-effect model for all three species. The tumorigenic effect of inhaled insoluble PuO 2 particles depends on the species inhaling the material; Syrian hamsters are much less susceptible than are rats or dogs. It has been suggested that a difference in dose distribution resulting from differences in particle distributions in the two species may contribute to the differences in susceptibility in Syrian hamsters and rats. The role of dose distribution in lung cancer production is explored in this study by measuring microscopic dose patterns in regions surrounding single PuO 2 particles in lung. The alveolar structures of the dog and rat are different than those of the hamster. Based on these measurements, particles of PuO 2 in lung are more likely to cause lung cancer in dogs and rats than in hamsters

  10. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  11. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with [32P]H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected by both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis

  12. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  13. Activation autoradiography: imaging and quantitative determination of endogenous and exogenous oxygen in the rat brain

    Kawashima, K.; Iwata, R.; Kogure, K.; Ohtomo, H.; Orihara, H.; Ido, T.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous oxygen in the rat brain were quantitatively determined using an autoradiographic technique. The oxygen images of frozen and dried rat brain sections were obtained as 18 F images by using the 16 O ( 3 He,p) 18 F reaction for endogenous 16 O images and the 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction for endogenous and exogenous 18 O images. These autoradiograms demonstrated the different distribution of oxygen between gray and white matter. These images also allowed differentiation of the individual structures of hippocampal formation, owing to the differing water content of the various structures. Local oxygen contents were quantitatively determined from autoradiograms of brain sections and standard sections with known oxygen contents. The estimated values were 75.6 +/- 4.6 wt% in gray matter and 72.2 +/- 4.0 wt% in white matter. The systematic error in the present method was estimated to be 4.9%

  14. The effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the development of rat cerebral cortex, (2)

    Matsushita, Koji

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of neuronal migration on developing rat cerebral cortex, we need a tissue culture system in which neuronal migration can be observed. We prepared a tissue culture system of embryonic rat cerebral cortex starting on embryonic day 16 and cultivating it for 48 hours. The autoradiographic study in this system revealed not only the migration of 3 H-thymidine labeled neurons but also neuronal migration delays from low doses of ionizing radiation of more than 10 cGy. In addition, on immunohistochemical study, cell-cell adhesion molecule N-CAM staining was remarkably decreased in the matrix cell layer. In the tissue culture system where monoclonal anti-N-CAM antibodies were added, neuronal migration delay comparable to that of 20 cGy radiation was found. In conclusion, it was speculated that neuronal migration delay might be caused by disturbed N-CAM synthesis in matrix cells after low dose ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. In vivo and in vitro study of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel

    White, B.A.; Deaton, T.G.; Bawden, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake patterns of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel were studied in vivo and in vitro. Autoradiographic methods were used that preclude loss or translocation of tracers associated with water-soluble compounds in the sections. In eight-day-old rats injected with the tracer, /sub 90/Sr uptake in the enamel was significantly less than for dentin and bone, particularly at early sacrifice times. The uptake pattern of 90Sr was somewhat different from that previously observed for /sub 45/Ca. The in vitro experiments indicated that the viable intact enamel organ limits uptake of /sub 90/Sr by enamel in both the secretory and maturation phases of enamel formation

  16. Macro-and micro-autoradiographic study in comparison with the incorporation of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism

    Zhu Shoupeng; Mei Shengping; Le Shangcheng

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe the incorporation level of 35 S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism. By the use of the macro-and micro-autoradiographic technique, the incorporation of 35 S-methionine by the tissues has been utilized as an index of various tissue protein synthesis. On this basis, the further experiments showed that tracer agent 35 S-methionine was dominantly incorporated in the immature cells of bone marrow and the tissue of liver, kidney and spleen. Its incorporation increased gradually with time. From the experimental results it can be concluded that a strong protein biosynthesis metabolism was produced in these tissues. While the tissues have important physiological function in organism, such as heart, lung and skeletal muscle, but the protein biosynthesis in those tissues was at a low level

  17. Autoradiographical in-vitro examination of the cell proliferation of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred areas under therapy with ultraviolet light: Photochemotherapy (PUVA) and selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP)

    Middendorf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of ultraviolet rays (PUVA, SUP) brought significant progress in the treatment of psoriasis. The goal of UV-irradiation is to normalise the epidermal growth conditions. The cell cycle of persisting psoriatic plaque in preferred areas was examined under therapy with PUVA and SUP using an autoradiographic in-vitro method, double labelling with 14 C- and 3 H-thymididin. The results were compared to the known cell-kinetic parameters of psoriasis. The values thus obtained confirm the characteristic changes in the cell cycle of psoriasis. Furthermore, there is a block within the DNA-synthesis phase in the plaques persisting under UV-therapy. The resistence of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred regions against UV-therapy is regarded as an indication of an extreme disturbance in the proliferation behaviour of the psoriatic skin. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Autoradiographic studies on nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells, 1. Relationship between nucleic acid synthesis of cancer cells and clinicopathological findings

    Inoue, K [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    The rate of nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells was studied autoradiographically and was compared with clinicopathological findings. 1) /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling index (TLI, mean 22.4%, n = 21) ranged from 6.2% to 39.5%. Mitotic index (mean 1.96%) ranged from 1.18% to 3.48%. 2) Average TLIs in the cancerous lesions with serosal invasion, in microscopical stages III and IV, in scirrhous type and in cancer cells locating in pm- and ss-layers showed lower values compared with the counterparts. 3) /sup 3/H-uridine labeling index (mean 92.7%) ranged from 75.0% to 99.8%.

  19. Autoradiographic studies on nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells, 2. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on nucleic acid synthesis of cancer cells

    Inoue, K [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Changes in nucleic acid synthesis of gastric cancer cells by oral administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated autoradiographically. 1) Average /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) in the administered group (31.8%, n = 13) was a significantly high value compared with that of the control group (22.4%, n = 21). This result is considered to show that the pharmacological effects of 5-FU appeared on the cancer cells by the clinical administration of 5-FU. 2) Increase in TLI of the administered group was also found in the advanced stages. However, the degree of its increase seemed to be higher in the early stages. 3) Average /sup 3/H-uridine labeling index (89.9%) was not different from that (92.7%) of control group.

  20. A two emulsion autoradiographic technique and the discriminating of the three different types of labelling after double labelling with 3H- and 14C-thymidine

    Schultze, B.; Maurer, W.; Hagenbusch, H.

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with a two emulsion autoradiographic technique for double labelling experiments with 3 H- and 14 C-thymidine which permits a clear discrimination of the different types of labelling. In the second part the application of this technique to cell kinetics studies is discussed. Accurate discrimination between the different types of labelling, namely purely 3 H-, purely 14 C- and double ( 3 H + 14 C) labelling, is only possible if the activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine is sufficiently high. This condition is necessary for a reliable distinction between those grains in the first emulsion which are due to true 3 H-labelling and spurious grains which are simultaneously produced in the same emulsion by 14 C-β- particles. Experiments are described to determine the required activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine. (author)

  1. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  2. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine effected significant increases in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS, and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS. In rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate, the effects of apomorphine upon local glucose utilization were less widespread and less marked than in conscious animals. The profound effects of chloral hydrate anesthesia upon local cerebral glucose use, and the modification by this anesthetic regime of the local metabolic responses to apomorphine, emphasize the difficulties which exists in the extrapolation of data from anesthetized animals to the conditions which prevail in the conscious animal.

  3. Exploration of D2 receptors and content of DA of striatum in hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after madopar treatment

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1998-01-01

    125 I-IBZM autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD were used to study the relationship between D 2 receptors and the content of DA, HVA, DOPAC in striatum of hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after Madopar treatment. After Madopar treatment, the striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio of lesioned side was 7.23 +- 0.67, showed 17.22 +- 3.94% increasing as compared to the contralateral side, the increasing were significantly declined compared with the pretreatment group and control group (P 2 receptors

  4. Effect of radon inhalations on certain oxyda-reductive enzymes in adrenols of white rats

    Robaczynski, J.; Kaplonska, J.; Lozinska, E.

    1974-01-01

    Histochemical investigations were carried out on adrenals of white rats after radon inhalations from inhalers in Swieradow-spa. Increased reactions of oxydo-reductive enzymes: NAD tetrazolium reductase, succinic dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were observed in the adrenal cortex, particularly in the zona reticularis which was hypertrophied. Raised activity of oxydo-reductive enzymes in the cells of adrenal cortex evidences increased metabolism in these cells which may reflect increased production of hormones. Finding of stimulation of adrenocortical cells after radon inhalations is of essential importance for explanation of the biological mechanism of action of radon used in balneotherapy. (author)

  5. Positive Foci of Glutathione S‐Transferase Placental Form in the Liver of Rats Given Furfural by Oral Administration

    Shimizu, Akio; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Harada, Masaoki; Ono, Tetsuo; Sato, Kiyomi; Inoue, Tohru; Kanisawa, Masayoshi

    1989-01-01

    We observed GST‐P‐positive liver foci in rats during the course of developing liver cirrhosis by oral administration of furfural, an organic solvent. Male Wistar rats were given furfural‐containing diet (20–30 rag/kg diet) for 15–150 days, and killed 14 days after terminating furfural feeding. Immuno‐histochemical investigation of GST‐P‐positive liver foci which appeared in rats fed furfural for more than 30 days revealed an increase in number and size of the foci in proportion to the duration of furfural administration. Since furfural is known not to be carcinogenic in rats, this finding will be helpful to understand the enhancing effect of furfural‐induced cirrhosis on chemical hepatocarcino‐genesis. PMID:2507483

  6. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin; Zhu Lingli

    2001-01-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium 235 U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 β (IL- β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells

  7. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    Guixiong, Gu; Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Shuqin, Yang; Lingli, Zhu [Suzhou Medical College, Suzhou (China)

    2001-04-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium {sup 235}U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 {beta} (IL- {beta}), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells.

  8. Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats

    Campion, D.R.; Shapira, J.F.; Allen, C.E.; Hausman, G.J.; Martin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the metabolic response to obesity and to pair feeding of obese Zucker rats to lean Zucker rats was similar across skeletal muscles. Oxidation of glucose, palmitate and isoleucine was studied in muscle strips in vitro using appropriate 14- carbon substrates as tracers. The plantaris muscle was subjected to histochemical analyses using an alkaline actomyosin ATPase, NADH-tetrazolium reductase and an oil red 0 stain. Soleus muscles from both ad libitum and pair fed obese rats oxidized less glucose to CO 2 , but released similar amounts of lactate when compared to the soleus muscles of lean rats. Oxidation of glucose was similar in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of ad libitum fed obese rats, but lower when pair fed to the intake of lean rats. No differences were apparent in palmitate oxidation to CO 2 or in incorporation into lipid, except in the EDL muscle of pair-fed obese rats which exhibited a higher rate for palmitate metabolism when compared with lean rats. Isoleucine oxidation to CO 2 was higher in the EDL and plantaris muscles, but similar in the soleus muscle of ad libitum-fed obese rats when compared with lean rats. The magnitude of the difference in isoleucine oxidation was similar when the obese rats were pair fed. No differences in the percentage of plantaris muscle fibers sensitive to alkaline ATPase staining were observed. The plantaris muscle of obese rats, contained a higher proportion of oxidative fibers. These results indicate the great risk in generalizing about metabolic activity of the whole skeletal muscle mass based on observations made on one, or even two, distinct muscles in this animal model. Also, pair feeding of obese to lean Zucker rats did not result in uniform change sin metabolism between muscles of the obese rats

  9. Pattern of labelling of the rat brain stem after intraventricular administration of 3H-leucine; low and high resolution autoradiographic study

    Jakoubek, B.; Jirmanova, I.; Soukup, T.; Krekule, I.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of labelling proteins of the periventricular grey matter was studied two hours after intraventricular administration of 3 H-leucine by low- and high-resolution autoradiography. The pattern was investigated by computer-controlled densitometry. The deposition of radioactive proteins in periventricular grey surrounding the mesencephalic part of the aquaeductus Sylvii was compared with that surrounding the fourth ventricle. In the former case, the distribution of grains was in a circular area 500 to 600 μm in diameter; the densitometric tracing revealed a homogeneous distribution of the label; in the latter case, the distribution was nonhomogeneous and was limited by the tissue components forming the wall of the fourth ventricle. A comparison of the intensity of labelling (performed by a combination of low- and high-resolution autoradiography) indicated relatively substantial labelling of proteins of ependymal cells, very sparce labelling of subependymal layers, and very high labelling of neurones adjacent to the subependymal layer. The significance of these findings for the interpretation of studies using intraventricular administration of labelled amino acids for investigating brain macromolecular metabolism is discussed. (author)

  10. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-labelled glycoproteins in 'light' and 'dark' neurons of different grisea of rat brain after intraventricular application of tritiated fucose

    Froehlich, J.; Rummelfaenger, H.; Pohle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The simultaneous demonstration of 3 H radioactivity and of 'light' and 'dark' neurons by histological staining revealed that the occurrence of 'light' and 'dark' neurons are morphological correlates of different activity stages of cell metabolism. In this connection it became evident that 'light' nerve cells incorporated significantly greater amounts of fucose and therefore should be regarded as metabolically more active. (author)

  11. The effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Grome, J J; McCulloch, J

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1 i.v.) upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals, although the magnitude of the reductions in glucose use displayed considerable regional heterogeneity. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use (by 40-60% from conscious levels) were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1) effected significant increased in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS (e.g., subthalamic nucleus, ventral thalamic nucleus, rostral neocortex, substantia nigra, pars reticulata), and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS (lateral habenular nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex).

  12. Study on developing brain damage of neonatal rats induced by enriched uranium

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Yang Shuqin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal Wistar pure bred rats were studied. Methods: The model of irradiation induced brain damage in vivo was settled. The effects of cerebrum exposure by 235 U on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by thirteen index determination of multiple parameters. The dynamic retention of autoradiographic tracks of 235 U in cells of developing brain was observed. The changes of NSE, IL-1β, SOD, and ET in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum after expose to 235 U were examined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The somatic growth such as increase of body weight and brain weight was lower significantly. The retardation of development was found such as eye opening, sensuous function as auditory startle, movement and coordination function and activity as swimming, physiological reflexes as negative geotaxis, surface righting, grasping reflex suspension and the tendency behavior. The data showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The micro-autoradiographic tracing showed that the tracks of 235 U were mainly accumulated in the nucleus of developing brain. At the same time only few tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. Experimental study showed that when the dose of 235 U irradiation was increased, the level of NSE was decreased and the IL-1β was increased. However, the results indicated that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of 235 U, and can be inhibited by the high dose. Conclusion: The behavior of internal irradiation from 235 U on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility and compensation in nervous cells

  13. Histochemical demonstration of mercury in the olfactory system of salmon (Salmo salar L.) following treatments with dietary methylmercuric chloride and dissolved mercuric chloride

    Baatrup, E; Døving, K B

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of organic and inorganic mercury compounds was studied histochemically in the salmon (Salmo salar L.) olfactory system. One group of salmon was given fodder pellets containing methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl, 99 micrograms Hg/g) for 4 weeks. Other groups of fish were exposed...... to dissolved mercuric chloride (HgCl2, 270 micrograms Hg/liter) for 2, 6, and 12 hr, respectively. In both series of experiments, the radioisotope 203Hg was included in order to determine the accumulation of mercury in the olfactory system. Gamma-spectrometry showed that both mercury compounds accumulated...... in the olfactory rosettes and their nerves. Tissue sections from the rosettes and olfactory nerves were subjected to autometallographic silver enhancement, thereby rendering mercury deposits visible for light and electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis demonstrated an intense and comprehensive Hg deposition...

  14. A lectin histochemical study on carbohydrate moieties of the gonadotropin-like substance in the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit of Branchiostoma belcheri

    Fang, Y. Q.; Welsch, U.

    1997-03-01

    The present light microscopic lectin, histochemical study suggests for the first time that the vertebrate gonadotropin-like substance in the basal part of the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit is a sialic acid-containing glycoprotein. The binding intensity of the epithelial cells in Hatschek's pit to 6 lectins ( Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA), Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) and Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I)) indicate that the carbohydrate composition of the gonadotrophic glycoprotein is similar to that of mammals and fish, and that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid, glucosamine, D-mannose and L-fucose are components of the carbohydrate portion.

  15. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly and Vitamin C against Experimental Hemolytic Anemia on Sex Hormones and Histochemical Testicle Tissue Histochemistry of Adult Mice

    H Anbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ is a well-known hemolytic compound inducing intoxication in erythrocytes. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of royal jelly and vitamin C against phenylhydrazine-induced damages in mouse testicles. Methods: In this study, 64 adult male mice were randomly and equally assigned to eight groups. The first group received normal saline (0.1ml intraperitoneally. The second group received PHZ (6 mg/100 gr intraperitoneally in 48-hour intervals. The third group received vitamin C (250 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally perday a long with PHZ. The fourth group received royal jelly (100 mg/kg/day through gavage. The fifth group received PHZ along with vitamin C and royal jelly in similar doses to the previous groups. The sixth group received only vitamin C, the seventh group recieved only royal jelly, and finally the eighth group received similar doses of vitamin C and royal jelly. After 35 days, serum and tissue samples were taken and used for histochemical (Mallory-Azan, Alkaline phosphatase, Oil red-O and PAS, and serum analyses (Testosterone, LH, FSH. Results: The study results revealed the histochemical changes in testicular tissue of the phenylhydrazine group, in which vitamin C and royal jelly partly improved the changes. Furthermore, serum analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in testosterone, FSH and LH levels, which this decrease was diminished by royal jelly and vitamin C. Conclusions: Royal jelly and vitamin C seem to have the potential to decrease serum and tissue damages induced by phenylhydrazine via restraining free radicals.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding site using t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB)

    O'Connor, L.H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    t-Butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB) has been shown to bind with high affinity to sites on or near the chloride ionophore in rat brain membrane preparations. The present study used in vitro quantitative autoradiography to localize the regional distribution of [ 3 H]TBOB binding sites in rat forebrain. Receptors were labelled with 10 nM [ 3 H]TBOB. Nonspecific binding was determined by adding 10 μM picrotoxin to the incubation. Autoradiograms were generated using LKB Ultrofilm and then quantitated using computer-assisted spot-densitometry. The highest specific binding was found in frontal cortex layer 4, islands of Calleja, and ventral palladium. High binding was also found in many regions including anterior hypothalamic n., ventromedial hypothalamic n., dentate gyrus, stratum oriens and stratum lacunosum moleculare of hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Nonspecific binding represented 5 to 15% of total binding and was uniformly low throughout all brain regions. Thus, this selective probe for GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding sites should provide a useful tool for characterizing this system and its relationship to convulsant and depressant drug action

  17. An autoradiographic study of the synthesis of nucleic acids and protein during the cell cycle of synchronously dividing antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris L

    Olszewska, M J; Godlewski, M [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein in successive mitotic cycles of the synchronously dividing antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris was studied autoradiographically. In all the generations examined, which enter the next mitosis, i.e., in the 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell generations, the synthesis of DNA begins as early as telephase and continues into the early stages of interphase. The telephase cells of the 32-cell filaments do not incorporate //sup 3/H/thymidine, because the cells which arise from them do not divide but are transformed into spermatozoa. The DNA synthesis is accompanied by intense synthesis of RNA. The intensity of radioactivity calculated for 100 ..mu../sup 2/ of the area of the nucleus and cytoplasm is similar in all the generations, whereas the radioactivity induced by the incorporation of /8-/sup 14/C/adenine and//sup 3/H/phenylalanine calculated for one cell decreases proportionally to the reduction of the volume of the cytoplasm and nucleus in successive generations. (auth)

  18. Interaction of 125I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. II. Autoradiographic evidence for its uptake into motor nerves by acceptor-mediated endocytosis

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Using pharmacological and autoradiographic techniques it has been shown that botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is translocated across the motor nerve terminal membrane to reach a postulated intraterminal target. In the present study, the nature of this uptake process was investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. It was found that internalization is acceptor-mediated and that binding to specific cell surface acceptors involves the heavier chain of the toxin. In addition, uptake was shown to be energy and temperature-dependent and to be accelerated by nerve stimulation, a treatment which also shortens the time course of the toxin-induced neuroparalysis. These results, together with the observation that silver grains were often associated with endocytic structures within the nerve terminal, suggested that acceptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for toxin uptake. Possible recycling of BoNT acceptors (an important aspect of acceptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins) at motor nerve terminals was indicated by comparing the extent of labeling in the presence and absence of metabolic inhibitors. On the basis of these collective results, it is concluded that BoNT is internalized by acceptor-mediated endocytosis and, hence, the data support the proposal that this toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine by interaction with an intracellular target

  19. Fate and role of macromolecules synthesized during mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation. II. - Autoradiographic topography of (/sup 3/H)-fucose incorporation in pig oocytes cultured in vitro

    Pivko, J. (Animal Production Research Institute, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)); Motlik, J. (Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Libechov (Czechoslovakia)); Kopecny, V. (University J.E. Purkyne, Brno (Czechoslovakia)); Flechon, J.E. (I.N.R.A., Station Centrale de Physiologie Animale, Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1982-01-01

    Pig oocytes in different maturational stages--germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII)- were cultured in vitro with (/sup 3/H)-fucose. The incorporation of the precursor was followed by LM or EM autoradiography on air-dried preparations and on semithin or thin sections. The cumulus cells connected with oocytes at the GV stage were intensely labelled, while the labelling of the cumulus of MI and MII oocytes was lower. The cytoplasm of oocytes in the GV stage was characterized by nests of silver grains located mainly in a juxtanuclear position. The accumulation of label in the cortical region, observed in oocytes cultured with an intact cumulus, was less evident in cumulus-deprived oocytes. Lower labelling of the ooplasm, together with uniform distribution of the grains, was observed in later stages of meiosis. EM autoradiographs demonstrated the main localization, at the GV stage, of label in the Golgi apparatus and near the cell surface of oocytes and cumulus cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of corona radiata cells. It is concluded that a relatively intense glycoprotein synthesis takes place in pig oocytes and cumulus cells during resumption of meiosis, at least before GV breakdown. Metabolic cooperation may occur as long as oocytes and cumulus cells keep membrane junctions.

  20. Autoradiographic evidence for methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic loss in mouse brain: attenuation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    Hirata, H; Ladenheim, B; Carlson, E; Epstein, C; Cadet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system of rodents. METH-induced neurotoxicity is thought to involve release of DA in presynaptic DA terminals, which is associated with increased formation of oxygen-based free radicals. We have recently shown that METH-induced striatal DA depletion is attenuated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express the human CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. That study did not specifically address the issue of loss of DA terminals. In the present study, we have used receptor autoradiographic studies of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled DA uptake sites to evaluate the effects of several doses of METH on striatal DA terminals of Non-Tg as well as of heterozygous and homozygous SOD-Tg mice. In Non-Tg mice, METH caused decreases in striatal DA uptake sites in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of DA terminals was more prominent in the lateral region than in the medial subdivisions of the striatum. In SOD-Tg mice, the loss of DA terminals caused by METH was attenuated in a gene dosage-dependent fashion, with the homozygous mice showing the greatest protection. Female mice were somewhat more resistant than male mice against these deleterious effects of METH. These results provide further evidence for a role of superoxide radicals in the long-term effects of METH. They also suggest the notion of a gender-specific handling of oxidative stress.

  1. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina

  2. Autoradiographic analysis of the in vivo distribution of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine in brain: Comparison to in vitro binding patterns

    Duncan, G.E.; Paul, I.A.; Fassberg, J.B.; Powell, K.R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Breese, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using high resolution autoradiographic techniques, the distribution of radioactivity in forebrain and brainstem was assessed after 4 injection of 3H-impramine or 3H-desipramine. Results were compared with regional binding of the drugs to brain sections in vitro. Similar topographic binding of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine was observed in vitro among brain regions, except in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus, where binding was greater for 3H-desipramine. For both 3H-desipramine and 3H-imipramine, some brain regions that exhibited high binding in vitro also showed high accumulation after in vivo injection. However, certain regions that contained high densities of binding sites for the antidepressant drugs as measured by in vitro binding showed very low accumulation of radioactivity after in vivo treatment. Such regions included the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, layer 1 of piriform cortex, caudate-putamen, pontine and midbrain central gray, and cerebellar granular layer. Compared to in vitro binding of the drugs, the distribution of imipramine and desipramine in vivo appears more anatomically selective. For imipramine, primary sites of action in vivo, as indicated by the topographic distribution in brain, appear to be the locus coeruleus, hippocampus, lateral septal nucleus, and amygdala. For desipramine, the greatest accumulation in vivo was found in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and anterior thalamic nuclei

  3. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  4. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  5. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and [3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5]enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids

  6. In vivo behavior of 111In-DTPA in rat and mouse after intra-ventricular administration

    Matsushima, Hiroaki; Kato, Makoto; Sugimura, Yukiharu; Hazue, Masaaki

    1977-01-01

    In vivo behavior of 111 In-DTPA in rat and mouse after intra-ventricular administration was studied. Thus, 50μCi and 35μCi of 111 In-DTPA was injected intraventricularly to rat and mouse respectively. At specific time intervals, the animals were sacrificed, then distribution in organs was determined by radioactivity counting and autoradiographic method. Urinary and fecal excretion were separately collected and excretion rates were estimated. Metabolites in urine of rat were examined with chromatography. A part of 111 In-DTPA injected intra-ventricularly to the animals migrated to subarachnoid space, then radioactivity in cerebrospinal fluid effused into blood with about 1 hr initial half-life. Blood clearance was also rapid, about 1 hr after administration the blood level reached maximum and then decreased showing an initial half-life of about 1 hr. The predominant excretion route in rat was urinary and about 90% and 5% of administered dose were excreted within 48 hr through urine and feces respectively. Judging from the Rf-value of radioactivity peak on chromatograms, 111 In-DTPA seems to be excreted without suffering any metabolic change. Concerning to the behavior of 111 In-DTPA in male and female rat, no difference was observed, and the distribution pattern of 111 In-DTPA in mouse was similar to that of rat. (auth.)

  7. Effect of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate in the rat brain.

    Ryzhavsky, B Ya; Lebedko, O A; Belolubskaya, D S

    2008-08-01

    The effects of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate were studied in the rat brain. Exposure of pregnant rats to lead nitrate during activation of free radical oxidation reduced activity of NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenases in cortical neurons of their 40-day-old progeny, reduced the number of neurons in a visual field, increased the number of pathologically modified neurons, and stimulated rat motor activity in an elevated plus-maze. Two intraperitoneal injections of histochrome in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before and after lead citrate challenge attenuated the manifestations of oxidative stress and prevented the changes in some morphological and histochemical parameters of the brain, developing under the effect of lead exposure.

  8. Effect of repeated fasting/refeeding on obesity development and health complications in rats arising from reduced nest.

    Mozeš, Štefan; Šefčíková, Zuzana; Raček, Ľubomír

    2015-02-01

    Overnutrition during postnatal life represents a risk factor for later obesity and associated metabolic disorders. We investigated the interaction between postnatal and later-life nutrition on body composition, blood pressure and the jejunal enzyme activities in male Sprague-Dawley rats. From birth, we adjusted the number of pups in the nest to 4 (small litters-SL; overfeeding) or to 10 pups (normal litters-NL; controls), and from day 50 until 70, the SL (SL-R) and NL (NL-R) rats were subjected to 1 day fasting and 1 day refeeding cycles (RFR). Their body composition was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and enzyme activity was assayed histochemically. At 50 and 70 days, SL rats were found to be overweight (p obesity risk. Accordingly, in these animals, efficient fat deposition and elevated blood pressure were not diminished in response to dietary restrictions in later life.

  9. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  10. 224Ra and 226Ra experimentally induced dental changes in rats

    Reichart, P.A.; Althoff, J.; Eckhardt, W.; Rippel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats received intragastrically a single dose of 226 Ra or 224 Ra once weekly for 21 weeks. During this period the animals of both groups were thus exposed to comparable doses. After 12 weeks, a shortening of the maxillary incisors was observed, and this progressed during the course of the 55-week experiment. Radiologically, a loss of pulpal transparency and an apical irregular opacity in the maxillary incisors were demonstrable. Histologically, dysplastic changes of the maxillary incisors and multiple resorptions at the cemento-enamel junction of the molars were seen. The observed alterations were more pronounced in the 226 Ra group than in the 224 Ra treated group. The experimentally induced resorptions were comparable to those observed in patients who had incorporated 224 Ra or 226 Ra. Clinical, radiological, histological, γspecrometrical, and autoradiographical findings, as well as dose-estimations, are described. (author)

  11. Acid Glycohydrolases in Rat Spermatocytes, Spermatids and Spermatozoa: Enzyme Activities, Biosynthesis and Immunolocalization

    Abou-Haila Aida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian sperm acrosome contains several glycohydrolases thought to aid in the dispersion and digestion of vestments surrounding the egg. In this study, we have used multiple approaches to examine the origin of acrosome-associated glycohdyrdolases. Mixed spermatogenic cells, prepared from rat testis, were separated by unit gravity sedimentation. The purified germ cells (spermatocytes [SP], round spermatids [RS], and elongated/condensed spermatids [E/CS] contained several glycohydrolase activities. Metabolic labeling in the cell culture, immunoprecipitation, and autoradiographic approaches revealed that &bgr;-D-galactosidase was synthesized in SP and RS in 88/90 kDa forms which undergo processing in a cell-specific manner. Immunohistochemical approaches demonstrated that the enzyme was localized in Golgi membranes/vesicles, and lysosome-like structures in SP and RS, and forming/formed acrosome of E/CS.

  12. Cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat: a quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was produced in the rat by simultaneous occlusion of the vertebral and carotid arteries according to the method of Pulsinelli and Brierley (Stroke 10: 267, 1979). Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by polarographic and autoradiographic techniques. Hydrogen-clearance measurements showed that mean CBF fell in four monitored regions of the hemispheres to between 0.11 and 0.18 ml/g/min, being least in deep rostal gray, intermediate in superficial gray, and greatest in deep caudal gray. However, individual animals had local CBF in excess of 0.20 and even 0.30 ml/g/min, and no animal showed zero CBF. When animals were rendered hypotensive (MABP of 50 Torr) during vascular occlusion, mean CBF ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 ml/g/min in the same regional order. With hypotension, total arrest of flow occurred. Autoradiographic data confirmed the above findings and indicated adequate CBF to the lower brainstem. During vascular occlusion, sufficient CBF may be present ot sustain cerebral tissue as in animals with a well developed spinal circulation or an inadvertently patent vertebral artery

  13. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of binding site for [ 125 I]-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing [ 125 I]-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain

  14. NADPH-diaphorase expression in the Meibomian glands of rat palpebra in postnatal development

    D. Kluchova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed at investigating the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS positive nerve fibers in rat meibomian glands (MGs at various stages of development. There is good evidence to suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d is a surrogate for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Sections of the central, upper eyelids of Wistar rats were processed histochemically for NADPH-d to investigate the presence and distribution of NOS-positive nerve fibers at the following time points: day 1 and weeks 1, 2 and 3 post partum, and in adult controls. At day 1, MG acini were lightly stained and located at a distance from the mucosal border. Vessels were accompanied by intensely stained NADPH-d positive nerve fibers. At the week 1 time point, both the vessels and the NADPH-d positive fibers were still present, but less numerous. MGs were now closer to the mucosa, so that the submucosa was thinner. The acini were mostly pale but occasionally darker. At week 3, there were fewer blood vessels in both the submucosa and within the septa. Darker acini were more common than lightly stained acini. NADPH-d positive dots were observed in the vicinity of the MGs. At the week 3 time point, MGs were adjacent to the mucosal border and stained more intensely than at earlier times; almost all acini were stained. The microscopic appearances were almost identical with those of adult palpebra. Submucosal and septal blood vessels and NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were less numerous. NADPH-d histochemical staining confirmed differences in the density of stained nerve fibers at different developmental stages. The greatest density of NADPH-d -positive nerve fibers occurred in 1-day-old rats whereas they were less numerous in adult rat eyelids. Nerves innervating MGs utilize nitric oxide (NO as a neurotransmitter mostly in early developmental stages and this need thereafter decreases and stabilizes at 3 weeks postnatally.

  15. Radiosynthesis and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 11}C]NAD-299, a radioligand for visualization of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor

    Sandell, Johan E-mail: Johan.Sandell@psyk.ks.se; Halldin, Christer; Hall, Haakan; Thorberg, Seth-Olov; Werner, Tom; Sohn, Daniel; Sedvall, Goeran; Farde, Lars

    1999-02-01

    The selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor antagonist NAD-299 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran- 5-carboxamide) was labeled with the positron emitting radionucldie carbon-11. The radioligand was synthesized from NAD-195 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran) in two radiochemical steps. A palladium-catalyzed reaction of NAD-195 and [{sup 11}C]cyanide was followed by hydrolysis of the carbon-11-labeled nitrile intermediate with basic hydrogen peroxide. The total radiochemical yield, based on [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} and corrected for decay, was 20-40%. The specific radioactivity was 24 GBq/{mu}mol (900 Ci/mmol) at end of synthesis, with a radiochemical purity better than 99% and a total synthesis time of 40-45 min. Autoradiographic examination of [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated high binding in hippocampus, raphe nuclei, and neocortex. The binding in the hippocampus was higher than in the neocortex. Within the hippocampus, the densest binding was observed in the CA1 region. [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binding was inhibited by addition of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor ligands WAY-100635, pindolol, ({+-})-8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT, and buspirone, leaving a low background of nonspecific binding. The results indicate that [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binds specifically to 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in the human brain in vitro and is a potential radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) examination of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in vivo.

  16. Radiosynthesis and autoradiographic evaluation of [11C]NAD-299, a radioligand for visualization of the 5-HT1A receptor

    Sandell, Johan; Halldin, Christer; Hall, Haakan; Thorberg, Seth-Olov; Werner, Tom; Sohn, Daniel; Sedvall, Goeran; Farde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The selective 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist NAD-299 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran- 5-carboxamide) was labeled with the positron emitting radionucldie carbon-11. The radioligand was synthesized from NAD-195 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran) in two radiochemical steps. A palladium-catalyzed reaction of NAD-195 and [ 11 C]cyanide was followed by hydrolysis of the carbon-11-labeled nitrile intermediate with basic hydrogen peroxide. The total radiochemical yield, based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and corrected for decay, was 20-40%. The specific radioactivity was 24 GBq/μmol (900 Ci/mmol) at end of synthesis, with a radiochemical purity better than 99% and a total synthesis time of 40-45 min. Autoradiographic examination of [ 11 C]NAD-299 binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated high binding in hippocampus, raphe nuclei, and neocortex. The binding in the hippocampus was higher than in the neocortex. Within the hippocampus, the densest binding was observed in the CA1 region. [ 11 C]NAD-299 binding was inhibited by addition of the 5-HT 1A receptor ligands WAY-100635, pindolol, (±)-8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT, and buspirone, leaving a low background of nonspecific binding. The results indicate that [ 11 C]NAD-299 binds specifically to 5-HT 1A receptors in the human brain in vitro and is a potential radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) examination of 5-HT 1A receptors in vivo

  17. Autoradiographical detection of cholecystokinin-A receptors in primate brain using 125I-Bolton Hunter CCK-8 and 3H-MK-329

    Hill, D.R.; Shaw, T.M.; Graham, W.; Woodruff, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro autoradiography was performed in order to visualize cholecystokinin-A (CCK-A) receptors in sections of Cynomolgus monkey brain. CCK-A receptors were defined as those which displayed high affinity for the selective non-peptide antagonist MK-329 (L-364,718) and were detected in several regions by selective inhibition of 125I-Bolton Hunter CCK using MK-329 or direct labeling with 3H-MK-329. In the caudal medulla, high densities of CCK-A sites were present in the nucleus tractus solitarius, especially the caudal and medial aspects, and also the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. CCK-A sites were localized to a number of hypothalamic nuclei such as the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the dorsomedial and infundibular nuclei as well as the neurohypophysis. The mammillary bodies and supramammillary nuclei also contained CCK-A receptor sites. High concentrations of CCK-A receptors were present in the substantia nigra zona compacta and also the ventral tegmental area and may be associated with dopamine cell bodies. Binding of 3H-MK-329 was also detected in parts of the caudate nucleus and ventral putamen. The detection, by autoradiographical means, of CCK-A receptors throughout the Cynomolgus monkey brain contrasts with similar studies performed using rodents and suggests differences in the density and, perhaps, the importance of CCK-A receptors in the primate as opposed to the rodent. The data suggest the possibility that CCK-A receptors may be involved in a number of important brain functions as diverse as the processing of sensory information from the gut, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the activity of dopamine cell activity

  18. Autoradiographic localization of delta opioid receptors within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system using radioiodinated (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin ( sup 125 I-DPDPE)

    Dilts, R.P.; Kalivas, P.W. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The enkephalin analog (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin was radioiodinated (125I-DPDPE) and shown to retain a pharmacological selectivity characteristic of the delta opioid receptor in in vitro binding studies. The distributions of 125I-DPDPE binding, using in vitro autoradiographic techniques, were similar to those previously reported for the delta opioid receptor. The nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex contain dense gradients of 125I-DPDPE binding in regions known to receive dopaminergic afferents emanating from the mesencephalic tegmentum. Selective chemical lesions of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were employed to deduce the location of the 125I-DPDPE binding within particular regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Unilateral lesions of dopamine perikarya (A9 and A10) within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra produced by mesencephalic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in significant (20-30%) increases in 125I-DPDPE binding contralateral to the lesion within the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Lesions of the perikarya (dopaminergic and nondopaminergic) of the ventral tegmental area, induced by quinolinic acid injections, caused increases of less magnitude within these same nuclei. No significant alterations in 125I-DPDPE binding were observed within the mesencephalon as a result of either treatment. The specificity of the lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. These results suggest that the enkephalins and opioid agonists acting through delta opioid receptors do not directly modulate dopaminergic afferents but do regulate postsynaptic targets of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.

  19. In-situ chemical analyses of trans-polyisoprene by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in a rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-10-01

    The localization of polyisoprene in young stem tissues of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver was investigated by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The fibrous structures were stained with Oil Red O. FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis proved that the fibrous structures were trans-polyisoprene. Granular structures stained with the dye, and characteristic absorptions at 2,960 cm(-1) and 1,430 cm(-1) in FT-IR suggested that trans-polyisoprene accumulated in the vicinity of the cambium layer. We have thus successfully shown for the first time the localization of trans-polyisoprene in plant tissues, and our histological investigation allowed us to presume the main sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of trans-rubber. Furthermore, a new technical approach, the preparation of sections using an electronic freezing unit and the in situ analysis of polyisoprene using FT-IR microspectroscopy, is demonstrated to be a promising method for determining the accumulation of polyisoprene as well as other metabolites.

  20. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups. This indicates that electrical stimulation may reduce detrimental effects of transportation on meat quality of Omani goats.

  1. Histochemical detection and comparison of apoptotic cells in the gingival epithelium using hematoxylin and eosin and methyl green-pyronin: A pilot study.

    Nayak, Aarati; Raikar, Anita; Kotrashetti, Vijaylaxmi; Nayak, Ramakant; Shree, Sumedha; Kambali, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and host immune response. It helps in tissue homeostasis and a disturbance in this is often associated with disease. The use of histochemical stains like hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for the detection of apoptotic cells. Study intended to analyze the expression of apoptosis in the gingival epithelium of healthy subjects and in patients with chronic periodontitis, using H and E and MGP. It is also proposed to correlate the apoptotic index (AI) of healthy individuals and those with chronic periodontitis. Twenty gingival biopsies were harvested from which ten samples were of healthy subjects and ten subjects who suffered from chronic periodontitis. Apoptotic cells were analyzed using MGP and H and E under light microscopy. Apoptotic cells were identified at ×100 magnification and AI was calculated. Apoptotic cells were easily distinguishable in MGP stained sections when compared to those stained using H and E. Moreover, apoptotic cell count was higher in chronic periodontitis. Statistical analyses were done by Tukey's multiple post hoc procedure. The study reveals that MGP staining can be used in a routine basic laboratory set up as one of the cost-effective methods for the detection of apoptotic cells.

  2. Histochemical detection and comparison of apoptotic cells in the gingival epithelium using hematoxylin and eosin and methyl green-pyronin: A pilot study

    Aarati Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptosis plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and host immune response. It helps in tissue homeostasis and a disturbance in this is often associated with disease. The use of histochemical stains like hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and methyl green-pyronin (MGP can provide a simple and cost-effective method for the detection of apoptotic cells. Aim: Study intended to analyze the expression of apoptosis in the gingival epithelium of healthy subjects and in patients with chronic periodontitis, using H and E and MGP. It is also proposed to correlate the apoptotic index (AI of healthy individuals and those with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Twenty gingival biopsies were harvested from which ten samples were of healthy subjects and ten subjects who suffered from chronic periodontitis. Apoptotic cells were analyzed using MGP and H and E under light microscopy. Results: Apoptotic cells were identified at ×100 magnification and AI was calculated. Apoptotic cells were easily distinguishable in MGP stained sections when compared to those stained using H and E. Moreover, apoptotic cell count was higher in chronic periodontitis. Statistical analyses were done by Tukey's multiple post hoc procedure. Conclusion: The study reveals that MGP staining can be used in a routine basic laboratory set up as one of the cost-effective methods for the detection of apoptotic cells.

  3. Effect of localized intraoperative x-rays irradiation followed by intermittent external exposure on certain histochemical parameters related to pancreatic function

    Abdel-Azeem, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the pancreatic enzyme activities in rabbits, whose splenic part of pancreas was exposed to local intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) at level of 30 Gy X-rays followed by fractionated external radiation therapy (ERT) at a total dose of 40 Gy (2 Gy day after day) starting from the 15th day following the local intraoperative irradiation. The control pancreas was that received only external X-rays radiation without local irradiation. The exocrine pancreatic functions were assessed by determination of insulin hormone and enzyme activity of lipase as well as alkaline and acid phosphatases. After local X-rays irradiation on days 2 and 10 and after external X-rays irradiation on days 23 , 33 , 43 and 53, technovit-8100 plastic embedding (Kulzer and Heraeus) was used to prepare the cold blocks. The quantitative morphometric method was used to evaluate the histochemical pancreatic activity of the irradiated and control pancreas of each rabbit. Most of the studied parameters recorded non-significant changes as a result of the applied different levels of X-rays irradiation, which would give the chance to use this type of irradiation in pancreatic radiotherapy without any hazards to the pancreas

  4. Histological and histochemical studies on shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) resistance in M3 progenies of Solanum macrocarpon L

    Srinivasappa, K.N.; Ramanjini Gowda, P.H.; Joshi, S.S.; Mahadevu, P.; Thimmaiah, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Seven M 3 mutant progenies of Solanum macrocarpon L. were subjected to histological and histochemical examination for shoot and fruit borer resistance. The size, thickness and arrangement of cells in cuticle, epicarp, outer and inner mesocarp and number of nuclei were observed under microscope along with staining intensities for insoluble carbohydrates, R.N.A. and protein in both infested and non-infested shoot and fruits. The 5Kr-P 33 -4, 10Kr-P 10 -22 and 10Kr-P 3 -10 mutants which were found to be more resistant have been recorded thicker epicarp and compactly arranged larger mesocarp cells than other mutants. There was an absence of hypertrophy or hyperplacia in all the mutants except 5Kr-P 7 -33 which was slightly susceptible to the borer infestation. A continuous layer deposited with lignin-like substance was observed especially more clear in the above resistant mutants. These mutants also had low protein without proteinoplasts and less intensely stained for insoluble polysaccharides and RNA than other mutants. (author)

  5. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  6. Statistical parametric maps of 18F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M.; Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A.; Juri, Carlos; Fernandez-Valle, Maria E.; Gago, Belen; Obeso, Jose A.; Penuelas, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during 18 F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in 18 F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although partial volume

  7. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats.

    Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, A A; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters.

  8. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of [125I]cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species

  9. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  10. The role of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle in parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) pretreated rat: a multiple approach study.

    Touret, M; Sarda, N; Gharib, A; Geffard, M; Jouvet, M

    1991-01-01

    In the rat, the insomnia which follows the administration of parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, is transiently reversed either by intra-cisternal injection of L-5-HTP or by an associated injection of 5-HTP and an L-aromatic-acid-decarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and chemical investigations showed that 5-HTP administration does not lead to a detectable increase in cerebral 5-HT. These findings suggest that the restoration of sleep after p-CPA treatment could be mediated by the central action of 5-HTP.

  11. Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Daubioul, Catherine; Rousseau, Nicolas; Demeure, Roger; Gallez, Bernard; Taper, Henryk; Declerck, Barbara; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates, differing in fermentability by colonic bacteria, on hepatic steatosis in growing obese Zucker rats. Male Zucker fa/fa rats were divided into three groups: a control group that received the basal diet, a fructan group that received 10 g highly fermented Synergy 1/100 g diet and a cellulose group that received 10 g poorly fermented Vivapur Microcrystalline cellulose/100 g diet. Rats consuming fructan had a lower energy intake, a lower body weight and less triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver as assessed in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ex vivo by biochemical and histochemical analysis compared with the control and/or cellulose groups. The high fermentation of fructans compared with cellulose was reflected by greater cecal contents and by a twofold greater propionate concentration in the portal vein of rats fed fructan compared with those fed cellulose. By measuring the capacity of hepatocytes isolated from liver of Zucker rats to synthesize triglycerides or total lipids from different precursors, we showed that propionate, at the concentrations measured in the portal vein of rats treated with fructan, selectively decreased the incorporation of acetate into total lipids, a phenomenon that could contribute, along with the lower energy intake, to less triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed dietary fructans.

  12. In situ hybridization on the change of m1 receptor mRNA in different brain areas of aged rats and the effect of Yin tonic Zhimu studied

    Hu Yaer; Xia Zongqin; Yi Ningyu

    1996-01-01

    The change of gene expression of m1 receptors in different brain areas of aged rats and the effects of water extract of the Yin tonic Zhimu and its active principle ZMS was studied. In situ hybridization using 35 S-labelled m1 and m2 probes and analysis of the autoradiographs using a computerized image-analyzer was selected. The grain density of m1 mRNA in striatum was significantly lowered in old rats as compared with young rats (decreased by 12.26 +- 3.60, P<0.01). Long-term oral administration of ZMS, the active principle of Yin tonic Zhimu but not the water extraction of Zhimu, elevated the m1 mRNA in striatum of aged rats (increased by 15.71 +- 3.27, P<0.01). Neither significant change of the grain density of m1 mRNA in old rats nor significant effect of Zhimu or ZMS was observed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The m1 mRNA level in striatum is decreased in aged rats and ZMS is able to elevate it

  13. Quantitative autoradiographic investigations on hairs, skin, and nails with the precursors 35S-cystine or 35S-methionine and 3H-thymidine respectively in animal experiments

    Schmiegelow, P.; Berndt, G.; Lindner, J.; Puschmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    By quantitative autoradiographic methods we tested the possible influence of the sulphurous amino acid L-cystine on the growth of hair, skin and nails. In the 3 H-thymidine autoradiographic method the tracing index (percentage of traced cell cores in relation to the total number of cell cores of a cell population) is calculated morphologically. In the 35 S-cystine and the 35 S-methionine autoradiography a quantification is carried out by applying the microscopic photometer for the investigation of defined hair root cross-sections. Measured values are indicated which depend on dosage and on the incorporation time. The investigation of other agents provoking negative or positive reactions of the hair growth by means of this method will have to be realized. Unlabelled L-cystine seems to promote the growth of hairs, epidermic basal cells and of germ cells of mouse nails, according to experiences made in animal experiments. The latter findings will have to be completed and confirmed by additional experiments. (orig.) [de

  14. Sulfide silver architectonics of rat, cat, and guinea pig spinal cord. A light microscopic study with Timm's method for demonstration of heavy metals

    Schroder, H D

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in the spinal cord of the cat, rat, and guinea pig has been studied histochemically with Timm's sulfide silver method. There was considerable variation in the degree of staining of the neuropil. The dorsal horn showed a laminar staining pattern corresponding...... to the cytoarchitectonic lamination. Lamina I in the cat and guinea pig was light. Lamina II in all three species was heavily stained. In the rat and guinea pig it could be subdivided in a ventral and a dorsal layer, and moreover in the rat a darkly staining borderzone abutting on lamina III was present. Lamina III......, characterized by heterogeneous staining, also appeared dark, although less obvious in the guinea pig. In the ventral horn the coarser stained particles in lamina IX contrasted with the surrounding lamina. Cell staining varied between different cell groups, and within single cell populations. In the cat thoracic...

  15. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    Gonzales-Lima, F.

    1986-01-01

    The autoradiographic ( 14 C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. (author)

  16. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    Gonzales-Lima, F

    1986-04-24

    The autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. 12 refs.

  17. Identification of binding sites for an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in the median eminence of the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    Bohannon, N.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Porte, D. Jr.; Baskin, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The microanatomical location of IGF-I binding in the rat brain was determined by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen brain. Sections incubated in 0.1 nM [ 125 I]-iodo-IGF-I produced a dense grain concentration in regions of the autoradiographic image corresponding to the external palisade zone of the median eminence; other hypothalamic regions were not so heavily labeled. This reaction was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 nM IGF-I. Measurement of binding by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images showed that specific binding for IGF-I in the median eminence was 41.3 +/- 8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2 (mean +/- SEM); nonspecific binding was 11.9 +/- 1.8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In contrast, specific binding to other hypothalamic regions was uniformly lower. In a separate experiment, 1000 nM unlabeled insulin was added. Without insulin, specific binding was 23 +/- 0.9 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2; nonspecific binding was 8 +/- 0.5 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In the presence of 1000 nM unlabeled insulin, specific binding for [ 125 I]-iodo-IGF-I was 23 +/- 1 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. The results suggest that a high concentration of receptors for an IGF-I-like molecule is present in the median eminence

  18. Localization of tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([3H] AF 1890) in rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiography

    Hilderbrandt-Stark, H.E.; Mills, J.W.; Fawcett, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)- 1 H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([ 3 H]AF 1890) was localized within rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiographic techniques. Ligated seminiferous tubule preparations were exposed in vitro to 80 microCi of [ 3 H]AF 1890 in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled AF 1890 for 30 min at 31 degrees C. Autoradiographs showed a generalized distribution of silver grains over the seminiferous epithelium, in the tubular lumen, and in the interstitial spaces. In addition, clusters of grains were concentrated over the seminiferous epithelium in regions of spermatid heads and tails and in the basal portion of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, and over Leydig cells in the interstitial space. The generalized distribution was reduced and the grain clusters eliminated by incubation in an excess of unlabeled AF 1890. [ 3 H]inulin was used to assess the effectiveness of the tubular ligation because inulin does not normally penetrate the blood-testis barrier. This extracellular marker was not localized in the tubular lumen or in the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, the labeling observed with [ 3 H]AF 1890 indicates that this compound crosses the blood-testis barrier

  19. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells.

    Ackerman, G A; Wolken, K W

    1981-10-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites.

  20. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    Ackerman, G.A.; Wolken, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites