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Sample records for rat gastrointestinal tracts

  1. Biomechanical and morphological remodelings of gastrointestinal tract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats of diabetic group(DM, a single tail vein injection 40mg/kg of STZ, 9 rats......) and normal group (CON, 9 rats) were used in the study. Blood glucose and body weight was regularly measured. After 60 days of experiment, morphometric properties and residual strains were studied in esophageal, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, colonic and rectal segments. Stress-strain of the wall was also studied......, jejunal, colonic wall in circumferential direction and the esophageal, colonic wall in longitudinal direction increased in DM group compared those with CON group (Pdiabetes induces morphometric and biomechanical remodeling in the gastrointestinal tract which is likely...

  2. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels in the gastrointestinal tract of aging rats.

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    Mármol, Frederic; Sánchez, Juan; López, Diego; Martínez, Nuria; Mitjavila, Maria Teresa; Puig-Parellada, Pere

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of oxidative stress and alterations in the levels of two cytoprotective agents, prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, in the gastrointestinal tract of aging rats. The production of superoxide anion, lipid peroxides, levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide in the stomach and duodenum of rats were determined at 1.5, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Oxidative stress was present in the stomach of the old rats (24 months), whereas prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production remained stable at 18 and 24 months. In the duodenum, no oxidative stress was observed at 24 months, but at 18 months, an increase in superoxide anion levels was detected. Prostaglandin E2 remained constant in the aged rats but nitric oxide decreased significantly at 24 months. The absence of macroscopic gastric injury throughout the gastrointestinal tract indicates that the oxidative stress in the stomach and the significant decrease of nitric oxide in the duodenum in the old rats are not sufficient to disrupt the mucosal defence network. The results support the notion that the disruption of the mucosal network is essentially regulated by the cytoprotective agents prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, and that injury appears only when both substances are concurrently reduced.

  3. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

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    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  4. Distribution Dynamics of Recombinant Lactobacillus in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Rats

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    Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates. PMID:23544119

  5. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

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    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine.

  6. The ageing gastrointestinal tract.

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    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of ageing on the gastrointestinal tract, including effects on the absorption of nutrients and drugs and the gastrointestinal tract defence system against ingested pathogens. Recent publications support earlier observations of an age-related selective decline in gut function including changes in taste, oesophageal sphincter motility, gastric emptying, and neurons of the myenteric plexus related to gut transit which may impact the nutritional status. Ageing is also associated with structural and functional mucosal defence defects, diminished abilities to generate protective immunity, and increased incidence of inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently in the elderly population. Alterations in gut function with ageing have particular implications for oesophageal, gastric, and colonic motility. Older individuals are particularly susceptible to malnutrition, postprandial hypotension, dysphagia, constipation, and faecal incontinence. Decrease in the number of nerve cells of the myenteric plexus that impact digestive absorption and the surface area of the small intestine because of degeneration of villi may lead to blunted absorption of nutrients. Impairment of the intestinal immune system as a result of ageing, including the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract, appears to be a significant contributor to the age-related increase in the incidence and severity of infections.

  7. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT...... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  9. Macrophages associated with the intrinsic and extrinsic autonomic innervation of the rat gastrointestinal tract.

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    Phillips, Robert J; Powley, Terry L

    2012-07-02

    Interactions between macrophages and the autonomic innervation of gastrointestinal (GI) tract smooth muscle have received little experimental attention. To better understand this relationship, immunohistochemistry was performed on GI whole mounts from rats at three ages. The phenotypes, morphologies, and distributions of gut macrophages are consistent with the cells performing extensive housekeeping functions in the smooth muscle layers. Specifically, a dense population of macrophages was located throughout the muscle wall where they were distributed among the muscle fibers and along the vasculature. Macrophages were also associated with ganglia and connectives of the myenteric plexus and with the sympathetic innervation. Additionally, these cells were in tight registration with the dendrites and axons of the myenteric neurons as well as the varicosities along the length of the sympathetic axons, suggestive of a contribution by the macrophages to the homeostasis of both synapses and contacts between the various elements of the enteric circuitry. Similarly, macrophages were involved in the presumed elimination of neuropathies as indicated by their association with dystrophic neurons and neurites which are located throughout the myenteric plexus and smooth muscle wall of aged rats. Importantly, the patterns of macrophage-neuron interactions in the gut paralleled the much more extensively characterized interactions of macrophages (i.e., microglia) and neurons in the CNS. The present observations in the PNS as well as extrapolations from homologous microglia in the CNS suggest that GI macrophages play significant roles in maintaining the nervous system of the gut in the face of wear and tear, disease, and aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Injected TFF1 and TFF3 bind to TFF2-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S S; Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B

    2003-01-01

    intravenously to female Wistar rats. The tissue distribution was assessed by gamma counting of organ samples and by autoradiography of histological sections. The degradation of 125I-TFF3 was studied by means of trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitation and the saturability of the binding by administration...... by excess TFF3. Similar binding was observed for the TFF1 and TFF3 monomers apart from binding in the stomach, where the uptake was only 15% in comparison to the dimer. There was no specific binding outside the GI tract and no binding to TFF1 or TFF3 immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, the TFF2-binding...... cells in the gastrointestinal tract seem to have basolateral, receptor-like activity to all three TFF peptides. The mucous neck cells of the stomach predominantly take up TFFs with two trefoil domains, indicating a different receptor-like activity in the stomach compared to the rest of the GI tract....

  11. Effects of dehulled adlay on the culture count of some microbiota and their metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of rats.

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    Chiang, W; Cheng, C y; Chiang, M t; Chung, K T

    2000-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of a dietary supplement of dehulled adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on the culture counts of some important groups of intestinal bacteria and their metabolism in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into four groups, and each group was fed a diet containing different levels of dehulled adlay for 30 days as follows: 0% (control), 5%, 20%, and 40%. All animals fed with adlay had normal healthy intestinal walls and no pathogenic signs whatsoever. There were no significant differences in body weight gain or the cecal pH between different groups of rats. Both the 20% and 40% groups had lower culture counts of enterics in their feces than the 5% and control groups, whereas the culture counts of fecal lactic acid bacteria were higher in feces of rats fed with adlay than in the control group. Cecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content and fecal SCFA were significantly higher in the 20% and 40% groups than in the control and 5% groups. All the adlay-fed rats had a higher fecal butyric acid concentration than the control rats. It is concluded that adlay has a significant influence on the growth of intestinal bacteria, which may ultimately affect the physiology and other functions of GI tracts of rats.

  12. Sympathetic pathways mediate GLP-1 actions in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

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    Giralt, M; Vergara, P

    1998-04-24

    The aim of this study was to establish the actions of GLP-1 (7-37) on gastrointestinal motility in rats. We prepared anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with strain-gauges in the antrum, duodenum and the proximal jejunum and a catheter in the aorta close to the coeliac artery for close infusion of substances. Intraarterial GLP-1 infusions (3 x 10(-10) and 3 x 10(-9) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 8) induced inhibition of spontaneous motor activity in the antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum. Inhibition induced by GLP-1 was reversed by i.v. infusion of GLP-1 receptor antagonist, Exendin (9-39) (3 x 10(-8) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 6). Neither the presence of L-NNA (10(-5) moles/kg) (n = 9) nor the VIP receptor antagonist [4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17]-VIP (3 x 10(-8) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 8) modified responses to GLP-1. However, a combination of the adrenergic blockers phentolamine and propranolol (1 mg/kg each) (n = 8) completely blocked motor actions of GLP-1 in all the organs studied. Moreover, inhibition of gastrointestinal motor activity by GLP-1 was blocked by previous infusion of hexamethonium (10 mg/kg) (n = 4). This study demonstrates that GLP-1 inhibits gastrointestinal motor activity of the rat acting on specific GLP-1 receptors and via stimulation of adrenergic pathways.

  13. Advanced glycation end-product expression is upregulated in the gastrointestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Eight inherited type 2 diabetic rats Goto-Kakizak (GK) and ten age-matched normal rats were used in the study. From 18 wk...... and five micron sections were cut. The layer thickness was measured in Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides. AGE [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine] and RAGE were detected by immunohistochemistry staining and image analysis was done using Sigmascan Pro 4.0 image analysis...... thickness (μm): 575.37 ± 69.22 vs 753.20 ± 150.41, P RAGE mainly distributed in striated muscle cells and squamous epithelial cells. The AGE...

  14. Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

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    Wallace, J L; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Wang, L; Ferraz, J G P; Tuitt, D

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking. In the present study, we tested the effects (in rats) of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis (called "MFF") for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain. Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. Significant improvement of symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss) and healing of ulcerated tissue was evident with MFF treatment at doses that did not produce detectable urinary levels of 9-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism. These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity.

  15. Leptin, cell proliferation and crypt fission in the gastrointestinal tract of intravenously fed rats.

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    FitzGerald, A J; Mandir, N; Goodlad, R A

    2005-02-01

    Many peptides, hormones and growth factors have been implicated in the control of cell renewal in the gastrointestinal epithelium. Leptin is present in the stomach and salivary glands and leptin receptors are seen throughout the gut. Leptin can stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in vitro and short-term infusion has been reported to have a proliferative action on the colon in vivo, suggesting a biological link between obesity, physical activity and colon cancer. Food intake is one of the most important determinants of intestinal mucosal cell renewal, thus any direct effects of leptin on the gut may be hidden. This problem has been avoided experimentally by maintaining animals on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and cannulae were inserted into the jugular vein to deliver the TPN diet to which had been added 0, 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/kg of recombinant murine leptin. Orally fed rats were also studied. After 6 days of treatment, all animals were injected with vincristine and killed 2 h later. Tissue weight was recorded and crypt cell proliferation (arrested metaphases) and crypt fission were scored in 'microdissected' crypts. Leptin infusion led to a small decrease in body weight and in the weight of the caecum. Intestinal cell proliferation was significantly reduced by TPN when compared to the orally fed rats, but the addition of leptin had no effect on the small intestine or colon. Crypt fission was also significantly lowered in the TPN group. Fission was slightly but significantly increased in the proximal and mid-colon of the leptin-treated rats, but was decreased in the distal colon. Although leptin did not significantly alter cell proliferation, it had significant effects on the process of crypt fission in the colon, which varied according to the exact locality.

  16. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon......-(carboxymethyl) lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl) lysine] and RAGE were detected in the esopha-geal, gastric, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, colonic and rectal tissues of normal adult Wistar rats using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the esophagus, AGEs and RAGE were mainly distributed in striated muscle cells...... and squamous epithelial cells. In the stomach, AGEs were mainly distributed in parietal cells, and RAGE was strongly expressed in chief cells, mast cells and neurons in ganglia, moderately in parietal cells, and mildly in surface mucous cells. In the intestine, colon and rectum, AGEs and RAGE were distributed...

  17. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... in female sex organ. Examination and Identification of Piscine. Parasites. Specimens were categorized as Juveniles, sub adults and adults according to Ugwuzor .... size of the fish is important in determining the parasite.

  18. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

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    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-07-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage is dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the

  19. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, Lise; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Traavik, Terje; Averhoff, Beate; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2012-04-01

    Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals.

  20. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordgård Lise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon. In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit 8 cultured bacteria. The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals.

  1. Correlation between slow-wave myoelectric signals and mechanical contractions in the gastrointestinal tract: Advanced electromyographic method in rats.

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    Szucs, Kalman F; Nagy, Aniko; Grosz, Gyorgy; Tiszai, Zita; Gaspar, Robert

    Gastrointestinal motility disorders are presumed to be associated with abnormalities of the generation of slow-wave electric impulses. A requirement for the development of non-invasive clinical methods for the diagnosis of motility disorders is the identification of these signals. We set out to separate and characterize the signals from the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract and to detect changes in the smooth muscle electromyography (SEMG) signals. Partially resected (stomach-small intestine, stomach-large intestine or small and large intestine) or non-resected male SPRD rats were measured under deep anaesthesia. Bipolar thread and disk electrodes and strain gauge sensors were used for SEMG and the detection of mechanical contractions, respectively. The electric activity was characterized by cycle per minute (cpm) and power spectrum density maximum (PsDmax) W by fast Fourier transformation analysis. Contractions were evaluated by area under the curve analysis. The myoelectric signals of the stomach, ileum and caecum were at 3-5, 20-25 and 1-3cpm, respectively. Neostigmine increased (40-60%), while atropine decreased (30-50%) the PsDmax values. However, the cpm values remained unchanged. Linear regression revealed a good correlation between the PsDmax values and the smooth muscle contractions. Electric signals of the same character were recorded from the organ and from the abdominal surface. The change in PsDmax perfectly reflects the change in the contractions of the smooth muscle. These results may serve as the basis for non-invasive gastrointestinal measurements in experimental animals, which can be translated into clinical practice for motility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  3. Surgical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Vasculature in the Laboratory Rat

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    Vdoviaková, Katarína; Petrovová, Eva; Maloveská, Marcela; Krešáková, Lenka; Teleky, Jana; Elias, Mario Zefanias Joao; Petrášová, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the morphology of the stomach, liver, intestine, and their vasculature to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods in abdominal cavity. On adult Wistar rats corrosion casts were prepared from the arterial system and Duracryl Dental and PUR SP were used as a casting medium and was performed macroscopic anatomical dissection of the stomach, liver, and intestine was performed. The rat stomach was a large, semilunar shaped sac with composite lining. On the stomach was very marked fundus, which formed a blind sac (saccus cecus). The rat liver was divided into six lobes, but without gall bladder. Intestine of the rat was simple, but cecum had a shape as a stomach. The following variations were observed in the origin of the cranial mesenteric artery. On the corrosion cast specimens we noticed the presence of the anastomosis between middle colic artery (a. colica media) and left colic artery (a. colica sinistra). We investigated the second anastomosis between middle colic artery and left colic artery. The results of this study reveal that the functional anatomical relationship between the rat stomach, liver and intestine is important for the development of surgical research in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:26819602

  4. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

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    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-14

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  5. Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli 16 Harboring the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene Improves Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization and Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the beneficial effects of potential probiotic E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb gene, associated with bacterial respiration under microaerobic condition, on gastrointestinal (GI colonization and its antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. In vitro, catalase activity in E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp was 1.8 times higher compared to E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp control. In vivo, E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp not only was recovered in the fecal matter after 70 days of oral administration but also retained antibacterial activities, whereas E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp was not detected. Oral administration of 200 and 500 μL/kg body weight of CCl4 to rats at weekly interval resulted in elevated serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT and serum glutamyl oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT levels compared to controls. Rats prefed with E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp demonstrated near to normal levels for SGPT and SGOT, whereas the liver homogenate catalase activity was significantly increased compared to CCl4 treated rats. Thus, pUC8:16gfp plasmid encoding vgb improved the growth and GI tract colonization of E. coli 16. In addition, it also enhanced catalase activity in rats harboring E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp, thereby preventing the absorption of CCl4 to GI tract.

  6. Case Report Duplication Of Gastrointestinal Tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations that may be found anywhere along the entire gastrointestinal tract. They may vary in presentation, size, location, and ... well developed coat of smooth muscle, and inner mucosal lining. Several theories have been proposed for the development but the ...

  7. Effects of young coconut juice on the numbers of argyrophil endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of male rats: Novel preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisaudah Radenahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from calcium itself, there are many factors including vitamin D and estrogen, that play important roles in bone formation. Hormones, especially estrogen, used for replacement therapy is highly effective at reducing the rate of bone loss and can also replace lost bone in postmenopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy has been proposed to prevent bone loss in males as well as in females. Estrogen, however, has been considered to be one of the hormonal risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and also other side effects. With this background, in the present study, young coconut juice (YCJ, that is known to contain the phytoestrogen, -sitosterol, was investigated for its possible beneficial effects on delaying osteoporosis using a male orchidectomized rat model, and as a replacement for estrogen replacement therapy. In the present study we used the Grimelius stain which is a broad endocrine cell marker, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI tract to quantify the argyrophil endocrine cells and if possible to relate this to reflex GI functions, e.g. calcium absorption, GI motility etc. that might have an influence on osteoporosis. There were five groups of rats (6 per group included in this study. The first group consisted of sham-operated rats, the second group consisted of orchidectomized (orx rats, and the third group consisted of orx rats injected intraperitoneally with exogenous estrogen (2.5 g/kgBW of estradiol benzoate, EB five days a week for two weeks. The fourth group consisted of orx rats that received YCJ (100 mL/ kgBW/day and the fifth group was sham-operated rats receiving YCJ (100 mL/kgBW/day for two weeks. After sacrifice, the GI tract including stomach, small and large intestines were removed, fixed and paraffin embedded for routine H&E and Grimelius silver staining. Most of the argyrophil cells were dispersed in the mucosa, particularly in the basal mucosa and were generally round or spindle

  8. Comparison of early gastrointestinal tract and liver toxicity of the originator iron polymaltose complex (IPC) and an IPC similar preparation in non-anemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2012-08-01

    The originator iron polymaltose complex (Maltofer®, IPC, Vifor International, St. Gallen, Switzerland) has been used for over 30 years to treat iron deficiency anemia. Its physico-chemical properties allow for a controlled release of iron, a property which translates into low toxicity and good gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability of the drug compared to the commonly used ferrous salts. A variety of different iron polymaltose complex similars are commercially available with varying structures and, thus, different efficacy and toxicity compared to IPC. In this study, the median lethal dose, the GI tract and liver toxicity of an IPC similar (Vitalix®, IPCSVITA, Laboratorios Roemmers, Buenos Aires, Argentina) were compared with those of IPC in healthy rats. The median lethal dose of IPCSVITA was determined as the dose required to kill 6 out of 12 rats after 24 h from dosing. To compare the GI and liver toxicities, rats received IPCSVITA or IPC (both 280 mg iron/kg body weight) for 28 days. GI toxicity was assessed macroscopically by scoring lesion severities and microscopically by analyzing the villi/crypt ratio, number of eosinophils/villi and number of Goblet cells/villi. Ferritin was assessed in the small intestine villi and in the liver by immunostaining. Iron deposits in the liver were assessed by Prussian blue staining. Serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation (TSAT) were significantly higher in the IPCSVITA group vs. the IPC and the control groups. Food consumption, body weight, and bowel movement at Day 29 were significantly lower within the IPCSVITA group vs. the IPC or the control groups. The lesion scores in the stomach and in the lower GI tract of the IPCSVITA group were significantly higher than those of the IPC and control groups. The villi/crypt ratio and the number of Goblet cells/villi in the small intestine were significantly lower in IPCSVITA-treated animals than in IPC-treated or control animals. The number of eosinophils per villi was

  9. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  10. Total N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in hot dogs and in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rats and mice: possible etiologic agents for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Clapper, Marge L; Harrison, Kathryn L; Povey, Andrew C

    2002-11-01

    We review evidence that red and processed meat are causes of colon cancer and that processed meat is a risk factor for childhood cancer and type 2 diabetes. Associations could be due to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) derived from nitrosation of NOC precursors (NOCPs). We review our survey of total NOC and NOCP content of foods. Only rapidly nitrosated amines, including a glycosyl amino acid, were efficiently determined as NOCPs. NOCPs in hot dogs and rat feces were partly purified by adsorption-desorption and HPLC. After nitrosation, purified hot dog fractions were directly mutagenic in Ames test. The main NOCPs in these materials may be N-glycosyl amino acids and peptides. NOC levels in rat gastrointestinal tract rose steadily from stomach to feces. NOCP levels showed similar trend but with sharp increases from stomach to duodenum. One day after Min and C57BL/6J mice were fed 4% dextran sulfate sodium to induce acute colitis, fecal NOC levels increased 1.9-fold compared with untreated mice (P diet, 180 g beef-pork hot dogs mixed with 820 g diet or 180 g sautéed beef mixed with 820 g diet. Fecal NOC outputs on day 7 were 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times those for control groups (P dog mixture to mice did not affect normal 7-methyldeoxyguanosine level in colonic mucosal DNA. Overall, results support the hypothesis that colonic NOCs are a cause of colon cancer.

  11. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings. (1) The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. (2) The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem...... organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. (3) Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others...

  12. Sense of taste in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the investigation of the molecular mechanism by which chemicals such as odors and tastants are perceived by specific chemosensory organs. For example, G protein-coupled receptors expressed within the nasal epithelium and taste receptors in the oral cavity have been identified as odorant and taste receptors, respectively. However, there is much evidence to indicate that these chemosensory receptors are not restricted to primary chemosensory cells; they are also expressed and have function in other cells such as those in the airways and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This short review describes the possible mechanisms by which taste signal transduction occurs in the oral cavity and tastants/nutrients are sensed in the GI tract by taste-like cells, mainly enteroendocrine and brush cells. Furthermore, it discusses the future perspectives of chemosensory studies.

  13. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  14. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  15. Horizontal transfer of tet(M) and erm(B) resistance plasmids from food strains of Lactobacillus plantarum to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Louise; Wilcks, Andrea; Hammer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Two wild-type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum previously isolated from fermented dry sausages were analysed for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we used gnotobiotic rats as an in vivo model. Rats were initially inoculated......(2) CFU g(-1) faeces towards the end of the experiment. For erm(B)-TCs, the number was significantly higher and increased to c. 10(3) CFU g(-1) faeces. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing in vivo transfer of wild-type antibiotic resistance plasmids from L. plantarum to E. faecalis....

  16. N-nitroso compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and in the feces of mice with induced colitis or fed hot dogs or beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Hartman, Melissa; Morris, Chantey R; Clapper, Marge L

    2003-03-01

    Because colonic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) may be a cause of colon cancer, we determined total NOC levels by Walters' method in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rodents: (i) feces of C57BL mice fed chow and semi-purified diets contained 3.2 +/- 0.4 and 0.46 +/- 0.06 NOC/g, respectively (P diet were 0.9 +/- 0.05 (diet), 0.2 +/- 0 (stomach), 0.3-0.4 (small intestine), 0.7-1.6 (cecum and colon) and 2.6 +/- 0.6 (feces) nmol/g. NOC precursor (NOCP) levels (measured as NOC after mild nitrosation) for two rat groups fed chow diet showed a 16-fold increase from stomach to proximal small intestine (mean, 6.2 micromol/g), and a 1.7-fold increase from distal colon to feces (mean, 11.6 micromol/g). (iii) Eight Min and five C57BL/6J mice received 4% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water on days 1-4 to induce acute colitis. This increased fecal NOC levels 1.9-fold on day 5 in both strains (P diets mixed with 18% of beef plus pork hot dogs or sautéed beef for 7 days. On day 7, individual 24-h fecal NOC outputs were determined. In three hot dog and two beef groups with 5 mice/group, mean fecal NOC output/day was 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times that for control groups fed semi-purified diet alone (P cancer associated with colitis and ingestion of red and nitrite-preserved meat.

  17. Function and expression of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter Slc36a1 along the rat gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, M. L.; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Tønsberg, H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intestinal absorption via membrane transporters may determine the pharmacokinetics of drug compounds. The hypothesis is that oral absorption of gaboxadol (4, 5, 6, 7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol) in rats occurs via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, r......: The absorption fraction of gaboxadol was high (81.3-91.3%) following administration in the stomach, duodenum and jejunum, but low (4.2%) after administration in the colon. The pharmacokinetics of gaboxadol was modified by the co-administration of L-tryptophan (a hPAT1 inhibitor) and L-proline (a hPAT1 substrate...

  18. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R.; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C.; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  19. Pyogenic granuloma of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pyogenic granuloma (PG or granuloma pyogenicum is essentially a capillary hemangioma on the skin or a mucosal surface which shows an exophytic growth pattern and has a lobulated appearance. The most common sites are skin (40% and mucosal surfaces (predominantly oral cavity, 60%. We intend to report all available cases of PG of gastrointestinal (GI tract, diagnosed at the Henry Ford hospital, a tertiary referral center. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of pathological database was performed on all GI biopsies in the last 10 years using diagnostic codes and pathology codes searching for PG of the GI tract. Results: A total of 23 cases of pathologically diagnosed PG was diagnosed over a 10 year period. The median age of patients was 64 with almost equal gender distribution (47.8% were males, and 52.2% were females. The most common location of PG was sigmoid colon (65.2%, esophagus (17.4% and transverse colon (13%. PG presented as a polyp in 16 patients (69.6%. The most common indication for endoscopy in these cases was screening colonoscopy (30.4% cases. Discussion: PG of GI tract is rare. To date, only about 15-20 cases have been reported in the literature and most cases have been reported from Japan and Korea. This is the largest case series of this rare pathological lesion of the GI tract. Most cases of PG were diagnosed on an endoscopy done for an unrelated reason in our series. Hence, most cases were asymptomatic, unlike previously reported cases which were mostly associated with GI bleeding.

  20. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  1. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  2. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  3. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Traverso

    Full Text Available Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

  4. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isete Fares Franco

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of malignant lymphoma that has aggressive biological behavior, early systemic dissemination and poor prognosis. It is considered to be a manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents the gastrointestinal counterpart of mantle cell nodal lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: A case of gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is presented and the anatomopathological, clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects of this unusual neoplasia are discussed. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 59-year-old white male with a complaint of asthenia, night sweating, alteration in intestinal habit and weight loss over the preceding two months. The physical examination showed pallid mucosa and a palpable mass in the epigastrium and mesogastrium. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed the presence of gastric and duodenal polyps. An opaque enema showed multiple polypoid lesions, especially in the cecum. A rectal biopsy revealed infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by diffuse lymphoma consisting of small cleaved cells. Immunohistochemical study showed lymphocytes that expressed the antibody CD20 (L-26 and light-chain kappa (k immunoglobulin, but not light-chain lambda (l immunoglobulin. The patient presented a condition of acute intestinal obstruction with the presence of a mesenteric mass formed by agglutinated lymph nodes that surrounded the proximal ileum, thereby obstructing its lumen. He was submitted to a segmental enterectomy and gastrotomy with excisional biopsies of the gastric polypoid lesions. After two cycles of chemotherapy there was a worsening of the general state, with an increase in the dimensions of the abdominal masses and sepsis, accompanied by progressive respiratory insufficiency, leading to death.

  5. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system

    OpenAIRE

    Saffrey, M. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. The gastrointestinal tract is the most complex organ system; its diverse cells perform a range of functions essential to life, not only secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion, but also, very importantly, defence. The gastrointestinal tract acts not only as a barrier to harmful materials and pathogens but also contains the vast number of beneficial bacterial populations that make up the microbiota. Com...

  6. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  7. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kelly V; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Arora, Amindra S

    2006-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common malignancies to metastasize to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Metastases to the GI tract can present at the time of primary diagnosis or decades later as the first sign of recurrence. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, dysphagia, small bowel obstruction, hematemesis, and melena. We report 2 cases of malignant melanoma metastatic to the GI tract, followed by a review of the literature. The first case is a 72-year-old man who underwent resection of superficial spreading melanoma on his back 13 years previously who presented with dysphagia. A biopsy specimen of a mucosal fold in a gastric fundus noted during endoscopy was taken and revealed metastatic malignant melanoma, which was resected 1 month later. Three weeks later, the patient was found to have an ulcerated jejunal metastatic melanoma mass, which was also resected. The second case is a 63-year-old man with an ocular melanoma involving the chorold of the left eye that had been diagnosed 4 years previously, which had been excised several times, who presented with anorexia, dizziness, and fatigue. He was found to have cerebellar and stomach metastases. He underwent adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical resection of the gastric melanoma metastasis. In patients with a history of melanoma, a high index of suspicion for metastasis must be maintained if they present with seemingly unrelated symptoms. Diagnosis requires careful inspection of the mucosa for metastatic lesions and biopsy with special immunohistochemical stains. Management may include surgical resection, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, observation, or enrollment in clinical trials. Prognosis is poor, with a median survival of 4 to 6 months.

  8. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2014-01-01

    .... The gastrointestinal tract is the most complex organ system; its diverse cells perform a range of functions essential to life, not only secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion, but also, very importantly, defence...

  9. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Basic mechanisms of the aging gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, N

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this short review is to summarize recent data on gastrointestinal changes with aging, focusing on gastrointestinal motility disorders, and mucosal variations. First of all, this review focused on gastrointestinal motility disorders with aging, even though an increased prevalence of several gastrointestinal motor disorders (i.e., dysphagia, dyspepsia, anorexia, and constipation) occurs in older people, aging per se appears to have a minor direct effect on most gastrointestinal functions. Secondly, this review focused on histological changes with aging, i.e., regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth, gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, and gastric mucosal changes, especially changes in gastric acid secretion, bacterial overgrowth and its consequences on elderly patients. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The HIV manifestations within the gastrointestinal tract: A pictorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the pictorial review are to review the HIV manifestations within the gastrointestinal tract. We have detailed five conditions, with reference to the patients' CD4 count – gastrointestinal tuberculosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, small bowel lymphoma, cytomegalovirus colitis and anal carcinoma.

  12. Chlamydia Spreading from the Genital Tract to the Gastrointestinal Tract - A Two-Hit Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangming

    2017-12-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection-induced infertility, is frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tract. Chlamydia muridarum, a model pathogen for investigating C. trachomatis pathogenesis, readily spreads from the mouse genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract, establishing long-lasting colonization. C. muridarum mutants, despite their ability to activate acute oviduct inflammation, are attenuated in inducing tubal fibrosis and are no longer able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the spread of C. muridarum to the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to its pathogenicity in the upper genital tract. However, gastrointestinal C. muridarum cannot directly autoinoculate the genital tract. Both antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and profibrotic cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-13, are essential for C. muridarum to induce tubal fibrosis; this may be induced by the gastrointestinal C. muridarum, as a second hit, to transmucosally convert tubal repairing - initiated by C. muridarum infection of tubal epithelial cells (serving as the first hit) - into pathogenic fibrosis. Testing the two-hit mouse model should both add new knowledge to the growing list of mechanisms by which gastrointestinal microbes contribute to pathologies in extragastrointestinal tissues and provide information for investigating the potential role of gastrointestinal C. trachomatis in human chlamydial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem in which host and microbial cells live in close contact with each other. The microbial community in the human GI tract has an important nutritional and protective function and mainly consists of anaerobic bacteria. After birth,

  14. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract.

  15. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease....... The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...

  16. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, B. Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Munro, Carol

    2015-01-01

    ... and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C...

  17. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  18. [Endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón Sepúlveda, M

    1990-01-01

    There are several changes in the role that endoscopy plays in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We propose indications and make point about the factors than an endoscopist must have in mind referring to timing the endoscopy study. In the experience of our Hospital (Hospital Central Norte de Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City), during 20 years we found a diminution in the prevalence of duodenal ulceration and an increase in gastric ulceration, erosive gastritis an neoplasies as causes of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  19. DIET CORRECTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DYSFUNCTIONS OF INFANTS AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes mechanisms of occurrence of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants after cerebral ischemia. It describes the clinical symptomatology of gastrointestinal impairment, particularly associated with vegetovisceral impairment, lactase deficiency, cow's milk protein intolerance. It gives recommendations about diet correction of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions, dietotherapy.

  20. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brian Fennerty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  1. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  3. Vascular Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Harki (Jihan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractChronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) results from insufficient blood supply to the stomach, small intestine and colon. In most cases this is caused by stenosis of the supplying arteries with lack of sufficient collateral circulation. Most often the stenosis is due to

  4. The gastrointestinal tract and HIV pathogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction has been recognised as a major manifestation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the earliest recognition of the syndrome, the acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It was originally thought that these disease manifestations were the sequelae of the immune.

  5. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy.

  6. Lactobacillus mediated delivery of therapeutic peptides in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yin

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacilli are normal residents of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus with health beneficial properties have been introduced as probiotics. Genetic engineering of Lactobacillus could potentially combine the colonizing ability and probiotic effect with an engineered therapeutic function. The aim of this thesis was to explore the possibility of using lactobacilli as vectors for delivery of peptides in the GI tract for thera...

  7. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  8. Health and functions of the gastrointestinal tract in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review on the effects of functional ingredients and processing of ingredients and diets on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and health of the GIT in pigs. There is increasing attention for these topics since the ban of in-feed growth promoting antibiotics in

  9. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PERFORATION IN NEONATES R.T. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... R.T. KUREMU, G.P. HADLEY and R. WIERSMA. ABSTRACT. Background: Gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) perforation in neonates is a serious problem associated with high mortality due to resulting sepsis. Co-morbid factors, eg. prematurity, respiratory problems, low birth weight, and nutritional factors, ...

  10. Molecular subtypes in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Tan, Patrick; Vermeulen, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract are among the most common human cancers. The distinct tissues of origin give rise to a diverse set of diseases, such as colorectal cancer, pancreatic carcinoma and gastric cancers, with each associating with specific clinical features. Genomic and

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty two (32) of the 1343 patients endoscoped had upper gastrointestinal tract cancer, hence giving a prevalence of 0.024%. Gastric cancer was found in 19 of the 32 cancer cases, while the remaining 13 had oesophageal cancer. The mean age of patients with gastric cancer was 51.3 + 14.2 years (range 30 to 85), while ...

  12. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal tract hel- minthosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2015, 19 (1):63-82. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal tract hel- minthosis of small ruminants in Dawuro Zone. Amenu Asha*1,. Bulako Chebo1. 1School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. *Corresponding author: E-mail address: amenuasha@gmail.

  13. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  14. Chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, D E; Andres, J M; Erhart, N A; Bailey, D J

    1998-08-01

    Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum.

  15. The Genital Tract Virulence Factor pGP3 Is Essential for Chlamydia muridarum Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lili; Zhang, Tianyuan; Melero, Jose; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Liu, Quanzhong; He, Cheng; Nelson, David E; Zhong, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    The cryptic plasmid is essential for Chlamydia muridarum dissemination from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Following intravaginal inoculation, a C. muridarum strain deficient in plasmid-encoded pGP3 or pGP4 but not pGP5, pGP7, or pGP8 failed to spread to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, although mice infected with these strains developed productive genital tract infections. pGP3- or pGP4-deficient strains also failed to colonize the gastrointestinal tract when delivered intragastrically. pGP4 regulates pGP3, while pGP3 does not affect pGP4 expression, indicating that pGP3 is critical for C. muridarum colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutants deficient in GlgA, a chromosome-encoded protein regulated by pGP4, also consistently colonized the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, C. muridarum colonization of the gastrointestinal tract positively correlated with pathogenicity in the upper genital tract. pGP3-deficient C. muridarum strains did not induce hydrosalpinx or spread to the GI tract even when delivered to the oviduct by intrabursal inoculation. Thus, the current study not only has revealed that pGP3 is a novel chlamydial colonization factor in the gastrointestinal tract but also has laid a foundation for investigating the significance of gastrointestinal Chlamydia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. INNERVATION OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: PATTERNS OF AGING

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J Phillips; Powley, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by intrinsic enteric neurons and by extrinsic projections, including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as well as visceral afferents, all of which are compromised by age to different degrees. In the present review, we summarize and illustrate key structural changes in the aging innervation of the gut, and suggest a provisional list of the general patterns of aging of the GI innervation. For example, age-related neuronal losses occur in bot...

  17. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  18. Persistence of colicinogenic Escherichia coli in the mouse gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giladi Itamar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of a bacterial strain to competitively exclude or displace other strains can be attributed to the production of narrow spectrum antimicrobials, the bacteriocins. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of bacteriocin production for Escherichia coli strain residence in the gastrointestinal tract, a murine model experimental evolution study was undertaken. Results Six colicin-producing, yet otherwise isogenic, E. coli strains were administered and established in the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice. The strains' persistence, population density, and doubling time were monitored over a period of 112 days. Early in the experiment only minor differences in population density between the various colicin-producing and the non-producing control strains were detected. However, over time, the density of the control strains plummeted, while that of the colicin-producing strains remained significantly higher (F(7,66 = 2.317; P Conclusion The data presented here support prior claims that bacteriocin production may play a significant role in the colonization of E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract. Further, this study suggests that the ability to produce bacteriocins may prove to be a critical factor in determining the success of establishing probiotic E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

  19. Gut microbiota: an Indicator to Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trupti; Bhattacharya, Priyanjali; Das, Suvrajit

    2016-09-01

    Gut microbiota is predicted to play a key role in manifestation of gastrointestinal tract cancers. The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex and abundant network of microbial community. Gut microbiota depicts the microbe population living in our intestine. Humans harbour more than 10(14) microbes in the gut, and the diversity and densities of the microbiota increase from stomach to colon. The beneficial relationship between endogenous microbiota and the eukaryotic hosts helps in maintaining various metabolic activities of the body as well as temperature and pH balance. Studies using culturing methods have suggested that the oesophagus is either sterile or contains only a few transient microbes that originates from the oropharynx by swallowing or from the stomach by gastroesophageal reflux. However, metagenomics suggest that large numbers of uncultured organisms are harboured in the human gut. Observations suggest that research directed towards manipulation of the gut microbiota can be employed in prevention as well as treatment of these conditions. Well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled human studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics are necessary to formulate the directions for prevention and therapy. Change in gut microbes in gastrointestinal (GI) tract may have major implication in gastric cancer, the fifth most occurring malignancy in the world. Affected population manifests multiple conditions and diseases, which majorly includes inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal malignancy.

  20. Review: Tools for the tract: understanding the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatcheva, P.P.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Venema, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.

    2009-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract comprises a series of complex and dynamic organs ranging from the stomach to the distal colon, which harbor immense microbial assemblages that are known to be vital for human health. Until recently, most of the details concerning our gut microbiota remained obscure.

  1. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. The gastrointestinal tract is the most complex organ system; its diverse cells perform a range of functions essential to life, not only secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion, but also, very importantly, defence. The gastrointestinal tract acts not only as a barrier to harmful materials and pathogens but also contains the vast number of beneficial bacterial populations that make up the microbiota. Communication between the cells of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous and endocrine systems modifies behaviour; the organisms of the microbiota also contribute to this brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Age-related physiological changes in the gut are not only common, but also variable, and likely to be influenced by external factors as well as intrinsic aging of the cells involved. The cellular and molecular changes exhibited by the aging gut cells also vary. Aging intestinal smooth muscle cells exhibit a number of changes in the signalling pathways that regulate contraction. There is some evidence for age-associated degeneration of neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system, although enteric neuronal losses are likely not to be nearly as extensive as previously believed. Aging enteric neurons have been shown to exhibit a senescence-associated phenotype. Epithelial stem cells exhibit increased mitochondrial mutation in aging that affects their progeny in the mucosal epithelium. Changes to the microbiota and intestinal immune system during aging are likely to contribute to wider aging of the organism and are increasingly important areas of analysis. How changes of the different cell types of the gut during aging affect the numerous cellular interactions that are essential for normal gut functions will be important areas for future aging research.

  2. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  3. Gut microbiota and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella; Morisco, Filomena; Caporaso, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a common group of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases defined by symptom-based diagnostic criteria, which consider chronic or recurrent symptoms of the GI tract in the absence of other organic or biochemical reasons. Recent evidences have been highlighted the role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of the FGIDs. A critical analysis of the existing literature on the role of gut microbiota in FGIDs was performed by evaluating the differences of composition, functions and role of intestinal flora in FGIDs of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, we focused on recent evidences about gut microbiota and celiac disease (CD), especially in CD patients who are symptomatic despite gluten-free diet (GFD), and who seem to share similar features of FGIDs subjects. In this setting, we conducted an additional PubMed search for guidelines, systematic reviews (SR) and primary studies published after the last search update of the most recent reviews. Some data suggest that, in a significant percentage of patients, the microbiota plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of FGIDs. Probiotic supplementation and antibiotic treatment appear to be of therapeutic value, although the clinical data remain controversial. Despite the exciting and growing research on the role of gut microbiota in FGIDs, our knowledge remains fairly limited. Further studies are needed to measure the diversity, function and resistance to antibiotics of the intestinal microbiota in FGIDs.

  4. The interaction between Listeria monocytogenes and the host gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Roy D; Watson, Debbie; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G M

    2009-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes significant foodborne disease with high mortality rates in immunocompromised adults. In pregnant women foodborne infection can give rise to infection of the fetus resulting in miscarriage. In addition, the bacterium has recently been demonstrated to cause localized gastrointestinal symptoms, predominantly in immunocompetent individuals. The murine model of systemic L. monocytogenes infection has provided numerous insights into the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this organism. However, recent application of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches as well as the development of new model systems has allowed a focus upon factors that influence adaptation to gastrointestinal environments and adhesion to and invasion of the gastrointestinal mucosa. In addition, the availability of a large number of complete L. monocytogenes genome sequences has permitted inter-strain comparisons and the identification of factors that may influence the emergence of 'epidemic' phenotypes. Here we review some of the exciting recent developments in the analysis of the interaction between L. monocytogenes and the host gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Prokinetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    D. Srinivasan; Ramaswamy, S.; S Sengottuvelu

    2009-01-01

    PHF, a polyherbal formulation, consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascene, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The PHF was evaluated for acute toxicity, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying rate in mice and rats. Based on acute toxicity study, the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) levels were employed for further pharmacological studies. The gastrointesti...

  6. Mantle Cell Lymphoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract (Lymphomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A74-year-old male with a history of a tonsillar lymphoma developed diarrhea. Investigations led to detection of extensive intestinal lymphomatous polyposis (mantle cell lymphoma. After an aggressive clinical course with associated nodal and peripheral blood involvement, death followed within three months. Postmortem studies revealed widespread dissemination within the entire gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. Although this type of lymphoma is rare and accounts for only about 1% to 8% of all forms of primary B cell gastrointestinal lymphomas in North America, separation from other subtypes has become more important because of reported responses of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphomas to antibiotics aimed at Helicobacter pylori eradication.

  7. Drug-related damage of the ageing gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Gargallo, Carla; Lanas, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Drug use increases with age and the elderly is at increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Gastrointestinal adverse effects are one of the most often reported. Serious event are mostly caused by NSAIDs and/or aspirin which are the most widely prescribed medications in the world. NSAIDs and/or aspirin use are associated with complications from both the upper and the lower gastrointestinal tract. The risk of these complications depends on presence of risk factors, and age is the most frequent and relevant one. At-risk patients should be on prevention strategies including the use of the lowest effective dose, co-therapy with a gastroprotective agents or use of a COX-2 selective agent. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection is beneficial in patients starting therapy with these agents, especially in the presence of ulcer history. The best strategy to prevent lower GI complications has yet to be defined.

  8. ROLE OF MICROELEMENTS IN INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of some microelements in functioning of antioxidant systems of child’s organism. It’s marked, that disorders in children’s nutrition, including deficiency of zinc, selenium and vitamins in ration may lead to some severe diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Balanced dietary intake, including milk foods, fortified by zinc, allows preventing a development of chronic diseases, especially in children in period of social and biological adaptation.Key words: children, microelements, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:121-124

  9. Extensive papillomatosis of the bovine upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirimonaki, E; O'Neil, B W; Williams, R; Campo, M S

    2003-01-01

    Extensive papillomatosis was identified in a heifer born and raised in Scotland and a steer born and raised in England. In both cases, the papillomas extended from the mouth and tongue to the reticulum. Although cases of florid papillomatosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract occur relatively frequently in cattle grazing on bracken fern in the Scottish Highlands, no such cases have been reported previously in English cattle. Histopathological examination of the papillomas showed that the lesions were wholly epithelial, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and the pathognomonic koilocytes characteristic of papillomavirus infection. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was identified by molecular amplification and sequencing of the viral genome.

  10. Endotoxin and cytokines in patients with gastrointestinal tract perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Endo

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of endotoxin and various cytokines were assessed in 70 patients with gastrointestinal tract perforation. Sepsis developed in 29 of them, and eight of these (27.6% had on admission endotoxin levels higher than 9.8 pg ml-1. The clinical outcome correlated with the level of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα, rather than with the endotoxin level. The high interleukin 6 (IL-6 level was shown in septic patients and no correlation was observed between the IL-6 level and the clinical outcome. Plasma TNFα levels tended to change independently from endotoxin levels, suggesting that TNFα may have been locally produced in inflammatory lesions.

  11. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...

  12. Antioxidant enriched enteral nutrition and oxidative stress after major gastrointestinal tract surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.; Boelens, Petra G.; Scheffer, Peter G.; Teerlink, Tom; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an enteral supplement containing antioxidants on circulating levels of antioxidants and indicators of oxidative stress after major gastrointestinal surgery. Twenty-one patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal tract surgery were randomised in a single centre,

  13. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Belyaeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the actual problems of neonatology and children's gastroenterology — functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in newborn babies and infants is covered. The pathogenesis of digestive organs dysfunction, the classification and clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal disorders, the diagnostic possibilities and the correction of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are presented.Key words: newborn babies, dysfunctions of the gastroin testinal tract, premature babies, diarrhea, regurgitation, constipation.

  14. Endoscopic Assessment of Early Neoplasia in the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    P. Didden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic detection and evaluation of early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract should be carried out by systematic assessment of a standard set of lesional characteristics. First of all, attention should be given to the microvasculature and pit pattern of the mucosal surface. These features can distinguish neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions and are used to assess the presence of dysplasia or malignancy. High resolution endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging usually provides sufficient detailed visualisation for characterisation. Secondly, estimating the risk of invasion beyond the mucosal layer is important, because the depth of invasion corresponds to the risk of lymph node metastasis. This prediction can be based on the gross morphology according to the Paris classification, but also size, the presence of converging folds with clubbing, ulceration and discoloration are considered predictive characteristics. This editorial provides a practical approach to assessing early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract. We would encourage endoscopists to appreciate these features systematically before proceeding to endoscopic or even surgical resection.

  15. Mobile genetic elements of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaders, Eileen; Gahan, Cormac G.M.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    The human intestine is an important location for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) due to the presence of a densely populated community of microorganisms which are essential to the health of the human superorganism. HGT in this niche has the potential to influence the evolution of members of this microbial community and to mediate the spread of antibiotic resistance genes from commensal organisms to potential pathogens. Recent culture-independent techniques and metagenomic studies have provided an insight into the distribution of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the extent of HGT in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this mini-review, we explore the current knowledge of mobile genetic elements in the gastrointestinal tract, the progress of research into the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the gut and the potential role of MGEs in the spread of antibiotic resistance. In the face of reduced treatment options for many clinical infections, understanding environmental and commensal antibiotic resistance and spread is critical to the future development of meaningful and long lasting anti-microbial therapies. PMID:23651955

  16. The impact of asthma on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Antonio Vieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia PretoriusDepartment of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaAbstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT of vertebrates is composed of several distinct ­compartments and glands as well as an extensive mucosal surface. Its primary function is that of chemical and physical digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients; however, due to its continual antigen exposure, the GIT also has an important defensive immunological function. The GIT’s immunological participation is facilitated by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, thought to share the mucosal immunological system with the respiratory mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. As a result of this shared mucosal immunity, it has been hypothesized that bronchial asthma may be able to affect the body’s GIT in the same pathophysiological manner as the airways and lungs. Here we discuss the link between bronchial asthma and ­pathophysiological features in the GIT – including leukocyte influx, goblet cell alterations, fibrosis, and epithelial and villous atrophy.Keywords: fundus, pylorus, common mucosal system, asthma, gastrointestinal tract

  17. Age-mediated changes in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; Liu, Fang; Orlu Gul, Mine; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-10-30

    Physiological functions of the two extreme ends of the age spectrum, children (aged 65 y and over), differ from healthy young adults. This consequently affects the pharmacokinetic profiles of administered drugs, which, in turn, impacts upon clinical practice and drug therapy. The gastrointestinal milieu acts as a distinct and vital organ regulating the dissolution, absorption and metabolism of orally ingested drugs. Age-mediated alteration in the physiology and function of the gut can reshape the pharmacokinetics of certain drugs. However, our understanding of this topic is limited. This article references the gut physiology of healthy adults to capture the available evidence in the literature on the extent and nature of the changes in childhood and older age. The gut, as an organ, is examined with regards to the effect of age on luminal fluid, microbiota, transit and motility, and the intestinal mucosa. Whilst drastic developmental changes were observed in certain aspects of the gastrointestinal environment, the examination reveals significant gaps in our knowledge in the physiology and function of the developing or ageing gut. The revelation of the unknown paves the way towards a better characterization of the human gastrointestinal tract for optimized drug therapy in children and older adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The sense of taste in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Akihiko; Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2014-01-01

    Digestion and the absorption of food and nutrients have been considered the only functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, recent studies suggest that taste cells in the oral cavity and taste-like cells in the GI tract share many common characteristics (taste receptors and transduction signaling). Over the last two decades, it has been revealed that the GI tract is a chemosensory organ that transfers nutrient information via GI hormone secretion (glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and others) and the activation of abdominal vagus afferents. In addition, the information relayed via the abdominal vagus nerve plays an important role in autonomic reflexes. This information, both humoral and neural, contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis (digestion, absorption, metabolism and food intake) in the body. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the following: GI chemosensory molecules, their distribution, the effect of nutrients on GI hormone secretion and the activation of vagus afferent nerves. We also focus on the possibility of clinical applications that control abdominal vagus activity.

  19. Innervation of the gastrointestinal tract: patterns of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert J; Powley, Terry L

    2007-10-30

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by intrinsic enteric neurons and by extrinsic projections, including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as well as visceral afferents, all of which are compromised by age to different degrees. In the present review, we summarize and illustrate key structural changes in the aging innervation of the gut, and suggest a provisional list of the general patterns of aging of the GI innervation. For example, age-related neuronal losses occur in both the myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus of the intestines. These losses start in adulthood, increase over the rest of the life span, and are specific to cholinergic neurons. Parallel losses of enteric glia also occur. The extent of neuronal and glial loss varies along an oral-to-anal gradient, with the more distal GI tract being more severely affected. Additionally, with aging, dystrophic axonal swellings and markedly dilated varicosities progressively accumulate in the sympathetic, vagal, dorsal root, and enteric nitrergic innervation of the gut. These dramatic and consistent patterns of neuropathy that characterize the aging autonomic nervous system of the GI tract are candidate mechanisms for some of the age-related declines in function evidenced in the elderly.

  20. Upper gastrointestinal tract polyps: what do we know about them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukasik, Kenan; Sevinc, Mert Mahsuni; Gunduz, Umut Riza; Ari, Aziz; Gurbulak, Bunyamin; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Bektas, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate upper gastrointestinal polyps detected during esophago- gastroduodenoscopy tests. We conducted a retrospective analysis on data regarding 55,987 upper gastrointestinal endoscopy tests performed at the endoscopy unit of Istanbul Education and Research Hospital between January 2006 and June 2012. A total of 66 upper gastrointestinal polyps from 59 patients were analyzed. The most common clinical symptom was dyspepsia, observed in 41 cases (69.5%). The localizations of the polyps were as follows: 29 in the antrum (43.9%), 15 in the corpus (22.7%), 11 in the cardia (16.7%), 3 in the fundus (4.54%), 3 in the second portion of the duodenum (4.54%), 2 in the bulbus (3.03%) and 3 in the lower end of the esophagus (4.54%). Histopathological types of polyps included hyperplastic polyps (44) (66.7%), faveolar hyperplasia (8) (12.1%), fundic gland polyps (4) (6.06%), squamous cell polyps (4) (6.06%), hamartomatous polyps (3) (4.54%), and pyloric gland adenoma (3) (4.54%). Histopathological analysis of the gastric mucosa showed chronic atrophic gastritis in 30 cases (50.84%), HP infection in 33 cases (55.9%) and intestinal metaplasia in 19 cases (32.20%). In 3 cases with multiple polyps, adenocarcinoma was detected in hyperplastic polyps. Among polypoid lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common histological type is hyperplastic polyps. Generally, HP infection is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The incidence of adenocarcinoma tends to be higher in patients with multiple hyperplastic polyps.

  1. A study on gastrointestinal tract characteristics of ram lambs at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on gastrointestinal tract characteristics of ram lambs at the same weights from six Turkish sheep breeds. A Yıldırım, Z Ulutas, N Ocak, E Sirin, Y Aksoy. Abstract. A study was conducted, first, to compare the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), reticulo-rumens and intestinal capacities (relative to body weight) of ram lambs from ...

  2. Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Robin D; Towbin, R B

    2002-09-01

    Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare. Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments. Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes. This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence. Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach.

  3. Foreign Material in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Cocaine Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Turkel Kucukmetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in ‘body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient.

  4. Modulating effects in human diets of dietary fibre and beef, and of time and dose on the reactive microcapsule trapping of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, I K; Bingham, S; Povey, A C; Brouet, I; Bereziat, J C

    1990-04-01

    Trapping by magnetic polyethyleneimine (PEI) microcapsules was utilized to investigate the influence in male rats of dose, human dietary composition and time-dependence on reactive metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; also, PEI microcapsules modified with copper phthalocyanine tetrasulphonic acid (CPTS) were tested in vivo for trapping of endogenous mutagens having planar molecular structure. In a preliminary experiment the PEI microcapsules were administered by gavage at 0, 24 and 48 h, with [14C]B[a]P at 2 h to chow-fed BDVI rats; microcapsules were recovered from faeces collected at 24, 48 and 72 h, and then subjected to an extraction sequence showing that the trapped B[a]P metabolites were inconsistent with B[a]P diol epoxide trapping (as previously found) and unaltered by elapsed time or 5-fold dose alteration of B[a]P. Then five groups of F344 rats were fed isocalorically either one of four low-fat human diets or rat chow; in order to investigate influences of diet both on B[a]P and endogenous mutagens, half of each group was tested at 2 weeks with this PEI microcapsule/[14C]B[a]P protocol and then at 3 weeks, PEI-CPTS microcapsules (two gavages). So as to provide a cross-over comparison, the other half of each group was first tested with PEI-CPTS microcapsules followed by PEI microcapsules/[14C]B[a]P 1 week later. The human diets were prepared from cooked British foods so as to simulate the adequate intake of all nutrients required by humans; but with 3-fold differences in intake levels of beef and dietary fibre non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), while ensuring the same intake of available energy, protein, fat and calcium. They gave very similar body-weight gains in the four groups but greatly reduced faecal weight, protein and total faecal enzyme activity compared with chow; the extraction pattern of microcapsule-trapped B[a]P metabolite radioactivity was not significantly altered. However, human diet consumption caused a

  5. Entrapment by magnetic microcapsules of the protein pyrolysates IQ, PhIP and Glu-P-1, and alteration of IQ metabolite exposure within the rat gastrointestinal tract by risk-modulating components of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, I; Ohgaki, H; Ellul, A; Turesky, R J

    1992-12-01

    The entrapment of heterocyclic aromatic amine gastrointestinal (GI) carcinogens (HAAs), by retrievable semipermeable magnetic polyethylenimine (PEI) microcapsules was investigated in vitro and in vivo as an approach for human biomonitoring. Previous studies showed that PEI microcapsules successfully entrapped benzo[a]pyrene (B[]P) and its metabolites in the GI tract of rodents. In this study, we have shown that 14C-labelled 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methylphenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3'2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) are adsorbed to PEI microcapsules in vitro and can be desorbed by treatment with ammoniac methanol. Binding of HAAs to PEI microcapsules containing copper phthalocyanine (TCPTS), a moiety which reversibly binds chemicals with aromatic planar structures, was 2- to 4-fold higher than with unmodified PEI microcapsules. PEI microcapsules also acted as a nucleophile and trapped the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of IQ, 2-hydroxy-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5f]quinoline (N-hydroxy-IQ). The entrapment of 14C-labelled IQ and PhIP by microcapsules was investigated in vivo in male F344 rats fed a conventional chow diet or a human diet with varying amounts of fat and beef intake typically consumed in the UK. Animals were adapted to human diets which were either high (H) or low (L) in fat (F), beef protein (B) and dietary fibre non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). Microcapsule entrapment of IQ and metabolites was 0.5-2.0% of the dose and 4-fold higher in rats consuming a HF/HB/LNSP than those consuming a LF/LB/HNSP diet, these being respectively putatative high- and low-risk-associated diets. In the HF/HB/LNSP diet group, a higher amount of IQ metabolites were detected in the microcapsules; a lower proportion of covalently bound metabolites could be removed by acid hydrolysis. Urinary excretion was 2-fold greater and analysis of the urinary metabolites showed there to be lower sulfotransferase activity

  6. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  7. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  9. Antibiotics influence on lactic acid bacteria inhibiting gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Čanžek Majhenič

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have important role in maintaining the equilibrium of GI flora, which can be influenced by various factors like diets, antimicrobials and stress. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC of 6 antibiotics, commonly used in human medicine for 8 selected lactobacilli strains were determined by macrodilution and microdilution methods in liquid media and by diffusion method on agar plates. The effects of Penicillin G and Ampicillin on intestinal LAB were tested in vivoon mice as well. Lactobacilli were sensitive to Penicillin G, (penicillines and their derivatives and Erythromycin (macrolides by in vitro testing. Clyndamycin (pyranosid showed moderate inhibitory effect. All lactobacilli strains were resistant to Kanamycin and Neomycin (aminoglycosides, while L. salivarius IM 124 has shown extra resistance to Erythromycin and Clyndamycin. The influence of orally administered Ampicillin showed no significant influence on LAB count in mice faeces. The effect of Penicillin G on mice LAB total count was significant, while no effect of orally administered lactobacilli was determined.

  10. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  11. [Current significance of polypectomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, N A; Belloni, P O; Castelletto, R H; Chopita, N A; Jmelnitzky, A C; Varela, O W; Salamanca, G L; Reinoso Zayas, R

    1984-01-01

    Author's experience about 70 endoscopic polipectomy of high gastrointestinal tract, realized on 53 patients during 1978-1983 period was evaluated. Esophaguel polyps incidence was 0.06% among 7.900 endoscopic studies; gastric polyps was 0.8% and duodenal was 0.03%. Diagnosis was radiologically suspected in 58%. Gastric antrum was the predominant localization (45.7%) and macroscopic Yamada types IV (32.8%) and III (30.0%) were found more frequently. Most of patients presented solitary polips (86.7%). 63.2% of pieces were under 10 mm in size and 35.2% between 10 - 20 mm. High frecuency of adenomas (23.5%) and a low one of hyperplasiogenic (7.3%) was the prominent finding; only one case of early gastric cancer was founded (1.5%). Neither adenoms or hyperplasiogenic polyps were founded on gastric fundus, and no direct relation between size and histopatologic type was observed. Only one hemorragic complication (1.4%) was present. Polips incidence on 800 consecutive auptopsy protocols in adults was 0.12%.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT WITH COLLOIDAL BARIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, Frank; Kaplan, Henry S.; Jones, Henry H.

    1951-01-01

    A stable colloidal suspension of barium sulfate has been developed and tested in roentgen examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The new material is rather distinctive in radiographic appearance and can usually be differentiated from simple barium-water mixtures by inspection of roentgenograms of the opacified stomach and small intestine. It usually affords a satisfactory demonstration of the mucosal folds of the stomach and duodenal bulb and is considerably more resistant to flocculation and precipitation by retained gastric secretions. In the small intestine, it has little tendency to undergo flocculation and fragmentation, and permits visualization of fine mucosal configurations with unusual clarity. Its motility is about the same as that of conventional suspensions. Air contrast colon examinations with the colloidal preparation exhibit a very uniform, opaque, and stable coating of the bowel wall and are more consistently satisfactory than when simple barium-water mixtures are used. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:14812347

  13. Antimicrobial Probiotics Reduce Salmonella enterica in Turkey Gastrointestinal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkus, Brittany; Ritter, Seth; Vlysidis, Michail; Geldart, Kathryn; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2017-01-17

    Despite the arsenal of technologies employed to control foodborne nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), infections have not declined in decades. Poultry is the primary source of NTS outbreaks, as well as the fastest growing meat sector worldwide. With recent FDA rules for phasing-out antibiotics in animal production, pressure is mounting to develop new pathogen reduction strategies. We report on a technology to reduce Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. We engineered probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, to express and secrete the antimicrobial peptide, Microcin J25. Using in vitro experiments and an animal model of 300 turkeys, we establish the efficacy of this technology. Salmonella more rapidly clear the ceca of birds administered the modified probiotic than other treatment groups. Approximately 97% lower Salmonella carriage is measured in a treated group, 14 days post-Salmonella challenge. Probiotic bacteria are generally regarded as safe to consume, are bile-resistant and can plausibly be modified to produce a panoply of antimicrobial peptides now known. The reported systems may provide a foundation for platforms to launch antimicrobials against gastrointestinal tract pathogens, including ones that are multi-drug resistant.

  14. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pharmacological Therapy of Vascular Malformations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular malformation (AVM in the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon, but not rare, cause of bleeding and iron deficiency anemia, especially in an aging population. While endoscopic coagulative therapy is the method of choice for controlling bleeding, a substantial number of cases require additional therapy. Adjunctive or even primary phamacotherapy may be indicated in recurrent bleeding. However, there is little evidence-based proof of efficacy for any agent. The bulk of support is derived from anecdotal reports or case series. The present review compares the outcome of AVM after no intervention, coagulative therapy or focus on pharmacological agents. Most of the literature encompasses two common AVMs, angiodysplasia and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Similarly, the bulk of information evaluates two therapies, hormones (estrogen and progesterone and the somatostatin analogue octreotide. Of these, the former is the only therapy evaluated in randomized trials, and the results are conflicting without clear guidelines. The latter therapy has been reported only as case reports and case series without prospective trials. In addition, other anecdotally used medications are discussed.

  16. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus )

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana S Gomes; Yuko Kamisaka; Torstein Harboe; Deborah M Power; Ivar Rønnestad

    2014-01-01

    .... In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur...

  17. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-01-01

    .... In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process...

  18. Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowska, I; Pawlik, M; Sliwowski, Z; Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-01-01

    .... Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic strategies in patients with nonresectable upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Ainsworth, A P; Scheel-Hincke, J D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Using a simple model, this retrospective study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic strategies used for pretherapeutic detection of patients with disseminated or locally nonresectable upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies (UGIM). Of 162 consecutive...

  20. Post-corrosive injuries of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, A; Simonovska, N; Shikole, A

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisonings with corrosive substances may cause serious chemical injuries to upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common location being the esophagus and the stomach. If the patient survives the acute phase of the poisoning, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis and increased risk for esophageal cancer. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. In establishing the diagnosis of acute corrosive poisonings, the severity of the post-corrosive endoscopic changes of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is of major importance. According to Holinder and Fridman classification, post-corrosive endoscopic changes are classified in three degrees: First degree--superficial damage associated with hyperthermia, epithelial desquamation and mucous edema. Second degree--transmucous damage affecting all of the mucosal layers, followed by exudation, erosions and ulcerations. Third degree--transmural damage associated with ulcer's penetration in the deep layers of the tissue and neighboring organs. Severity of the lesions depends on the nature, quantity and concentration of the corrosive substance, the duration of exposure and current state of the exposed organs. Most often caustic injuries occur to the esophagus and stomach since the corrosive substance remains there for a longer period of time. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. The most common complications that may appear are: perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, sepsis, esophageal strictures and stenosis, stenosis of gastric antrum and pylorus, cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. Today, owing to the substantially enhanced

  1. The role of intestinal bacteria in the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Kosuke; Ogino, Shuji; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sawayama, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Krashima, Ryuichi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Imai, Katsunori; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Yoshida, Naoya; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2017-12-01

    More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play important roles in health conditions and diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract can potentiate the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, producing tumor-promoting metabolites such as secondary bile acids, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Other bacterial species have been shown to produce short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which can suppress inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract. Consistent with these lines of evidence, clinical studies using metagenomic analyses have shown associations of specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis with gastrointestinal tract cancers, including esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers. Emerging data demonstrate that intestinal bacteria can modulate the efficacy of cancer chemotherapies and novel targeted immunotherapies such as anti-CTLA4 and anti-CD274 therapies, the process of absorption, and the occurrence of complications after gastrointestinal surgery. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence tumor development and progression in the intestine would provide opportunities to develop new prevention and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal tract cancers by targeting the intestinal microflora. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues Induced by Arsenic Toxicity in Cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed trace element which is known to be associated with numerous adverse effects on human beings and animals. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an inorganic arsenical-containing toxic compound. The effect of excessive amounts of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks is still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks. In total, 72 1-day-old male Hyline cocks were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3 supplement diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; and hydroxyl radical (OH·)-mediated inhibition were examined. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that MDA content in the gastrointestinal tract was increased, while the activities of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px and the ability to resist OH· was decreased in the As2O3 treatment groups. Extensive damage was observed in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicated that As2O3 exposure caused oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks due to alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and elevation of free radicals.

  3. High-throughput diversity and functionality analysis of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota plays a pivotal role in our health. For more than a decade a major input for describing the diversity of the GI tract microbiota has been derived from the application of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA)-based technologies. These not only

  4. Action of the extracts of Pluchea sagittalis on the absorptive characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise E. Burger

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera, (quitoco or erva lucera is commonly used to treat digestive disorders in Southern Brazil and countries of the South Cone. The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves, stalks or flowers were used in acute oral toxicity in mice and in pharmacological studies to determine the gastrointestinal transport of water, sodium, and potassium in rats. The oral administration of 5000 mg/kg of extracts examined did not produce signs of intoxication nor induce the death of any mice during the period of 14 days. The extracts from the leaves and stalk have reduced the absorption of water in the jejunum and jejunum and ileum, respectively with relation to the control. There was an absorption of sodium with the administration of these extracts, especially those from the flowers, when compared with that of the control. There was an increase in the absorption of potassium in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract in comparison to that of the control, being increased in most parts with the application of extracts from the stalks. It could be concluded that the extracts from the stalk, leaves and flowers of P. sagittalis have substances that alter the absorptive characteristics of several portions of the gastrointestinal mucosa.Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera, (quitoco ou erva lucera é usada popularmente no sul do Brasil e países do Cone Sul. Os extratos aquosos brutos das folhas, caule e flores foram utilizados em experimentos de toxidade aguda oral em camundongos e em estudos farmacológicos para determinar o transporte gastrointestinal de água, sódio e potássio em ratos. A administração oral de 500 mg/kg não desenvolveu sinal de intoxicação nem induziu a morte de camundongos durante o período de 14 dias. Os extratos das folhas e caule reduziram a absorção de água no jejuno e jejuno íleo, respectivamente em relação ao controle. Houve absorção de sódio com a administração destes extratos, principalmente

  5. Pattern of Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UGT) including gastro esophageal reflux (GERD), peptic ulcer diseases (PU), and upper gastrointestinal malignancies was not studied recently in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the pattern of endoscopic findings of upper ...

  6. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in elective gastrointestinal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, D.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery and especially colorectal surgery is associated with a high risk of postoperative infections due to contamination by bacteria in the large intestine. These postoperative infectious complications increase hospital stay and costs of treatment. The most common infectious

  7. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Primary role of esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, J L; Stramat, J; Wolfgang, M; Trimpey, A

    1995-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract bleeding is a common reason for hospitalization of mentally retarded adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and cause of and risk factors for UGI tract bleeding in institutionalized mentally retarded adults admitted to our hospital. Case-control study, with a retrospective review of medical records. Inner-city tertiary care hospital. Mentally retarded adults who reside in one of three long-term care facilities. Data on demographic features, clinical features, and concurrent medical conditions were collected on mentally retarded adults admitted to our hospital for UGI tract bleeding (n = 40). Data from these patients were compared with those from a control group of mentally retarded adults admitted for nonbleeding conditions (n = 124). Endoscopic data were reviewed on the patients who bled to further clarify the causes of UGI tract bleeding. The patients who bled were compared with those who did not bleed using the chi 2 and Mann-Whitney rank sum tests. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding was the most common reason for hospitalization in this patient population. Such bleeding was most commonly caused by erosive esophagitis (70% of patients who bled). Conditions associated with an increased risk for UGI tract bleeding were hiatal hernia, reduced activity, incontinence, hypoalbuminemia, kyphoscoliosis, and spastic quadriplegia. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization in mentally retarded adults and is usually due to erosive esophagitis. It is hoped that vigorous efforts to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease may reduce hospitalization in these patients.

  9. Clock gene expression in the murine gastrointestinal tract: endogenous rhythmicity and effects of a feeding regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A; Hellmich, Helen L; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Shahinian, Vahakn B; Bostwick, Jonathon; Savidge, Tor C; Cassone, Vincent M

    2007-10-01

    Based on observations that the gastrointestinal tract is subject to various 24-hour rhythmic processes, it is conceivable that some of these rhythms are under circadian clock gene control. We hypothesized that clock genes are present in the gastrointestinal tract and that they are part of a functional molecular clock that coordinates rhythmic physiologic functions. The effects of timed feeding and vagotomy on temporal clock gene expression (clock, bmal1, per1-3, cry1-2) in the gastrointestinal tract and suprachiasmatic nucleus (bmal, per2) of C57BL/6J mice were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting (BMAL, PER2). Colonic clock gene localization was examined using immunohistochemistry (BMAL, PER1-2). Clock immunoreactivity was observed in the myenteric plexus and epithelial crypt cells. Clock genes were expressed rhythmically throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Timed feeding shifted clock gene expression at the RNA and protein level but did not shift clock gene expression in the central clock. Vagotomy did not alter gastric clock gene expression compared with sham-treated controls. The murine gastrointestinal tract contains functional clock genes, which are molecular core components of the circadian clock. Daytime feeding in nocturnal rodents is a strong synchronizer of gastrointestinal clock genes. This synchronization occurs independently of the central clock. Gastric clock gene expression is not mediated through the vagal nerve. The presence of clock genes in the myenteric plexus and epithelial cells suggests a role for clock genes in circadian coordination of gastrointestinal functions such as motility, cell proliferation, and migration.

  10. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    R?mond, Didier; Danit R. Shahar; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agn?s; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tom?s-Cobos, Lidia; Verg?res, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor fu...

  11. Non-pathogenic colonization with Chlamydia in the gastrointestinal tract as oral vaccination for inducing transmucosal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luying; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Tianyuan; Tian, Qi; Zhang, Nu; Morrison, Sandra; Morrison, Richard; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2017-11-13

    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. We now report that gastrointestinal Chlamydia muridarum is able to induce robust transmucosal protection in mice. C. muridarum colonization in the gastrointestinal tract correlated with both a shortened course of C. muridarum genital infection and stronger protection against subsequent genital tract challenge infection. Mice pre-inoculated intragastrically with C. muridarum became highly resistant to subsequent C. muridarum infection in the genital tract, resulting in prevention of pathology in the upper genital tract. The transmucosal protection in the genital tract was rapidly induced, durable and dependent on MHC class II but not class I antigen presentation. Although deficiency in CD4+ T cells only partially reduced the transmucosal protection, depletion of CD4+ T cells from B cell-deficient mice completely abolished the protection, suggesting a synergistic role of both CD4+ T and B cells in the gastrointestinal C. muridarum-induced transmucosal immunity. However, the same protective immunity did not significantly affect C. muridarum colonization in the gastrointestinal tract. The long-lasting colonization with C. muridarum was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract and nonpathogenic to either gastrointestinal or extra-gastrointestinal tissues. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal C. muridarum did not alter gut microbiota or the development of gut mucosal resident memory T cells to a non-chlamydial infection. Thus, Chlamydia may be developed into a safe and orally deliverable replicating vaccine for inducing transmucosal protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Pathology of different portions of the gastrointestinal tract in children with Gilbert’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Botvinyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert’s syndrome is a common genetic disease caused by deficiency of the liver enzyme UDP-glucuronyl transferase. The objective of the investigation is to study pathology of different portions of the gastrointestinal tract in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. A total of 182 children aged 3 to 17 years with Gilbert’s syndrome, who had been admitted to the clinic with the signs of jaundice and different gastroenterological complaints and symptoms, were examined. According to comprehensive examination results, among the gastrointestinal diseases in the patients, there was a preponderance duodenal injuries (41,5% of all diagnoses, there were less common injuries of the stomach (23,7%, esophagus (20%, and large bowel (14,8%. There was an age-specific relationship of the rate of erosive-ulcerative lesion of the upper gastrointestinal tract: erosions and ulcers were much more frequently encountered in children older than 10 years, predominantly in 14-17-year olds. Thus, the duodenum has been established to be most commonly affected in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. The children with this syndrome belong to a group at increased risk for gastrointestinal tract diseases. It is important to initiate measures as early as possible to prevent gastrointestinal tract diseases in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. 

  13. A spectroscopic screening of the chemical speciation of europium(III) in gastrointestinal tract. The intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An), investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. In order to identify the dominant binding partners (i.e. counter ions and/or ligands) of An/Ln in the gastrointestinal tract, a spectroscopic screening was performed by Time-Resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) using artificial digestive juices containing Eu(III), a representative of Ln(III) and An(III). In the intestine, Eu(III) show a strong complexation especially with organic substances of the pancreatic and bile juice like the protein mucin.

  14. Over-the-scope clips in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract iatrogenic perforation: A multicenter retrospective study and a classification of gastrointestinal tract perforations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Caruso, Angelo; Manta, Raffaele; Di Mitri, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Pagano, Nico; Galloro, Giuseppe; Mocciaro, Filippo; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Luigiano, Carmelo; Antonucci, Enrico; Conigliaro, Rita; Masci, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforations treated by over-the-scope clip (OTSC) placement. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 20 patients (13 female and 7 male; mean age: 70.6 ± 9.8 years) in eight high-volume tertiary referral centers with upper or lower iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforation treated by OTSC placement. Gastrointestinal tract perforation could be with oval-shape or with round-shape. Oval-shape perforations were closed by OTSC only by suction and the round-shape by the “twin-grasper” plus suction. RESULTS: Main perforation diameter was 10.1 ± 4.3 mm (range 3-18 mm). The technical success rate was 100% (20/20 patients) and the clinical success rate was 90% (18/20 patients). Two patients (10%) who did not have complete sealing of the defect underwent surgery. Based upon our observations we propose two types of perforation: Round-shape “type-1 perforation” and oval-shape “type-2 perforation”. Eight (40%) out of the 20 patients had a type-1 perforation and 12 patients a type-2 (60%). CONCLUSION: OTSC placement should be attempted after perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopy. A failed closure attempt does not impair subsequent surgical treatment. PMID:27152138

  15. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  16. Targeting cancers in the gastrointestinal tract: role of capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif SaifYale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Capecitabine is currently the only novel, orally home-administered fluorouracil prodrug. It offers patients more freedom from hospital visits and less inconvenience and complications associated with infusion devices. The drug has been extensively studied in large clinical trials in many solid tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and many others. Furthermore, the drug compares favorably with fluorouracil in patients with such cancers, with a safe toxicity profile, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects. Whereas gastrointestinal events and hand-foot syndrome occur often with capecitabine, the tolerability profile is comparatively favorable. Prompt recognition of severe adverse effects is the key to successful management of capecitabine. Ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to examine, and likely expand, the role of capecitabine as a single agent and/or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal as well as other solid tumors, both in the advanced palliative and adjuvant settings. The author summarizes the current data on the role of capecitabine in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, chemotherapy, adjuvant, advanced, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer

  17. Induced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) derangement following a long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two recognized isoforms of cyclooxygenase enzymes, the cyclooxygenase – 1 and cyclooxyg-enase – 2, the former is involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, in organs where these eicosanoids play certain protective roles in the gastrointesional tract (GIT) and the kidney, it also enhances mucus secretions ...

  18. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component (e...

  19. Actions of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants that compound the Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on the gastrointestinal tract. Female Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o. with the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 g.kg-1 before the induction of ulcer with hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, ethanol (ET or indomethacin (IND. Control animals received water (C or ranitidine (60mg/kg p.o. The hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 mg.kg-1 protected rats against HRS and ET - induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND - induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia inhibited basal and stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. These results indicate that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions of the mucosa involving the reduction of gastric acid secretion.As plantas que compõem o gênero Pfaffia são utilizadas na medicina popular para tratar distúrbios gástricos. O presente estudo verificou os efeitos de um extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp sobre o trato gastrointestinal. Ratos Wistar fêmeas, foram pré-tratados por via oral (p.o. com o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 g/kg 1 hora antes da indução de úlceras com estresse por imobilização e frio, com etanol 70% ou indometacina. Animais controle receberam água (C ou ranitidina (R: 60mg/kg - p.o. O tratamento com o extrato protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra o aparecimento de úlceras induzidas por estresse e etanol, mas não foi capaz de proteger a mucosa contra úlceras induzidas por indometacina. Quando injetado pela via intraduodenal (na luz do duodeno - i.d., o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp inibiu tanto a secreção ácida gástrica basal quanto a estimulada com histamina e betanecol (drogas agonistas, em ratas com ligadura de piloro. Os

  20. Recent Advances in Human Protozoan Parasites of Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    or trophozoites (Cross & Bacaca-Sevilla, 1984). Dientamoeba fragilis Several aspects about this amoebofagellate are puzzling. The means of...PANAITESCU D., FL.oSCu P., ROMAN N. & CAPAtaU T. 190. Studies on Dientamoeba ragilis in Romania. II. Incidence of Dientamoeba fragilis in healthy persons...Lancet May 14: 1103. SPENCER MJ., CHAPIN M.R. & GARCIA L.S. 1962. Dientamoeba fragilis : A gastrointestinal protozoan infection in adults. American

  1. Rhythm of digestion: keeping time in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Romke; Furness, John B

    2009-10-01

    1. The best characterized mammalian circadian rhythms follow a light-entrained central master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and are associated with fluctuations in the activities of clock genes, including Clock, Bmal1, Per and Cry, the products of which bind to sequences in the promoters of effector genes. This is the central clock. 2. In the present review, we discuss evidence for an independent, but interacting, gut-associated circadian clock, the peripheral clock, which is entrained by food. 3. Disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with a wide range of pathologies, most prominently metabolism linked, but the effects of disruption of circadian rhythms on the digestive system are less well studied, although also likely to lead to functional consequences. There are clues suggestive of links between gastrointestinal disorders related to inflammation, cancer and motility and disruption of peripheral rhythms. Research aimed at understanding these links is still in its infancy. 4. We also discuss practical aspects of the presence of circadian rhythms in gastrointestinal tissues for researchers related to experimental design, data interpretation and the choice of animal models. 5. There is currently sufficient evidence to suggest that circadian rhythms are important to gut function, metabolism and mucosal defence and that further investigation will uncover connections between disordered rhythms and gastrointestinal malfunction.

  2. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  3. Molecular identification and characterisation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satokari, R.

    2002-01-01

    Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are considered to be members of the beneficial microbiota in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The present study describes the development and validation of new molecular methods for the detection and analysis of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and the

  4. The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schell, M.A.; Karmirantzou, M.; Snel, B.; Vilanova, D.; Berger, B.; Pessi, G.; Zwahlen, M.C.; Desiere, F.; Bork, P.; Delley, M.; Pridmore, R.D.; Arigoni, F.

    2002-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive prokaryotes that naturally colonize the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and vagina. Although not numerically dominant in the complex intestinal microflora, they are considered as key commensals that promote a healthy GIT. We determined the 2.26-Mb genome sequence

  5. Substance P and neurokinin A are codistributed and colocalized in the porcine gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bersani, M; Holst, J J

    1991-01-01

    Immunoreactive substance P and neurokinin A were measured with radioimmunoassay in extracts of different segments of porcine gastrointestinal tract using C-terminally directed antisera. In all segments, the concentrations of substance P and neurokinin A were similar. The largest concentrations...

  6. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed with pigs to study the inhibitory effect of fermented feed on the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal tract. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between pH and lactobacilli in the stomach contents of pigs in dry feed as well as in the

  7. Activity in the gastrointestinal tract after administration of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronhjort, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Jonsson, C. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Hospital Physics; Nilsson, S.O. [Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Garmelius, B. [Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: To test the possibility that (radio)activity of non-pertechnetate nature is excreted into the gastrointestinal tract at bone scintigraphy. Material and Methods: The distribution of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP) was studied in an experimental mouse system by dissecting different organs and assessing their activity with a gamma-counter. Results: A comparison of the activity of the submandibular glands, which are assumed to accumulate only pertechnetate, and the gastrointestinal tract showed that a significant fraction of the activity excreted into the gastrointestinal tract did not consist of pertechnetate. Part of the excretion took place in the stomach. It was not connected to a specific bone-seeking agent or {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator. Nor did it increase with time between make-up and injection. The excretion of the non-pertechnetate activity was reduced by cimetidine and omeprazole. These gastric-secretion blocking drugs did not reduce excretion of pertechnetate or significantly affect the general distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion: There is a significant excretion of non-pertechnetate activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Part of this may be caused by excretion of the undegraded radiopharmaceutical by the stomach mucosa. (orig.).

  8. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, B.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.; Kuiper, R.P.; Song, M.; Zhang, X.; Song, S.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Iwamoto, A.; Wang, J; Liu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas) are exceedingly rare, with only a limited number of published reports worldwide. Given the scarcity of GI PEComas and their relatively short follow-up periods, our current knowledge of their biologic behavior, molecular

  9. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  10. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes that are induced in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Grangette, C.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Moreover, this lactic acid bacterium can survive passage through the human or mouse stomach in an active form. To investigate the

  11. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on surgical decision-making in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Edwin, B; Hünerbein, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an integrated part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. Whether the clinical impact of EUS differs between surgeons from different countries is unknown. The same applies to the potentia...

  12. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer through GIS over 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshadat, Sohyla; Saeidi, Shahram; Zangeneh, Ali Reza; Khademi, Nahid; Khasi, Keyvan; Ghasemi, SayedRamin; Gilan, Nader Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the common causes of disability and mortality in the world. The present study aimed to define the spatiotemporal distribution of gastrointestinal tract cancers using a geographic information system (GIS) over the time period of 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran. The method of studying was descriptive-analytical as well as comparative with gastrointestinal tract cancer patients based in the City of Kermanshah over the time period covered. For data analysis, the GIS and SPSS 16.0 were applied. According to the pathological reports within the space of 5 years, 283 cases of gastrointestinal tract cancer (157 in males, 156 in females) were reported. The performed tests in terms of spatial distribution in the environment of GIS indicated that the disease demonstrated a clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah. More to the point, some loci of this disease have emerged in the City of Kermanshah that in the first level, 6 neighborhoods with 29-59 cases of this disease per square kilometer and in the second level, 15-29 cases. Gastrointestinal tract cancer demonstrated an ascending trend within the space of 5 years of research and the spatiotemporal distribution of cancer featured a concentrated and clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah.

  13. Microbial flora of the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports the microbial load and diversity in the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus caught in River Dandaru, Ibadan. A set of adult samples of Clarias gariepinus was caught from the river Dandaru, Ibadan. Determination of microbial loads and characterization of microorganisms present in the gut region of ...

  14. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Sites of organic acid production and pattern of digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, E T; Stevens, C E; Southworth, M

    1975-10-01

    Sixteen geese were used to assess the movement of fluid and particulate digesta through their gastrointestinal tracts and to determine the diurnal variation in organic acid levels for the various segments of the tract. Fluid (polyethylene glycol and chronium-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and particulate markers (2 and 5 mm long) were administered with the meal. Animals were killed at given intervals after the administration of markers. The gastrointestinal tract was divided into nine segments for measurement of markers, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and lactic acid contents. The data indicated a rapid evacuation of fluid marker from the foregut (crop, ventriculus, and proventriculus), while particulate markers were retained for extended periods of time. Retention of fluid marker was observed only within the cecum. Retrograde movement of particulate marker was demonstrated from the duodenum to ventriculus and proventriculus. Retrograde movement of fluid marker was observed from the cloaca to the colon, cecum, and distal third of the small intestine. However, particulate marker showed no retrograde movement in these segments of tract. Highest VFA levels were observed in the cecum. Retention of digesta and production of VFA within the colon were less than those noted for the dog, pig and pony. Lactic acid comprised less than 10% of the organic acids present in the gastrointestinal tract and were at their highest levels in the proximal and mid small intestine.

  16. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT HEMORRHAGE AND NONSTEROIDALANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs – A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a common cause of digestive tract hemorrhage.Study aims. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the percent of patients taking NSAIDs with upper digestive tract hemorrhage.Type of study. Prospective, analytical.Patients and methods. The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were carried out due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1998.Results. 3366 patients were investigated: 1222 women and 2144 men; the average age of our patients was 57.5 years (SD ± 17.1, a 2–97 year span. In 2905 patients (86.3% the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among our patients 55% were aged over 60 years, 26.7% were older than 80 years. Sequelae of peptic ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in 47.7% of our patients (1387/2905. In the last week prior to bleeding, 19% of patients (552/2905 were taking regularly NSAIDs, corticosteroids, salycilates or anticoagulant therapy at least in single daily dose. The majority of patients, 94.5%, were taking NSAIDs or salycilates. Among NSAIDs they were taking most often ketoprofen, diclofenac or naproxen/ naproxen natrium, less often ibuprofen, nabumeton, etodolac or piroxicam.Conclusions. Upper digestive tract hemorrhage is a serious complication of NSAIDs medication, particularly in older patients

  17. Recent Update of Embolization of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a frequent complication with significant morbidity and mortality. Although endoscopic hemostasis remains the initial treatment modality, severe bleeding despite endoscopic management occurs in 5-10% of patients, necessitating surgery or interventional embolotherapy. Endovascular embolotherapy is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic management. Interventional radiologists need to be familiar with the choice of embolic materials, technical aspects of embolotherapy, and the factors affecting the favorable or unfavorable outcomes after embolotherapy for UGI bleeding.

  18. Gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-10-15

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  19. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, W N

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  20. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobilization of xanthine oxidase from the gastrointestinal tract in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Closa Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthine oxidoreductase has been proposed to play a role in the development of local and systemic effects of acute pancreatitis. Under physiologic conditions, the enzyme exists mainly as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH but can be converted by proteolytic cleavage to its superoxide-generating form xanthine oxidase (XOD. In addition to its intracellular location XDH/XOD is also associated to the polysaccharide chains of proteoglycans on the external endothelial cell membrane. In the early stages of acute pancreatitis, this enzyme seems to be arising from its mobilization from the gastrointestinal endothelial cell surface. Taking into account the ability of α-amylase to hydrolyze the internal α-1,4 linkages of polysaccharides, we wanted to elucidate the involvement of α-amylase in XDH/XOD mobilization from the gastrointestinal endothelial cell surface and the relevance of the ascitic fluid (AF as the source of α-amylase in experimental acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. In another experimental group 3000 U/Kg α-amylase was i.v. administered. The concentrations of XDH, XOD and α-amylase in plasma and AF and myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung have been evaluated. In additional experiments, the effect of peritoneal lavage and the absorption of α-amylase present in the AF by an isolated intestine have been determined. Results Similar increase in XDH+XOD activity in plasma was observed after induction of acute pancreatitis and after i.v. administration of α-amylase. Nevertheless, the conversion from XDH to XOD was only observed in the pancreatitis group. Lung inflammation measured as MPO activity was observed only in the pancreatitis group. In addition peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in α-amylase and XDH+XOD in plasma after induction of pancreatitis. Finally, it was observed that α-amylase is absorbed from the AF by the

  2. Effects Of Ficus Thonningii Extracts On The Gastrointestinal Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ficus thonningii is commonly used in traditional medicine across the African continent. We investigated the effects of crude Ficus thonningii extracts on growth, morphology and morphometry of the abdominal viscera and clinical biochemistry of neonatal rats. Materials and Methods: Forty, 6-day old Sprague ...

  3. Guideline for fluoroscopy of low gastrointestinal tract in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yun Jung [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Gye Yeon [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Jung [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Although the availability of CT, MRI and endoscopy has resulted in a marked decline in fluoroscopic procedures in adult patients, fluoroscopy remains an important and frequently used procedure in pediatric patients because there is no appropriate choice of diagnostic imaging or treatment modality for certain diseases. The Korean Society of Pediatric Radiology has formulated evidence-based guidelines for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract in the pediatric population (under age 18 including neonates) in order to assist physicians in clinical practice. The guidelines offer standards of examination practice including radiation doses that are as low as reasonably achievable for children under 18 years old, including neonates, for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract, which has typically used relatively high doses. The recommendations of these guidelines should not be used as an absolute standard, and physicians should always refer to methods that do not adhere to the guidelines when those methods are considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation.

  4. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  5. Prophylaxis of gastrointestinal tract bleeding with magaldrate in patients admitted to a general hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, R; Pedrol, E; Castells, A; Masanés, F; Marrades, R M; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1991-08-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess the effect of magaldrate (800 mg every 4 h) in reducing the rate of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding among 100 consecutive patients with severe diseases admitted to a general hospital ward. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding occurred in 11 of 48 placebo-treated patients and in only 1 of 52 magaldrate-treated patients (p less than 0.01). Endoscopic examination of these patients showed gastric ulcer (two cases), multiple gastric mucosa ulcerations (nine), and no lesions (one). In three patients who received placebo the hemorrhage was clinically relevant and required transfusion of two or more blood units. Patients with two or more risk factors showed a higher rate of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (p less than 0.05). Respiratory failure and treatment with a high dose of corticosteroids were associated with the highest incidence of bleeding (p less than 0.05 for both). The only adverse reaction associated with magaldrate was a mild and self-limiting diarrhea in two cases. We conclude that patients seriously ill admitted to a general hospital ward should be treated with a prophylactic agent against stress-induced ulcer bleeding. Magaldrate is an effective and safe antacid to prevent gastrointestinal tract bleeding in such patients.

  6. Angiodysplasia and lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Gorbien, M J

    1995-04-24

    Angiodysplasia of the colon is one of the most common causes of major lower intestinal tract bleeding in the elderly; it occurs predominantly in the cecum and on the right side of the colon and is thought to result from degenerative changes associated with aging. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from hematochezia or melena to iron-deficiency anemia resulting from long-term blood loss. Accurate diagnosis may require a combination of diagnostic techniques, such as angiography, nuclear scanning, and colonoscopy. The management plan should be individualized for each patient depending on severity, rate of rebleeding, and issues of comorbidity. Although conservative medical management is a reasonable option for many patients, endoscopic treatment has generally replaced surgery as the first line of definitive treatment for angiodysplasias in most of these patients. The risk of rebleeding is a considerable problem, and surgical therapy yields better results in this aspect. The role of hormonal therapy is not clearly established.

  7. [Effect of cisapride on contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Nakaya, M; Nakamura, T; Itoh, Z

    1985-04-01

    Cisapride strongly stimulates gastrointestinal motor activity simultaneously from stomach to jejunum in the interdigestive state. The contractile pattern in the stomach was quite similar to that of the natural interdigestive mingrating contractions (IMC) in all respects, frequency, contractile force, and coordination between the gastric body and antrum. However, the cisapride-induced IMC-like contractions in the stomach did not migrate along the small intestine, nor were accompanied by an increase of plasma motilin concentration. Furthermore, both motilin and cisapride, given during the period of phase III, did not affect the phase III activity, but carbachol abruptly stopped phase III activity if it was given during phase III activity. On the contrary, cisapride-induced contractions in the stomach are completely inhibited by atropine, pentagastrin, CCK-octapeptide, but not by secretin. These findings provide additional evidence to indicate that the cisapride-induced contractions in the stomach are identical with the natural IMC in the respect of reactons to hormonal substances. No noticeable side effects were observed. In conclusion, cisapride is a unique compound to initiate IMC-like contractions in the stomach, but the contractions were not accompanied by an increase in plasma motilin concentration and did not migrate the small intestine.

  8. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Capella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic application of immunohistochemical techniques to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that neuroendocrine cells occur rather frequently in exocrine neoplasms of the gut. It is now well known that there is a wide spectrum of combinations of exocrine and neuroendocrine components, ranging from adenomas or carcinomas with interspersed neuroendocrine cells at one extreme to classical neuroendocrine tumors with a focal exocrine component at the other. In addition, both exocrine and neuroendocrine components can have different morphological features ranging, for the former, from adenomas to adenocarcinomas with different degrees of differentiation and, for the latter, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. However, although this range of combinations of neuroendocrine and exocrine components is frequently observed in routine practice, mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, now renamed as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs, are rare; these are, by definition, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30% of the lesion. Gastrointestinal MANECs can be stratified in different prognostic categories according to the grade of malignancy of each component. The present paper is an overview of the main clinicopathological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of this specific rare tumor type.

  9. Chloroquine-Azithromycin Combination Antimalarial Treatment Decreases Risk of Respiratory- and Gastrointestinal-Tract Infections in Malawian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliams, Elizabeth A.; Jumare, Jibreel; Claassen, Cassidy W.; Thesing, Phillip C.; Nyirenda, Osward M.; Dzinjalamala, Fraction K.; Taylor, Terrie; Plowe, Christopher V.; Tracy, LaRee A.; Laufer, Miriam K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chloroquine-azithromycin is being evaluated as combination therapy for malaria. It may provide added benefit in treating or preventing bacterial infections that occur in children with malaria. Objective. We aim to evaluate the effect of treating clinical malaria with chloroquine-azithromycin on the incidence of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections compared to treatment with chloroquine monotherapy. Methods. We compared the incidence density and time to first events of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections among children assigned to receive chloroquine-azithromycin or chloroquine for all symptomatic malaria episodes over the course of 1 year in a randomized longitudinal trial in Blantyre, Malawi. Results. The incidence density ratios of total respiratory-tract infections and gastrointestinal-tract infections comparing chloroquine-azithromycin to chloroquine monotherapy were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48, .94) and 0.74 (95% CI, .55, .99), respectively. The time to first lower-respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections were significantly longer in the chloroquine-azithromycin arm compared to the chloroquine arm (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Conclusions. Children treated routinely with chloroquine-azithromycin had fewer respiratory and gastrointestinal-tract infections than those treated with chloroquine alone. This antimalarial combination has the potential to reduce the burden of bacterial infections among children in malaria-endemic countries. PMID:24652498

  10. Chloroquine-azithromycin combination antimalarial treatment decreases risk of respiratory- and gastrointestinal-tract infections in Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliams, Elizabeth A; Jumare, Jibreel; Claassen, Cassidy W; Thesing, Phillip C; Nyirenda, Osward M; Dzinjalamala, Fraction K; Taylor, Terrie; Plowe, Christopher V; Tracy, LaRee A; Laufer, Miriam K

    2014-08-15

    Chloroquine-azithromycin is being evaluated as combination therapy for malaria. It may provide added benefit in treating or preventing bacterial infections that occur in children with malaria. We aim to evaluate the effect of treating clinical malaria with chloroquine-azithromycin on the incidence of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections compared to treatment with chloroquine monotherapy. We compared the incidence density and time to first events of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections among children assigned to receive chloroquine-azithromycin or chloroquine for all symptomatic malaria episodes over the course of 1 year in a randomized longitudinal trial in Blantyre, Malawi. The incidence density ratios of total respiratory-tract infections and gastrointestinal-tract infections comparing chloroquine-azithromycin to chloroquine monotherapy were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48, .94) and 0.74 (95% CI, .55, .99), respectively. The time to first lower-respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections were significantly longer in the chloroquine-azithromycin arm compared to the chloroquine arm (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Children treated routinely with chloroquine-azithromycin had fewer respiratory and gastrointestinal-tract infections than those treated with chloroquine alone. This antimalarial combination has the potential to reduce the burden of bacterial infections among children in malaria-endemic countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Influence of ageing on the gastrointestinal environment of the rat and its implications for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; Rabbie, Sarit C; Varum, Felipe J O; Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2014-10-01

    Age-mediated changes in gut physiology are considerations central to the elucidation of drug performance from oral formulations. Using rats of different age groups we measured the pH, buffer capacity, fluid volume, osmolality, and surface tension of gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, and therein explored the impact of these variables on prednisolone and mesalazine solubility in luminal fluids. We also studied the distribution of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and mucus layer thickness across the GI tract in rats of different age groups. At a mucosal level, there was an increase in GALT from young to adult rat. Gastrointestinal pH and buffer capacity remained mostly unchanged with age, except some pH differences in stomach and distal small intestine and a higher buffer capacity in the large intestinal fluids of young rats. Osmolality and surface tension also remained unaffected with the exception of a lower osmolality in elderly stomach and a lower surface tension in the small intestine of young rats. The difference in luminal environment on ageing influenced the solubility of studied drugs, for instance prednisolone solubility was shown to be higher in adult rats (mid small intestine and caecum) and solubility of mesalazine was significantly higher in the elderly distal small intestine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract ; report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jay Hong; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho [Yeungnam University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    In 1961, Cornes first introduced the term multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP), and since then, this very rare disease has been considered as a malignant lymphoma originating in the mantle zone of gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. MLP presents with a 0.5-2.0 cm sized polypoid tumor, which affects long segments of the alimentary tract and frequently invades the mesenteric lymph nodes. It often consists of a dominant mass rather than polyps. We describe three cases of endoscopically proven multiple lymphomatous polyposis, and include a review of the literature. In differentiating multiple lymphomatous polyposis and other types of multiple polyposis in the gastrointestinal tract, the following features are helpful : the smooth surface of polyps, which is similar to a gem seen during a barium examination; the typical appearance of a gastric submucosal tumor and hypertrophied gastric mucosal folds in UGI; the presence of enlarged lymph nodes, as seen on abdominal CT scanning. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; Multimodale Bildgebung neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gaertner, Florian C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2014-03-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (neuroendokrine Tumoren) are rare entities. They can be found in all organs and show substantial biologic heterogeneity depending on involved organ, clinical symptoms and histopathologic morphology. Involvement of organs like larynx, cervix uteri, ovary, gallbladder, liver or kidney is extensively rare. The majority of neuroendokrine Tumoren are found in gastrointestinal tract and lung and are classified as neuroendokrine Tumoren of foregut (stomach, duodenum, pancreas, lung), midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, right side of the colon) and hindgut (left side of the colon, rectum). The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of neuroendokrine Tumoren radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of neuroendokrine Tumoren of the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  14. Modulation of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli virulence program through the human gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett Foster, Debora

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens must not only survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract but must also coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments with the host. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a serious food and waterborne human pathogen, is well equipped with an arsenal of molecular factors that allows it to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and successfully colonize the large intestine. This review will explore how EHEC responds to various environmental cues associated with particular microenvironments within the host and how it employs these cues to modulate virulence factor expression, with a view to developing a conceptual framework for understanding modulation of EHEC’s virulence program in response to the host. In vitro studies offer significant insights into the role of individual environmental cues but in vivo studies using animal models as well as data from natural infections will ultimately provide a more comprehensive picture of the highly regulated virulence program of this pathogen. PMID:23552827

  15. Quality of ulcer healing in gastrointestinal tract: Its pathophysiology and clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Ken’ichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept of quality of ulcer healing (QOUH) in the gastrointestinal tract and its role in the ulcer recurrence. In the past, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been a chronic disease with a cycle of repeated healing/remission and recurrence. The main etiological factor of PUD is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is also the cause of ulcer recurrence. However, H. pylori-negative ulcers are present in 12%-20% of patients; they also recur and are on occasion intractable. QOUH focuses on the fact that mucosal and submucosal structures within ulcer scars are incompletely regenerated. Within the scars of healed ulcers, regenerated tissue is immature and with distorted architecture, suggesting poor QOUH. The abnormalities in mucosal regeneration can be the basis for ulcer recurrence. Our studies have shown that persistence of macrophages in the regenerated area plays a key role in ulcer recurrence. Our studies in a rat model of ulcer recurrence have indicated that proinflammatory cytokines trigger activation of macrophages, which in turn produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines, which attract neutrophils to the regenerated area. Neutrophils release proteolytic enzymes that destroy the tissue, resulting in ulcer recurrence. Another important factor in poor QOUH can be deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins and a deficiency and/or an imbalance of endogenous growth factors. Topically active mucosal protective and antiulcer drugs promote high QOUH and reduce inflammatory cell infiltration in the ulcer scar. In addition to PUD, the concept of QOUH is likely applicable to inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:23002355

  16. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvan Kumar; K. K. Jakhar; Vikas Nehra; Madan Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results...

  17. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion

  18. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    Huddleston JR

    2014-01-01

    Jennifer R HuddlestonBiology Department, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, USAAbstract: Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for ant...

  19. Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad U. Sohail; Althani, Asmaa; Anwar, Haseeb; Rizzi, Roberto; Marei, Hany E.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, a...

  20. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus

    OpenAIRE

    da Cruz Ramos, Geom?rcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A.; Okamoto, D?bora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gon?alves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, Jo?o Batista; Juliano, Luiz; Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto de [UNIFESP

    2016-01-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippo...

  1. The peculiarities of combined pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract with allergic dermatoses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recent studies indicate that one of the causes of allergic dermatoses (AD in children and adults is pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many problems of the emergence of these combinations have not yet been resolved. The purpose of the study was to establish the incidence and the nature of lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT in children with allergic dermatoses. Materials and methods. On the base of the Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Hospital, 40 children with allergic dermatoses combined with the pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and 20 patients with AD, but without the UGIT pathology, aged 3 to 18 years were examined. A clinical and laboratory studies were conducted twice (routine clinical tests, chamber scratch test with non-infectious allergens during AD remission, as well as fibrogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, pH-measuring biochemical blood tests (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutaminetransferase (GGTP, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, identification of H.pylori. Results. It was indicated that out of 40 examined children with AD, 30 (75 % persons had various lesions of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In 10 (25 % children, the functional changes, such as duodenogastral reflex (70 % and failure of the cardia (30 %, were detected. A multiple nature of reflux was observed in 85.7 % of children with chronic gastroduodenitis and in 100 % of children with esophagitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The contamination with H.pylori was detected in 72.5 % of cases. The increased activity of ALT and AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase and serum cholesterol was established. Conclusion. In 75 % of children with allergic dermatoses, an organic pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed, thus, a gastroenterological examination should be recommended to all patients.

  2. Increased translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of tumor-bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, R L; Maca, R D; Berg, R D

    1985-01-01

    Aerobic gram-negative bacilli and other indigenous gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria are important opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed cancer patients. These same bacteria frequently translocate from the GI tracts of mice immunosuppressed by single injections of certain anticancer drugs or by T-lymphocyte impairments. Since similar cellular and humoral immune deficiencies may be present in the tumor-bearing host, we sought to determine if progressive growth of a tumor alone would be suff...

  3. Analysis of the Functional State of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dyspasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Senatorova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The features of the functional state of the gastrointestinal tract in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have been analyzed. It has been shown that children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have significantly lower indicators of physical development than apparently healthy children. The dependence between hypoproteinemia in the blood serum and pathological changes in stool test of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia was established that should be taken into account during the clinical management of these patients.

  4. Changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine environment during aging and deteriorating gastrointestinal tract health status

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Jing; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Kuiliang; Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Fang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by aging have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the aging and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proport...

  5. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients' physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer.

  6. The role of the gastrointestinal tract and microbiota on uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, David; Tucker, Patrick; Johnson, David W; Coombes, Jeff S

    2017-02-01

    It is well-established that uremic toxins are positively correlated with the risk of developing chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging data suggest that gut bacteria exert an influence over both the production of uremic toxins and the development of chronic kidney disease. As such, modifying the gut microbiota may have the potential as a treatment for chronic kidney disease. This is supported by data that suggest that rescuing microbiota dysbiosis may: reduce uremic toxin production; prevent toxins and pathogens from crossing the intestinal barrier; and, reduce gastrointestinal tract transit time allowing nutrients to reach the microbiota in the distal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite emerging literature, the gut-kidney axis has yet to be fully explored. A special focus should be placed on examining clinically translatable strategies that might encourage improvements to the microbiome, thereby potentially reducing the risk of the development of chronic kidney disease. This review aims to present an overview of literature linking changes to the gastrointestinal tract with microbiota dysbiosis and the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

  7. Bacteriocin production augments niche competition by enterococci in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommineni, Sushma; Bretl, Daniel J; Lam, Vy; Chakraborty, Rajrupa; Hayward, Michael; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Bousounis, Pavlos; Kristich, Christopher J; Salzman, Nita H

    2015-10-29

    Enterococcus faecalis is both a common commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Systemic infections with multidrug-resistant enterococci occur subsequent to gastrointestinal colonization. Preventing colonization by multidrug-resistant E. faecalis could therefore be a valuable approach towards limiting infection. However, little is known about the mechanisms E. faecalis uses to colonize and compete for stable gastrointestinal niches. Pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids encoding bacteriocins are common among enterococcal strains and could modulate niche competition among enterococci or between enterococci and the intestinal microbiota. We developed a model of colonization of the mouse gut with E. faecalis, without disrupting the microbiota, to evaluate the role of the conjugative plasmid pPD1 expressing bacteriocin 21 (ref. 4) in enterococcal colonization. Here we show that E. faecalis harbouring pPD1 replaces indigenous enterococci and outcompetes E. faecalis lacking pPD1. Furthermore, in the intestine, pPD1 is transferred to other E. faecalis strains by conjugation, enhancing their survival. Colonization with an E. faecalis strain carrying a conjugation-defective pPD1 mutant subsequently resulted in clearance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, without plasmid transfer. Therefore, bacteriocin expression by commensal bacteria can influence niche competition in the gastrointestinal tract, and bacteriocins, delivered by commensals that occupy a precise intestinal bacterial niche, may be an effective therapeutic approach to specifically eliminate intestinal colonization by multidrug-resistant bacteria, without profound disruption of the indigenous microbiota.

  8. Ascending urinary tract infection in rats caused by Proteus mirabilis

    OpenAIRE

    Al Murayati, H. Y. A. [حيدر المراياتي; Al-Murayati, H. Y.; Al-Ani, I. M.; Gani, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    A model for ascending unobstructed urinary tract infection was developed in female rats to study the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis. Urinary bladders of rats were inoculated by I. V. cannula with 0.5 ml ofbrainheart infusion broth containing approximataly 3 x 108 living bacteria. Kidney, blood and urine samples collected at days 2, 4 and weeks 1-8 intervals were studied for renal infection as well as renal function tests. The results indicated the variation an...

  9. Comparative characteristics of the information content of biochemical and electrical parameters of biotissues in the modeling of the induced development of precancerous abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskiy, Matvey V.; Galitskaya, Anna A.; Mironova, Irina K.; Velikov, Vladimir A.; Konnova, Svetlana A.; Pleshakova, Ekaterina V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oksana V.

    2017-03-01

    We obtained impedance dispersion curves of stomach and liver tissues of rats in dynamics, while affecting with tumorigenic inductors: sodium nitrite (0.2%) and m-toluidine (25 mg per 1 kg body weight) in chronic experiment (over 10 months) in male outbred white rats aged 3 and 14 months at the beginning of the experiment. A substantial decrease in the impedance values for all test frequencies (50 Hz to 1 MHz) was shown.

  10. Gastrointestinal Parasitosis: Histopathological Insights to Rare but Intriguing Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoğlu, Burçin; Doğanavşargil, Başak; Sezak, Murat; Nalbantoğlu, İlke; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by stool tests and/or serology but may require tissue evaluation. Although pathologists are usually familiar with common parasites, it is not well established whether the diagnosis could be suspected without seeing the "parasite" itself. Resection or biopsy specimens of 32 cases with Giardia intestinalis (n=20), Enterobius vermicularis (n=5), Entamoeba histolytica (n=4), Fasciola hepatica (n=1), Strongyloides spp. (n=1) and Taenia saginata (n=1) infections were retrospectively re-evaluated for accompanying mucosal changes, and compared with nonparametric tests. The most common changes were congestion (65.6%) and eosinophilic infiltration (50%). Chronic active mucosal inflammation accompanied 37.5% of the cases. More than 10 eosinophils/HPF were present in 43.8%. Only one case of G. intestinalis, E. vermicularis, E. histolytica, and F. hepatica showed more than 50 eosinophils/HPF. Mucosal architectural abnormalities were present in 34.4%. Granulomas, giant cells and Charcot-Leyden crystals were only seen accompanying F. hepatica. No statistically significant difference was found between parasite subspecies regarding presence of inflammation, lymphoid aggregates, architectural distortion, congestion, ulceration and increase of eosinophils. Parasites induce nonspecific inflammation, slight mucosal architectural changes, mild eosinophilic infiltrate or granuloma formation. They may cause ulceration, bowel obstruction or perforation. Parasitosis should also be considered when evaluating cases mimicking inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease or those that do not fulfill diagnostic criteria.

  11. Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J E; Rommel, S A

    1996-07-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Sirenia: Trichechidae), is the largest herbivorous marine mammal. Previously, components of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the species have been described, but no comprehensive descriptions of the gross and microscopic anatomy existed. This study integrates function and structure of the entire Florida manatee GI tract. The GI tracts of several recently dead Florida manatees were examined from the following viewpoints: gross anatomical studies of preserved and unpreserved specimens, histology and histochemistry, and ultrastructure. The manatee GI tract has an enlarged hindgut, as do other nonruminant herbivores (i.e., hindgut digesters such as horses), but it also has important adaptations not seen in most other mammals. These structural adaptations include a discrete accessory digestive gland (the cardiac gland), submucosal mucous glands along the greater curvature of the stomach, and unkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelial cells overlying the glandular mucosae of the pyloric antrum, midgut cecum, colon, and rectum. The adaptations described above may relate to osmoregulation as well as to herbivory. The Florida manatee GI tract is most similar to those of other members of the Order Sirenia and to that of the herbivorous green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), but it also shows superficial similarities to those of phylogenetically close Orders, the Proboscidea and Hyracoidea. The immense size of both the manatee and its large intestine suggests that, relative to smaller hindgut digesters, manatees have a slow rate of passage of digesta and efficient breakdown of fibrous plant material.

  12. Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract and Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Finally, do we have a Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Drmic, Domagoj; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Kokot, Antonio; Sever, Marko; Zoricic, Ivan; Zoricic, Zoran; Batelja, Lovorka; Ziger, Tihomil; Luetic, Kresimir; Vlainic, Josipa; Rasic, Zarko; Bencic, Martina Lovric

    2017-01-01

    Selye's syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents and "response to damage as such" means Selye's stress triad in stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Logically, from the gastrointestinal tract viewpoint, such organoprotective/healing response implies the angiogenic growth factors that commonly signify the healing. Thereby, the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-organoprotection (huge range of beneficial effects) signifies the Selye's stress concept/stress coping response implemented in and from gastrointestinal tract, and BPC 157 as an integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress. In clinical trials without side effects, LD1 not achieved, BPC 157 healing in gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the healing of the extragastrointestinal tissues (i.e., skin/tendon/ligament/muscle/bone; nerve; cornea/ brain) were referred throughout its integrative capabilities (i.e., ulcerative colitis/multiple sclerosis model equally counteracted), native in gastrointestinal tract, stability in human gastric juice (and thereby, strong efficacy and applicability), its relevance for dopamine-system function (and thereby, counteracting effects of dopamine-system dysfunction and overfunction, centrally and peripherally (mucosa maintenance); interaction with serotonin- and GABA-system)), afforded cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection (and thereby, beneficial effects on gastric and whole intestinal tract lesions and adaptation, wounds and fistulas healing, blood vessels, somatosensory neurons, NSAIDs-side effects (including also pancreas, liver, brain lesions, and blood disturbances, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis)). Further, we combine such gut-brain axis and the NO-system where BPC 157 counteracts complications of either L-NAME application (i.e., various lesions aggravation, hypertension) or Larginine application (i.e., hypotension, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia). Also, BPC 157 particularly affects

  13. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function.

  14. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Importance of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Controlling Food Intake and Regulating Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mariana P; Batterham, Rachel L

    2017-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural, and nutrient signals emanating from the gastrointestinal tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacologic and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing body weight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy. However, the recent finding of sustained weight reduction in response to systemic administration of a long-acting analog of the gut-hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 highlights the therapeutic potential of gut-derived signals acting via nonphysiologic mechanisms. Thus, we also review therapeutics strategies being utilized or developed to leverage gastrointestinal signals in order to treat obesity. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  17. Gelatin-acacia microcapsules for trapping micro oil droplets containing lipophilic drugs and ready disintegration in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizomoto, H; Kanaoka, E; Sugita, K; Hirano, K

    1993-08-01

    Nonhardened gelatin-acacia microcapsules were studied for encapsulation of microdroplets of oil solution containing a lipophilic drug as core material and ready disintegration with release of micro oil droplets in the gastrointestinal tract. Probucol and S-312-d, a Ca-channel blocker, were employed as model lipophilic drugs. Glyceryl tricaprylate and tricaprate mixture solutions containing these drugs were encapsulated according to the complex coacervation method and were recovered as free-flowing powders without any hardening (cross-linking) step. The microcapsules obtained were disintegrated, and the emulsion was reproduced within 3 min at 37 degrees C in the first or second test solution defined in the Japanese Pharmacopeia XII. When the microcapsules were stored as a powder at room temperature in a closed bottle, no significant change in their appearance or disintegration time upon rehydration was observed even after 1 year. Oral bioavailabilities of model drugs from the microcapsules were tested in rats and dogs and compared with those from other conventional formulations. Gastrointestinal absorption of both probucol and S-312-d from the microcapsules was remarkably more efficient than that from other formulations such as powders, granules, or oil solution. The proposed method for microencapsulation could be useful for powdering drug-containing oil solutions or O/W emulsions while maintaining excellent bioavailability.

  18. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling.

  19. Effect of hyoscine butylbromide on gastroesophageal reflux in barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, R.F.; Mathieson, J.R.; Chipperfield, P.M.; Grymaloski, M.R.; Wong, A.D.

    1994-12-01

    The presence or absence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux before and after intravenous injection of 120 mg Buscopan were evaluated in 112 consecutive patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal examination. The study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan) could artificially induce gastroesophageal reflux during barium examination of the upper intestinal tract. Gastroesophageal reflux was seen in 49 (44%) of the patients. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence or degree of gastroesophageal reflux before and after injection of Buscopan. The routine use of Buscopan was therefore unlikely to spuriously increase the frequency or degree of gastroesophageal reflux observed on upper gastrointestinal barium studies. The study also showed that Buscopan had a satisfactory antispasmodic effect and few side effects. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Small cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract: clinicopathological features and treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Baruch; Tang, Laura H; Shia, Jinruh; Klimstra, David S; Kelsen, David P

    2007-02-01

    Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma (SmCC) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. To date, fewer than 1,000 cases have been reported, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1% to 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Data on the disease are scarce due to its rarity and the fact that most authors have focused on one site within the GIT. In light of the limited data and its perceived similarity to SmCC of the lung, the disease has usually been treated as the latter. Nevertheless, recent clinicopathologic and molecular data imply several differences between the two entities, questioning the extent to which extrapolations from one to the other can be made. We review the available data on GI SmCC with emphasis on outlining its clinicopathologic features and the recommended treatment approach.

  1. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis.

  2. Endoscopic laser treatment of vascular anomalies of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, S G; Swain, C P; Storey, D W; Collins, C; Matthewson, K; Salmon, P R; Clark, C G

    1985-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract are an important source of both acute and chronic blood loss. They present difficult management problems as they are often multiple, involving more than one part of the gastrointestinal tract, and may give rise to bleeds of increasing frequency and severity over a period of many years. We present the results of endoscopic argon and Nd YAG laser treatment of 18 patients with documented recurrent, severe haemorrhage from vascular lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract with follow up of up to five years. Four patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, five with single angiodysplasias and three with multiple angiodysplasias have had their transfusion requirements reduced to minimal levels after one or more courses of laser treatment. Two of these have required no blood for over two years despite previous total requirements of 52 and 129 units of blood. Four patients were submitted to surgery (two in whom the laser failed to control haemorrhage and two who did not have immediate access to laser therapy at the time of severe bleed). Two of these, however, bled again soon afterwards. Two patients are still undergoing courses of laser therapy although have already shown reductions in transfusion requirements. Both lasers were effective. The Nd YAG laser appears to produce better long term results as its greater penetration makes it possible to ablate the main areas of vascular ectasia in the submucosa, although it does have a slightly higher risk of causing haemorrhage in the first few days after treatment. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3878817

  3. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Chul [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1{+-}1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  4. [The experimental and clinical effect of ciprofloxacin on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, V M; Il'chenko, A A; Dugasheva, L G; Romanchuk, L A; Busch, W; Radakova, E D; Zhukhovitskiĭ, V G; Gorodinskaia, V S

    1991-05-01

    The study of the influence of cyprofloxacin on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract has been made under experimental and clinical conditions. As revealed in this study, cyprofloxacin produces a corrective effect on the intestinal microflora; the action of this preparation, in contrast to that of other antimicrobial preparations, is retained for a long time. In patients having duodenal ulcer with bacteriosis caused by Campylobacter pylori and with intestinal dysbacteriosis the combination of cyprofloxacin and cimetidine yields a higher therapeutic effect than the use of cimetidine alone.

  5. Risk Factors for Pathology of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.K. Bolbot

    2015-09-01

    Results. In terms of the regression analysis, there were determined risk factors for chronic gastroduodenal pathology in children with bronchial asthma: child’s sex, disease duration, severity of asthma symptoms and level of their control, as well as duration of breastfeeding, food sensitization, H.pylori infection, the presence of digestive pathology in child’s parents. Several models for predicting the risk of chronic diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (including destructive ones in this group of patients were developed, based on clinical and laboratory parameters. These prognostic models have a sufficient level of sensitivity, easy to use and can be recommended for primary care physicians.

  6. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed.

  7. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston JR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer R HuddlestonBiology Department, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, USAAbstract: Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed.Keywords: gut microbiome, conjugation, natural transformation, transduction

  8. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive...... developmental disorder not otherwise specified with 258 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 32.9 years, and mean age at the end of the observation period was 48.5 years. Among the 89 cases...

  9. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores.

  10. Expression and Regulation of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered drugs must pass through the intestinal wall and then through the liver before reaching systemic circulation. During this process drugs are subjected to different processes that may determine the therapeutic value. The intestinal barrier with active drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in enterocytes plays an important role in the determination of drug bioavailability. Accumulating information demonstrates variable distribution of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters along the human gastrointestinal tract (GI), that creates specific barrier characteristics in different segments of the GI. In this review, expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the healthy and diseased human GI as well as their regulatory aspects: genetic, miRNA, DNA methylation are outlined. The knowledge of unique interplay between drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in specific segments of the GI tract allows more precise definition of drug release sites within the GI in order to assure more complete bioavailability and prediction of drug interactions.

  11. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract: Cajal and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...

  12. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harvey Anderson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.

  13. Direct visualization of gastrointestinal tract with lanthanide-doped BaYbF5 upconversion nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Ju, Enguo; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Li, Zhengqiang; Yuan, Qinghai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-10-01

    Nanoparticulate contrast agents have attracted a great deal of attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a binary contrast agent based on PAA modified BaYbF5:Tm nanoparticles for direct visualization of gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been designed and developed via a one-pot solvothermal route. By taking advantages of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of these well-designed nanoparticles, their feasibility as a multi-modal contrast agent for GI tract was intensively investigated. Significant enhancement of contrast efficacy relative to clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agent was evaluated via X-ray imaging and CT imaging in vivo. By doping Tm(3+) ions into these nanoprobes, in vivo NIR-NIR imaging was then demonstrated. Unlike some invasive imaging modalities, non-invasive imaging strategy including X-ray imaging, CT imaging, and UCL imaging for GI tract could extremely reduce the painlessness to patients, effectively facilitate imaging procedure, as well as rationality economize diagnostic time. Critical to clinical applications, long-term toxicity of our contrast agent was additionally investigated in detail, indicating their overall safety. Based on our results, PAA-BaYbF5:Tm nanoparticles were the excellent multi-modal contrast agent to integrate X-ray imaging, CT imaging, and UCL imaging for direct visualization of GI tract with low systemic toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Federico; Storr, Martin; Lutz, Beat

    2005-12-01

    Numerous investigations have recently demonstrated the important roles of the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the GI tract, cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons, while cannabinoid type 2 receptors are located in immune cells. Activation of CB1 receptors was shown to modulate several functions in the GI tract, including gastric secretion, gastric emptying and intestinal motility. Under pathophysiological conditions induced experimentally in rodents, the endocannabinoid system conveys protection to the GI tract (e.g. from inflammation and abnormally high gastric and enteric secretions). Such protective activities are largely in agreement with anecdotal reports from folk medicine on the use of Cannabis sativa extracts by subjects suffering from various GI disorders. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may serve as a potentially promising therapeutic target against different GI disorders, including frankly inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g. Crohn's disease), functional bowel diseases (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome) and secretion- and motility-related disorders. As stimulation of this modulatory system by CB1 receptor agonists can lead to unwanted psychotropic side effects, an alternative and promising avenue for therapeutic applications resides in the treatment with CB1 receptor agonists that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, or with compounds that inhibit the degradation of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) of CB1 receptors, hence prolonging the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

  15. Histological and Histochemical Analysis of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, S.; Encarnação, J.A.; Becker, N.I.; Trenczek, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (acid alizarin blue, haematoxylin-eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus is organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus is simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach is globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum-ileum and ileum-colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine is short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling the

  16. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strobel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome, histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5 and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  18. Point-of-care gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography in daily evaluation of gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients (GUTS Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Calatayud, Angel Augusto; Carrillo-Esper, Raul; Anica-Malagon, Eduardo Daniel; Briones-Garduño, Jesus Carlos; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Wise, Robert; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2018-01-05

    There is currently a lack of universally accepted criteria for gastrointestinal (GI) failure or dysfunction in critical care. Also, the clinical assessment of intestinal function is notoriously difficult and thus often goes unrecognized, contributing to poor outcomes. A recent grading system has been proposed to define acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in conjunction with other organ function scores (e.g., SOFA). Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for GI problems and pathology. We propose a sonographic examination of the abdomen, using the GUTS protocol (gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography) in critically ill patients as part of the point-of-care ultrasound evaluation in patients with AGI. This article reviews possible applications of ultrasonography that may be relevant to monitor the GI function in critically ill patients. The GI ultrasound protocol (GUTS) focuses on four gastrointestinal endpoints: gastrointestinal diameter, mucosal thickness, peristalsis, and blood flow. Also, it is possible to examine the urinary tract and kidney function. Real-time ultrasound with the GUTS protocol is a simple, inexpensive, bedside imaging technique that can provide anatomical and functional information of the GI tract. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of GUTS with other parameters, such as GI biomarkers, AGI class, and clinical outcomes.

  19. Human cytomegalovirus induced pseudotumor of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa: effects of long-term chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Barresi, Valeria; Bertani, Angela; Maccio, Livia; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus-induced lesions resembling malignancies have been described in the gastrointestinal tract and include ulcerated or exophytic large masses. The aim of this study was to review the cases registered in the databases of two academic hospitals and formulate a hypothesis concerning the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumor development. All the diagnoses of human cytomegalovirus infections of the upper gastrointestinal tract recorded from 1991 to 2013 were reviewed. Cases of mucosal alterations misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies were selected. Large ulcers occurring in the stomach (three cases) and an irregular exophytic mass at the gastro-jejunal anastomosis were misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies (4 cases out of 53). Histologically, all lesions reflected hyperplastic mucosal changes with a prevalence of epithelial and stroma infected cells, without signs of cell atypia. The hypothesis presented is that the development of human cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumors may be the morphological expression of chronic mucosa damage underlying long-term infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Predictors of formation of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract after norovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Ermolenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is the development of an informationally significant mathematical and statistical model for predicting the development of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in children after a norovirus infection.55 children with norovirus infection aged 1 to 7 years (mean age 2,8±0,2 years, boys – 25, girls – 30 in a hospital and within 12 months after acute infection were observed due to development of a mathematical discriminant model of the prognosis for the formation of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (FDGIT with the purpose of their subsequent prevention. Statistically significant differences in the prognosis «probability of development of FDGIT» and «the lack of probability of FDGIT» were found on the following grounds: duration of preservation of norovirus infection symptoms (p=0,056, detection of opportunistic microorganisms in the intestinal microbiota in titles not less than 5 lg CFU/g (p=0,02, detection of bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine (p=0,001. These signs can be considered as a determinant of the probability of development of FDGIT. This model based on the available definition of informative clinical and laboratory signs characterizing the severity of the disease and the state of the intestinal microbiota of patients with norovirus infection. The information capacity of a statistically significant model (p<0.01 is 86,8%. 

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 in the porcine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bartłomiej Arciszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4 is a protein widely expressed on plasma membrane of a variety of epithelial cells. In this study we investigated the expression of AQP4 in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig using immunohistochemical staining. We found no presence of AQP4 in the different regions of the pig stomach. In the porcine small intestine moderate immunoreactivity to AQP4 was detected in enterocytes (along the villi and in the bottom of the crypts, duodenal Brunner’s glands and in enteric ganglia in cells lying in close vicinity to myenteric as well as submucous neurons. In superficial epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa as well as of caecal and colonic glands a very strong immunoreactivity to AQP4 was found. Both in the myenteric and submucous ganglia of the large intestine AQP4-positive cells surrounding enteric neurons were observed. We concluded that AQP4 expression in the porcine gastrointestinal tract showed some species-dependent differences in relation to other species. Based on the presented distribution pattern of AQP4, it is likely that the aquaporin plays a role in mucous (but not acid secretion and intestinal absorptive processes in the pig.

  2. [Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract--the case report with the review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hydzik, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Body-packing is the way of psychoactive substances smuggling by swallowing of carefully prepared packages with drugs into the gastrointestinal tract or by insertion them into the vagina or the rectum, especially in order to avoid finding them by the custom service. Cocaine, as well as opiates, is the one of the most often smuggled drugs by so called body-packers. In the present study the first case of the body-packer from Malopolska region in Poland, who was observed in the Toxicology Department of the Collegium Medicum UJ, was described. The 29-year-old man swallowed 60 packages containing cocaine with a total net weight of about 500 grams. The plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple shadows of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract, but the results of blood and urine cocaine measurements were negative. During the 37-hours stay in our department the patient was monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), laxatives and oral fluids were administered. All the packages were evacuated through the natural way and it was followed up by the control abdominal radiography. No symptoms of acute cocaine intoxication or any other complications were observed. According to the case there is also the thorough review of literature presented including the kinds of body-packing, the diagnostic methods used in recognizing of body-packers and the ways of their treatment taking into consideration the conservative management as well as surgical methods.

  3. Changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine environment during aging and deteriorating gastrointestinal tract health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Kuiliang; Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Fang, Min

    2017-09-22

    Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by aging have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the aging and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proportion of NK cells, CD8(+) T cells and NKT cells remained relatively unchanged with aging. However, NKG2D and CD16 expression level on NK cells decreased with aging indicating impaired NK cell function. Surprisingly, the proportion of NK, NKT and T cells all declined with deteriorating health status from health to chronic gastrointestinal tract disease and cancer. Furthermore, cytokine and chemokine profiles changed with aging, but did not vary with different health status. Our results highlight new evidence for a continuum of change during immunologic aging and show unique data for variations of NK cells, CD8(+) T cells, NKT cells, and cytokine microenvironment with human aging and health status transformation.

  4. Staphylococcal enterotoxins in the Etiopathogenesis of Mucosal Autoimmunity within the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Principato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are the products of Staphylococcus aureus and are recognized as the causative agents of classical food poisoning in humans following the consumption of contaminated food. While illness evoked by ingestion of the SE or its producer organism in tainted food are often self-limited, our current understanding regarding the evolution of S. aureus provokes the utmost concern. The organism and its associated toxins, has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states including infections of the skin, heart, sinuses, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease, toxic shock, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The intricate relationship between the various subsets of immunocompetent T cells and accessory cells and the ingested material found within the gastrointestinal tract present daunting challenges to the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis. Dysregulation of the intricate balances within this environment has the potential for extreme consequences within the host, some of which are long-lived. The focus of this review is to evaluate the relevance of staphylococcal enterotoxin in the context of mucosal immunity, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune disease.

  5. Angiosarcoma Involving Solid Organs and the Gastrointestinal Tract with Life-Threatening Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Maeyashiki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of angiosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lung and vertebrae, as well as bulky dissemination in the pleuroperitoneal membranes. A 72-year-old man with no history of illness became aware of melena. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple reddish nodules in the stomach and duodenum. However, biopsy specimens showed no evidence of histological features. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed space-occupying lesions in the spleen, liver and vertebrae. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen and repeated endoscopic biopsy of the stomach. We performed laparoscopic splenectomy to avoid rupture of the involved spleen. Due to continuous gastrointestinal bleeding, double balloon endoscopy was performed and multiple bleeding lesions were detected throughout the small intestine. Surgical hemostasis was performed by partial enterectomy, but anemia continued to worsen. Therefore, we conducted transcatheter arterial embolization. Despite attempting several modalities and frequent daily blood transfusion, the anemia did not improve, and the patient expired due to hemorrhagic shock. Subsequent autopsy revealed the cause of death as rupture and bleeding due to disseminated involvement of the small intestine.

  6. Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Byun, Jae Young

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients. In April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. A total of 2326 fluoroscopic examinations (779 and 1547 examinations before and after education, respectively) were performed, including 10 kinds of examinations. Fluoroscopy time and DAP were collected. A radiologist evaluated the number of spot images, captured images, cine video, captured video, and the use of collimation or magnification. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess the difference in fluoroscopy-related factors before and after education. Median DAP decreased significantly after education, from 21.1 to 18.2 Gy∙cm 2 (P < .001) in all examinations. After education DAP decreased significantly in defecography (P < .001) and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly in upper gastrointestinal series with water-soluble contrast (P < .001). Spot and cine images that increased the radiation dose were used less frequently after education than before in some kinds of examinations, especially in defecography (P < .001). More images were collimated after education in barium swallow than before (P < .001). Educating radiologist residents and radiographers could reduce DAP in fluoroscopy examinations of the GI tract in adult patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  8. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Trusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  9. Gastrointestinal tract perforation: evaluation of MDCT according to perforation site and elapsed time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Sang Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate mutidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the prediction of perforation site according to each gastrointestinal (GI) tract site and elapsed time. One hundred and sixty-eight patients who underwent MDCT before laparotomy for GI tract perforation were enrolled and allocated to an early or late lapse group based on an elapsed time of 7 h. Two reviewers independently evaluated the perforation site and assessed the following CT findings: free air location, mottled extraluminal air bubbles, focal bowel wall discontinuity, segmental bowel wall thickening, perivisceral fat stranding and localised fluid collection. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 91.07 % and 91.67 % for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively, with excellent agreement (kappa 0.86). Accuracies (98.97 % and 97.94 %) and agreements (kappa 0.894) for stomach and duodenum perforation were higher than for other perforation sites. Strong predictors of perforation at each site were: focal bowel wall discontinuity for stomach, duodenal bulb and left colon, mottled extraluminal air bubbles for retroperitoneal duodenum and right colon, and segmental bowel wall thickening for small bowel. The diagnostic accuracy was not different between the early- and late-lapse groups. MDCT can accurately predict upper GI tract perforation with high reliability. Elapsed time did not affect the accuracy of perforation site prediction. (orig.)

  10. Age-related changes in vagal afferents innervating the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert J; Walter, Gary C; Powley, Terry L

    2010-02-16

    Recent progress in understanding visceral afferents, some of it reviewed in the present issue, serves to underscore how little is known about the aging of the visceral afferents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In spite of the clinical importance of the issue-with age, GI function often becomes severely compromised-only a few initial observations on age-related structural changes of visceral afferents are available. Primary afferent cell bodies in both the nodose ganglia and dorsal root ganglia lose Nissl material and accumulate lipofucsin, inclusions, aggregates, and tangles. Additionally, in changes that we focus on in the present review, vagal visceral afferent terminals in both the muscle wall and the mucosa of the GI tract exhibit age-related structural changes. In aged animals, both of the vagal terminal types examined, namely intraganglionic laminar endings and villus afferents, exhibit dystrophic or regressive morphological changes. These neuropathies are associated with age-related changes in the structural integrity of the target organs of the affected afferents, suggesting that local changes in trophic environment may give rise to the aging of GI innervation. Given the clinical relevance of GI tract aging, a more complete understanding both of how aging alters the innervation of the gut and of how such changes might be mitigated should be made research priorities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Species differences in hepatic pulmonary and upper gastrointestinal tract biotransformation enzymes on long-term feeding of masheri--a pyrolyzed tobacco product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Ammigan, N; Kayal, J J; Bhide, S V

    1991-03-01

    The activities of several activating enzymes and that of glutathione S-transferase as well as levels of glutathione were measured in the upper alimentary tract, lung, and liver of Swiss mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Syrian golden hamsters treated with 10% masheri (pyrolyzed tobacco) in diet for 20 months. Significant increase in activities of phase I activating enzymes and a remarkable decrease in the phase II detoxification system in most extrahepatic tissues of the treated animals of all three species was observed. These observations suggest that the prolonged exposure to environmental xenobiotics/carcinogens affects the drug-metabolizing enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract, which may be an important factor in determining the susceptibility of different organs to carcinogen exposure.

  12. Extensive horizontal transfer of core genome genes between two Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguin Emmanuelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While genes that are conserved between related bacterial species are usually thought to have evolved along with the species, phylogenetic trees reconstructed for individual genes may contradict this picture and indicate horizontal gene transfer. Individual trees are often not resolved with high confidence, however, and in that case alternative trees are generally not considered as contradicting the species tree, although not confirming it either. Here we conduct an in-depth analysis of 401 protein phylogenetic trees inferred with varying levels of confidence for three lactobacilli from the acidophilus complex. At present the relationship between these bacteria, isolated from environments as diverse as the gastrointestinal tract (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii and yogurt (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, is ambiguous due to contradictory phenotypical and 16S rRNA based classifications. Results Among the 401 phylogenetic trees, those that could be reconstructed with high confidence support the 16S-rRNA tree or one alternative topology in an astonishing 3:2 ratio, while the third possible topology is practically absent. Lowering the confidence threshold for trees to be taken into consideration does not significantly affect this ratio, and therefore suggests that gene transfer may have affected as much as 40% of the core genome genes. Gene function bias suggests that the 16S rRNA phylogeny of the acidophilus complex, which indicates that L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus are the closest related of these three species, is correct. A novel approach of comparison of interspecies protein divergence data employed in this study allowed to determine that gene transfer most likely took place between the lineages of the two species found in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion This case-study reports an unprecedented level of phylogenetic incongruence, presumably resulting from extensive

  13. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dongyao Li; Haiqin Chen; Bingyong Mao; Qin Yang; Jianxin Zhao; Zhennan Gu; Hao Zhang; Yong Q Chen; Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    ...) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition...

  14. The dynamic distribution of porcine microbiota across different ages and gastrointestinal tract segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    Full Text Available Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal segments at maturity to examine the dynamic shift of microbiota in pigs and investigated whether adult porcine fecal samples could be used to represent samples of the GI tract. Analysis results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes from the feces of the older pigs (2-, 3-, 6- month were 10 times higher compared to those from piglets (1-month. As the pigs matured, so did it seem that the composition of microbiome became more stable in feces. In adult pigs, there were significant differences in microbial profiles between the contents of the small intestine and large intestine. The dominant genera in the small intestine belonged to aerobe or facultative anaerobe categories, whereas the main genera in the large intestine were all anaerobes. Compared to the GI tract, the composition of microbiome was quite different in feces. The microbial profile in large intestine was more similar to feces than those in the small intestine, with the similarity of 0.75 and 0.38 on average, respectively. Microbial functions, predicted by metagenome profiles, showed the enrichment associated with metabolism pathway and metabolic disease in large intestine and feces while higher abundance of infectious disease, immune function disease, and cancer in small intestine. Fecal microbes also showed enriched function in metabolic pathways compared to microbes from pooled gut contents. Our study extended the understanding of dynamic shift of gut microbes during pig growth and also characterized the profiles of bacterial communities across GI tracts of mature pigs.

  15. Campylobacter concisus Genomospecies 2 Is Better Adapted to the Human Gastrointestinal Tract as Compared with Campylobacter concisus Genomospecies 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus was previously shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease including Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. C. concisus has two genomospecies (GS. This study systematically examined the colonization of GS1 and GS2 C. concisus in the human gastrointestinal tract. GS1 and GS2 specific polymorphisms in 23S rRNA gene were identified by comparison of the 23S rRNA genes of 49 C. concisus strains. Two newly designed PCR methods, based on the polymorphisms of 23S rRNA gene, were developed and validated. These PCR methods were used to detect and quantify GS1 and GS2 C. concisus in 56 oral and enteric samples collected from the gastrointestinal tract of patients with IBD and healthy controls. Meta-analysis of the composition of the isolated GS1 and GS2 C. concisus strains in previous studies was also conducted. The quantitative PCR methods revealed that there was more GS2 than GS1 C. concisus in samples collected from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract of both patients with IBD and healthy controls, showing that GS2 C. concisus is better adapted to the human gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of GS1 and GS2 composition of isolated C. concisus strains in previous studies showed similar findings except that in healthy individuals a significantly lower GS2 than GS1 C. concisus strains were isolated from fecal samples, suggesting a potential difference in the C. concisus strains or the enteric environment between patients with gastrointestinal diseases and healthy controls. This study provides novel information regarding the adaptation of different genomospecies of C. concisus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni PflB is required for motility and colonisation of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Alpa; Jones, Michael A; Maskell, Duncan J; Grant, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the mechanisms by which C. jejuni causes disease are not completely understood, the presence of functional flagella appears to be required for colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Therefore much attention has been given to understanding the synthesis and role of flagella in C. jejuni. In this study we report insights into the function of PflB that is essential for Campylobacter motility. We have explored the function of this gene by constructing deletion mutants in C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and M1, in the genes cj0390 and CJM1_0368, respectively. The mutants were non-motile yet assembled flagella that appeared structurally identical to the wild type. Furthermore the protein is required for C. jejuni colonisation of caeca in a two-week old chicken colonisation model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application autofluorescence diagnosis method in endoscopy for investigation mucosal structure in gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, Larisa; Abramov, Dmitrii; Golovin, Arsenii; Seledkina, Ekaterina

    2017-05-01

    One of the promising methods for early diagnosis of malignant diseases of the respiratory organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is now considered a fluorescence method. Application autofluorescence phenomenon in endoscopy allows to obtain a fluorescent image of the mucosa, which shows the difference in the intensity of the autofluorescence of healthy and the affected tissue in the green and red regions of the spectrum. The result of the work is to determine on the basis of scientific research and prototyping capabilities of creating fluorescence video endoscope and the development of fluorescent light (illuminator FLU) for videoendoscopy complex. The solution of this problem is based on the method of studying biological objects in lifetime condition.

  18. Rye Arabinoxylans: Molecular Structure, Physicochemical Properties and Physiological Effects in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) are the main dietary fiber (DF) polysaccharides in rye where they represent ≈55% of the total polysaccharides. Rye AX consist of a backbone of (1→4)-β-d-xylopyranosyl residues (X) mainly substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues (A) to varying degrees at the O-2 position......,000 with an average of ≈200,000. AX influence physiology in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The complex molecular structure of rye AX makes them resistant against microbial modification in the small intestine; consequently, rye AX have a much higher influence on the viscosity in the small intestinal...... digesta than does β-glucan from oats and barley. In spite of that, it has not been possible in studies with AX-rich foods such as bread to demonstrate a significant effect on the postprandial glucose response, however, a significantly reduced insulin response has been seen. Nevertheless, addition of 6 g...

  19. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

  20. [Aggressive B-cell lymphomas of gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic analysis of 54 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xia, Chun; Shen, Qin; Yin, Honglin; Zhang, Xinhua; Shi, Qunli; Zhou, Xiaojun; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    To study the histological features, diagnosis, differential diagnoses of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract and to correlate clinical prognosis with pathologic parameters and immunophenotypes with an emphasis on c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 expression and their values in predicting the status of c-myc gene translocation. Fifty-four cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract with complete clinical and pathologic data were retrospectively collected. The clinical data, histologic and immunohistochemical findings and follow-up results were analyzed. Predictive immunohistochemical stains including c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 were performed and ROC curve analysis was used to confirm the accuracy of these markers in predicting c-myc translocation. Of 54 cases, there were 33 males and 21 females with median age of 56 years. Histological types of lymphomas included 49 cases of DLBCL (11 cases of germinal central B cell like and 38 cases of activated B cell like by Hans classification), 4 cases of DLBCL/BL and 1 case of BL. Eleven of 54 patients died within 97 months, with median survival of 42 months. Histologically, full-thickness infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by large atypical cells with evident phagocytosis of karyorrhexis by macrophages ("starry sky") were seen in 18/54 cases. The lymphoma cells were positive for CD20 (54/54), CD79a (54/54), CD43 (4/54), CD5 (7/54), bcl-2 (26/54), Tcl-1 (17/54) and CD38 (15/54), but all negative for CD3 and CD30. The proliferative index by Ki-67 ranged from 40% to 100%. The univariate survival analysis indicated that B symptoms, general performance, high LDH, high IPI, distant metastasis, high clinical stage and tumors with over 90% of cells positive for c-myc were negative predictors for the patient's survival. In addition, cases of DLBCL positive for CD5 had an unfavorable prognosis. Cox regression analysis showed c-myc translocation, distant metastasis and high LDH were independent

  1. Inflammatory fibroid polyps of the gastrointestinal tract: a 14-year CT study at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Seung Soo; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the computed tomography (CT) features of pathology-proven inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) in the gastrointestinal tract. This retrospective series study included 27 patients with pathology-proven IFPs in the stomach (n = 16), small (n = 9), and large (n = 2) intestine, who underwent contrast-enhanced CT. Two radiologists reviewed the CT images of the patients to determine in consensus the long diameter, shape, margin, contour, and growth pattern of the lesions, the presence of an ulcer and overlying mucosal hyperenhancement, the lesion enhancement patterns including the homogeneity and the degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intussusception and obstruction. The CT results and clinical data of the gastric and intestinal lesions were compared. The IFPs typically manifested as well-defined (89%), round or ovoid (81%), slightly lobulated-contoured (70%) masses with a purely endoluminal growth pattern (96%) and an overlying mucosal hyperenhancement (67%). Lesion homogeneity and the degree of contrast enhancement varied. The intestinal IFPs were significantly larger (3.5 vs. 2 cm), more symptomatic (82% vs. 19%), and more frequently associated with intussusception (73% vs. 0%) and obstruction (46% vs. 6%) than the gastric lesions (p ≤ 0.027). The characteristic CT features of IFPs were well-defined, round or ovoid, lobulated-contoured, and endoluminal masses with overlying mucosal hyperenhancement and various enhancement patterns. IFP should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with a soft-tissue mass in the gastrointestinal tract, especially if a large endoluminal mass in the small intestine is accompanied by intussusception.

  2. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2% and Firmicutes (47.6%. The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8% and Firmicutes (58.9%. The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  3. Study of upper gastrointestinal tract involvement in pemphigus by esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involvement of upper gastrointestinal tract in pemphigus vulgaris is not uncommon. Aim: To study the involvement of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT with the help of esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD in patients of vesiculobullous dermatoses with emphasis on pemphigus vulgaris. Methods: Forty-two patients (M-22, F-20 with vesiculobullous dermatoses, diagnosed on the basis of clinical features and skin histopathology as pemphigus vulgaris (PV-40 patients and pemphigus foliaceus (PF-2 patients were included in the study. The EGD was performed and mucosa of the esophagus, stomach and first part of the duodenum were examined. Mucosal biopsies were taken from the lower esophagus in 26 patients of PV and studied after H and E staining. Results: On EGD, esophageal involvement was seen in 67% patients of PV (27/40. Of these, Grade I esophagitis was observed in seven, Grade II in 11, Grade III in four and Grade IV involvement was seen in five patients of PV. Three PV patients had associated esophageal candidiasis. Involvement of esophageal mucosa was also observed in one out of two patients of PF. Gastric mucosa was involved in 52% and duodenal mucosa in 20% of PV patients. Acantholysis was observed in seven out of 26 (27% esophageal biopsies of PV patients. Two patients of PV vomited a tube-like structure, indicative of ′esophagitis dissecans superficialis′. The involvement of the gastric mucosa in patients with history of oral corticosteroid intake (60% was compared to the group without history of oral corticosteroids (30%. Conclusion: Among PV patients under study, significant involvement of oral (87%, esophageal (67%, gastric (52% and duodenal mucosa (20% was observed.

  4. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  5. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  6. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  7. Nutritional assessment and hand grip strength of candidates for surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Thalita Morgana Guimarães; Sousa, Juliana Barbosa de; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira; Freitas, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; Melo, Paulla Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (nutritional subjective assessment with anthropometric methods and strength of the handshake only at the non-dominant limb.

  8. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta, Verónica; Casadesús, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections. PMID:29043249

  9. Bilateral Mooren's ulcer in a child secondary to helminthic infestation of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Singh, Digvijay; Sinha, Gautam; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan Singh

    2012-10-01

    To report an unusual association of bilateral Mooren's ulcer in a child with helminthic infestation of gastrointestinal tract. A 6-year-old female presented with redness, watering and photophobia in left eye for 2 months and in right eye for 2 weeks. BCVA was 20/200 in OD and 20/400 OS. Superior peripheral corneal ulcer of 8 × 2 mm was present in the right eye and 8 × 3 mm perforated limbal corneal ulcer with staphyloma was present in the left eye. Hemogram revealed microcytic hypochromic anemia, eosinophilia and elevated ESR. No organism was isolated on corneal scraping. Stool examination revealed presence of Ancylostoma duodenale. Therapy included fortified topical antibiotics, cycloplegics, lubricants and oral albendazole. Conjunctival recession and crescentic therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was done in OD and OS respectively. At 18 months follow up, there was no recurrence in any of the eyes. Bilateral Mooren's ulcer may be present with gastrointestinal hookworm infestation. Prompt and appropriate management may provide optimal therapeutic success.

  10. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications.

  11. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  12. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  13. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  14. What is safer for the gastrointestinal-tract: Coxibs or meloxicam?

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    A. M. Satybaldyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Are high cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selectivity and the absence of its impact on COX-1 the most important benefit of coxibs? Based on the classical concepts that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are implicated in the pathogenesis of the most well-known complication – NSAID gastropathy, this must be so. Indeed, the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT diseases associated with NSAID use is mainly related to the blockade of COX-1 and to the decreased synthesis of cytoprotective prostaglandins. However, the clinical experience with etoricoxib, one of the most selective coxibs, casts doubt on this fact. There are well-known data of the MEDAL study, which show the equal rate of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving etoricoxib and diclofenac. At the same time, moderately selective NSAIDs that include very popular meloxicam demonstrate a good tolerability and a low risk for GIT complications. A network meta-analysis of 36 studies covering a total of 112,351 patients indicates that there are no significant differences in the incidence of complicated and uncomplicated ulcers in patients receiving coxibs (a group analysis and moderately selective NSAIDs (meloxicam, nabumetone, and etodolac. It is important that meloxicam demonstrates not only the low total frequency of GIT complications, but a quite moderate (as compared with diclofenac and etoricoxib risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, which determines its benefit when used in real clinical practice.

  15. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-10

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition.

  16. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close...

  17. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to

  18. Value of laboratory investigations in clinical suspicion of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations in HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; van der Meer, J. T.; Tersmette, M.; ten Kate, F. J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of laboratory investigations for the diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations, the medical records and biopsy material from HIV-infected patients were reviewed retrospectively during a 12-month period. Clinical diagnosis of

  19. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  20. Biomarkers in premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract: Studies on Barrett’s esophagus and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have described our research on genetic abnormalities in (pre)malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wide variation in biological behavior of cancerous and precancerous conditions may be largely explained by differences in genetic abnormalities. They are a source of

  1. Protection of bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract used as a criterion for comparative evaluation of effectiveness of different radioprotective agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatovskaya, N.N.; Brumberg, I.E. (Voenno-Meditsinskaya Akademiya, Leningrad (USSR))

    It has been shown on mice that unlike cystamine, 4-aminobenzo- 2,1,3-thiadiazol exerts a radioprotective effect on the haemopoietic tissue and fails to protect the gastrointestinal tract. In the bone marrow, this preparation is only effective in relation to stem cells.

  2. Investigation into the fungal diversity within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Marden

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus have several physiological adaptions enabling the scraping and consumption of wood (xylivory, facilitating a detritivorous dietary strategy. Composed of lignocellulose, wood is a difficult substrate to degrade and as yet, it is unclear whether the fish obtains any direct nutritional benefits from wood ingestion and degradation. However, there are numerous systems that rely on microbial symbioses to provide energy and other nutritional benefits for host organisms via lignocellulose decomposition. While previous studies on the microbial community of P. nigrolineatus have focused upon the bacterial population, the role of fungi in lignocellulose degradation in the fish has not yet been examined. This study describes the detection of fungi within the fish gastrointestinal tract. Using next generation sequencing, the effects of diet on enteric fungal populations were examined in each gastrointestinal tract region. Fungal species were found to vary in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract as a function of diet. This study is the first to examine the fungal community in a xylivorous fish and results support the hypothesis that diet influences fungal distribution and diversity within the gastrointestinal tract of P. nigrolineatus.

  3. Fate and efficacy of lacticin 3147-producing Lactococcus lactis in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Alleson; Crispie, Fiona; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Casey, Pat G; Lawlor, Peadar G; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E; Hill, Colin

    2011-06-01

    Gastrointestinal survival of the bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactococcus lactis DPC6520, was evaluated systematically in vitro and in vivo with a view to using this strain to deliver biologically active lacticin 3147, a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, to the gut. The activity of the lacticin 3147 producer was also evaluated against two clinically relevant pathogens: Clostridium difficile and Listeria monocytogenes. When suspended in an appropriate matrix, the lactococcal strain is capable of surviving simulated gastrointestinal juices similar to the porcine probiotic, Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6005. Upon administration of L. lactis DPC6520 to pigs (n=4), excretion rates of ∼10(2) -10(5) CFU g(-1) faeces were observed by day 5. Although passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) did not affect lacticin 3147 production by L. lactis DPC6520 isolates, activity was undetectable in faecal samples by an agar well diffusion assay. Furthermore, L. lactis DPC6520 had no inhibitory effect on C. difficile or other bacterial populations in a human distal colon model, while lactococcal counts declined 10,000-fold over 24 h. The lacticin 3147 producer failed to prevent L. monocytogenes infection in a mouse model, even though a mean L. lactis DPC6520 count of 4.7 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) faeces was obtained over the 5-day administration period. These data demonstrate that L. lactis DPC6520 is capable of surviving transit through the GIT, and yet lacks antimicrobial efficacy in the models of infection used. © 2011 TEAGASC Food Research Centre. FEMS Microbiology Ecology © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS IN THE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT OF RESIDENTS OF ASTRAKHAN REGION

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    I. V. Zaitsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. During the life, the organism continuously consumes nutrients that build tissue and produce energy. The source of nutrients is proteins, fats, carbohydrates along with minerals. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of certain elements in the tissue of the stomach, small and large intestine of residents of the Astrakhan region. Materials and methods. We have taken fragments of stomach tissue as material for the study (n = 25, small (n = 25, and large (n = 25, the material has been obtained by sectional study from deaths from acci-dents of healthy individuals aged from 40 to 68 years (average age - 54 ± 0.63 years. The study of features of a cumulative distribution of elements (EM was performed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry using atomic ab-sorption spectrometer MGA-915. The analysis results are given in mg/kg of dry matter, and were subjected to statis tic processing (Student's t-test, using software Statistica (StatSoft, USA. Identified values were considered signifi-cant at p <0.05. Results. The study revealed that with morphologically similar structures of the tissues of the sto-mach, small and large intestines, similar fluctuations of elements’ accumulation were detected. While gastric tissue accumulates elements more intensively than small and large intestine. Study revealed differences in accumulation of elements depending on gender. For men the average concentration of elements in gastrointestinal tissues was slightly higher (1.3 fold than for women. Conclusions. One possible factor that contributed to the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract is the increase of the accumulation of trace elements in the gastrointestinal system. Above all, this applies to toxic trace elements in increased amounts found in the tissues of the stomach and intestines, such as cobalt, lead and cadmium, which is an indication of significant environmental pollution. 

  5. Underlying—Disease Risk for Antispasmodic Premedication in Older Patients Undergoing Investigations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Saito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Improve risk management of patients undergoing investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, in regard to underlying diseases and choice of premedication. According to a nationwide survey in Japan, 74% of the deaths associated with premedication were patients aged 60 years or over. Methods Subjects were 418 patients undergoing investigations of the GI tract (367 endoscopy, 51 barium contrast radiography between October 2001 and January 2004. Age distribution peaked in the 65-69 years group, and 40% of subjects were aged 65 years and over. Using a questionnaire, each subject was interviewed prior to the investigation to determine contraindications for anticholinergic agents or glucagon preparations. To confirm the risk associated with antispasmodic agents in elderly subjects, the group was subdivided into those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 and over, and compared. Results Anticholinergic agents were contraindicated in more than 50% of subjects aged 65 years and over, and glucagon was contraindicated in 11% of subjects aged 65 years and over. The proportion of elderly subjects in whom antispasmodic agents, including anticholinergics and glucagon, were contraindicated was significantly greater than for subjects aged under 65 years. Conclusions Using a written questionnaire at the time of obtaining informed consent facilitates the identification of underlying diseases and selection of appropriate premedication.

  6. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT: Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vitetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  7. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  8. Commercial Dairy Cow Milk microRNAs Resist Digestion under Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Abderrahim; Lee, Chan Ho C; Laffont, Benoit; Savard, Patricia; Laugier, Jonathan; Boilard, Eric; Gilbert, Caroline; Fliss, Ismail; Provost, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time. EVs within TIM-1 digested and nondigested samples were studied by immunoblotting, dynamic light scattering, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and density measurements. A large quantity of dairy milk Bos taurus microRNA-223 (bta-miR-223) and bta-miR-125b (∼10 9 -10 10 copies/300 mL milk) withstood digestion under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, with the stomach causing the most important decrease in microRNA amounts. A large quantity of these 2 microRNAs (∼10 8 -10 9 copies/300 mL milk) was detected in the upper small intestine compartments, which supports their potential bioaccessibility. A protocol optimized for the enrichment of dairy milk exosomes yielded a 100,000 × g pellet fraction that was positive for the exosomal markers tumor susceptibility gene-101 (TSG101), apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and containing bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b. This approach, based on successive ultracentrifugation steps, also revealed the existence of ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs larger than exosomes and 2-6 times more enriched in bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b (P dairy cow milk contains numerous microRNAs that can resist digestion and are associated mostly with ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs. Our results support the existence of interspecies transfer of micro

  9. Gastrointestinal absorption of metals (V Cr, WVZn, /sup 95m/Tc, ZCd, TSn, UXPm, and STYPu) by rats and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Miller, B.M.; Goebel, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and neonatal rats and neonatal pigs were gavaged with solutions of metal radionuclides to determine gastrointestinal absorption. Zinc-65 and technetium-95m were well-absorbed by both age groups; chromium-51, cadmium-109, tin-113, promethium-147, and plutonium-238 were not. The quantities of the poorly absorbed metals that were absorbed by neonates were between 4 and 100 times higher than those absorbed by adult rats. Autoradiograms prepared from the entire small intestine of the neonatal rat showed that ZCd was retained in the duodenum. In contrast, measurements in the piglets showed much higher ZCd retention in the ileum than in the duodenum. Autoradiograms and radiochemical measurements of UXPm and STYPu in both neonatal rats and swine showed the highest level of retention in the ileum. The results indicate that, for most of the metals studied, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is substantially higher for neonatal than for adult rats. 44 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  10. The effects of female sexual steroids on gastric function and barrier resistance of gastrointestinal tract following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the alteration of gastric function and barrier function of gastrointestinal (GI tract following diffuse brain injury in varying ovarian hormone status. Materials and Methods: Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI was induced by Marmarou method. Rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups: Intact, sham + ovariectomized female (OVX, TBI, TBI + OVX, vehicle, estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, E2 + P, estrogen receptor alpha agonist and estrogen receptor beta agonist (DPN. Endotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. All the parameters were measured 5 days after TBI. Results: Intragastric pressure was significantly decreased in TBI as compared to the intact group (P < 0.001 and this was lower in TBI group versus TBI + OVX group (P < 0.05. Pretreatment with steroid hormones and their agonists did not have any effect on the gastric pressure compared to TBI + OVX or vehicle groups. Inflammation, congestion, ulcer and erosion were seen in the TBI rats. All treatment groups worsen the tissue condition so that the presence of thrombosis also was seen. The trauma induction did not have any effect on the serum and intestinal endotoxin levels. DPN had caused a significant reduction in serum levels of endotoxin compared with OVX + TBI group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Pretreatment with sexual steroids is not useful in the treatment of GI dysfunction induced by TBI. The treatment with all sexual female hormones worsens the gastric tissue condition. Furthermore, the applied weight was not enough for releasing of endotoxin. It seems that estrogen reduced the endotoxin levels by estrogen beta receptor.

  11. Enterococcal colonization of the gastro-intestinal tract: role of biofilm and environmental oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabretti Francesca

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm formation in E. faecalis is presumed to play an important role in a number of enterococcal infections. We have previously identified a genetic locus provisionally named bop that is involved in maltose metabolism and biofilm formation. A transposon insertion into the second gene of the locus (bopB resulted in loss of biofilm formation, while the non-polar deletion of this gene, together with parts of the flanking genes (bopA and bopC resulted in increased biofilm formation. A polar effect of the transposon insertion on a transcriptional regulator (bopD was responsible for the reduced biofilm formation of the transposon mutant. Results The amount of biofilm formed is related to the presence of maltose or glucose in the growth medium. While the wild-type strain was able to produce biofilm in medium containing either glucose or maltose, two mutants of this locus showed opposite effects. When grown in medium containing 1% glucose, the transposon mutant showed reduced biofilm formation (9%, while the deletion mutant produced more biofilm (110% than the wild-type. When grown in medium containing 1% maltose, the transposon mutant was able to produce more biofilm than the wild-type strain (111%, while the deletion mutant did not produce biofilm (4%. Biofilm formation was not affected by the presence of several other sugar sources. In a gastrointestinal colonization model, the biofilm-negative mutant was delayed in colonization of the mouse intestinal tract. Conclusion The biofilm-positive phenotype of the wild-type strain seems to be associated with colonization of enterococci in the gut and the presence of oligosaccharides in food may influence biofilm formation and therefore colonization of enterococci in the gastrointestinal system.

  12. Enterococcal colonization of the gastro-intestinal tract: role of biofilm and environmental oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creti, Roberta; Koch, Stefanie; Fabretti, Francesca; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Huebner, Johannes

    2006-07-11

    Biofilm formation in E. faecalis is presumed to play an important role in a number of enterococcal infections. We have previously identified a genetic locus provisionally named bop that is involved in maltose metabolism and biofilm formation. A transposon insertion into the second gene of the locus (bopB) resulted in loss of biofilm formation, while the non-polar deletion of this gene, together with parts of the flanking genes (bopA and bopC) resulted in increased biofilm formation. A polar effect of the transposon insertion on a transcriptional regulator (bopD) was responsible for the reduced biofilm formation of the transposon mutant. The amount of biofilm formed is related to the presence of maltose or glucose in the growth medium. While the wild-type strain was able to produce biofilm in medium containing either glucose or maltose, two mutants of this locus showed opposite effects. When grown in medium containing 1% glucose, the transposon mutant showed reduced biofilm formation (9%), while the deletion mutant produced more biofilm (110%) than the wild-type. When grown in medium containing 1% maltose, the transposon mutant was able to produce more biofilm than the wild-type strain (111%), while the deletion mutant did not produce biofilm (4%). Biofilm formation was not affected by the presence of several other sugar sources. In a gastrointestinal colonization model, the biofilm-negative mutant was delayed in colonization of the mouse intestinal tract. The biofilm-positive phenotype of the wild-type strain seems to be associated with colonization of enterococci in the gut and the presence of oligosaccharides in food may influence biofilm formation and therefore colonization of enterococci in the gastrointestinal system.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Montalvillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  15. Effect of early nutrient restriction on broiler chickens. 1. Performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, P E; Sell, J L; Piquer, F J; Soto-Salanova, M F; Vilaseca, L

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of early nutrient restriction on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. Four hundred male broiler (Ross x Ross) chicks raised in floor pens were assigned to two treatment groups. One group was given ad libitum access to feed from 1 to 48 d of age. The second group was feed restricted from 7 to 14 d of age to an energy intake of 1.5 x BW.67 kcal ME/d and then given ad libitum access to feed from 14 to 48 d. Body weight and feed intake were determined weekly. At 49 d of age, birds were processed for carcass yield, abdominal fat pad measurement, and body composition analysis. Broilers were also sampled at 7, 14, 21, and 41 d of age for proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), pancreas, and liver weights and for intestinal length measurements. Total DNA, protein:DNA, and RNA:DNA ratios of livers and jejuna were determined as indexes of changes in cell size and number. Feed-restricted broilers failed to catch up to the Control birds in BW at 48 d of age but were superior (P Body weight and weights of gastrointestinal organs were reduced (P organs, except for liver. Feed restriction also resulted in a reduction (P organs recovered normal weight on refeeding, and all cellular constituent ratios (e.g., RNA:DNA, RNA:protein, and protein:DNA) returned to normal by 41 d of age. Absolute and relative weights of supply organs (e.g., proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, liver, and pancreas) were less affected by feed restriction and responded more quickly to refeeding than the whole body.

  16. Transformation and bioaccessibility of lead induced by steamed bread feed in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Junhong; Sima, Jingke; Cao, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    Accidental ingestion of contaminated soil has been recognized as an important pathway of human exposure to lead (Pb), especially for children through hand-to-mouth activities. Intake of food following the soil ingestion may affect the bioaccessibility of Pb in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the effect of steamed bread on the transformation and subsequent bioaccessibility of Pb in two soils was determined by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Two compounds, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and PbCO 3 , were included in the evaluation for comparison. In the gastric phase, Pb bioaccessibility decreased as the steamed bread increased due to the sorption of Pb on the undissolved steamed bread, especially in PbCO 3 , Pb bioaccessibility decreased from 95.03% to 85.40%. Whereas in the intestinal phase, Pb bioaccessibility increased from 1.85% to 5.66% and from 0.89% to 1.80% for Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and PbCO 3 , respectively. The increase was attributed to the transformation of formed Pb carbonates into soluble organic-Pb complexes induced by the dissolved steamed bread at neutral pH as indicated by MINTEQ modeling. For the PbCO 3 -contaminated soil, the change in Pb bioaccessibility in both gastric and intestinal phases behaved like that in the pure PbCO 3 compound, the steamed bread increased the bioaccessibility of Pb in the intestinal phase, but the decreased bioaccessibility of Pb was observed in the gastric phase after the steamed bread was added. However, in the soil contaminated with free Pb 2+ or sorbed Pb forms, the steamed bread increased the Pb bioaccessibility in both gastric and intestinal phases. This was probably due to the higher dissolved organic carbon induced transformation of sorbed Pb (Pb sorbed by Fe/Mn oxides) into soluble Pb-organic complex. Results from this study indicated that steamed bread had an influence on the Pb speciation transformation, correspondingly affecting Pb bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2016. Published

  17. Effects of cereal β-glucans and enzyme inclusion on the porcine gastrointestinal tract microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Padraigin; Bello, Fabio Dal; O'Doherty, John V; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect barley-based diets vs. oats based diets on levels of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacterium in the porcine gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In addition the effect of enzyme supplementation in both diets was explored. Twenty-eight boars were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: barley-based (B) diet; barley-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (B + ES); oat-based (O) diet or oat-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (O + ES). The enzyme supplement contained endo-1,3-β-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Faecal samples were collected from the pigs prior to initiations of the experiment and at slaughter. At slaughter digesta samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus species composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed by genus-specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE profiles indicated that cereal source provoked shifts in Lactobacillus population. The most diverse populations of lactobacilli emerged after feeding the O diets. Enzymes inclusion altered the composition of Lactobacillus species prevalent throughout the GIT in animals fed the B diet, causing a shift in the dominant lactobacilli present in the caecum and proximal colon. No such effect was evident in animals fed the enzyme supplemented O + ES diet. Microbial plate counts revealed that the O diets gave rise to higher counts of Lactobacillus in the caecum and colon and Bifidobacterium counts in the ileum, caecum and colon than the B diets. The O diet caused a 2 log increase in Enterobacterium counts in the proximal colon, no such effects were observed in animals fed the B, the B + ES or the O + ES diets. Overall both O diets had a more positive influence on the counts of the beneficial microorganisms and richness of the Lactobacillus population in the porcine GIT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  18. Structural, biological, and evolutionary relationships of plant food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Shewry, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The recently completed genome sequence of the model plant species Arabidopsis has been estimated to encode over 25,000 proteins, which, on the basis of their function, can be classified into structural and metabolic (the vast majority of plant proteins), protective proteins, which defend a plant against invasion by pathogens or feeding by pests, and storage proteins, which proved a nutrient store to support germination in seeds. It is now clear that almost all plant food allergens are either protective or storage proteins. It is also becoming evident that those proteins that trigger the development of an allergic response through the gastrointestinal tract belong primarily to two large protein superfamilies: (1) The cereal prolamin superfamily, comprising three major groups of plant food allergens, the 2S albumins, lipid transfer proteins, and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have related structures, and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. They include major allergens from Brazil nut, peanuts, fruits, such as peaches, and cereals, such as rice and wheat; (2) The cupin superfamily, comprising the major globulin storage proteins from a number of plant species. The globulins have been found to be allergens in plant foods, such as peanuts, soya bean, and walnut; (3) The cyteine protease C1 family, comprising the papain-like proteases from microbes, plants, and animals. This family contains two notable allergens that sensitize via the GI tract, namely actinidin from kiwi fruit and the soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30k/P34. This study describes the properties, structures, and evolutionary relationships of these protein families, the allergens that belong to them, and discusses them in relation to the role protein structure may play in determining protein allergenicity.

  19. Neural plasticity in the gastrointestinal tract: chronic inflammation, neurotrophic signals, and hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Tieftrunk, Elke; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Güralp O

    2013-04-01

    Neural plasticity is not only the adaptive response of the central nervous system to learning, structural damage or sensory deprivation, but also an increasingly recognized common feature of the gastrointestinal (GI) nervous system during pathological states. Indeed, nearly all chronic GI disorders exhibit a disease-stage-dependent, structural and functional neuroplasticity. At structural level, GI neuroplasticity usually comprises local tissue hyperinnervation (neural sprouting, neural, and ganglionic hypertrophy) next to hypoinnervated areas, a switch in the neurochemical (neurotransmitter/neuropeptide) code toward preferential expression of neuropeptides which are frequently present in nociceptive neurons (e.g., substance P/SP, calcitonin-gene-related-peptide/CGRP) and of ion channels (TRPV1, TRPA1, PAR2), and concomitant activation of peripheral neural glia. The functional counterpart of these structural alterations is altered neuronal electric activity, leading to organ dysfunction (e.g., impaired motility and secretion), together with reduced sensory thresholds, resulting in hypersensitivity and pain. The present review underlines that neural plasticity in all GI organs, starting from esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine to liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, actually exhibits common phenotypes and mechanisms. Careful appraisal of these GI neuroplastic alterations reveals that--no matter which etiology, i.e., inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic/malignant, or degenerative--neural plasticity in the GI tract primarily occurs in the presence of chronic tissue- and neuro-inflammation. It seems that studying the abundant trophic and activating signals which are generated during this neuro-immune-crosstalk represents the key to understand the remarkable neuroplasticity of the GI tract.

  20. Comparative microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tracts of food animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joyce M; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A; Aminov, Roustam I; Skerlos, Laura T; Bradley, Terence M; Mackie, Roderick I; White, Bryan A

    2002-04-01

    Molecular tools based on small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences offer a powerful and rapid tool for the analysis of complex microbial communities found in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of food animal species. Extensive comparative sequence analysis of SSU rRNA molecules representing a wide diversity of organisms shows that different regions of the molecule vary in sequence conservation. Oligonucleotides complementing regions of universally conversed SSU rRNA sequences are used as universal probes, while those complementing more variable regions of sequence are useful as selective probes targeting species, genus, or phylogenetic groups. Different approaches derive different information and this is highly dependent on the type of target nucleic acid employed and the conceptual and technical basis used for nucleic acid probe design. Generally these approaches can be divided into DNA-based methods employing empirically characterized probes and rRNA-based methods based on comparative sequence analysis for design and interpretation of "rational" probes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques can also be applied to the analysis of microbial communities in the GIT. Direct cloning of SSU rDNA genes amplified from these complex communities can be used to determine the extent of diversity in these GIT communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is another powerful tool for profiling microbial diversity of microbial communities in GI tracts. Sequence analysis of the excised DGGE amplicons can then be used to presumptively identify predominant bacterial species. Examples of how these molecular approaches are being used to study the microbial diversity of communities from steers fed different diets, swine fed probiotics, and Atlantic salmon fed aquaculture diets are presented.

  1. Increased translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R L; Maca, R D; Berg, R D

    1985-03-01

    Aerobic gram-negative bacilli and other indigenous gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria are important opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed cancer patients. These same bacteria frequently translocate from the GI tracts of mice immunosuppressed by single injections of certain anticancer drugs or by T-lymphocyte impairments. Since similar cellular and humoral immune deficiencies may be present in the tumor-bearing host, we sought to determine if progressive growth of a tumor alone would be sufficient to enhance the translocation of indigenous bacteria from the murine GI tract. Pathogen-free DBA/2 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 10(6) viable sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells or 0.5 ml of sterile buffer. Mesenteric lymph nodes, livers, spleens, and kidneys were tested for the presence of translocated aerobic GI bacteria on various days after tumor injection. Immunity was assessed by measuring footpad delayed-type hypersensitivity and serum hemagglutinins to sheep erythrocytes. Overall, translocated aerobic GI bacteria infected 33 of 92 S-180-bearing mice (36%) and only 9 of 99 control mice (9%) (P less than 10(-6)). Cumulatively, 50 of 460 sites (10.9%) in S-180-bearing mice were infected with translocated GI bacteria as opposed to only 9 of 485 sites (1.9%) in control animals (P less than 10(-7)). GI bacteria often translocated to infect more than one site in tumor-bearing mice, but not in controls. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli translocated 11 times in tumor-bearing mice, but only once in controls, even though the mean cecal population levels of these bacteria were relatively low (range, 4.33 to 5.28 log10 bacteria per g). The population levels of cecal aerobic bacteria were similar in S-180 and control mice throughout the period of observation. S-180 mice had significantly suppressed (P less than 0.04) delayed-type hypersensitivity and serum hemagglutinin responses when sensitized 4 or 8 days after S-180 injection. S-180 growth was associated with a neutrophilic

  2. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  4. Effect of encapsulation of selected probiotic cell on survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiah Ayama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of probiotic bacteria have been led to their increasing use in foods. Encapsulation has been investigated to improve their survival. In this study, the selection, encapsulation and viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic properties in simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT condition were investigated. One hundred and fifty isolates of LAB were obtained from 30 samples of raw cow and goat milk and some fermented foods. Nine isolates could survive under GIT condition and only 3 isolates exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Among them, 2 isolates (CM21 and CM53 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity on glycocholate and glycodeoxycholate agar plates and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. CM53 was selected for encapsulation using 1-3% alginate and 2% Hi-maize resistant starch by emulsion system. Viability and releasing ability of encapsulated CM53 in simulated GIT condition was increased in accordance to the alginate concentration and incubation time, respectively.

  5. Some Gastrointestinal Tract Characteristics of Karayaka Ram Lambs Slaughtered at Different Weights

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    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one Karayaka ram lambs were slaughtered at different body weights (30 n=7, 35 n=6, 40 n=7, 45 n=6, and 50 n=5 kg of body weight at fast to evaluate the growth of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT characteristics, to determine the relationship among slaughter body weight (SBW and empty body weight (EBW, whole GIT and segments, and the influence of slaughter weight on the pH of rumen, jejunum, and cecal contents. The effects of the SBW on GIT weight P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.05, the body length P<0.001 and caecum P<0.05, and the relative weights of GIT P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.001 were linear whereas that for the length of intestine were quadratic. The effect of SBW were quadratic P<0.05 on ratios of stomach to GIT weight and intestine length to intestine weight and rumen pH while, for the intestine to GIT weight ratio P<0.001 and caecum pH P<0.05, this effect was linear. The results indicated that for all parameters studied, with the exception of intestinal length and cecal pH, linear relationships were observed with SBW indicating steady growth rates for these tissues.

  6. Gastrointestinal tract complications following radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: past and present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoonessi, M.; Romney, S.; Dayem, H.

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the gastrointestinal tract complications in 298 patients with cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy at the State University of New York at Buffalo and Albert Einstein College of Medicine affiliated hospitals was carried out. Fifty-two patients had pretreatment surgical staging (39 transperitoneal and 13 extraperitoneal). Twenty-four percent had varying degrees of radiation sickness. They all responded to conservative therapy. Seven percent developed Stage I radiation proctitis. In the clinical staging group late complications consisted of: Three small bowel injuries, 4% persistent Stage I, 3% Stage III, and one patient with Stage II radiation proctitis. Among 39 patients who had transperitoneal surgical staging, two small bowel injuries, one case of gastric ulcer, and three cases of radiation proctitis were encountered. Only one of 13 patients who had extraperitoneal surgical staging developed intestino-vesico-vaginal fistula. A literature search was conducted, and prophylactic and therapeutic measures are discussed. The importance of careful selection of patients for radiotherapy and recognition of high risk clinical factors is reemphasized.

  7. Survival of probiotic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Darmov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for the identification of certified probiotic microorganisms in the intestinal contents of white mice and uinea pigs and study of their survival in the gastrointestinal tract of experimental animals. Rifampicin-resistant bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were used in the experiments. Cultures of microorganisms that have retained the species features were administered orally for 14 days and the number of viable bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were determined by sowing of feces in a dense nutrient medium with rifampicin. Probiotic microorganisms administered orally to experimental animals for 14 days are detected in the feces on the second day of the experiment. Live probiotic bacteria ceases completely to be detected in the feces of animals 3 days after the termination of their oral administration. Using the developed universal method of differentiation of probiotic microorganisms entering the living organisms and strains of their own intestinal microflora a significant decrease (4–7 orders of magnitude in survival of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the organisms of experimental animals was shown, followed by a lack of probiotic effect.

  8. Carbon monoxide in human physiology – its role in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jasnos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter – nitric oxide (NO. Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Characterization of the Microbiome along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Turkeys

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    Toby J. Wilkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The turkey microbiome is largely understudied, despite its relationship with bird health and growth, and the prevalence of human pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. In this study we investigated the microbiome within the small intestine (SI, caeca (C, large intestine (LI, and cloaca (CL of turkeys at 6, 10, and 16 weeks of age. Eight turkeys were dissected within each age category and the contents of the SI, C, LI, and CL were harvested. 16S rDNA based QPCR was performed on all samples and samples for the four locations within three birds/age group were sequenced using ion torrent-based sequencing of the 16S rDNA. Sequencing data showed on a genus level, an abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium XI (38.2, 28.1, and 13.0% respectively irrespective of location and age. The caeca exhibited the greatest microbiome diversity throughout the development of the turkey. PICRUSt data predicted an array of bacterial function, with most differences being apparent in the caeca of the turkeys as they matured. QPCR revealed that the caeca within 10 week old birds, contained the most Campylobacter spp. Understanding the microbial ecology of the turkey gastrointestinal tract is essential in terms of understanding production efficiency and in order to develop novel strategies for targeting Campylobacter spp.

  11. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhael Bekkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is a common diagnosis that presents in emergency departments throughout the world. Distinct foreign bodies predispose to particular locations of impaction in the gastrointestinal tract, commonly meat boluses in the esophagus above a preexisting esophageal stricture or ring in adults and coins in children. Several other groups are at high risk of foreign body impaction, mentally handicapped individuals or those with psychiatric illness, abusers of drugs or alcohol, and the geriatric population. Patients with foreign body ingestion typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, sensation of having an object stuck, chest pain, and nausea/vomiting. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the digestive system spontaneously without causing any harm, symptoms, or necessitating any further intervention. A well-documented clinical history and thorough physical exam is critical in making the diagnosis, if additional modalities are needed, a CT scan and diagnostic endoscopy are generally the preferred modalities. Various tools can be used to remove foreign bodies, and endoscopic treatment is safe and effective if performed by a skilled endoscopist.

  12. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  13. A Molecular Basis for Bifidobacterial Enrichment in the Infant Gastrointestinal Tract123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Daniel; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are commonly used as probiotics in dairy foods. Select bifidobacterial species are also early colonizers of the breast-fed infant colon; however, the mechanism for this enrichment is unclear. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prototypical bifidobacterial species that can readily utilize human milk oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source. MS-based glycoprofiling has revealed that numerous B. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides, abundant in human milks. Genome sequencing revealed that B. infantis possesses a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates. Many of these genomic features encode enzymes that are active on milk oligosaccharides including a novel 40-kb region dedicated to oligosaccharide utilization. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the encoded glycosidases and transport proteins has further resolved the mechanism by which B. infantis selectively imports and catabolizes milk oligosaccharides. Expression studies indicate that many of these key functions are only induced during growth on milk oligosaccharides and not expressed during growth on other prebiotics. Analysis of numerous B. infantis isolates has confirmed that these genomic features are common among the B. infantis subspecies and likely constitute a competitive colonization strategy used by these unique bifidobacteria. By detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms responsible, these studies provide a conceptual framework for bifidobacterial persistence and host interaction in the infant gastrointestinal tract mediated in part through consumption of human milk oligosaccharides. PMID:22585920

  14. Rapid and Efficient Method for the Detection of Microplastic in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Samuel; Brinker, Alexander

    2017-04-18

    The rising evidence of microplastic pollution impacts on aquatic organisms in both marine and freshwater ecosystems highlights a pressing need for adequate and comparable detection methods. Available tissue digestion protocols are time-consuming (>10 h) and/or require several procedural steps, during which materials can be lost and contaminants introduced. This novel approach comprises an accelerated digestion step using sodium hydroxide and nitric acid in combination to digest all organic material within 1 h plus an additional separation step using sodium iodide which can be used to reduce mineral residues in samples where necessary. This method yielded a microplastic recovery rate of ≥95%, and all tested polymer types were recovered with only minor changes in weight, size, and color with the exception of polyamide. The method was also shown to be effective on field samples from two benthic freshwater fish species, revealing a microplastic burden comparable to that indicated in the literature. As a consequence, the present method saves time, minimizes the loss of material and the risk of contamination, and facilitates the identification of plastic particles and fibers, thus providing an efficient method to detect and quantify microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes.

  15. Surface Proteins of Lactococcus lactis: Bacterial Resources for Muco-adhesion in the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Muriel Mercier-Bonin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the key factors that may favor health effects of beneficial bacteria to the host is their capacity to colonize transiently the gut, notably through close interactions with mucus, which covers and protects the intestinal epithelium. Several L. lactis strains have been shown to exhibit mucus-binding properties and bacterial surface proteins have been identified as key determinants of such capacity. In this review, we describe the different types of surface proteins found in L. lactis, with a special focus on mucus-binding proteins and pili. We also review the different approaches used to investigate the adhesion of L. lactis to mucus, and particularly to mucins, one of its major components, and we present how these approaches allowed revealing the role of surface proteins in muco-adhesion.

  16. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

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    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  18. Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 hydrolyses bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepercq, P; Relano, P; Cayuela, C; Juste, C

    2004-12-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity is widespread among ingested bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is sometimes considered to be beneficial because of its putative lowering effect on cholesterol absorption and sometimes considered to be deleterious because it may compromise normal fat absorption and even promote the formation of secondary cytotoxic bile acids by the resident intestinal flora. However, the true hydrolysis of bile salts in vivo by ingested living bacteria remains unexplored. The aim of the study was to examine whether or not Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 (used in fermented milks), which demonstrates a BSH activity in vitro, was also active in vivo during its transit in the intestine of pigs. Direct measurement of total and unconjugated bile acids reabsorbed into the portal vein was done, before and after the pigs had been treated for 2 weeks with two daily doses of approximately 3.5 x 10(11) colony-forming units of living (6 pigs) or inactivated B. animalis (6 pigs). None of the treatments modified the portal serum concentration of total bile acids over a 6-h postprandial period. Unconjugated bile acids represented up to 44% and 53% of total bile acids after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with living bacteria, respectively, compared with only 25% (P animalis DN-173 010 exhibited a BSH activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs, most probably in the small bowel. There was no sign of increased formation of secondary bile acids beyond the hydrolysis reaction.

  19. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental study in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzen, G.; Banning, S.; Guenther, R.

    1987-05-01

    A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs. We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. We simulated the pack by stuffing a fingerstall of a latex handglove with a mixture of 10% barium powder and flour to render it radiopaque. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out. Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results. In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'.

  20. The Role of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Inflammatory Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Jan Bilski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS, flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from cells during stressful events. Diminished activity of IAP could increase the risk of disease through changes in the microbiome, intestinal inflammation, and intestinal permeability. Exogenous IAP exerts a protective effect against intestinal and systemic inflammation in a variety of diseases and represents a potential therapeutic agent in diseases driven by gut barrier dysfunction such as IBD. The intestinal protective mechanisms are impaired in IBD patients due to lower synthesis and activity of endogenous IAP, but the pathomechanism of this enzyme deficiency remains unclear. IAP has been safely administered to humans and the human recombinant form of IAP has been developed. This review was designed to provide an update in recent research on the involvement of IAP in intestinal inflammatory processes with focus on IBD in experimental animal models and human patients.

  1. The extracellular matrix of the gastrointestinal tract: a regenerative medicine platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, George S; Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis and secretion of components that constitute the extracellular matrix (ECM) by resident cell types occur at the earliest stages of embryonic development, and continue throughout life in both healthy and diseased physiological states. The ECM consists of a complex mixture of insoluble and soluble functional components that are arranged in a tissue-specific 3D ultrastructure, and it regulates numerous biological processes, including angiogenesis, innervation and stem cell differentiation. Owing to its composition and influence on embryonic development, as well as cellular and organ homeostasis, the ECM is an ideal therapeutic substrate for the repair of damaged or diseased tissues. Biologic scaffold materials that are composed of ECM have been used in various surgical and tissue-engineering applications. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents distinct challenges, such as diverse pH conditions and the requirement for motility and nutrient absorption. Despite these challenges, the use of homologous and heterologous ECM bioscaffolds for the focal or segmental reconstruction and regeneration of GI tissue has shown promise in early preclinical and clinical studies. This Review discusses the importance of tissue-specific ECM bioscaffolds and highlights the major advances that have been made in regenerative medicine strategies for the reconstruction of functional GI tissues.

  2. EGFR(s) in aging and carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2010-09-01

    Cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa are subject to a constant process of renewal which, in normal adults, reflects a balance between the rates of cell production and cell loss. Detailed knowledge of these events is, therefore, essential for a better understanding of the normal aging processes as well as many GI diseases, particularly malignancy, that represent disorders of tissue growth. In general, many GI dysfunctions, including malignancy, increase with advancing age, and aging itself is associated with alterations in structural and functional integrity of the GI tract. Although the regulatory mechanisms for age-related increase in the incidence of GI-cancers are yet to be fully delineated, recent evidence suggests a role for epidermal growth family receptors and its family members {referred to as EGFR(s)} in the development and progression of carcinogenesis during aging. The present communication discusses the involvement of EGFR(s) in regulating events of GI cancers during advancing age and summarizes the current available therapeutics targeting these receptors. The current review also describes the effectiveness of ErbB inhibitors as well as combination therapies. Additionally, the involvement of GI stem cells in the development of the age-related rise in GI cancers is emphasized.

  3. Cell Aging of Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Observed by Light and Electron Microscopic Radioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tetsuji

    2014-08-01

    The term "cell aging" initially means how the cells change due to their aging. There are two meanings, i.e. how a cell changes when it is isolated from original animals such as in vitro cells in cell culture, otherwise how all the cells of an animal change in vivo due to the aging of the individual animal. We have been studying the latter changes from the viewpoint of the cell nutrients, the precursors for the macromolecular synthesis such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, glucides and lipids, which are incorporated and synthesized into various cells of individual animals. Therefore, this article deals with only the cell aging of animal cells in vivo, how the metabolism, i.e. incorporations and syntheses of respective nutrient precursors in various kinds of cells change due to the aging of individual experimental animals such as mice by means of microscopic radioautography to localize the RI-labeled precursors. The incorporations and syntheses of various precursors for macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, glucides, lipids and others in various kinds of cells of various organs in the gastrointestinal tract such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines are reviewed referring many original papers already published from our laboratory during these 60 years since the late 20th century.

  4. ESOMEPRAZOLE EFFICACY IN TREATMENT OF THE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AMONG CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of the endoscopic examination and treatment of 80 children, suffering from rheumatic diseases. According to the esophago gastroduodenoscopy data, all the patients turned up to have inflammatory changes in the upper gastrointestinal tract of various degrees of manifestation. Moreover, only 36% of patients complained about pain in the stomach. The application of esomeprazole in the complex therapy contributed to the epithelization of erosive and ulcerous defects and dyspepsia syndrome relief among the majority of the patients. The effects of the complex therapy with esomeprazole were appraised as good among 90% of children and excellent among 9% of patients.Key words: children, rheumatic diseases, esomeprazole, gastrointestinal tract pathology.

  5. Hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic study of 2 cases and reappraisal of perineurial cells in gastrointestinal schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Michal, Michal

    2011-10-01

    Soft tissue neoplasms with features of both schwannoma and perineurioma (hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma) have been increasingly recognized in recent years. To date, only a single case of this entity has been documented in the gastrointestinal tract (sigmoid colon). We herein describe 2 new cases of this entity. For comparison, we reevaluated 12 classic gastrointestinal schwannomas for the perineurial cell component. The 2 hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas were detected incidentally in the gastric antrum and the vermiform appendix in a 50-year-old woman and a 17-year-old man during surgery for gastric GIST and appendicitis-like symptoms, respectively. None of the patients had neurofibromatosis 1 or 2. Patients were alive with no evidence of recurrence or new tumors at 8 and 12 months, respectively. The tumors measured 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm in size. Histologically, they showed prominent storiform, lamellar, and fascicular patterns. Notably, both lacked peripheral lymphoid cuffs and the trabecular pattern of gastrointestinal schwannomas. Both tumors coexpressed protein S100 (≥80%), CD34 (80%), and the perineurial cell markers (20% to 40% of tumor cells). The perineurial cell component formed alternating fascicles with S100-positive cells throughout the neoplasm. Reevaluation of 12 classic gastrointestinal schwannomas showed isolated claudin-1/epithelial membrane antigen-positive cells. However, 4 schwannomas (33%) strongly expressed glucose transporter-1 in most of the tumor cells indicating its limited specificity in this setting. Compared with gastrointestinal schwannomas, CD34 expression was stronger and more diffuse in hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas. We conclude that hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas are distinct from gastrointestinal schwannoma, both histologically and immunohistochemically.

  6. Limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic and prognostic analysis of 27 cases

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    Chunyan Peng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and potential prognostic factors for patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. The records of 27 patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, who all received surgery with lymphadenectomy, were retrieved and analyzed retrospectively. The median age of patients was 60 years old (range 38-79. The primary locations of tumor were the esophagus (74.1% and stomach (14.8%. The rate of preoperative accurate diagnosis (16.7% was low for small cell carcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. 40.7% of all the patients had regional lymph node metastases. Five patients underwent surgery alone, and the other 22 were treated with surgery + postoperative chemotherapy. All patients had disease progression or recurrence. The overall median survival time was 10 months and the 1-year survival rate was 37.0%. Patients who received postoperative chemotherapy had a median survival time of 12 months, which was superior to the 5-month survival of for those who only had surgery (P<0.0001. TNM stage (P=0.02 and postoperative chemotherapy (P<0.0001 were considered as two prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Postoperative chemotherapy was a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P=0.01. The prognosis for patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract remains dismal, however, postoperative chemotherapy may have the potential to improve the outcome for these patients.

  7. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana

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    Boaitey Yaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH in Ghana between April and December 2008. Findings This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500 prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300 in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500 and 14% (70/500 respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500 of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500 and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300. Most, 60 (86% out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47% out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. Conclusion G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital.

  8. Outcome following gastrointestinal tract decontamination and intravenous fluid diuresis in cats with known lily ingestion: 25 cases (2001-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alice J; Reineke, Erica L

    2013-04-15

    To describe the outcome of cats treated with gastrointestinal tract decontamination, IV fluid diuresis, or both after ingestion of plant material from lilies of the Lilium and Hemerocallis genera. Design-Retrospective case series. 25 cats evaluated after ingestion of lily plants. Medical records of cats examined at the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania with known lily ingestion between July 2001 and April 2010 were reviewed. Inclusion in the study required evidence of lily plant ingestion within the preceding 48 hours. Type of lily ingested, time of ingestion, gastrointestinal tract decontamination procedures performed, and IV fluid diuresis were recorded. The presence or absence of acute kidney injury was determined by evaluating BUN concentration, creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity. Outcome was defined as survival to discharge, death, or euthanasia. The time from ingestion until evaluation at the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania ranged from diuresis, supportive care, and monitoring. Seventeen of these 23 (74%) cats had normal BUN and creatinine concentrations throughout hospitalization. At the time of discharge from the hospital, 2 of the 23 (9%) hospitalized cats had an increased BUN concentration, creatinine concentration, or both. All 25 (100%) cats survived to discharge from the hospital. In this series of cats treated with gastrointestinal tract decontamination, IV fluid diuresis, or both within 48 hours after lily ingestion, the outcome was good, with a low incidence of acute kidney injury. Future studies are needed to determine the most effective gastrointestinal tract decontamination procedures and optimal duration of IV fluid therapy.

  9. The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnostic Assessment of Subepithelial Lesions of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Francisca Dias de Castro

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: EUS is the method of choice in the study of subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, in most cases defining a diagnosis. The need for a definitive diagnosis or therapeutic approaches can be based on ultrasound risk features, presented, in the majority, at presentation. This study shows that EUS is capable of safely and accurately define those subepithelial lesions that can be managed only with surveillance ultrasound while waiting for better results with fine needle aspiration.

  10. Quality of life and its related factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer: A cross-sectional study

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    Jabbar Heydari Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Quality of life (QoL is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version. Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age ( P < 0.05. Also, there was a significant association between patients′ gender and their social functioning ( P = 0.017 and also their emotional functioning ( P = 0.015. Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families′ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended.

  11. Studies on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

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    Uchida, Tsuneo; Kameda, Kyoko; Tanaka, Koji; Nishimura, Shigeru; Higashide, Toshiaki (Osaka Police Hospital (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Investigation was made on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-, which is applicable to the whole area of the gastrointestinal tract, in diagnoses of diseases of the stomach, pancreas, colon and the organs adjacent to the three. After the administration of the drug, CT was performed and the thickness of the walls were measured for the normal upper gastrointestinal tract in 50 patients and for the normal colon in 25. The normal gastric walls did not exceed 5 mm and the walls of the colon measured about 2.1 mm. Gastric tumors were projected at 80.4%. Especially, the drug was useful for the early diagnosis of schirrus. The pancreas was more clearly projected in 88.4% of the patients. The reconstruction method using the present drug was useful for the investigation of the relationship between the two organs, the stomach and the duodenum, and the pancreas. When CT was performed on a patient laying this right side on the bed, invasion of pancreatic cancer and gastric antrum cancer into the circumferntial organs could be diagnosed. The drug was useful for the identification of tumors in the colon and intrapelvic lesions. The medium was also given to four patients with colitis ulcerosa and the obtained findings on the wall features were same as those obtained by barium enema. The present drug was little associated with side effects and is considered to be an excellent negative contrast medium for all the gastrointestinal tracts.

  12. H. pylori May Not Be Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Normal Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy Results

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    Tayyibe Saler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori in patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. Materials and Methods. A total of 117 male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results were included in this retrospective study. The study and control groups included 69 and 48 patients with and without iron deficiency anemia, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori, the number of RBCs, and the levels of HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin were calculated and compared. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the groups according to the prevalence of H. pylori (65.2% versus 64.6%, P=0.896. Additionally, the levels of RBCs, HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin in the patients in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. Finally, there was no association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori (OR 1.02, Cl 95% 0.47–2.22, and P=0.943. Conclusion. H. pylori is not associated with iron deficiency anemia in male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium lemurum DSM 28807T Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Takehiro; Tomida, Shuta; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bifidobacterium lemurum DSM 28807T was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:28232445

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium lemurum DSM 28807(T) Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Takehiro; Tomida, Shuta; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kikusui, Takefumi; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-23

    Bifidobacterium lemurum DSM 28807(T) was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of this organism. Copyright © 2017 Toh et al.

  15. Family History as a Risk for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Safaee; Moghimi Dehkordi, B; Fatemi, SR; Maserat, E; Ghafarnejad, F; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background Although, family history of cancer is an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers development, but limited information is available on the upper gastrointestinal cancers associated with family history in Iran. The purpose of this study was to define upper gastrointestinal cancers risk associated with family history of cancer. Methods This study was conducted as a case control study. A total number of 1,010 cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer and 1,010 healthy con...

  16. Single layer versus double layer suture anastomosis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad S; Siddiqui, Muhammed Rafay Sameem; Baig, Mirza K

    2012-01-18

    Gastrointestinal anastomosis (GIA) is an essential step to maintain the continuity of gastrointestinal tract following intestinal resection. GIA is still a source of significant controversy among surgeons due to the use of variety of approaches. Adequate apposition by single layer or double layer anastomosis may affect outcome after GIA OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of single layer GIA (SGIA) versus double layer GIA (DGIA) being used in general surgery. The particular question we would attempt to answer will be; is single layer hand made GIA in surgical patients is as effective as double layer? The CCCG (Colorectal Cancer Cochrane Group) Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2011), MEDLINE (until April 2011) , EMBASE ( The Intelligent Gateway to Biomedical & Pharmacological Information until April 2011), LILACS (The Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Library until April 2011 ) and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E until April 2011) using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms were searched without date, language or age restrictions. Randomised, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of SGIA versus DGIA DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently scrutinised search results, selected eligible studies and extracted data. Seven randomised, controlled trials encompassing 842 patients undergoing SGIA versus DGIA were retrieved from the electronic databases. There were 408 patients in the SGIA group and 432 patients in the DGIA group. All included studies were small, with sample sizes ranging from 60 to 172. There was no heterogeneity among the included trials. Therefore, in the fixed effects model, incidence of anastomotic dehiscence, peri-operative complications and mortality was statistically equivalent between two techniques of GIA. Average hospital stay following SGIA and DGIA was also

  17. Taste and move: glucose and peptide transporters in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Zietek, Tamara

    2015-12-01

    What is the topic of this review? Nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract requires membrane proteins embedded in the apical membrane of epithelial cells that allow bulk quantities of nutrients, such as monosaccharides and amino acids, to be moved into epithelial cells. Very recently, a new function of the transporters as nutrient sensors mediating peptide hormone release from enteroendocrine cells has been discovered. What advances does it highlight? The review covers recent advances in membrane transporter functions for the absorption and sensing of dietary peptides and sugars and their putative interplay. Nutrient transporters are integral membrane proteins responsible for uptake into enterocytes and release of nutrients into the circulation. Absorption of food breakdown products, such as fatty acids, monosaccharides or amino acids, requires high-capacity transporters. In the case of glucose, amino acids and peptides, the transporters are electrogenic in nature, coupling substrate flux to ion movement. While glucose absorption is mediated by the Na(+)-dependent SGLT1 protein, uptake of short-chain peptides is mediated by the H(+)-coupled PEPT1 protein. Interestingly, both transporters were recently shown to fulfil an additional role as intestinal 'sensors' in enteroendocrine cells, mediating the release of gastrointestinal peptide hormones into the circulation. Sensing of D-glucose and of di- and tripeptides is particularly relevant for the secretion of the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 that promote insulin output from β-cells and mediate β-cell protection. In addition to these sensing pathways, a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors are involved in sensing of intestinal contents. D-Glucose is sensed not only by SGLT1 but also by the sweet taste receptor T1R2/3 expressed in enteroendocrine cells. Activation of T1R2/3 increases SGLT1 levels and intestinal glucose absorption. Although T1R2

  18. Nutritional programming of gastrointestinal tract development. Is the pig a good model for man?

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    Guilloteau, Paul; Zabielski, Romuald; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-06-01

    The consequences of early-life nutritional programming in man and other mammalian species have been studied chiefly at the metabolic level. Very few studies, if any, have been performed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as the target organ, but extensive GIT studies are needed since the GIT plays a key role in nutrient supply and has an impact on functions of the entire organism. The possible deleterious effects of nutritional programming at the metabolic level were discovered following epidemiological studies in human subjects, and confirmed in animal models. Investigating the impact of programming on GIT structure and function would need appropriate animal models due to ethical restrictions in the use of human subjects. The aim of the present review is to discuss the use of pigs as an animal model as a compromise between ethically acceptable animal studies and the requirement of data which can be interpolated to the human situation. In nutritional programming studies, rodents are the most frequently used model for man, but GIT development and digestive function in rodents are considerably different from those in man. In that aspect, the pig GIT is much closer to the human than that of rodents. The swine species is closely comparable with man in many nutritional and digestive aspects, and thus provides ample opportunity to be used in investigations on the consequences of nutritional programming for the GIT. In particular, the 'sow-piglets' dyad could be a useful tool to simulate the 'human mother-infant' dyad in studies which examine short-, middle- and long-term effects and is suggested as the reference model.

  19. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

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    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  20. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

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    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  1. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

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    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  2. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

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    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  3. Diagnosis of dysplasia in upper gastro-intestinal tract biopsies through digital microscopy

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    Dorina Gui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide digital imaging (WSDI offers an alternative to glass slides for diagnostic interpretation. While prior work has concentrated on the use of whole slide digital imaging for routine diagnostic cases, this study focuses on diagnostic interpretation of digital images for a highly challenging area, upper gastro-intestinal (GI dysplasia. The aim of this study is to study the accuracy and efficiency of WSDI in the diagnosis of upper GI tract dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Forty-two hematoxylin and eosin (H and E-stained slides representing negative, indefinite, low grade and high grade dysplasia were selected and scanned at 20x (Aperio XT. Four attending GI pathologists reviewed the WSDI, then glass slides, with at least 3-4 weeks between each media; glass slides were re-reviewed 16-18 months later. Results: Intraobserver variability for three clinically relevant categories (negative, indefinite/low grade, high grade was wider for WSDI to glass (kappa range 0.36-0.78 than glass to glass (kappa range 0.58-0.75. In comparison to glass slide review, WSDI review required more time and was associated with an unexpected trend toward downgrading dysplasia. Conclusions: Our results suggest: (1 upper GI dysplasia can be diagnosed using WSDI with similar intraobserver reproducibility as for glass slides; however, this is not true for all pathologists; (2 pathologists may have a tendency to downgrade dysplasia in digital images; and (3 pathologists who use WSDI for interpretation of GI dysplasia cases may benefit from regular, on-going, re-review of paired digital and glass images to ensure the most accurate utilization of digital technology, at least in the early stages of implementation.

  4. Analysis of Lactobacillus sakei mutants selected after adaptation to the gastrointestinal tracts of axenic mice.

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    Chiaramonte, Fabrizio; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Langella, Philippe; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Zagorec, Monique

    2010-05-01

    We recently showed that Lactobacillus sakei, a natural meat-borne lactic acid bacterium, can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of axenic mice but that this colonization in the intestinal environment selects L. sakei mutants showing modified colony morphology (small and rough) and cell shape, most probably resulting from the accumulation of various mutations that confer a selective advantage for persistence in the GIT. In the present study, we analyzed such clones, issued from three different L. sakei strains, in order to determine which functions were modified in the mutants. In the elongated filamentous cells of the rough clones, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a septation defect and dotted and slanted black bands, suggesting the presence of a helical structure around the cells. Comparison of the cytoplasmic and cell wall/membrane proteomes of the meat isolate L. sakei 23K and of one of its rough derivatives revealed a modified expression for 38 spots. The expression of six oxidoreductases, several stress proteins, and four ABC transporters was strongly reduced in the GIT-adapted strain, while the actin-like MreB protein responsible for cell shaping was upregulated. In addition, the expression of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism was modified, which may correlate with the observation of modified growth of mutants on various carbon sources. These results suggest that the modifications leading to a better adaptation to the GIT are pleiotropic and are characterized in a rough mutant by a different stress status, a cell wall modification, and modified use of energy sources, leading to an improved fitness for the colonization of the GIT.

  5. Analysis of Lactobacillus sakei Mutants Selected after Adaptation to the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Axenic Mice▿ †

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    Chiaramonte, Fabrizio; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Langella, Philippe; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Zagorec, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We recently showed that Lactobacillus sakei, a natural meat-borne lactic acid bacterium, can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of axenic mice but that this colonization in the intestinal environment selects L. sakei mutants showing modified colony morphology (small and rough) and cell shape, most probably resulting from the accumulation of various mutations that confer a selective advantage for persistence in the GIT. In the present study, we analyzed such clones, issued from three different L. sakei strains, in order to determine which functions were modified in the mutants. In the elongated filamentous cells of the rough clones, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a septation defect and dotted and slanted black bands, suggesting the presence of a helical structure around the cells. Comparison of the cytoplasmic and cell wall/membrane proteomes of the meat isolate L. sakei 23K and of one of its rough derivatives revealed a modified expression for 38 spots. The expression of six oxidoreductases, several stress proteins, and four ABC transporters was strongly reduced in the GIT-adapted strain, while the actin-like MreB protein responsible for cell shaping was upregulated. In addition, the expression of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism was modified, which may correlate with the observation of modified growth of mutants on various carbon sources. These results suggest that the modifications leading to a better adaptation to the GIT are pleiotropic and are characterized in a rough mutant by a different stress status, a cell wall modification, and modified use of energy sources, leading to an improved fitness for the colonization of the GIT. PMID:20208026

  6. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

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    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  7. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

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    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  8. Models for estimating digesta passage kinetics in the gastrointestinal tract of the horse.

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    Rosenfeld, I; Austbø, D; Volden, H

    2006-12-01

    Fecal samples were collected to evaluate mathematical models to describe the kinetics of digesta passage in the segments of the equine gastrointestinal tract and to compare the passage kinetics of hay and oats. Four Norwegian Cold-blooded trotters (cecally cannulated, approximately 500 kg of BW) were fed Cr-mordanted hay and Yb-marked oats with their morning meal. The meal consisted of 2 kg of hay and 1 kg of oats processed as ground, pelleted, extruded, or micronized. Each horse was fed each type of oats on different days of collection, after a 5-d adaptation period, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Fecal samples were collected 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 48, and 52 h after administration of the marker dose. The samples were analyzed for Cr and Yb, and values were plotted using 1- and 2-compartment nonlinear passage models and an algebraic model. The 1-compartment G4 model and the 2-compartment G4G1 model showed an equally good fit to the observed excretion curves, based on low mean square error and SE. The excretion curves for hay (Cr) and oats (Yb) showed a striking similarity, and there seemed to be no difference in retention time between hay and oats in the horse. The mixing compartments in the horse are believed to be the cecum or both the cecum and the right ventral and dorsal segments of the colon, but further research in this area is needed to make a final conclusion.

  9. Release of 5-aminosalicylate from an MMX mesalamine tablet during transit through a simulated gastrointestinal tract system.

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    Tenjarla, Srini; Romasanta, Vallente; Zeijdner, Evelijn; Villa, Roberto; Moro, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA; mesalamine) is the current first-line treatment for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory condition that most commonly affects the distal part of the colon. MMXtrade mark mesalamine (Lialdatrade mark [US]; Mezavanttrade mark XL [UK and Ireland]; Mezavanttrade mark [elsewhere]; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc., Wayne, Pa, under license from Giuliani SpA, Milan, Italy) was created to be a novel, once-daily 5-ASA formulation. MMX mesalamine in tablet form has a pH-dependent, gastroresistant coating and is designed to delay the release of 5-ASA during transit through the upper gastrointestinal tract; it consists of hydrophilic and lipophilic excipients that are designed to prolong the release of 5-ASA throughout the colon. The release kinetics of 5-ASA from an MMX mesalamine tablet were assessed with the use of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract system (TNO GastroIntestinal Model) that simulates physiologic conditions in the adult human gastrointestinal tract under standardized fed and fasted conditions. This system incorporates removal of released drug via dialysis and automated sampling taken at various sections of the system. Less than 1% of 5-ASA was found to be released from the tablet in the simulated stomach and small intestine (before introduction into the simulated colon). Most of the 5-ASA within each tablet was released in the simulated colon (fasted state conditions: 78.0%; fed state conditions: 68.5%). Substantial quantities were released during the 8- to 18-hour sampling period (49.6 mg/h[fasted] and 40.7 mg/h [fed]). In conclusion, with the use of an in vitro system, the investigators showed that 5-ASA release from an MMX mesalamine tablet was delayed until the tablet reached the simulated colon. Throughout the simulated colon, release of 5-ASA from an MMX mesalamine tablet was prolonged.

  10. Transport of nattokinase across the rat intestinal tract.

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    Fujita, M; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Misawa, S; Takeuchi, N; Kariya, K; Nishimuro, S

    1995-09-01

    Intraduodenal administration of nattokinase (NK) at a dose of 80 mg/kg, resulted in the degradation of fibrinogen in plasma suggesting transport of NK across the intestinal tract in normal rats. The action of NK on the cleavage of fibrinogen in the plasma from blood samples drawn at intervals after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting analysis with an anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody. The 270 kDa fragment carrying antigenic sites for the binding of the anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody appeared within 0.5 h and was then degraded gradually to a 105 kDa fragment via a 200 kDa fragment. This suggests that fibrinogen was degraded to a 105 kDa fragment via several intermediates (270 and 200 kDa). In parallel with the degradation process, plasma recalcification times were remarkably prolonged NK was also detected in the plasma from blood samples drawn 3 and 5 h after administration of the enzyme by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis with an anti-NK antibody. The results indicate that NK is absorbed from the rat intestinal tract and that NK cleaves fibrinogen in plasma after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme.

  11. Encoding of Forelimb Forcesby Corticospinal Tract Activity in the Rat

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    Yi eGuo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In search of a solution to the long standing problems encountered in traditional brain computer interfaces (BCI, the lateral descending tracts of the spinal cord present an alternative site for taping into the volitional motor signals. Due to the convergence of the cortical outputs into a final common pathway in the descending tracts of the spinal cord, neural interfaces with the spinal cord can potentially acquire signals richer with volitional information in a smaller anatomical region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of extracting motor control signals from the corticospinal tract (CST of the rat spinal cord. Flexible substrate, multi-electrode arrays (MEA were implanted in the CST of rats trained for a lever pressing task. This novel use of flexible substrate MEAs allowed recording of CST activity in behaving animals for up to three weeks with the current implantation technique. Time-frequency and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to the neural signals to reconstruct isometric forelimb forces. Computed regression coefficients were then used to predict isometric forces in additional trials. The correlation between measured and predicted forces in the vertical direction averaged across six animals was 0.67 and R-squared value was 0.44. Force regression in the horizontal directions was less successful, possibly due to the small amplitude of forces. Neural signals above and near the high gamma band made the largest contributions to prediction of forces. The results of this study support the feasibility of a spinal cord computer interface (SCCI for generation of command signals in paralyzed individuals.

  12. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

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    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood.

  14. Development of a technique for contrast radiographic examination of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius).

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    Banzato, Tommaso; Russo, Elisa; Finotti, Luca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    To develop a technique for radiographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius). 10 ball python cadavers (5 males and 5 females) and 18 healthy adult ball pythons (10 males and 8 females). Live snakes were allocated to 3 groups (A, B, and C). A dose (25 mL/kg) of barium sulfate suspension at 3 concentrations (25%, 35%, and 45% [wt/vol]) was administered through an esophageal probe to snakes in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Each evaluation ended when all the contrast medium had reached the large intestine. Transit times through the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine were recorded. Imaging quality was evaluated by 3 investigators who assigned a grading score on the basis of predetermined criteria. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate differences in quality among the study groups. The esophagus and stomach had a consistent distribution pattern of contrast medium, whereas 3 distribution patterns of contrast medium were identified in the small intestine, regardless of barium concentration. Significant differences in imaging quality were detected among the 3 groups. Radiographic procedures were tolerated well by all snakes. The 35% concentration of contrast medium yielded the best imaging quality. Use of contrast medium for evaluation of the cranial portion of the gastrointestinal tract could be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in ball pythons. However, results of this study may not translate to other snake species because of variables identified in this group of snakes.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens after Propolis and Bee Pollen Addition

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    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the safety aspects of antimicrobials (propolis and bee pollen use in poultry farms as growth promoters is higher susceptibility of gastrointestinal microorganisms to antibiotics used for human treatment. Enterococci belong to the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract of chickens and are widely distributed in nature, but they are not generally recognized as safe (GRAS. Poultry enterococci carrying antimicrobial resistance genes may not only transfer these genes to other, possibly pathogenic, bacteria in the chicken gut, but upon transfer to zoonotic bacteria they also may pose a human health hazard. Antibiotic resistance prevalence of E. faecalis isolates found in the crop was subsequently found in the ileum and caecum within each group of broiler chickens. No resistance of E. faecalis isolates was found against vancomycin and teicoplanin. Intermediate resistance to erythromycin in the most E. faecalis isolates from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens with propolis supplement in their diet was eliminated. Our results suggest the probability of synergism effect of propolis and also bee pollen with some tested antibiotics against E. faecalis isolates.

  16. Examination of a Culturable Microbial Population from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Wood-Eating Loricariid Catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

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    Harold J. Schreier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish play a critical role in nutrient cycling and organic matter flow in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the microbial diversity within the gastrointestinal tracts that may be essential in these degradation activities. Panaque nigrolineatus is a loricariid catfish found in the Neotropics that have a rare dietary strategy of consuming large amounts of woody material in its natural environment. As a consequence, the gastrointestinal (GI tract of P. nigrolineatus is continually exposed to high levels of cellulose and other recalcitrant wood compounds and is, therefore, an attractive, uncharacterized system to study microbial community diversity. Our previous 16S rRNA gene surveys demonstrated that the GI tract microbial community includes phylotypes having the capacity to degrade cellulose and fix molecular nitrogen. In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP approaches. Analysis of GI tract communities generated from anaerobic microcrystalline cellulose enrichment cultures by 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed phylotypes sharing high sequence similarity to known cellulolytic bacteria including Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Aeromonas spp. Related bacteria were identified in the SIP community, which also included nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. Our ability to enrich for specialized cellulose-degrading communities suggests that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a favorable environment for this activity and these communities may be involved in providing assimilable carbon under challenging dietary conditions.

  17. Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal tract after peroral administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 vectors.

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    Shao, Guohong; Greathouse, Kristin; Huang, Qin; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2006-08-01

    The transfer of exogenous genetic material to cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has many potential therapeutic applications. An attractive feature of the GI tract for gene transfer is its accessibility through the orogastric route. In this study, we evaluated the stability of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2) vectors within the GI tract and whether rAAV2-mediated gene transfer could be increased through manipulation of the intraluminal environment. The stability of rAAV2 vectors carrying beta-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenes was determined in the presence of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin gastric fluid and intestinal fluid and after in vivo administration. For in vivo experiments, the rAAV2 vector carrying the beta-galactosidase transgene was administered perorally to FVB/NJ mice. Groups of mice received the vector alone or in combination with sodium bicarbonate and aprotinin. Gene transfer to the stomach and small intestine was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and histochemical assays. The stability of rAAV2 was reduced by hydrochloric acid, trypsin, chymotrypsin, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. The vector was not stable within the lumen of the GI tract. Gastric acid neutralization with sodium bicarbonate and protease inhibition with aprotinin increased the in vivo stability of the vector and the level of gene transfer to the stomach and all regions of the small bowel. In both groups of mice (vector alone and vector plus sodium bicarbonate and aprotinin), transgene-derived protein expression (beta-galactosidase) was below the level of detection of the histochemical assay. Recombinant AAV2 are adversely affected by physiological conditions within the proximal GI tract. Gastric acid neutralization and inhibition of intestinal protease activity improved rAAV2 stability and increased the level of gene transfer within the GI tract. Despite these changes, transduction of the GI tract

  18. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  19. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K K; Nehra, Vikas; Pal, Madan

    2015-08-01

    The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from different tissues of carcasses of sheep/lambs were

  20. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus.

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    Zhipeng Li

    Full Text Available The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus. The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera. The phyla Firmicutes (51.2% and Bacteroidetes (39.4% were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01 different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004. These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  1. Inflammatory fibroid polyps of the gastrointestinal tract: spectrum of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemistry features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Chiang; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Singhi, Aatur D

    2013-04-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare, benign tumors that can arise throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions has been well characterized, their morphologic features often vary. We report the clinicopathologic findings of the largest series of IFPs to date. A total of 83 IFPs seen at our institution were collected between 1999 and 2012. The specimens included 64 biopsies and 19 resections. A review of the clinical features identified a modest female predominance (47 women and 36 men) with patients ranging in age from 26 to 87 years (mean, 60 y). Involved sites included the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=31; mainly antrum), small intestines (n=17), appendix (n=1), large intestines (n=31; majority within the rectosigmoid), and anal canal (n=1). Although most patients had a nonspecific presentation, those with small intestinal lesions frequently presented with intussusception. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.2 cm (mean, 1.7 cm). Histologically, IFPs were centered within the submucosa in all resection specimens, but mucosal extension was found in 74 of 83 (89%) cases. The tumors varied in both cellularity and degree of vascularity. However, the characteristic feature of perivascular onion skinning was present in only 54% (45/83) of the cases. In addition, a short fascicular growth pattern was also noted in 36% (30 of 83) of cases, whereas both features were present in 14 cases (17%). Eosinophils were present in 94% (78 of 83) of cases but varied widely in number from abundant (20/hpf) to sparse (1/hpf). Interestingly, in those cases with sparse eosinophils, prominent hyalinization was also present (11 of 78, 13%). In addition, although the majority of IFPs expressed CD34, 6 of 44 (14%) were negative. No associated dysplasia or malignancy was seen. IFPs represent a diverse set of submucosal-based lesions that commonly extend into the mucosa, making them amenable to endoscopic biopsy. Although their

  2. Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija; Lassig, Anna; Karjalainen, Heli; Tynkkynen, Soile; Surakka, Anu; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja; Hatakka, Katja

    2010-12-15

    Most clinical studies of probiotics use freeze-dried, powdered bacteria or bacteria packed in capsules. However, probiotics are commercially available in various food matrices, which may affect their persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to compare oral and faecal recovery during and after administration of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial (n=36) included a 4-week run-in, 2-week intervention, and 3-week follow-up period. Participants consumed 10(10)cfu/day of probiotic combination and provided saliva and faecal samples before, during, and after the intervention. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to quantify the strains. L. rhamnosus GG was the only probiotic strain regularly recovered in saliva samples. During the intervention period it was recovered in the saliva of 88% of the volunteers at least once. No difference was found between the yoghurt and cheese groups. At the end of the intervention, L. rhamnosus GG and LC705 counts were high in faecal samples of all product groups (8.08 and 8.67log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). There was no matrix effect on strain quantity in faeces or the recovery time after ceasing the intervention. For P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, a matrix effect was found at the end of the intervention (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and in the recovery time during follow-up (P<0.05 for both). Yoghurt yielded the highest faecal quantity of JS and Bb12 strains (8.01 and 9.89log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). The results showed that the administration matrix did not influence the faecal quantity of lactobacilli, but affected faecal counts of propionibacteria and bifidobacteria that were lower when consumed in cheese. Thus, the consumption of

  3. Bioavailability of the anti-clostridial bacteriocin thuricin CD in gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Mary C; Alemayehu, Debebe; Casey, Pat G; O'Connor, Paula M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Walsh, Maria; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-02-01

    Thuricin CD is a two component narrow spectrum bacteriocin comprising two peptides with targeted activity against Clostridium difficile. This study examined the bioavailability of thuricin with a view to developing it as an effective antimicrobial against intestinal infection. One of the peptides, Trn-β, was found to be degraded by the gastric enzymes pepsin and α-chymotrypsin both in vitro and in vivo, whereas Trn-α was resistant to digestion by these enzymes and hence was detected in the intestinal porcine digesta following oral ingestion by pigs. In order to determine if spores of the producing organism Bacillus thuringiensis DPC 6431 could be used to deliver the bacteriocin to the gut, spores were fed to 30 mice (approx. 10(8)-2×10(8) per animal) and their germination, growth and production of thuricin in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animals was monitored. Almost 99 % of the spores delivered to the GIT were excreted in the first 24 h and neither Trn-α nor Trn-β was detected in the gut or faecal samples of the test mice, indicating that ingestion of B. thuringiensis spores may not be a suitable vehicle for the delivery of thuricin CD. When thuricin CD was delivered rectally to mice (n = 40) and C. difficile shedding monitored at 1, 6, 12 and 24 h post-treatment, there was a >95 % (>1.5 log units) reduction of C. difficile 027 in the colon contents of infected mice (n = 10) 1 h post-treatment compared with the control group (n = 10; P<0.001). Furthermore, 6 h post-treatment there was a further 1.5 log reduction in C. difficile numbers (n = 10) relative to the control group (n = 10; P<0.05). These results would suggest that rectal administration of thuricin may be a promising mode of delivery of thuricin CD to the colon.

  4. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver and gastrointestinal tract using potassium bromate: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Kado, Shoichi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    The food additive potassium bromate (KBrO3) is known as a renal carcinogen and causes chromosomal aberrations in vitro without metabolic activation and in vivo in hematopoietic and renal cells. As a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, we administered KBrO3 to rats orally for 4, 14, and 28 days and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequency in the liver, glandular stomach, colon, and bone marrow to confirm whether the genotoxic carcinogen targeting other than liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract was detected by the repeated dose liver and GI tract micronucleus (MN) assays. In our study, animals treated with KBrO3 showed some signs of toxicity in the kidney and/or stomach. KBrO3 did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the liver and colon in any of the repeated dose studies. However, KBrO3 increased the frequency of MNed cells in the glandular stomach and bone marrow. Additionally, the MNed cell frequency in the glandular stomach was not significantly affected by the difference in the length of the administration period. These results suggest that performing the MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first tissue to contact agents after oral ingestion, is useful for evaluating the genotoxic potential of chemicals and that the glandular stomach MN assay could be integrated into general toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time trends in socioeconomic differences in incidence rates of cancers of gastro-intestinal tract in Finland

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    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of socioeconomic differences in health varies between societies, and over time within a given society. We studied the association between social class and incidence of cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract over time in a large cohort in Finland. Methods We studied social class variation among 45–69 year-old Finns during 1971–95 in incidence of cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract by means of a computerized record linkage of the Finnish Cancer Registry and the 1970 Population Census, which included social class data. Results There were 2.3 million individuals in the cohort under follow-up, with 1622 cases of cancer of the esophagus, 8069 stomach (non-cardia, 1116 cardia, 408 small intestine, 6361 colon, 5274 rectum, 1616 liver, 1756 gallbladder, and 5084 pancreas during 1971–1995. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, cardia, gallbladder and pancreas were most common among persons belonging to a low social class. Cancers of the small intestine in males only, colon in both genders, and rectum in females were most common in the higher social classes. Incidence of stomach cancer decreased and incidence of colon cancer increased over time in both genders in all social classes, and the large differences between social classes remained unchanged over time. Incidence rates of cardia cancer did not change substantially over time. Conclusion There is a large variation in incidence of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract by social class in Finland. Although much of the observed social class differences probably could be explained by known etiological factors such as diet, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking and exogenous hormone use, part of the variation is apparently attributable to largely unknown factors.

  6. Ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Jeremy R; Maddox, Thomas W; White, Gillian M; Blundell, Richard J; Monné, Josep M; Lillis, Susannah M

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla (MDP) in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. ANIMALS 40 adult client-owned dogs examined because of conditions that did not include hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. PROCEDURES Ultrasonographic examination of the MDP was performed. Each MDP was measured in 3 planes. Intraobserver reliability of measurements was determined, and associations between MDP dimensions and characteristics of the dogs were investigated. Histologic examination of longitudinal sections of the MDP was performed for 1 dog to compare the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance. RESULTS The MDP appeared as a layered structure with a hyperechoic outer layer, hypoechoic middle layer, and hyperechoic inner layer that corresponded to the duodenal serosa, duodenal muscularis, and duodenal submucosa, respectively. Layers visible during ultrasonographic examinations were consistent with layers identified histologically. Intraobserver reliability was substantial for each plane of measurement. Mean ± SD length, width, and height of the MDP were 15.2 ± 3.5 mm, 6.3 ± 1.6 mm, and 4.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. An increase in body weight of dogs was significantly associated with increased values for all measurements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The ultrasonographic appearance and approximate dimensions of the MDP of dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease were determined. Additional studies are needed to evaluate possible ultrasonographic lesions of the MDP in dogs with hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or intestinal diseases and to investigate clinical implications of these lesions with regard to diagnosis and prognosis.

  7. The nisin improves broiler chicken growth performance and interacts with salinomycin in terms of gastrointestinal tract microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieronczyk, B; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E; Swiatkiewicz, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the potential synergistic effect of salinomycin and nisin on gastrointestinal tract microbial ecology and activity as well as the influence of nisin on broiler chicken growth performance. In the first experiment, which lasted 35 days, such dietary addition...... and caecum, as well as pH value, except gizzard. The results of the present study have indicated the positive effect of nisin on broiler growth performance and the fact that nisin and salinomycin can act synergistically in scope of ileal microbiota ecology modification....

  8. Survival of Blastomyces dermatitidis in the gastrointestinal tract of an orally infected insectivorous bat, Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, V P; Randhawa, H S; Kini, S; Khan, Z U

    1986-08-01

    The survival of Blastomyces dermatitidis with markedly reduced population, in the gastrointestinal tract and faeces of Rhinopoma hardwickei orally infected with 2.5 X 10(5) colony forming units of the fungus, is reported. B. dermatitidis was cultured from the stomach, intestine and faeces up to 16-24 h and from rectum up to 48 h post infection. The results demonstrate that orally infected R. hardwickei hardwickei bats transiently shed B. dermatitidis through their faeces but the significance of this route of environmental dissemination requires further evaluation.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  10. Age-related changes in morphofunctional properties of Mucus and Enteral nervous system of gastrointestinal tract in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review questions of changes of mucus structure and protective properties of mucosa as well as those of enteric nervous system (ENS of mammalian gastrointestinal tract are discussed at aging. The resulted experimental and clinical data testify to presence of the various mechanisms providing reparative properties of mucosa. Enlarged susceptibility of mucosa to disturbing factors observed with the years is connected with changes of mucosal prostaglandins amount. Neurodegenerative processes in ENS strengthen with the years, thus various types of neurones are exposed to various kinds of degenerative changes. The causes of the latter remain insufficiently investigated by the present time.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

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    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  12. Endoscopic balloon dilatation for Crohn's strictures of the gastrointestinal tract is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Hendel, Jakob; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite optimized medical treatment, Crohn´s disease can cause gastrointestinal (GI) strictures, which requires surgical intervention. Lately, endoscopic balloon dilatation has been established as an alternative to surgery. In the following, we report our experiences with endoscopic dilatation...

  13. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  14. Peculiarities of surgical treatment of gastrointestinal tract combined congenital malformations in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    М. О. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Congenital gastrointestinal (GI) malformations make up 21–25 % of all congenital anomalies and require surgical correction in the neonatal period. The aim was to analyze the methods of operative treatment of hard composite congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants. Materials and Methods: There were 13 newborns with gastroschisis, omphalocele and esophageal atresia combined with intestinal atresia, anal atresia and also with congenital heart defects in our study. Results...

  15. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent...... weeks after which they were killed and gas samples were removed from eight segments of the intact GI-tract and analysed for VSC, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. The concentration of individual VSC in gas samples from the intact GI-tract varied between segments. The total concentration of VSC...

  16. The in vivo assessment of safety and gastrointestinal survival of an orally administered novel probiotic, Propionibacterium jensenii 702, in a male Wistar rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Kotula, Lidija; Adams, Michelle C

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vivo gastrointestinal survival and safety of orally administered probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium jensenii 702, using a male Wistar rat model. A high dose of 10(10) cfu/rat/day of P. jensenii 702 was fed to each rat for 81 days. The repeated dose toxicity and translocation of P. jensenii 702 into rat tissues were evaluated, along with the rat faecal beta-glucuronidase activities and dairy propionibacteria counts. Results showed that P. jensenii 702 had no adverse effect on general health status, body weight gain, visceral organs and faecal beta-glucuronidase activities. No viable cells of P. jensenii 702 were recovered from blood and tissue samples (mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen) of rats, and no treatment-associated illness or death was observed. Faecal dairy propionibacteria counts reached 10(8) cfu/g after 36 days treatment and remained between 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g till the end of 81 days treatment. The results indicate that P. jensenii 702 was able to survive the in vivo gastrointestinal tract transit of rats, with no adverse affects on the animals. However, further human clinical trials are required before strain P. jensenii 702 could be incorporated into food for human consumption as probiotics.

  17. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  18. Composition and diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota along the entire length of the pig gastrointestinal tract; dietary influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer; Daly, Kristian; Moran, Andrew W; Ryan, Sheila; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2017-04-01

    Mucosa-associated microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract are in intimate contact with the outer mucus layer. This proximity offers these populations a higher potential, than lumenal microbiota, in exerting effects on the host. Functional characteristics of the microbiota and influences of host-physiology shape the composition and activity of the mucosa-associated bacterial community. We have shown previously that inclusion of an artificial sweetener, SUCRAM, included in the diet of weaning piglets modulates the composition of lumenal-residing gut microbiota and reduces weaning-related gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, using Illumina sequencing we characterised the mucosa-associated microbiota along the length of the intestine of piglets, and determined the effect of SUCRAM supplementation on mucosa-associated populations. There were clear distinctions in the composition of mucosa-associated microbiota, between small and large intestine, concordant with differences in regional oxygen distribution and nutrient provision by the host. There were significant differences in the composition of mucosa-associated compared with lumenal microbiota in pig caecum. Dietary supplementation with SUCRAM affected mucosa-associated bacterial community structure along the length of the intestinal tract. Most notably, there was a substantial reduction in predominant Campylobacter populations proposing that SUCRAM supplementation of swine diet has potential for reducing meat contamination and promoting food safety. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identification of orexin A- and orexin type 2 receptor-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Dall’Aglio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of cells positive to orexin A (OXA and to orexin type 2 receptor (OX2R were investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal dogs by means of immunohistochemical techniques. The orexin A-positive cells were identified with some of the endocrine cells in the stomach and in the duodenum; they were both of the open and closed type and were lacking in the large intestine. In the stomach, a large subset of orexin A-positive cells also showed gastrin-like immunoreactivity while, in the duodenum, many of them seemed to store serotonin. The orexin type 2 receptor-positive cells were evidenced all along the gastrointestinal tract examined, also in the large intestine, and they showed the same morphological characteristics as those positive to orexin A. Moreover, the immunohistochemical techniques revealed intense positivity for both orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor in the neurons and fibers of the enteric nervous system. A large subset of orexin A-positive neurons seemed to store substance P.

  20. Electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the upper gastrointestinal tract after duodenoplasty or segmental resection of benign gastric outlet stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Titkova, S M; Polivoda, M; Anurov, M; Arlt, G; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V

    2000-03-01

    In an animal experimental study we examined the postoperative recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract after operative treatment of a benign gastric outlet obstruction. At 45 Days after induction, a duodenal stenosis was resected in six dogs, and resolved by Finney's duodenoplasty in another six dogs. Fourteen days after segmental resection, the gastric emptying was faster [half evacuation time (T1/2) for semisolid food = 44.4 +/- 16.8 min] than following duodenoplasty [T1/2 = 56.8 +/- 25.3). Here motor migrating complexes (MMCs) started in the antrum and could be traced down to the jejunum. After segmental resection we recognized MMC only distal to the anastomosis. The duration of the whole MMC cycle (69.0 +/- 18.6 min) as well as of the single phases was significantly shorter in the resection group than after duodenoplasty (108.0 +/- 15.1 min). At 28 days after operation the differences in the electromyographic findings were smaller (82.0 +/- 15.1 min vs. 111.4 +/- 11.2 min), but still significant. Obviously humoral transmitters and the extrinsic neural system lead to good propagation of the MMC across the anastomosis, even before the intramural pathways are reestablished. Concerning the fast recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract, duodenoplasty is superior to segmental duodenal resection.

  1. Effect of Nutrition with Propolis and Bee Pollen Supplements on Bacteria Colonization Pattern in Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For replace of banned antibiotics used as growth promoters in broiler chicken nutrition, the supplements as probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, acidifiers and enzymes, has been mainly studied. These alternative substances improved the feed conversion, performance, growth and health of broiler chickens through a mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal tract and bacteria colonization. Propolis and bee pollen belong to the group of naturally occurring substances of animal and plant origin with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The scope of this study was to find a counts of Enterococcus sp., Enterobacteriaceae family and lactic acid bacteria in crop, ileum and caecum of broiler chickens after propolis and bee pollen addition in their nutrition. Lower dosages of propolis and higher dosages of bee pollen in chicken nutrition significantly (P0.05 number of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates. The bacteria colonization pattern in gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens can be affected also by combination of nutrition supplements and pH value which can provide the advantage to some bacteria and influenced their competitiveness.

  2. THE MICROBIOTA OF UPPER PARTS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of different habitats of the human body and definition of their role in the development of metabolic disorders are of great interest for investigators worldwide. The gut mi-crobiota is an obligatory contributor to the synthesis, recirculation and metabolism of steroid hormones, lipids, and bile acids. Infectious agents and their biologically active compounds initiate the atherogenesis. Disorders of lipid metabolism are associated with a change in bacterial entero-types. Microbiotal colonization of gastrointestinal tract starts at birth. Its composition in a newborn depends on a variety of environmental and nutritional factors, maternal health, the course of pregnancy and delivery. Infants born by cesarean section have a higher incidence of obesity, which is thought to be associated with a delay of bifido-bacterial colonization of gastrointestinal tract.Reduction of bifidobacteria counts in the gut in infants below 12 months of age predisposes to obesity in later life. Children born to mothers with obesity have significant differences in the composition of the gut microflora, compared to children born to normal weight mothers. This review presents the data on the association between metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Further in-depth research in this area would increase the knowledge on the mechanisms of hormonal and metabolic disorders in childhood and may help to develop algorithms for effective treatment and preventive measures.

  3. Endoscopic management of patients with post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract: A large case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Angelo; Cellini, Carlo; Sica, Mariano; Zullo, Angelo; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Galloro, Giuseppe; Conigliaro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-surgical anastomotic leaks often require a re-intervention, are associated with a definite morbidity and mortality, and with relevant costs. We described a large series of patients with different post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract managed with endoscopy as initial approach. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cases with anastomotic leaks managed with different endoscopic approaches (with surgical or radiological drainage when needed) in two endoscopic centres during 5 years. Interventions included: (1) over-the-scope clip (OTSC) positioning; (2) placement of a covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS); (3) fibrin glue injection (Tissucol); and (4) endo-sponge application, according to both the endoscopic feature and patient’s status. Results A total of 76 patients underwent endoscopic treatment for a leak either in the upper (47 cases) or lower (29 cases) gastrointestinal tract, and the approach was successful in 39 (83%) and 22 (75.9%) patients, respectively, accounting for an overall 80.3% success rate. Leak closure was achieved in 84.9% and 78.3% of patients managed by using a single or a combination of endoscopic devices. Overall, leak closure failed in 15 (19.7%) patients, and the surgical approach was successful in all 14 patients who underwent re-intervention, whilst one patient died due to sepsis at 7 days. Conclusions Our data suggest that an endoscopic approach, with surgical or radiological drainage when needed, is successful and safe in the majority of patients with anastomotic gastrointestinal leaks. Therefore, an endoscopic treatment could be attempted before resorting to more invasive, costly and risky re-intervention. PMID:28408994

  4. Employment of a noninvasive magnetic method for evaluation of gastrointestinal transit in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Quini, Caio C; Américo, Madileine F; Corá, Luciana A; Calabresi, Marcos FF; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A

    2012-01-01

    AC Biosusceptometry (ACB) was previously employed towards recording gastrointestinal motility. Our data show a reliable and successful evaluation of gastrointestinal transit of liquid and solid meals in rats, considering the methods scarcity and number of experiments needed to endorsement of drugs and medicinal plants. ACB permits real time and simultaneous experiments using the same animal, preserving the physiological conditions employing both meals with simplicity and accuracy. © 2012 Quin...

  5. Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barman, Melissa; Unold, David; Shifley, Kathleen; Amir, Elad; Hung, Kueichun; Bos, Nicolaas; Salzman, Nita

    The commensal microbiota protects the murine host from enteric pathogens. Nevertheless, specific pathogens are able to colonize the intestinal tract and invade, despite the presence of an intact biota. Possibly, effective pathogens disrupt the indigenous microbiota, either directly through

  6. Juvenile-like (inflammatory/hyperplastic) mucosal polyps of the gastrointestinal tract in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Kotzina, Leopoldina; Knolle, Jürgen; Baumann, Irith; Ströbel, Philipp; Vieth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse neurofibromatosis/ganglioneuromatosis, solitary/plexiform neurofibroma, periampullary carcinoids and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) are the main gastrointestinal manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1, von Recklinghausen disease). Inflammatory (juvenile-like) polyps have not been recognised to date as specific gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of NF-1. We describe four males aged 23-65 years with NF-1 and inflammatory (juvenile-like) gastrointestinal polyps, and review the literature for similar cases. Two patients had single polyps (sigmoid colon and antrum, respectively), one had two polyps (left colon), and one had three polyps (distal oesophagus and colon). Histological appearances were variable, ranging from juvenile-like to granulation tissue-rich, predominantly inflammatory and hyperplastic. Three lesions showed obliterative vasculopathic changes. None had neurofibromatous or ganglioneuromatous polyps. A review of the literature disclosed 11 similar cases. Most patients presented with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and/or anaemia. NF-1-associated inflammatory polyps probably represent specific GI manifestations of this disorder, and should be considered, particularly in patients with GI symptoms. They should be distinguished from inflammatory fibroid polyps and from juvenile-like changes associated with ganglioneuroma/ganglioneuromatosis and neurofibroma/neurofibromatosis. Their aetiology remains obscure, but different mechanisms, including NF-1 inactivation, NF-1-associated vasculopathy, and localised mucosal prolapse/damage caused by motility disorders, might be involved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Local and long-distance calling: Conversations between the gut microbiota and intra- and extra-gastrointestinal tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Denny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead.

  8. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy of barium passage through the gastrointestinal tract in six healthy Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink-Nooteboom, Mariette; Lumeij, J T; Wolvekamp, W T C

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed in six clinically healthy blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy. During examination, the birds were confined in a perspex cage. The quality of the lateral radiographs was adequate for assessment of the contrast medium-filled gastrointestinal tract. Thirty minutes after administration of 20 mL/kg of a 25% barium sulphate suspension directly in the crop, in all birds the ventriculus was totally outlined by barium. After 60 min, the small intestine was filled in five of six birds. After 180 min, the crop was empty in all birds. The barium-outlined ventriculus had differences in shape on radiographs of individual birds and also between birds. The colon and cloaca had further filling after 120 to 300 min. With image-intensified fluoroscopy, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated. Contractions of the crop were seen, and boluses of contrast medium passing through the esophagus toward the proventriculus were easily identified. Proventricular contractions were rarely noted, but ventriculus motility was present and clearly defined. The ventriculus had a mean of 3.7 contraction cycles/min. In the duodenum and small intestine, rapid antegrade and retrograde peristaltic movements in combination with segmental contractions were seen. In the colon, occasionally very slow peristaltic activity, mainly of segmental nature, was present. During the examinations, no defeacation was recorded. Confinement in a small perspex cage provides an adequate and handy radiological set-up for evaluation of gastrointestinal passage and motility in birds, minimizing the influences of stress and anesthesia.

  10. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive...

  11. Modern views on the pathogenesis of hard dental tissues and periodontium lesions and means of their treatment in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Krupey V.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the mouth covity often reflect regularities of pathogenesis of a number of disease states, and primarily from the digestive tract. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to clarify pathogenesis of certain lesions of hard dental tissues and periodontal tissues in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and development of schemes for their treatment. The study observed 441 children aged from 7 to 15 years with dental caries and generalized chronic catarrhal ging...

  12. Linfomas plasmoblásticos del tracto gastrointestinal en pacientes con sida Plasmablastic lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-12-01

    was to review the clinical-pathologic features of PL of the gastrointestinal tract in 5 patients with HIV/aids disease. We performed a retrospective study of PL of the gastrointestinal tract diagnosed at the National Institute of Cancer at Mexico City, from 2000 to 2009. Clinical and pathological information was obtained and immunohistochemical studies were performed in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV was examined by in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Four male and 1 female were included with a median of age of 29 years. Three tumors involved the ano-rectal area, one tumor the ascendant colon and one tumor the stomach. All tumors were histologically characterized by a monotonous proliferation of large lymphoid cell with plasmablastic features. Tumor cells were CD 138 / MUM-1positive and CD 20 / PAX-5 negative in all cases. EVB genome was detected by in situ PCR in 4 cases. The median of follow-up was 18 months, and revealed that three patients are alive with neoplasm disease and two patients are still alive with no evidence of the neoplasm. Recognition of this entity by pathologists and clinicians is important in order to establish the correct diagnosis and the early treatment of these patients.

  13. Probiotic bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract as a factor stimulating the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Górska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of bacterial microflora of the human digestive tract in supporting the protection of the organism against food-borne pathogens and antigens is described. The effect of bacterial microflora on the immune system of the mucous surface of the intestinal tract (GALT and its effect on secretory function of the immune system, particularly regarding antibody, mainly IgA, secretion, are discussed. The modulating effect of commensals and probiotics on the innate immunity response and their direct influence on the specific response are dealt with as are digestive tract dysfunctions connected with changes in microflora and their prophylaxis. Attention is paid to the beneficial effect of probiotics on human health by indicating noninvasive ways of increasing natural immunity by these microorganisms. There is a necessity to understand the mechanisms of the induction of the immune response by probiotic bacteria responsible for maintaining the organism in an alert state in the defense against pathogens.

  14. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Persistent gastric colonization with Burkholderia pseudomallei and dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract following mucosal inoculation of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Goodyear

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a disease of humans caused by opportunistic infection with the soil and water bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can manifest as an acute, overwhelming infection or as a chronic, recurrent infection. At present, it is not clear where B. pseudomallei resides in the mammalian host during the chronic, recurrent phase of infection. To address this question, we developed a mouse low-dose mucosal challenge model of chronic B. pseudomallei infection and investigated sites of bacterial persistence over 60 days. Sensitive culture techniques and selective media were used to quantitate bacterial burden in major organs, including the gastrointestinal (GI tract. We found that the GI tract was the primary site of bacterial persistence during the chronic infection phase, and was the only site from which the organism could be consistently cultured during a 60-day infection period. The organism could be repeatedly recovered from all levels of the GI tract, and chronic infection was accompanied by sustained low-level fecal shedding. The stomach was identified as the primary site of GI colonization as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Organisms in the stomach were associated with the gastric mucosal surface, and the propensity to colonize the gastric mucosa was observed with 4 different B. pseudomallei isolates. In contrast, B. pseudomallei organisms were present at low numbers within luminal contents in the small and large intestine and cecum relative to the stomach. Notably, inflammatory lesions were not detected in any GI tissue examined in chronically-infected mice. Only low-dose oral or intranasal inoculation led to GI colonization and development of chronic infection of the spleen and liver. Thus, we concluded that in a mouse model of melioidosis B. pseudomallei preferentially colonizes the stomach following oral inoculation, and that the chronically colonized GI tract likely serves as a reservoir for dissemination

  16. Quantifying the effects of inactin vs Isoflurane anesthesia on gastrointestinal motility in rats using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and spatio-temporal maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailiani, A C; Neuberger, T; Brasseur, J G; Banco, G; Wang, Y; Smith, N B; Webb, A G

    2014-10-01

    Anesthetics are commonly applied in animal studies of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Different anesthetics alter smooth-muscle motility in different ways. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the motility patterns of the rat gut when anesthetized with inactin vs isoflurane anesthetics in the fed state. Rats were given an oral gavage of MRI contrast agent for improved visualization of the GI tract. Two-dimensional images through the jejunum of the pre- and postanesthetized rat in the fed state were acquired every 168 ms. Image registration, segmentation, and postprocessing algorithms were applied to produce spatio-temporal maps that were used to quantify peristaltic and segmental motions in the jejunum region interspersed between periods of inactivity. There were significantly longer periods of inactivity in the rats treated with isoflurane than in those treated with inactin (179.9 ± 22.4 s vs 17.7 ± 10.3 s). The speed of propagation and wavelength of peristalsis, and the frequency and speed of pattern switching of segmental motility, were higher (p < 0.05) in rats treated with inactin. Isoflurane and inactin anesthetics produce significantly different motility behavior with the rat's GI tract in the fed state. Isoflurane anesthetic, results in a reduced frequency of occurrence of motility periods and an overall reduced level of motility in comparison with inactin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of Supporting Role of Early Enteral Feeding Via Tube Jejunostomy Following Resection of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhamak Khorgami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, early diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI tract malignancies and their surgical resection is becoming more feasible. One of the important side effects in upper GI tract malignancies is malnutrition which has direct relationship with postoperative complications. Nonetheless, there is no easy regimen of nutrition for these patients especially for the first week after operation. Accordingly we present a simple method for improving feeding such patients via tube jejunostomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early enteral feeding (EEF on postoperative course after complete resection of upper gastrointestinal tract malignancy and reconstruction. Methods: Between September 2005 to September 2008, 60 consecutive patients (22 female, 38 male with upper GI tract malignancies who had undergone complete resection and reconstruction enrolled in this study. The patients randomly divided equally in two groups of control and EEF. Control group was treated with traditional management of nil by mouth and intravenous fluids for the first five postoperative days and then with liquids and enteral regular diet when tolerated. In EEF group the patients were fed by tube jejunostomy from 1st postoperative day and assessed for nutritional status before surgery and 5 days after surgery. Both groups were monitored on the basis of weight gain, clinical and paraclinical parameters and postoperative complications. Results: Sixty patients were randomly divided to two equal groups. Surgical procedures were similar in two groups and no significant difference in demographic and basic nutritional status were found. On 5th postoperative day serum albumin was 4.2±0.4 g/dl in EEF and 3.6±0.3 g/dl in control group (p= 0.041. Also serum transferrin was 260.8±2.5 mg/dl and 208±1.8 mg/dl in EEF and control group respectively (p<0.001. Moreover, hospital stay was shorter in EEF group (7.7±3.1 vs. 14±2.5 days, p=0.009.There were four (13

  18. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in the "in vivo" histological diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giovanni D

    2009-12-14

    Recent technological advances in miniaturization have allowed for a confocal scanning microscope to be integrated into a conventional flexible endoscope, or into trans-endoscopic probes, a technique now known as confocal endomicroscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy. This newly-developed technology has enabled endoscopists to collect real-time in vivo histological images or "virtual biopsies" of the gastrointestinal mucosa during endoscopy, and has stimulated significant interest in the application of this technique in clinical gastroenterology. This review aims to evaluate the current data on the technical aspects and the utility of this new technology in clinical gastroenterology and its potential impact in the future, particularly in the screening or surveillance of gastrointestinal neoplasia.

  19. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract: health benefits, safety and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, L M T; Botes, M

    2010-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received considerable attention as probiotics over the past few years. This concept has grown from traditional dairy products to a profitable market of probiotic health supplements and functional foods. Extensive research is done on novel potential probiotic strains, with specific emphasis on their health benefits and mode of action. Criteria for the selection of probiotic strains have only recently been formulated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Several in vitro techniques have been developed to evaluate the probiotic properties of strains. In many cases, this is followed by in vivo tests. Safety studies are also obligatory, as a few cases of bacteremia caused by LAB have been reported. This review focuses on the health benefits and safety of LAB probiotics, the criteria used to select a probiotic, mode of action and the impact these organisms have on natural microbiota in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  20. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-02-22

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.

  1. Distribution pattern of anthropogenic marine debris along the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) as implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colferai, André S; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Bugoni, Leandro

    2017-06-15

    Pollution from anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is currently the most widely distributed and lasting anthropic impact in the marine environment, affecting hundreds of species, including all sea turtles. In this study, the patterns of AMD distribution along the gastrointestinal tract (GT) and their relationship with obstructions and faecalomas in 62 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that died during rehabilitation in southern Brazil were determined. The GT was split in seven sections, corresponding to the natural organs and intestinal areas morphologically and physiologically distinct. Mean mass (4.24g) and area (146.74cm2) of AMD in the stomach were higher than in other sections. The anterior portion of the rectum had the highest number of obstructions, followed by the stomach. AMD was associated with the obstructions, with positive correlation between faecalomas and AMD masses. Organs and subdivisions showed marked differences in susceptibility to obstructions caused by AMD, which deserves attention in clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metagenomic evidence for taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance in the gastrointestinal tracts of children with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ohad; Levy, Roie; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Carr, Rogan; Radey, Matthew C.; Hager, Kyle R.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Miller, Samuel I.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results in inflammation, malabsorption of fats and other nutrients, and obstruction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, yet the mechanisms linking these disease manifestations to microbiome composition remain largely unexplored. Here we used metagenomic analysis to systematically characterize fecal microbiomes of children with and without CF, demonstrating marked CF-associated taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance. We further showed that these taxonomic and functional shifts were especially pronounced in young children with CF and diminished with age. Importantly, the resulting dysbiotic microbiomes had significantly altered capacities for lipid metabolism, including decreased capacity for overall fatty acid biosynthesis and increased capacity for degrading anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids. Notably, these functional differences correlated with fecal measures of fat malabsorption and inflammation. Combined, these results suggest that enteric fat abundance selects for pro-inflammatory GI microbiota in young children with CF, offering novel strategies for improving the health of children with CF-associated fat malabsorption. PMID:26940651

  3. Reduction in bone resorption by exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 administration requires an intact gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalck, Ida B; Jeppesen, Palle B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    -intake. Subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment has been shown to reduce bone resorption in postmenopausal women. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of exogenous GLP-2 to reduce bone resorption in patients with jejunostomy or ileostomy and to elucidate whether an intact gastrointestinal tract...... and the ability to secrete GLP-2 are required for meal-induced inhibition of bone resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen control subjects, 13 colectomized patients with an ileostomy and 12 colectomized patients with a jejunostomy (remnant small bowel 89 +/- 53 cm) were given: a) a subcutaneous injection......) compared with baseline values. Patients with an ileostomy had a preserved endogenous postprandial GLP-2 secretion, which was absent in patients with a jejunostomy. Consumption of a meal reduced s-CTX in all groups but significantly less so in the jejunostomy group. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in bone...

  4. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ijland, M.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blaauw, I. de [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, Y. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boetes, C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: C.Boetes@rad.umcn.nl; van Proosdij, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein.

  5. Distribution of obestatin and ghrelin in human tissues: immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and mammary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Magnusson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are two peptides derived from the same prohormone. It is well established that ghrelin is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. However, the distribution of human obestatin immunoreactive cells is not thoroughly characterized. A polyclonal antibody...... that specifically recognizes human obestatin was produced. Using this antibody and a commercial antibody vs ghrelin, the distribution of obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactive cells was determined in a panel of human tissues using immunohistochemistry. The two peptides were detected in the mucosa...... of the gastrointestinal tract, from cardia to ileum, and in the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, epithelial cells in the ducts of mammary glands showed distinct immunoreactivity for both ghrelin and obestatin. By double immunofluorescence microscopy, it was shown that all detected cells were immunoreactive for both...

  6. [Comparation of gastrointestinal absorption studies of specnuezhenide with salidroside in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Fen; Zhang, Xue-Lan

    2014-03-01

    The experiment was designed to study the mechanism of increasing efficiency of Ligustrum lucidum steamed with wine. Rats in vivo with gastrointestinal perfusion model were used. The contents of salidroside and specnuezhenide in the fluid of gastrointestinal perfusion of rats were measured by HPLC at different time points after dosing. Then the K(a) and absorption percentage were calculated. Specnuezhenide could be detected in the fluid of gastrointestinal perfusion of specnuezhenide. The K(a) of the specnuezhenide and salidroside in the fetal intestines are 0.055 3 and 0.144 2 h(-1) respectively and the total absorptivity are 24.46% and 60.14% respectively after 4 hours. The K(a) in the stomach are 5.70 and 8.26 h(-1) respectively and the total absorptivity are 34.21% and 47.23% respectively after 4 hours. The experiment proved that specnuezhenide can be metabolized into salidroside which is more beneficial for gastrointestinal absorption. The experiment proved that specnuezhenide can be metabolized into salidroside both in the rat's stomach and the fetal intestine and compared with the specnuezhenide salidroside is more conducive to gastrointestinal absorption. The results suggested that the increasing efficiency on liver and kidney of L. lucidum steamed with wine has business with the fact that Specnuezhe nide is more conducive to the body after it is changed into salidroside.

  7. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in the “in vivo” histological diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Giovanni D De

    2009-01-01

    Recent technological advances in miniaturization have allowed for a confocal scanning microscope to be integrated into a conventional flexible endoscope, or into trans-endoscopic probes, a technique now known as confocal endomicroscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy. This newly-developed technology has enabled endoscopists to collect real-time in vivo histological images or “virtual biopsies” of the gastrointestinal mucosa during endoscopy, and has stimulated significant interest in the app...

  8. Mantle cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting with multiple intussusceptions – case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Stephen M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from small to medium sized lymphocytes located in the mantle zone of the lymph node. Extra nodal involvement is present in the majority of cases, with a peculiar tendency to invade the gastro-intestinal tract in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis. MCL can be accurately diagnosed with the use of the highly specific marker Cyclin D1. Few cases of mantle cell lymphoma presenting with intussuception have been reported. Here we present a rare case of multiple intussusceptions caused by mantle cell lymphoma and review the literature of this disease. Case presentation A 68-year-old male presented with pain, tenderness in the right lower abdomen, associated with nausea and non-bilious vomiting. CT scan of abdomen revealed ileo-colic intussusception. Laparoscopy confirmed multiple intussusceptions involving ileo-colic and ileo-ileal segments of gastrointestinal tract. A laparoscopically assisted right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The histology and immuno-histochemistry of the excised small and large bowel revealed mantle cell lymphoma with multiple lymphomatous polyposis and positivity to Cyclin D1 marker. The patient was successfully treated with Rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy and remains in complete remission at one-year follow-up. Conclusion This is a rare case of intestinal lymphomatous polyposis due to mantle cell lymphoma presenting with multiple small bowel intussusceptions. Our case highlights laparoscopic-assisted bowel resection as a potential and feasible option in the multi-disciplinary treatment of mantle cell lymphoma.

  9. Glycol methacrylate embedding for the histochemical study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A J W; de Amorim, I F G; Pinheiro, L J; Madeira, I M V M; Souza, C C; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Caliari, M V; Tafuri, W L

    2015-10-26

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy's solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs than controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than did controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail.

  10. Glycol methacrylate embedding for the histochemical study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.W. Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid–Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs than controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than did controls.  Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail.

  11. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of propolis on the microbiota from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Rovná, Katarína; Arpášová, Henrieta; Cuboň, Juraj; Hleba, Lukáš; Pochop, Jaroslav; Kunová, Simona; Haščík, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of propolis extracts on the microbial colonization of chicken gastrointestinal tract in vivo. The propolis was administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts except of the control group. The addition of 150 mg propolis to 1 kg of feed was included in the first experimental group, the addition of 450 mg.kg(-1) in the second experimental group, the addition of 600 mg.kg(-1) the third experimental group and 800 mg kg(-1) in the fourth one. The highest count of faecal enterococci was found in the third group (8.6 cfu.g(-1)) where 600 mg of propolis to 1 kg was added to the feed mixture. The highest count of lactobacilli was detected in the fourth experimental group (8.83 cfu.g(-1)) where was 800 mg of propolis added to 1 kg of feed mixture and number of Enterobacteriaceae genera count was found in control group (8.73 cfu.g(-1)). With RTQ PCR detected species from the genus Enterococcus were: E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus and from genus Lactobacillus were: Lactobacillus crispatus, L. acidophilus and L. salivarius. With MALDI TOF MS Biotyper from Enterobacteriaceae genera were identified Citrobacter braakii, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia fonticola, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Antimicrobial activities In vitro of six species of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens were also tested. The best antimicrobial effect of Citrobacter braakii on ethanolic propolis extract in all concentrations were found.

  13. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 μg/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of

  14. The Gastrointestinal Tract Metabolism and Pharmacological Activities of Grosvenorine, a Major and Characteristic Flavonoid in the Fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyue; Xing, Shihua; Luu, Thithanhthuy; Fan, Min; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-11-01

    Grosvenorine is the major flavonoid compound of the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey, a medical plant endemic to China. In the present study, for the first time, the grosvenorine metabolism in an in vitro simulated human gastrointestinal tract (including artificial gastric juice, artificial intestinal juice and intestinal flora), as well as its pharmacological activities (including anti-complement, antibacterial and antioxidant activities), was investigated. The results showed that grosvenorine was metabolized by human intestinal flora; its four metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by NMR as kaempferitrin, afzelin, α-rhamnoisorobin, and kaempferol. Further pharmacological evaluation showed that grosvenorine exhibited good antibacterial and antioxidant activities, with its metabolites possessing more potent activities. Although grosvenorine did not present obvious anticomplement activity, its metabolites showed interesting activities. This study revealed that intestinal bacteria play an important role in the gastrointestinal metabolism of grosvenorine and significantly affect its pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Radiographic anatomy and barium sulfate contrast transit time of the gastrointestinal tract of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Daniaux, Lise; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Weber, Ernest Scott; Zwingenberger, Allison; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The positive contrast gastrointestinal study is a common non-invasive diagnostic technique that does not require anesthesia and enables good visualization of the digestive tract. Radiographic anatomy and reference intervals for gastrointestinal contrast transit time in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were established using seven animals administered 15 ml/kg of a 35% w/v suspension of barium by esophageal gavage. Dorso-ventral and lateral radiographic views were performed at 0, 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h, and then every 12 h up to 96 h after barium administration. Gastric emptying was complete at a median time of 10 h (range 4-24 h). Median jejunum and small intestinal emptying times were 1 h (range 30 min-2 h) and 29 h (range 24-48 h), respectively. Median transit time for cecum was 10 h (range 8-12 h). Median time for contrast to reach the colon was 31 h (range 12-72 h) after administration. Results were compared to those obtained in other reptilian species. This technique appeared safe in fasted bearded dragons and would be clinically applicable in other lizard species.

  16. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  17. Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, G; Seeley, RJ; Thiele, TE; Friedman, MI; Ji, H; Wilkinson, CW; Burn, P; Campfield, LA; Tenenbaum, R; Baskin, DG; Woods, SC; Schwartz, MW; Seeley, Randy J.; Thiele, Todd E.; Friedman, Mark I.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Woods, Stephen C.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 mu g) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to

  18. Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Wright, von A.; Vilpponen-Salmela, T.; Amor, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial communities in different parts of the colon is limited. In this

  19. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of radio-protectors on the basis of criteria of the protection of bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatovskaia, N.N.; Brumberg, I.E.

    1982-03-01

    Gamma-ray experiments on mice have shown that, unlike cystamine, 4-aminobenzo-2,1,3-thiadiazol has a radio-protective effect on the haemopoietic tissue and fails to protect the gastrointestinal tract. In the bone marrow, this preparation is effective only in regard to stem cells.

  20. Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to study the availability of food mutagens, using heterocyclic aromatic amines as model compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Baan, R.; Verhagen, H.; Mohn, G.; Feron, V.; Havenaar, R.

    2000-01-01

    The TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) is a dynamic computer-controlled in vitro system that mimics the human physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. In the current TIM physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, peristaltic movements, secretion of digestion enzymes,

  1. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  2. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  3. Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Cemani Chicken and Their Potential Use as Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Jannah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to screen and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from gastrointestinal (GI tract of Cemani chicken, one of Indonesian local chicken and to investigate their potential use as probiotics. LAB were isolated from GI tract using MRSA and GYPA media and incubated anaerobically. Selected LAB were determined their probiotic properties with several assays. Identification of selected LAB was based on 16S rDNA sequences, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Ninety five bacteria were isolated and characterized as lactic acid bacteria (Gram positive, catalase negative, non sporeforming and acid producing. Twenty four isolates of LAB demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli JCM 1649 and Salmonella enteritidis B2586, and three selected isolates, i.e. CCM011, CSP004, and CVM002 showed the highest inhibition activity. The isolates had characters of high cell surface hydrophobicity and inter-isolate coaggregation ability of LAB, high survival at low pH, high phytase and protease activity (but no amylase and lipase activity, weak coaggregation with pathogen and no resistance to the examined antibiotics. The isolates were identified based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as Lactobacillus salivarius, however, each isolate had different profiles of sugar fermentation. Therefore the three LAB isolates had potential application as probiotics for chicken.

  4. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  5. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E. (Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France))

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  6. High Spatial and Temporal Variations of Microbial Community along the Southern Catfish Gastrointestinal Tract: Insights into Dynamic Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Dapeng; Refaey, Mohamed M; Xu, Weitong

    2017-01-01

    The fish intestinal microbiota is affected by dietary shifts or diet-related seasonal fluctuations making it highly variable and dynamic. It assists with the digestion and absorption of food that is a common, yet dynamic process. However, fundamental dynamics of microbial ecology associated with food digestion in intestine and stomach are poorly understood in fish. We selected the southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, as the targeted species, owing to its foraging behavior with a large meal that can assure clear periodic rhythms in food digestion, to study spatial variations of the microbial community along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We further evaluated temporal microbial dynamics by collecting GI tract samples at time intervals 03, 12, and 24h after feeding. High-throughput sequencing results showed higher microbial diversity in the stomach than in the intestine and distinguishable community structures between stomach and intestine. Firmicutes were dominated by both Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiaceae, which was the most abundant taxon in the stomach, whereas Fusobacteria were dominated by Cetobacterium, which prevailed in the intestine. Firmicutes was significantly increased and Fusobacteria was decreased after feeding. Furthermore, inter-stomach microbial variability was greater than inter-intestine microbial variability. These results demonstrate that GI microbial assemblies are specific per anatomical site and are highly dynamic during food digestion, indicating that digestive status and/or sampling time are factors potentially influencing the microbial compositions. Furthermore, the finding of high spatial and temporal variations of the microbial community along the GI tract suggests limitations of single sampling regime to study food-derived microbial ecology.

  7. Rates of gastrointestinal tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdalhamid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPAE are globally a major medical issue, especially in intensive care units. The digestive tract is the main reservoir for these isolates; therefore, rectal swab surveillance is highly recommended. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE in patients admitted to intensive care units in Saudi Arabia. This project also aimed to characterize carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme production in these isolates. From February to May 2015, 200 rectal swab specimens were screened by CHROMagar KPC. Organism identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system. One CRE and 13 CRPAE strains were identified, for a prevalence of 0.5% (1/200 and 6.5% (13/200 respectively. Strains showed high genetic diversity using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR. NDM type and VIM type were detected by PCR in four and one CRPAE isolates respectively. ampC overexpression was detected in eight CRPAE isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1000 μg/mL cloxacillin. CTX-M-15 type was detected in 1 CRE by PCR. The prevalence of CRE strain colonization was lower than that of CRPAE isolates. The detection of NDM and VIM in the colonizing CRPAE strains is a major infection control concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia and the gulf region focusing on digestive tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE organisms and characterizing the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance.

  8. High Spatial and Temporal Variations of Microbial Community along the Southern Catfish Gastrointestinal Tract: Insights into Dynamic Food Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The fish intestinal microbiota is affected by dietary shifts or diet-related seasonal fluctuations making it highly variable and dynamic. It assists with the digestion and absorption of food that is a common, yet dynamic process. However, fundamental dynamics of microbial ecology associated with food digestion in intestine and stomach are poorly understood in fish. We selected the southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, as the targeted species, owing to its foraging behavior with a large meal that can assure clear periodic rhythms in food digestion, to study spatial variations of the microbial community along the gastrointestinal (GI tract. We further evaluated temporal microbial dynamics by collecting GI tract samples at time intervals 03, 12, and 24h after feeding. High-throughput sequencing results showed higher microbial diversity in the stomach than in the intestine and distinguishable community structures between stomach and intestine. Firmicutes were dominated by both Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiaceae, which was the most abundant taxon in the stomach, whereas Fusobacteria were dominated by Cetobacterium, which prevailed in the intestine. Firmicutes was significantly increased and Fusobacteria was decreased after feeding. Furthermore, inter-stomach microbial variability was greater than inter-intestine microbial variability. These results demonstrate that GI microbial assemblies are specific per anatomical site and are highly dynamic during food digestion, indicating that digestive status and/or sampling time are factors potentially influencing the microbial compositions. Furthermore, the finding of high spatial and temporal variations of the microbial community along the GI tract suggests limitations of single sampling regime to study food-derived microbial ecology.

  9. High Spatial and Temporal Variations of Microbial Community along the Southern Catfish Gastrointestinal Tract: Insights into Dynamic Food Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Dapeng; Refaey, Mohamed M.; Xu, Weitong

    2017-01-01

    The fish intestinal microbiota is affected by dietary shifts or diet-related seasonal fluctuations making it highly variable and dynamic. It assists with the digestion and absorption of food that is a common, yet dynamic process. However, fundamental dynamics of microbial ecology associated with food digestion in intestine and stomach are poorly understood in fish. We selected the southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, as the targeted species, owing to its foraging behavior with a large meal that can assure clear periodic rhythms in food digestion, to study spatial variations of the microbial community along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We further evaluated temporal microbial dynamics by collecting GI tract samples at time intervals 03, 12, and 24h after feeding. High-throughput sequencing results showed higher microbial diversity in the stomach than in the intestine and distinguishable community structures between stomach and intestine. Firmicutes were dominated by both Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiaceae, which was the most abundant taxon in the stomach, whereas Fusobacteria were dominated by Cetobacterium, which prevailed in the intestine. Firmicutes was significantly increased and Fusobacteria was decreased after feeding. Furthermore, inter-stomach microbial variability was greater than inter-intestine microbial variability. These results demonstrate that GI microbial assemblies are specific per anatomical site and are highly dynamic during food digestion, indicating that digestive status and/or sampling time are factors potentially influencing the microbial compositions. Furthermore, the finding of high spatial and temporal variations of the microbial community along the GI tract suggests limitations of single sampling regime to study food-derived microbial ecology. PMID:28848535

  10. First Insights into the Diverse Human Archaeome: Specific Detection of Archaea in the Gastrointestinal Tract, Lung, and Nose and on Skin

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    Kaisa Koskinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human-associated archaea remain understudied in the field of microbiome research, although in particular methanogenic archaea were found to be regular commensals of the human gut, where they represent keystone species in metabolic processes. Knowledge on the abundance and diversity of human-associated archaea is extremely limited, and little is known about their function(s, their overall role in human health, or their association with parts of the human body other than the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Currently, methodological issues impede the full assessment of the human archaeome, as bacteria-targeting protocols are unsuitable for characterization of the full spectrum of Archaea. The goal of this study was to establish conservative protocols based on specifically archaea-targeting, PCR-based methods to retrieve first insights into the archaeomes of the human gastrointestinal tract, lung, nose, and skin. Detection of Archaea was highly dependent on primer selection and the sequence processing pipeline used. Our results enabled us to retrieve a novel picture of the human archaeome, as we found for the first time Methanobacterium and Woesearchaeota (DPANN superphylum to be associated with the human gastrointestinal tract and the human lung, respectively. Similar to bacteria, human-associated archaeal communities were found to group biogeographically, forming (i the thaumarchaeal skin landscape, (ii the (methanoeuryarchaeal gastrointestinal tract, (iii a mixed skin-gastrointestinal tract landscape for the nose, and (iv a woesearchaeal lung landscape. On the basis of the protocols we used, we were able to detect unexpectedly high diversity of archaea associated with different body parts.

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as isolated inflammatory polyps of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Mudter, Jonas; Märkl, Bruno; Chetty, Runjan

    2011-08-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a well recognised complication in patients taking steroid/immunosuppressive therapy or suffering from immunodeficiency and debilitating diseases. Rarely, CMV may affect immunocompetent healthy individuals. However, CMV infection presenting as isolated inflammatory polyps is unusual. We describe five patients (1 infant and 4 adults 56-80 years of age) with CMV-associated polyps that posed diagnostic difficulty. Four lesions were initially misdiagnosed as inflammatory fibroid polyp (n = 2), atypical/suspicious lymphoproliferative (n = 1) and mesenchymal (n = 1) lesion. Underlying diseases were kidney transplantation (1), ulcerative colitis (1), and HIV infection (1). One elderly patient had pseudomembranous colitis but no significant co-morbidity. One patient had no relevant diseases. The lesions affected the colon (3), small intestine (1) and gastric antrum (1); one was multifocal. The size ranged from 0.3 cm to 2.0 cm. Histologically, all lesions showed extensive surface ulceration and abundant capillary-rich granulation tissue containing activated lymphoid cells, plasma cells, granulocytes, enlarged histiocytes and atypical fibroblasts. Eosinophils were prominent in two cases. Immunohistochemistry showed unequivocal intranuclear CMV inclusions. These cases widen the spectrum of endoscopic and histological appearance of gastrointestinal CMV infection. Awareness of these unusual lesions should enhance detection and proper classification of this probably under-recognised CMV presentation.

  12. New and Unexpected Biological Functions for the Src-Homology 2 Domain-Containing Phosphatase SHP-2 in the Gastrointestinal TractSummary

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    Geneviève Coulombe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SHP-2 is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed in most embryonic and adult tissues. SHP-2 regulates many cellular functions including growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that SHP-2 is required for rat sarcoma viral oncogene/extracellular signal-regulated kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by most tyrosine kinase receptors, as well as by G-protein–coupled and cytokine receptors. In addition, SHP-2 can regulate the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, nuclear factor-κB, phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/Akt, RhoA, Hippo, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Emerging evidence has shown that SHP-2 dysfunction represents a key factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases, in particular in chronic inflammation and cancer. Variations within the gene locus encoding SHP-2 have been associated with increased susceptibility to develop ulcerative colitis and gastric atrophy. Furthermore, mice with conditional deletion of SHP-2 in intestinal epithelial cells rapidly develop severe colitis. Similarly, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SHP-2 induces hepatic inflammation, resulting in regenerative hyperplasia and development of tumors in aged mice. However, the SHP-2 gene initially was suggested to be a proto-oncogene because activating mutations of this gene were found in pediatric leukemias and certain forms of liver and colon cancers. Moreover, SHP-2 expression is up-regulated in gastric and hepatocellular cancers. Notably, SHP-2 functions downstream of cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA, the major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, and is associated with increased risks of gastric cancer. Further compounding this complexity, most recent findings suggest that SHP-2 also coordinates carbohydrate, lipid, and bile acid synthesis in the liver and pancreas. This review aims to summarize current knowledge and recent data regarding the

  13. Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

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    Hopkins William G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic on faecal microbiology, self-reported illness symptoms and immunity in healthy well trained individuals. Methods Competitive cyclists (64 males and 35 females; age 35 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 y, VO2max 56 ± 6 and 52 ± 6 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD were randomised to either probiotic (minimum 1 × 109 Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® per day or placebo treatment for 11 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. The outcome measures were faecal L. fermentum counts, self-reported symptoms of illness and serum cytokines. Results Lactobacillus numbers increased 7.7-fold (90% confidence limits 2.1- to 28-fold more in males on the probiotic, while there was an unclear 2.2-fold (0.2- to 18-fold increase in females taking the probiotic. The number and duration of mild gastrointestinal symptoms were ~2-fold greater in the probiotic group. However, there was a substantial 0.7 (0.2 to 1.2 of a scale step reduction in the severity of gastrointestinal illness at the mean training load in males, which became more pronounced as training load increased. The load (duration×severity of lower respiratory illness symptoms was less by a factor of 0.31 (99%CI; 0.07 to 0.96 in males taking the probiotic compared with placebo but increased by a factor of 2.2 (0.41 to 27 in females. Differences in use of cold and flu medication mirrored these symptoms. The observed effects on URTI had too much uncertainty for a decisive outcome. There were clear reductions in

  14. Dietary encapsulated glycine influences Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacilli growth in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, J P; Hoehler, Dirk; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Drew, Murray D

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine whether there is a causative relation between dietary glycine concentration and intestinal Clostridium perfringens growth in broiler chickens. Expt. 1 showed that glycine concentrations were higher (P perfringens type A on d 1 and d 14-21 and killed on d 28. In Expt. 2, C. perfringens populations were higher (P perfringens numbers were higher (P perfringens colonization and high intestinal lesion scores were associated with reduced performance (P perfringens growth in the intestinal tract of broiler chickens.

  15. Metaphylogenomic and Potential Functionality of the Limpet Patella pellucida’s Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome

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    Magda Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial diversity associated with the digestive tract of the seaweed grazing marine limpet Patella pellucida. Using a modified indirect DNA extraction protocol and performing metagenomic profiling based on specific prokaryotic marker genes, the abundance of bacterial groups was identified from the analyzed metagenome. The members of three significantly abundant phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were characterized through the literature and their predicted functions towards the host, as well as potential applications in the industrial environment assessed.

  16. Further studies on the absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1982-10-01

    Plutonium retention was measured after intragastric administration to neonatal rats, dogs and swine. At 1 week after administration, substantially more of the actinide remained in swine and dog than in rats. The quantity of /sup 238/Pu absorbed by piglets was markedly influenced by such factors as compound solubility, mass of plutonium administered, oxidation state of the actinide, and age of the animal at gavage. Cortisone treatment reduced absorption, but was less effective in piglets than in neonatal rats. Measurements of /sup 238/Pu transport from ligated segments of the neonatal swine intestine indicated highest absorption from the duodenum, where the actinide was shown, autoradiographically, to be deposited in the epithelial region; in the ileum, deposition was predominantly in the lacteal region. Absorption of actinides by neonatal swine decreased in the order of /sup 233/U> /sup 238/Pu>/sup 237/Np>/sup 24/4Cm>/sup 241/Am. Measurements at 1 yr after gavage showed a much higher retention by swine than by rats.

  17. Further studies on the absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.

    1982-10-01

    Plutonium retention was measured after intragastric administration to neonatal rats, dogs and swine. At 1 week after administration, substantially more of the actinide remained in swine and dogs than in rats. The quantity of /sup 238/Pu absorbed by piglets was markedly influenced by such factors as compound solubility, mass of plutonium administered, oxidation state of the actinide, and age of the animal at gavage. Cortisone treatment reduced absorption, but was less effective in piglets than in neonatal rats. Measurements of /sup 238/Pu transport from ligated segments of the neonatal swine intestine indicated highest absorption from the duodenum, where the actinide was shown, autoradiographically, to be deposited in the epithelial region; in the ileum, deposition was predominantly in the lacteal region. Absorption of actinides by neonatal swine decreased in the order of /sup 233/U greater than /sup 238/Pu greater than /sup 237/Np greater than /sup 244/Cm greater than /sup 241/Am. Measurements at 1 yr after gavage showed a much higher retention by swine than by rats.

  18. Repertory of eukaryotes (eukaryome) in the human gastrointestinal tract: taxonomy and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, I; Raoult, D; Bittar, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes are an important component of the human gut, and their relationship with the human host varies from parasitic to commensal. Understanding the diversity of human intestinal eukaryotes has important significance for human health. In the past few decades, most of the multitudes of techniques that are involved in the diagnosis of the eukaryotic population in the human intestinal tract were confined to pathological and parasitological aspects that mainly rely on traditionally based methods. However, development of culture-independent molecular techniques comprised of direct DNA extraction from faeces followed by sequencing, offer new opportunities to estimate the occurrence of eukaryotes in the human gut by providing data on the entire eukaryotic community, particularly not-yet-cultured or fastidious organisms. Further broad surveys of the eukaryotic communities in the gut based on high throughput tools such as next generation sequencing might lead to uncovering the real diversity of these ubiquitous organisms in the human intestinal tract and discovering the unrecognized roles of these eukaryotes in modulating the host immune system and inducing changes in host gut physiology and ecosystem. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The behavior of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract determines its physiological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2017-11-02

    A diet rich in dietary fiber (DF) is considered healthy and recommended dietary intake of DF is established all over the world. The physiological effect of DF is mostly related to its behavior during digestion. In this review, the behavior of DF in the human digestive tract is discussed and linked to its physiological effect with special attention to four aspects of such behavior: (i) the modulation of bioavailability by the plant cell walls, (ii) the effect of DF on the rheological and colloidal state of digesta, (iii) the binding of DF with phenolic compounds, bile salts, mineral ions, and digestive enzymes, and (iv) DF fermentation in the large intestine and the corresponding effect on microbiota composition. It is stressed that the detailed chemical characterization of DF is crucial to explain its effect on health and that DF behavior in the digestive tract can be modulated by interactions with other food and meal components so that information of the bare content in DF of food is not sufficient to predict its physiological effect.

  20. Insights into efficient laminar mixing from studies on the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Seth

    2005-11-01

    Many biological and engineered systems are dependent upon the efficacy of fluid mixing in the laminar flow regime. The physiological processes responsible for nutrient absorption and transport in the GI tract are prime examples of natural design optimization from which much can be learned and applied to designs of engineering interest. We have analyzed individual aspects of the GI tract, with particular focus on the junction between the stomach and intestine to quantify the effect of the anatomy and physiology of this segment on the mixing of nutrients with enzymes. An Eulerian levelset-based flow solver with Lagrangian particle tracking is used to computationally analyze fluid flow through several representative 2-D components of the antral-duodenal junction. Stretch rate maps and scalar species distributions illustrate how each individual anatomical feature and peristaltic contraction patterns contribute to mixing through vortex formation and shedding in the presence of pulsatile flow. It is shown that geometric irregularities and asymmetries, such as those found in biological systems, can lead to enhanced fluid mixing.

  1. The Origins of the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Children

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    L. A. Lityaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the peculiarities of the intestinal microbiota in infants and its role in the development of gastrointestinal pathology.Clinical and microbiological examination of 60 pairs of «mother-child» in identifying risk factors for antenatal and microecological status of pregnant women with subsequent monitoring of the health of children up to 3—5 years.It was revealed that antenatal risk factors and disorders of the microbiota of the vagina and intestine in pregnancy contribute to innate decrease colonization resistance in children that initiates persistence and enhanced proliferation of opportunistic bacteria in the intestines of children with the development of the syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, most of them to 3—5 years.

  2. The impact of opioid analgesics on the gastrointestinal tract function and the current management possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) comprises gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, gastro-oesophageal reflux, delayed digestion, abdominal pain, bloating, hard stool and incomplete evacuation that significantly deteriorate patients' quality of life and compliance. Approximately one third of patients treated with opioids do not adhere to the opioid regimen or simply quit the treatment due to OIBD. Several strategies are undertaken to prevent or treat OIBD. Traditional oral laxatives are used but their effectiveness is limited and they display adverse effects. Other possibilities comprise opioid switch or changing the administration route. New therapies target opioid receptors in the gut that seem to be the main source of OIBD. One is a combination of an opioid and opioid antagonist (oxycodone/naloxone) in prolonged-release tablets, and another is a purely peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist (methylnaltrexone) available in subcutaneous injections. The aim of this article is to review the pathomechanism and possible treatment strategies of OIBD.

  3. Peculiarities of surgical treatment of gastrointestinal tract combined congenital malformations in newborns

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    М. О. Makarova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital gastrointestinal (GI malformations make up 21–25 % of all congenital anomalies and require surgical correction in the neonatal period. The aim was to analyze the methods of operative treatment of hard composite congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants. Materials and Methods: There were 13 newborns with gastroschisis, omphalocele and esophageal atresia combined with intestinal atresia, anal atresia and also with congenital heart defects in our study. Results. We have designed new preoperative care strategies for the newborns. All combined GI defects were corrected in one step. In gastroschisis and omphalocele in combination with small intestine atresia we made a plastic of anterior abdominal wall, bowel segment resection and anastomosis end-to-end. In esophageal atresia and atresia of the anus direct esophago-esophagoanastomosis was applied with suturing of tracheoesophageal fistula, also in two patients proctoplasty by Pena 2 was carried out, and in one patient with high anal atresia colostomy was applied, which was closed in the age of 6 months. In case of esophageal atresia combined with small intestine atresia direct esophago-esophagoanastomosis with tracheoesophageal fistula suturing was carried out, and resection of the bowel segment with anastomosis end-to-end was applied. In a patient with a combination of esophageal atresia and duodenal obstruction esophagoplasty and closure of tracheoesophageal fistula with anastomosis by Kimur was made. Preference was given to the combined anesthesia with neuraxial blockade. Postoperative care included prolonged artificial lung ventilation, anesthesia, parenteral nutrition, antibacterial and antifungal medicines. Conclusions. One-step correction of the congenital GI malformations in newborns is effective and it gives opportunity to achieve the best results with a single surgical intervention. Extremely important links of the combined GI defects therapy is timely and balanced

  4. Amyloid in biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract-a retrospective observational study on 542 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthaler, Sophie; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Krüger, Sandra; Röcken, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    In this retrospective observational study, we investigated the histopathological and demographic characteristics of amyloid in gastrointestinal biopsies. From the Amyloid Registry Kiel, we retrieved all cases with amyloid in biopsies of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum submitted for tertiary referral between January 2003 and April 2013. Amyloid was identified by Congo red staining in combination with polarization microscopy and classified by immunohistochemistry. The TTR-genotype was assessed in 56 patients. Amyloid type was correlated with demographic patient characteristics. Six hundred sixty-three biopsies from 542 patients were retrieved. Amyloid was found in each biopsy as vascular and/or interstitial amyloid deposits. Biopsies were obtained from the colon [254 biopsies (38.3 %)], stomach, [153 (23.1 %)], rectum [112 (16.9 %)], duodenum [105 (15.8 %)], and jejunum/ileum [39 (5.9 %)]. ALλ amyloid was found in 286 (52.8 %), ATTR in 88 (16.2 %), ALκ in 74 (13.7 %), AA in 58 (10.7 %), and ApoAI amyloid in 4 (0.7 %) patients. The remaining 21 cases were ALys amyloid in 4 (0.7 %), AL n.o.s. in 14 (2.6 %), and mixed type amyloidosis in 3 (0.6 %). The amyloid of 11 (2.0 %) cases remained unclassified. The median age of the patients was 68 years. Men [332 (61.7 %)] were significantly more prevalent than women [206 (38.3 %); p types. Amyloid in gastrointestinal biopsies mainly affects male elderly patients and shows amyloid-type-specific demographic patient characteristics.

  5. Aging, the gastrointestinal tract, and risk of acid-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, David A

    2004-09-06

    It is estimated that by 2020, >16% of people in the United States will be > or =65 years of age and that nearly 20 million will be >85 years of age. Aging imparts a variety of physiologic changes in the oropharynx, esophagus, and stomach that increase the risk for esophageal and gastrointestinal disorders. Older individuals also tend to have a higher prevalence of comorbid factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, presence of other diseases, or use of medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) that increase their risk for acid-related disorders. Given these physiologic and comorbidity factors, the elderly are at higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), pill-induced esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and complications related to the use of NSAIDs. Unfortunately, in the elderly patient with these disorders--even those with severe disease or complications--symptom presentation may be subtle or atypical, resulting in a delayed diagnosis. Endoscopy remains the "gold standard" for the identification of mucosal disease and should be performed in all patients with "new-onset" or persistent symptoms who are >45 years of age, as well as in individuals of any age who present with alarm symptoms, such as weight loss, vomiting, anemia, dysphagia, or evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. In general, the treatment of older individuals with peptic ulcer or GERD and its complications is similar to that of younger individuals. Proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy for symptom relief, healing of erosive esophagitis, resolution of peptic ulceration, reduction of the risk for NSAID-induced mucosal damage, and prevention of disease recurrence.

  6. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

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    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  8. [Yeast-like fungi in the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Beata; Kawko, Małgorzata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the frequency of fungal infections in human populations has increased considerably. The most common type offungus attacking the human organism is Candida albicans. Yeast-like fungi occur naturally in the oral cavity, intestines, vagina, or skin, however in amounts not dangerous to human health. The studies so far have shown that patients with diabetes type 1 (T1DM) to a large degree are exposed to complications related to fungal infections. A substantial growth of fungi observed in diabetic patients may unfavorably affect metabolic compensation, and lead to increased demand for insulin, as well as to the difficult to cure symptom infections. The weaker the immune resistance in patients with diabetes, the greater the risk of ailments related to candidiasis. The article contains a review of recent literature regarding the problems related to occurrence of yeast-like fungi in digestive tract of children with diabetes type 1. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  9. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    gastrointestinal morbidities. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic literature review using the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs and Medline from 1990 to 2011. The key-words used were lactoferrin, human milk/breastfeeding, gastrointestinal, and immunity, in Portuguese and English. DATA SYNTHESIS: Lactoferrin is the second predominant protein in the human milk, with higher concentrations in the colostrum (5.0 to 6.7mg/mL if compared to mature milk (0.2 to 2.6mg/mL. In contrast, cow's milk has lower levels, with 0.83mg/mL in the colostrum and 0.09mg/mL in the mature milk. Lactoferrin has several physiological functions to protect the gastrointestinal tract. The antimicrobial activity is related to the ability to sequester iron from biological fluids and/or to destruct the membrane of microorganisms. Lactoferrin also has the ability to stimulate cell proliferation. The anti-inflammatory action exercised by lactoferrin is associated with its ability to penetrate the core of the leukocyte and to block the Kappa B nuclear factor transcription. Given the importance of lactoferrin to prevent infectious diseases for breastfed children, the industry is using genetic engineering techniques to develop the expression of recombinant human lactoferrin in animals and plants, attempting to adjust the composition of infant formulas to that of human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Human lactoferrin is a peptide with great potential for preventing morbidity, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Scientific evidence of the protective effects of human lactoferrin strengthens even more the recommendation for breastfeeding.

  10. The effect of Lupinus albus seeds on digestibility, performance and gastrointestinal tract indices in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Zaworska, A; Kaczmarek, S; Hejdysz, M; Mikuła, R; Rutkowski, A

    2017-10-01

    The effect of soya bean meal (SBM) substitution in the diet with white lupine (WL) seeds on performances and some parameters of the digestive tract of pigs were studied. The digestibility experiment was performed on 30 pigs using difference method combined with marker method, where one group was offered basal diet and in diet of experimental groups 25% of the basal diet was substituted with SBM or WL meal. The growth experiment was conducted on 48 pigs of approximately 20 kg body weight. The animals from the control group were fed with diet containing SBM, whereas in the experimental groups 50% or 100% of SBM was substituted with WL seeds. At the end of the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized, and digesta and tissues were sampled. The apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein and dry matter was higher (p < 0.05), but crude fibre and ether extract were lower (p < 0.05) in the WL seeds than in SBM. Substituting 50% of SBM in the control diet with WL seeds did not affect significantly pig performance. Total substitution of SBM with WL seeds impacted negatively pigs growth and feed intake (p < 0.05), but it did not affect the length of villi and crypt depth. It also significantly increased ileum digesta viscosity and ammonia concentration in the ileum and caecum digesta. In the ileal digesta of animals offered WL seeds, an increased (p < 0.05) total bacterial and Enterobacteriaceae numbers were found, whereas reduced number of yeast and mould was found in the caecal digesta. The substitution of 50% SBM with WL seeds in the growing pig diet did not affect pigs' results, but the total substitution significantly decreased the performance of pigs and affected intestinal ecology. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of Murraya koenigii leaf extract on impaired gastrointestinal motility in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembhurne, Sachin V; Sakarkar, Dinesh M

    2011-08-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of Murraya koenigii leaf (MKL), an Indian herb, on glucose homeostasis, intestinal transit time, response to exogenous acetylcholine of smooth muscles of distal colon, and intestinal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male adult Wistar rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced in the rats by STZ (70 mg/kg, intravenously). The treatments of MKL extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) and glibenclamide were started after stabilization of blood glucose level (13 d after single dose of STZ), while the standard drug cisapride or vitamin E was given from the last week (8th week) of experimentation. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and evaluated for gastrointestinal motility, the contractile response of distal colons and the TBARS content. The gastrointestinal motility was evaluated by measuring the intestinal transit rate of charcoal meal. The contractile response of distal colon was measured in terms of evaluating the dose-response curve with increasing doses of acetylcholine, and the TBARS content was measured by calculating the level of polyunsaturated fatty acid in homogenates of intestines of the diabetic rats. MKL significantly decreased the blood glucose level at the 30th (P<0.05) and 60th (P<0.01) day of MKL administration (300 and 500 mg/kg). The gastrointestinal motility significantly (P<0.05) reduced after 9 weeks in diabetic rats and it was correlated to the decrease of the percent response of acetylcholine on distal colons (P<0.01) and the increase of TBARS (as an index of oxidative stress) in intestines (P<0.05), while prior treatment with MKL (300 and 500 mg/kg) up to 9 weeks increased the gastrointestinal motility demonstrated by the increase in the activation of cholinergic response to acetylcholine on distal colons (P<0.05). The TBARS also decreased after 9-week treatment with MKL (P<0.05). The present study suggested that MKL

  12. Role of endoscopy in evaluating upper gastrointestinal tract lesions in rural population

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    Sharanabasavaraj Javali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Before the advent of endoscopy direct access to the lesion for the confirmation of the diagnosis was difficult, this posed difficulty in contemplating adequate and appropriate surgery. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool has grown in recent years. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is one of the most fascinating branch which serves not only as a means of resolving or amplifying the diagnosis made clinically or by X-ray, but also a primary diagnostic procedure for conditions not otherwise diagnosable on unoperated case. Fiber optic upper GI endoscopy has already become firmly established as a reliable, quick and inexpensive tool. This study was done to detect the upper gastrointestinal lesions in rural population of Kolar District, the distribution pattern of various upper GI lesions in patients presenting with upper GI symptoms and to follow the endoscopic diagnosis for medical and surgical management. Materials and Methods: The study group includes patients reporting to outpatient department and also the inpatients in wards of General Surgery and other departments, who have upper GI symptoms, were advised endoscopy at R. L. JALAPPA Hospital and Research Centre, Kolar, from a period of December 2011 to August 2013. Results: Of the 600 cases, 370 were males, and 230 were females. Disease incidence was highest in 51-70 years age group, that is, 21.6%. Pain abdomen was the most common symptom. Epigastric tenderness was the most common sign among the patients clinically. Reflux esophagitis and diffuse gastritis formed most common cases (307 cases. The incidence of duodenitis - 7.83%, peptic ulcer -3.3%, esophageal varices - 1.5%, the incidence of carcinoma esophagus and carcinoma stomach was approximately same that is, 4.5% and 4.6% respectively. The incidence of esophageal candidiasis was 4.16%. The majority of the patients had a normal study that is, 14.5%. Conclusion: Upper GI lesions were more common in

  13. Submucosal connective tissue-type mast cells contribute to the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the gastrointestinal tract through the secretion of autotaxin (ATX)/lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD).

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    Mori, Ken; Kitayama, Joji; Aoki, Junken; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Shida, Dai; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2007-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, including wound healing and cancer metastasis. Autotaxin (ATX), originally isolated from a melanoma supernatant as a tumor cell motility-stimulating factor, has been shown to be molecularly identical to lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD), which is the main enzyme in the production of LPA. Although ATX/lysoPLD is known to be widely expressed in normal human tissues, the exact distribution of ATX-producing cells has not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated ATX/lysoPLD expression by immunohistochemical staining using a rat anti-ATX mAb in the human gastrointestinal tract and found that submucosal mast cells (MC) highly expressed this enzyme. This was confirmed by immunofluorescent double staining using mAbs to tryptase and chymase. Then, we isolated MC from human gastric tissue by an immunomagnetic method using CD117-microbeads and showed that a subpopulation of CD203c-positive MC showed positive staining for intracellular ATX/lysoPLD on flowcytometry. This was confirmed by Western blotting of the isolated cells. Moreover, a significant level of ATX/lysoPLD release could be detected in the culture supernatants of human MC by Western blot analysis. Our data suggest that submucosal MC play significant roles in various aspects of pathophysiology in the gastrointestinal tract by locally providing bioactive LPA through the production of ATX/lysoPLD.

  14. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

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    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  15. Non-nutritive sweeteners and their role in the gastrointestinal tract.

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    Brown, Rebecca J; Rother, Kristina I

    2012-08-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. A PubMed (1960-2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans.

  16. Polyphenols are intensively metabolized in the human gastrointestinal tract after apple juice consumption.

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    Kahle, Kathrin; Huemmer, Wolfgang; Kempf, Michael; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

    2007-12-26

    Polyphenols are secondary plant compounds showing anticarcinogenic effects both in vitro and in animal experiments and may thus reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in man. The identification of polyphenol metabolites formed via their passage through the small intestine of healthy ileostomy subjects after apple juice consumption is presented. Identification and quantification of polyphenols and their metabolites were performed using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Total procyanidin content (TPA) was measured, and additionally the mean degree of polymerization (DPm) of the procyanidins was determined in the apple juice and ileostomy effluents. As products of polyphenol metabolism, D-(-)-quinic acid and methyl esters of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are liberated from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acid esters. 1-Caffeoylquinic acid and 3-caffeoylquinic acid were determined as products of isomerization. Phloretin 2'-O-glucoside (phloridzin) and phloretin 2'-O-xyloglucoside were metabolized into the corresponding aglycons phloretin and phloretin 2'-O-glucuronide and all were found in the ileostomy effluent. Ninety percent of the consumed procyanidins were recovered in the ileostomy effluent and therefore would reach the colon under physiologic circumstances. The DP m was reduced (DP m of apple juice=5.7) and varied depending on the time point of excretion. The gastrointestinal passage seems to play an important role in the colonic availability of apple polyphenols.

  17. Neural control disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract and visceral pain in inflammatory bowel diseases 

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    Katarzyna Ciesielczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the etiology of which is composed of factors such as the environment, genetic predisposition, gut dysbiosis and inadequate immune response. The pathologic findings in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are related to dysfunction of gastrointestinal secretion and motility and also disturbed visceral sensory function, with accompanying intestinal and parenteral complications. The systemic inflammatory response affects neurological control via the gut-brain axis, which modulates the cooperation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, enteric nervous system (ENS and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. In chronic inflammation the intestinal neuropathy disrupts peristalsis and intestinal secretion as well as causing unpleasant symptoms of the patients. Pain receptors are stimulated by inflammatory mediators, and due to the intensified activation of the nociceptive system visceral hypersensitivity through central and peripheral sensitization is generated. Chronic visceral pain negatively influences the course of disease and the quality of the patient’s life. The growing knowledge about the neurological control dysfunction of the intestine and immune system dysregulation could provide proper directives for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Usefulness of Double-Balloon Endoscopy in the Postoperative Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Masaki Endo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The small intestine has been considered to be a highly difficult organ to visualize in imaging examinations due to its anatomical location compared with the stomach and the colon. In recent years, many imaging modalities have become available, such as CT enterography, MR enterography, capsule endoscopy (CE, and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE. Patients and Methods. DBE was performed in the postoperative intestines of 91 patients (128 DBE examinations at Iwate Medical University between 2004 and 2010. There were 61 male and 30 female patients, and their mean age was 69.7 years (range: 30–80 years. Results. A total of 124 DBE examinations were performed with endoscope insertion into the reconstructed intestines. The endoscope reached the blind end in 115 of 124 examinations, (92.7%. There were 17 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in whom 30 DBE examinations were performed. The bleeding site was identified in 12 patients (70.6%. Nine patients underwent endoscopic treatment. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Conclusion. DBE is very useful modality for the assessment and application of endotherapy to areas of the small bowel which have been altered by surgery.

  19. Development of polymethacrylate nanospheres as targeted delivery systems for catechin within the gastrointestinal tract

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    Pool, Hector; Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel; McClements, David Julian; Mendoza, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    In this study, pH-sensitive nanospheres were fabricated using a polymethacrylate-based copolymer to encapsulate, protect, and release catechin, and thereby overcome its poor water solubility and low oral bioaccessibility. The polymer used was a polymethacrylic acid-co-ethyl acrylate 1:1 copolymer that dissolves above pH 5.5, and so can be used to retain and protect bioactives within the stomach but releases them in the small intestine. Catechin-loaded nanospheres were fabricated using the solvent displacement method. Physicochemical characterization of the nanospheres indicated that they were relatively small ( d = 160 nm) and had a high negative charge ( ζ = - 36 mV), which meant that they had good stability to aggregation under physiological conditions (pH 7.2). Catechin was trapped within the nanospheres at an encapsulation efficiency of about 51% in an amorphous state. A simulated gastrointestinal study showed that catechin was slowly released under gastric conditions (pH 2.5), but rapidly released under small intestine conditions (pH 7.2). The observed improvement in the antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of catechin after encapsulation was attributed to the fact that it was in an amorphous state and had good water dispersibility. This study provides useful information for the formulation of novel delivery systems to improve the dispersibility, bioaccessibility, and bioactivity of catechin and potentially other active components. These delivery systems could be used to improve the efficacy of bioactive components in foods, supplements, and pharmaceutical products.

  20. [Aging and digestive diseases: at the view of the functional change of gastrointestinal tract].

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    Park, Kyung Sik

    2011-07-01

    Although it is difficult to define the term "aging" consensually, in medical fields, usually it means the progressive accumulation of irreversible degenerative changes leading to loss of homeostasis. It is supposable that there is also modest decline in the structure and function of several digestive organs. However, data about this subject are not enough. Main problem in studying aging digestive organ is that discrimination of primary senile change of the organ with secondary one from other senile diseases is not easy. That is, the prevalence of many non-digestive disorders which can badly affect the digestive functions is increasing by aging; for example, diabetes, malignancy, etc. To prove that some phenomenon is as result of pure senile change, it is necessary to exclude secondary one, but, the process is very complicated and difficult. In spite of this limitation, here, I will discuss the senile change of several digestive organs by aging, especially at the view of the gastrointestinal functions, with review of literatures.

  1. Validation of the UCLA Scleroderma Clinica Trial Gastrointestinal Tract Instrument version 2.0 for systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Steele, Russell; Lo, Ernest

    2011-09-01

    The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium GI Tract Instrument (UCLA SCTC GITI) was recently developed to measure gastrointestinal tract disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our study assesses the internal consistency and validity of the instrument in a different population than was used in the original study. A sample of 113 consecutive patients with SSc from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group (CSRG) Registry completed the UCLA SCTC GITI, a self-administered questionnaire with 7 scales and an overall score. Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and validity was determined by testing multiple constructs. Our subjects were slightly older than the original cohort, and had less formal education and less diffuse cutaneous disease. The overall score of the instrument correlated well with the GI scale of the Health Assessment Questionnaire for the Spondyloarthropathies (GI-S-HAQ; r = 0.58, p < 0.001) and the total number of GI symptoms (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). Each subscale correlated well with the GI-S-HAQ. The individual scales and the overall score were able to differentiate between categorical groupings of the GI-S-HAQ. The scale scores differentiated well those patients with clinical involvement of the corresponding GI problem. Multiple linear regression adjusting for age, disease duration, sex, and ethnicity showed that the UCLA SCTC GITI had a significant association with both the physical component summary and the mental component summary of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 questionnaire. Our study confirms that the UCLA SCTC GITI version 2.0 will be a useful tool for assessing the role of GI involvement in SSc, even in a population with substantially different characteristics than the subjects originally tested.

  2. The Vagus Nerve in the Neuro-Immune Axis: Implications in the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Bruno Bonaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The vagus nerve (VN is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS, with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI tract. A dual anti-inflammatory role of the VN is observed using either vagal afferents, targeting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, or vagal efferents, targeting the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The sympathetic nervous system and the VN act in synergy, through the splenic nerve, to inhibit the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα by macrophages of the peripheral tissues and the spleen. Because of its anti-inflammatory effect, the VN is a therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders where TNFα is a key component. In this review, we will focus on the anti-inflammatory role of the VN in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The anti-inflammatory properties of the VN could be targeted pharmacologically, with enteral nutrition, by VN stimulation (VNS, with complementary medicines or by physical exercise. VNS is one of the alternative treatments for drug resistant epilepsy and depression and one might think that VNS could be used as a non-drug therapy to treat inflammatory disorders of the GI tract, such as IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, and postoperative ileus, which are all characterized by a blunted autonomic balance with a decreased vagal tone.

  3. The Vagus Nerve in the Neuro-Immune Axis: Implications in the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, Bruno; Sinniger, Valérie; Pellissier, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A dual anti-inflammatory role of the VN is observed using either vagal afferents, targeting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, or vagal efferents, targeting the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The sympathetic nervous system and the VN act in synergy, through the splenic nerve, to inhibit the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) by macrophages of the peripheral tissues and the spleen. Because of its anti-inflammatory effect, the VN is a therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders where TNFα is a key component. In this review, we will focus on the anti-inflammatory role of the VN in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The anti-inflammatory properties of the VN could be targeted pharmacologically, with enteral nutrition, by VN stimulation (VNS), with complementary medicines or by physical exercise. VNS is one of the alternative treatments for drug resistant epilepsy and depression and one might think that VNS could be used as a non-drug therapy to treat inflammatory disorders of the GI tract, such as IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, and postoperative ileus, which are all characterized by a blunted autonomic balance with a decreased vagal tone. PMID:29163522

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used medicinal plants for infections of skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the oral cavity in Borabu sub-county, Nyamira county, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwenga, E O; Hensel, A; Shitandi, A; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-12-24

    Different communities throughout the world have specialized and profound knowledge on the use medicinal plants for various diseases. However, the detailed information on the respective use may extinct in near future as this knowledge is passed only orally among generations in most of the communities. The present survey aimed to document the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers from the Kisii community, Borabu sub-county in Nyamira county, Kenya, to treat infections of the urinary tract, oral cavity, gastrointestinal system and the skin and to evaluate the social context in which the healers work and practice. Validated questionnaires were applied to 50 traditional healers in the study region, followed by interviews and structured conversations. Information on the relevant traditionally used medicinal plants and their use were documented, including sampling and identification of voucher specimens. The ethnopharmacological survey revealed 25 medicinal plant species belonging to 19 families. It got evident that most of these species will be extinct in the near future unless appropriate measures are taken, as it turned out difficult to collect some of the wild growing species. Elaeodendron buchananii Loes, Erlangea marginata S. Moore, Acacia gerrardii Benth., Balanites orbicularis Sprague, Solanum renschii Vatke and Orthosiphon hildebrandtii Vatke have not been described before for its medicinal use. Among the 25 species collected from the various regions of Borabu sub-county Urtica dioica L. was the only medicinal plant that was collected from all regions. In contrast Erythrina abyssinica and Rhus natalensis were found in only two regions of the study area. The traditional medicinal use of the reported plants for infections should be documented and a great need of awareness from scientists and local government for improved preservation or field cultivation of some species is obvious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

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    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  6. Chemical Contaminants Found in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)

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    Athey, S. N.; Seaton, P. J.; Mead, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic is becoming increasingly more abundant in the marine environment. Plastic ingestion has been shown to be a source of exposure to a variety of harmful compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates, which are known for their negative physiological effects on the endocrine system as well as their ability to adsorb and leach from plastic into the bodies of marine organisms. The physiological effects of these compounds on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) still remain unknown. This study investigated the presence of toxicants on marine plastic samples collected from Bermuda, the Sargasso Sea, and the North Atlantic Ocean. Gas chromatography/triple quadruple mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed PAHs were present on many plastic debris samples. Plastic additives such as phthalates and (BPA) were also found. ΣPAH concentrations for anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene for 2013 environmental plastic samples averaged 26.7ng/g of plastic. This study also examined the presence of these compounds in fluids from the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine from two adult loggerhead turtles. GC/MS analysis also showed the presence of BPA and phthalates on plastic samples, as well as in two out of the six gastrointestinal fluids samples. Average ΣPAH concentration for GI fluids for the loggerheads in the study was 58.7 ng/mL. This study showed plastic could be a significant source of PAHs in sea turtles and the first to detect PAHs in sea turtle GI fluid. Loggerhead sea turtles are a long living species and could accumulate high concentrations of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals throughout their lifetime.

  7. Exosomal microRNAs as potential circulating biomarkers in gastrointestinal tract cancers: a systematic review protocol

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    Elmira Gheytanchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in gastrointestinal (GI cancers, and there is an emerging potential for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, especially in the cases of metastatic GI carcinomas. The expression profiles of circulating exosomal microRNAs are of particular interest as novel non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for improved detection of GI cancers in body fluids, especially in the serum of patients with recurrent cancers. The aim of this study is to systematically review primary studies and identify the miRNA profiles of serum exosomes of GI cancers. Methods and design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidance. Relevant studies will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following main electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, with no language restrictions (up to July 2017. Full copies of articles will be identified by a defined search strategy and will be considered for inclusion against pre-defined criteria. The quality assessment of the included studies will be performed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS. Data will be analyzed using Stata software V.12. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plots, Beggs’ and Eggers’ tests. The levels of evidence for primary outcomes will be evaluated using the GRADE criteria. Discussion The analysis of circulating exosomal miRNA profiles provides attractive screening and non-invasive diagnostic tools for the majority of solid tumors including GI cancers. There is limited information regarding the relationship between serum exosomal miRNA profiles and the pathological condition of patients with different GI cancers. Since there is no specific biomarker for GI cancers, we aim to suggest a number of circulating exosomal miRNA candidates as potential multifaceted GI cancer biomarkers

  8. [Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in upper gastrointestinal tract occlusion in gynecologic oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnutta, E; Cannizzaro, R; De Cicco, M; De Piero, G; Giorda, G; Sopracordevole, F; Parin, A; Scarabelli, C

    1998-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is a frequent cause of death in patients suffering from gynecological cancer, who have undergone multiple treatment in the form of surgery and/or chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The usual form of rescue treatment consists in the use of a nasogastric tube to administer support and analgesic treatment. Surgical gastrostomy is not a viable proposition in these extremely weak patients with large masses compressing and displacing the stomach. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), a technique first introduced for nutritional purposes, can be beneficially used to achieve decompression in these patients. PEG was performed in a total of 67 patients who had already undergone multiple treatment for abdominal-pelvic neoplasia with upper gastrointestinal obstruction, who could no longer be operated and who had a life expectancy of less than sixty days. In three cases positioning was not possible owing to the lack of transillumination of the gastric and abdominal wall. 54/64 patients had previously undergone at least two operations. Esophagogastric lesions were found in 29% of patients, some of which were attributed to the nasogastric tube. Symptomatic wellbeing was obtained in 76.5% a few days after PEG. PEG remained in situ from 4 to 472 days. Slight peristomal infection was observed in 9% of cases. In seven cases it was necessary to add octreotide owing to the reappearance of symptoms. PEG is relatively easy to use and allows obstructive symptoms to be resolved in the majority of patients. Special medical skills are not required and the patient may be easily managed at home together with support therapy and pain management. Once PEG has been performed, it is possible to take fluids and semi-liquid foods, offering the patient a chance to taste flavours which have often been forgotten. PEG enables neoadjuvant chemotherapy to be performed in patients with previously untreated intestinal obstruction.

  9. Utility of Endoscopic Examination in the Diagnosis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Kosuke Nomura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD in the lower gastrointestinal (GI tract and the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy. Methods. Of 1231 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between January 2005 and December 2014, 186 of whom underwent colonoscopy and biopsy and had no cytomegalovirus infection. The endoscopic findings and histologic diagnosis from these 186 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Based on the histopathological findings, 171 patients were diagnosed with GVHD, accounting for 13.9% of all transplant recipients. Useful endoscopic findings for the diagnosis of GVHD were atrophy of the ileocecal valve and villous atrophy in the terminal ileum and tortoise shell-like mucosae, edema, and low vascular permeability in the colon. Even when no mucosal abnormality was observed, the incidence of GVHD was 78.9% in the terminal ileum and 75.0% in the colon. Furthermore, patients with mucosal exfoliation, although infrequent, were all diagnosed with grade 3/4 GVHD. Conclusions. It is important to perform endoscopy proactively for the early diagnosis of GVHD, and biopsy should be performed even when no abnormality is observed. In addition, because patients with mucosal exfoliation are extremely likely to have grade 3/4 GVHD, early treatment should be initiated.

  10. Buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract dimensions associated to the diet of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Centropomidae, Actinopterygii

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    Isabela M. S Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare the buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, and relate them to its diet. A total of 190 individuals collected with a channel net in the Catuama estuary (07º40'9.9''S, 34º50'36.7''W, northern coast of the state of Pernambuco, were examined. Morphometrical and meristic data were analyzed for the two initial developmental periods (larval and juvenile. Their digestive tube was morphologically characterized and its content identified. The longest transverse axis of food items was measured, and compared to the standard length (SL and mouth gape size (D of the individuals. Body measurement regressions differed significantly (p<0.001 between larvae and juveniles. The stomachs with food content (n=118 individuals presented a proportion of 62% full and 30% empty (being 8% damaged. They differed in relation to the fullness level and presented a coiled shape when empty. The number of food items in relation to SL and D did not present an evident correlation. Larvae (SL<10 mm feed on small copepods, while juveniles (SL=11.1 to 64.7 mm ingest larvae of various decapod species, showing a distinct diet between these initial developmental stages.

  11. Tear film mucins: front line defenders of the ocular surface; comparison with airway and gastrointestinal tract mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Robin R; Dartt, Darlene A

    2013-12-01

    The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL SCREENING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTIVE TRACT OF NATIVE AND BROILER CHICKEN FOR PROBIOTIC CANDIDATE PURPOSES

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    E. Damayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his research was to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB from gastrointestinal digestive tract (GIT of chickens for probiotic candidate purposes. LAB was isolated from GIT of broiler and native chickens on selective medium (MRS+0.2% CaCO3. Screening method based on microbiological and biochemical characteristics, antibacterial properties, growth on various temperature, aeration, and agitation, antibiotic sensitivity, and viability on acid pH, gastric juice and bile salt. Thirty nine of LAB isolates was selected from native chicken and 18 isolates from broiler chicken. The selected LAB inhibited Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 growth and grown on 30, 39 and 45oC of temperature, aerobic, anaerobic and agitation conditions. Biochemical identification using API 50 CHL kit revealed that I72 from native chicken ileum as Lactobacillus salivarius and Db9 from broiler chicken duodenum as Pediococcus pentosaceus. All LAB were resistant to Erythromicin, Penicillin G and Streptomycin as tested antibiotics. Both of them have non significantly different of viability on acid pH (1, 2 and 3, gastric juice pH 2 and bile salt which were 91.78% for L. salivarius I72 and 94.48% for P. pentosaceus Db9 (P<0.05. Based on characteristics, both the selected LAB have potentiality as chicken probiotic candidates.

  13. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  14. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from gastrointestinal tracts of marine fish for their potential use as probiotics

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    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with inhibitory activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from gastrointestinal tracts of fish, shrimp and shellfish. One hundred and sixteen isolates were obtained from fish, twenty isolates from shrimp and twenty-four isolates from shellfish. Three strains were selected based on their bile and acid tolerances. All acid-tolerant strains showed inhibitory activity against human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. However, the antibacterial activities were lost when the culture supernatants were neutralized to pH 6.5- 7.0 and treated with catalase, indicating that the inhibition may be contributed by acid and hydrogen-peroxide production of the strains. Nucleotide sequences of their 16s rDNA showed 98% (655/668 bp, 97% (691/712 bp and 98% (492/501 bp homology to Pediococcus pentosaceus LM2, Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 and Enterococcus faecium SF, respectively.

  15. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted.

  16. Decades of research in drug targeting to the upper gastrointestinal tract using gastroretention technologies: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Giriraj T

    2016-01-01

    A major constraint in oral controlled release drug delivery is that not all the drug candidates are absorbed uniformly throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Drugs having "absorption window" are absorbed in a particular portion of GIT only or are absorbed to a different extent in various segments of the GIT. Thus, only the drug released in the region preceding and in close vicinity to the absorption window is available for absorption. The drug must be released from the dosage form in solution form; otherwise, it is generally not absorbed. Hence, much research has been dedicated to the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems that may optimize the bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of such drugs, as these systems have unique properties to bypass the gastric emptying process. These systems show excellent in vitro results but fail to give desirable in vivo performance. During the last 2-3 decades, researchers from the academia and industries are giving considerable importance in this field. Unfortunately, till date, few so-called gastroretentive dosage forms have been brought to the market in spite of numerous academic publications. The manuscript considers strategies that are commonly used in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with a special attention on various parameters, which needs to be monitored during formulation development.

  17. Detection of bovine papilloma viruses in wart-like lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract of cattle and buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Nagarajan, N; Saikumar, G; Arya, R S; Somvanshi, R

    2015-06-01

    In present investigation, etiopathological characterization of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours of cattle and buffaloes was undertaken. A total of 27 GIT wart-like lesions in rumen, reticulum, mouth and oesophagus of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of small nodular to larger spherical or slender growths with thin base present on mucosa and ruminal pillar. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. This is the first world record on ruminal papillomatosis in buffaloes. Ruminal warts of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of BPV-5, -1 & -2, which is the first report of presence of these BPVs in the ruminal warts from India. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA samples of different GIT wart-like lesions contained varying amount of BPV DNA copy numbers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PCNA and Ki67 immunopositivity was present in the basal and spinosum layer of the fibropapilloma/papilloma, indicating these as the cellular proliferation site. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that BPV-5, -1 & -2 are associated with certain ruminal wart-like lesions/growths in cattle and buffaloes, and the basal and spinosum layer of the ruminal fibropapilloma/papilloma were cellular proliferation sites. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Antibacterial activity of seneciolactone isolated from Senecio scandens against some common gastrointestinal tract disease causing bacterial pathogens

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    Yi Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the antibacterial effect of seneciolactone isolated from the methanolic extract of Senecio scandens against five bacterial pathogens which are known to cause several gastrointestinal tract diseases. Disc diffusion assay and agar well diffusion assays were used to examine the antibacterial efficacy of this compound by measuring zones of inhibition and MIC/MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was involved to study the effect of this compound on cellular morphology of Shigella dysenteriae. Results revealed that seneciolactone exhibited moderate to potent antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains. Zones of inhibition and MIC/MBC values indicated that seneciolactone was most potent against S. dysenteriae followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. SEM results indicated that seneciolactone induced potent damage to the cell membrane of the tested bacteria. As compared to the untreated control which exhibited normal cellular morphology, the seneciolactone treated bacterial cells revealed severe damage to the cellular membrane particularly at the higher doses.

  19. Role of Sulforaphane in Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract Against H. pylori and NSAID-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a phytochemical found in abundance in broccoli sprouts, potently induces a variety of antioxidant enzymes, and thereby protects cells from injury induced by various kinds of oxidative stresses. It has been suggested that both H. pylori infection and intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce chronic oxidative stress in gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, thereby causing mucosal injury in the GI tract. Therefore, it would be a reasonable assumption that SFN protects GI mucosa against oxidative injury induced by H. pylori or NSAIDs. We examined the effects of SFN on H. pylori viability in vitro, levels of gastritis in H.pylori-infected mice in vivo, and in H.pylori-infected human subjects. We also examined the effects of SFN on NSAID-induced small intestinal injury in mice. Our data from the H. pylori infection study clearly demonstrated that SFN inhibited H. pylori viability both in vitro and in vivo, and mitigated H. pylori-induced gastritis in mice and humans. Similarly, our study on NSAID-induced small intestinal injury showed that SFN not only mitigated aspirin-induced injury of small intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, but also ameliorated indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury in mice in vivo. These data strongly suggest that SFN contributes to the protection of GI mucosa against oxidative injury induced by H. pylori or NSAIDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Survival and persistence of Bacillus clausii in the human gastrointestinal tract following oral administration as spore-based probiotic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelardi, E; Celandroni, F; Salvetti, S; Gueye, S A; Lupetti, A; Senesi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fate of Bacillus clausii spores orally administered as lyophilized or liquid formulation to healthy volunteers. The study was a randomized, open-label, cross-over trial in which two commercial probiotic formulations containing spores of four antibiotic-resistant B. clausii strains (OC, NR, SIN, T) were given as a single dose administration. Faecal B. clausii units of each strain were counted on selective media and extrapolated for the total weight of evacuated faeces. RAPD-PCR typing was used to confirm B. clausii identification. Bacillus clausii was found alive in faeces for up to 12 days. In some volunteers, the recovered amount of OC, NR or SIN was higher than the number of administered spores. Bioequivalence among the two formulations was demonstrated. Bacillus clausii spores survive transit through the human gastrointestinal tract. They can undergo germination, outgrowth and multiplication as vegetative forms. Bacillus clausii strains can have different ability to survive in the intestinal environment. Bacillus clausii spores administered as liquid suspension or lyophilized form behave similarly in vivo. This work contributes towards a better understanding of the behaviour of B. clausii spores as probiotics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Aged garlic extract and allicin improve performance and gastrointestinal tract development of piglets reared in artificial sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Dudek, Katarzyna; Gawron, Antoni; Piersiak, Tomasz; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Siwicki, Andrzej; Studzinski, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether postnatal administration with aged garlic extract (AGE) and allicin influences performance and systemic development of piglets exposed to early weaning. Twenty-four male piglets were weaned from sows at the age of two days of life, divided into 4 weight-matched groups and kept under conditions of artificial sow for 6 days. The first group consisted of control animals, while piglets that were given AGE daily per os at the dosages of 1 ml and 2 ml/kg body weight, respectively belonged to the second and third group. The fourth group consisted of piglets administered orally with allicin at the dosage of 1.0 mg/kg body weight/day. At the age of 8 days of life all animals were sacrificed. Next to body weight gain and morphological properties of the gastrointestinal tract, the haematological examination was performed, and activity of lysozyme and ceruloplasmin as well as level of gamma-globulins were determined. The obtained results showed that AGE and allicin improved final body weight, morphological properties of intestine villi and non-specific defence mechanisms of pigs. All these results indicate that AGE and allicin induced beneficial effects on health status, performance and systemic development of piglets.

  2. The Role of Cell Surface Architecture of Lactobacilli in Host-Microbe Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Ranjita Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species can exert health promoting effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT through many mechanisms, which include pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Different species of the genus Lactobacillus can evoke different responses in the host, and not all strains of the same species can be considered beneficial. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of lactobacilli and the bacteria's ability to express certain surface components or secrete specific compounds in response to the host environment. Lactobacilli are known to modify their surface structures in response to stress factors such as bile and low pH, and these adaptations may help their survival in the face of harsh environmental conditions encountered in the GIT. In recent years, multiple cell surface-associated molecules have been implicated in the adherence of lactobacilli to the GIT lining, immunomodulation, and protective effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Identification of the relevant bacterial ligands and their host receptors is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lactobacilli exert their beneficial effects on human health.

  3. Size and dynamics of microplastic in gastrointestinal tracts of Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and Sooty Shearwaters (Ardenna grisea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terepocki, Alicia K; Brush, Alex T; Kleine, Lydia U; Shugart, Gary W; Hodum, Peter

    2017-03-15

    We found microplastic in 89.5% of 143 Northern Fulmars from 2008 to 2013 and 64% of 25 Sooty Shearwaters in 2011-2012 that were found dead or stranded on Oregon and Washington beaches. Average plastic loads were 19.5 pieces and 0.461g for fulmars and 13.3 pieces and 0.335g for shearwaters. Pre-manufactured plastic pellets accounted for 8.5% of fulmar and 33% of shearwater plastic pieces. In both species, plastic in proventriculi averaged 2-3mm larger in greatest dimension than in ventriculi. Intestinal plastic in fulmars averaged 1mm less in greatest dimension than ventricular plastic. There was no significant reduction in pieces or mass of plastic in 33 fulmars held for a median of seven days in a plastic-free environment. Three fulmars that survived to be released from rehabilitation regurgitated plastic, which provided an alternative outlet for elimination of plastic and requires reassessment of the dynamics of plastic in seabird gastrointestinal tracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BACTERIA IN CHICKEN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DETECTED BY REAL TIME PCR AFTER BEE POLLEN APPLICATION IN CHICKENS DIET

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pollen on the microbial colonization of chicken gastrointestinal tract. The pollen was administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts except of the control group. The addition of 50 mg pollen to 1 kg of feed was included in the first experimental group, the addition of 100 mg.kg−1 in the second experimental group, the addition of 200 mg.kg−1 the third experimental group (EG, 300 mg kg−1 in the fourth EG and 400 mg kg−1 in fifth EG. The highest count of faecal enterococci was found in the fourth experimental group (EG where 300 mg of pollen to 1 kg was added to feed mixture. The lower count of faecal enterococci was found in the first experimental group where 50 mg of pollen to 1 kg was added to feed mixture. The highest count of lactobacilli was found in the second and fifth experimental group where 100 g and 400 g of pollen to 1 kg were added to feed mixture. The lower count of lactobacilli was found in the first experimental group where 50 g of pollen to 1 kg was added to feed mixture.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake.

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    Timothy J Colston

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities.

  6. Effect of fasting on the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediack, Juan Gabriel; Funes, Samanta Celeste; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Filippa, Verónica; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2012-09-01

    Starvation is a condition that often affects animals in nature. The gastrointestinal tract is the organ system displaying the most rapid and dramatic changes in response to nutrient deprivation. To date, little is known about starvation phases and effects on the organ morphology and digestive function in small passerine birds. In this study, we determined the phases of starvation and examined the effect of final stage of starvation in the organ morphology and, intestinal histology and enzymatic function in the small intestine. Our results show the three phases of the classical model of fasting in a shorter period of time. The mass of heart, pancreas, stomach, small intestine and liver of long-term fasted birds was reduced between 20 and 47%. The mass decrease in small intestine was correlated with reduction in small intestinal histology: perimeter, mucosal thickness, villus height and width. In contrast, the enzyme activity of sucrase-isomaltase and aminopeptidase-N in enterocytes, all expressed per μg of protein, was higher in long-term fasted birds than fed animals. This suggest that, while autophagy of digestive organs is induced by starvation, consistent with phenotypic plasticity, the activity of sucrase-isomaltase and aminopeptidase-N remains high, probably as an anticipatory strategy to optimize digestion at re-feeding time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Localization of regulatory peptides in the gastrointestinal tract of the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (Mammalia: Cetacea). An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghini, C; Massoletti, P; Arrighi, S

    1997-01-01

    Samples of oesophagus, first, second and third stomach, duodenal ampulla, proximal intestine and distal intestine including rectum were obtained from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along Italian coasts, fixed in formalin and used for immunohistochemistry. The possible presence of neuropeptides and the biogenic amine serotonin was investigated by a labelled streptavidin-biotin method. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, substance P-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, metenkephalin-, gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)/bombesin-, and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities were present in the submucosal as well as the myenteric plexuses, even with differences of distribution in the various organs. Vasoactive intestinal poly-peptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity was detected in the submucosal plexus, whereas beta-endorphin- and leu-enkephalin-like immunoreactivities were shown in the myenteric plexus only. NPY-, substance P-, CGRP- and VIP-like-immunoreactivities were also observed in perivascular nerve fibres. In addition, VIP-, GRP- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities were detected in myelinated nervous bundles. These were localized in the submucosal and muscular layers all along the gastrointestinal tract, and possibly sustain an exceptionally rapid response of the target structures. It is note-worthy that peptidergic axons in the wall of the gut of the majority of mammals are unmyelinated. A somatostatin-like peptide was identified in epithelial cells only in the second stomach, whereas in terrestrial mammals this endocrine cell type occurs widely. Immunoreactivity to serotonin was never detected, and this is a further difference in comparison with the majority of other mammals.

  8. A Metagenomics Investigation of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Saudi Sheep

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    Bernard Henrissat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The digestive microbiota of humans and of a wide range of animals has recently become amenable to in-depth studies due to the emergence of DNA-based metagenomic techniques that do not require cultivation of gut microbes. These techniques are now commonly used to explore the feces of humans and animals under the assumption that such samples are faithful proxies for the intestinal microbiota. Sheep (Ovis aries are ruminant animals particularly adapted to life in arid regions and in particular Najdi, Noaimi (Awassi, and Harrei (Harri breeds that are raised in Saudi Arabia for milk and/or meat production. Here we report a metagenomics investigation of the distal digestive tract of one animal from each breed that (i examines the microbiota at three intestinal subsites (small intestine, mid-colon, and rectum, (ii performs an in-depth analysis of the carbohydrate-active enzymes genes encoded by the microbiota at the three subsites, and (iii compares the microbiota and carbohydrate-active enzyme profile at the three subsites across the different breeds. For all animals we found that the small intestine is characterized by a lower taxonomic diversity than that of the large intestine and of the rectal samples. Mirroring this observation, we also find that the spectrum of encoded carbohydrate-active enzymes of the mid-colon and rectal sites is much richer than that of the small intestine. However, the number of encoded cellulases and xylanases in the various intestinal subsites was found to be surprisingly low, indicating that the bulk of the fiber digestion is performed upstream in the rumen, and that the carbon source for the intestinal flora is probably constituted of the rumen fungi and bacteria that pass in the intestines. In consequence we argue that ruminant feces, which are often analyzed for the search of microbial genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, are probably a poor proxy for the lignocellulolytic potential of the host.

  9. Cisplatin-induced gastrointestinal dysmotility is aggravated after chronic administration in the rat. Comparison with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, P A; Vera, G; Martín-Fontelles, M I; Fernández-Pujol, R; Abalo, R

    2010-07-01

    Chemotherapy induces nausea/emesis and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Pica, the ingestion of non-nutritive substances, is considered as an indirect marker of nausea/emesis in non-vomiting species, like the rat. Cisplatin is the most emetogenic antitumoral drug. In the rat, acute cisplatin induces pica and gastric dysmotility in a temporally related manner, but the effects of chronic cisplatin are not well known. This study analyzed the effects of chronic cisplatin on pica and on gastrointestinal motor function in the rat, using radiographic, non-invasive methods. Rats received saline or cisplatin (1-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) once a week for four consecutive weeks. Serial X-rays were taken 0-8 h after administration of barium sulfate, which was given intragastrically immediately after the first and last cisplatin administrations and 1 week after treatment finalization. Pica (i.e., kaolin intake) was measured in isolated rats. Cisplatin delayed gastric emptying and induced acute (during the 24 h following each administration) pica. Upon chronic administration, these effects were exacerbated. In addition, basal kaolin intake was enhanced (facilitated) and gastric distension induced. Delayed gastric emptying and gastric distension were not apparent 1 week after treatment, but basal kaolin intake was still elevated. Whereas gastric dysmotility induced by cisplatin is parallel to the development of acute pica and might underlie facilitation of pica throughout chronic treatment, it does not explain its long-term maintenance. These findings should be taken into account in the search for new antiemetic strategies.

  10. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of Tachyoryctes splendens (Rüppell, 1835) and Heliophobius emini, (Noack, 1894) two species of East African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahd, Lauren; Pereira, Daniella L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2017-06-01

    Tachyoryctes splendens (Northeast African mole-rat) and Heliophobius emini (Emin's mole-rat) are two African mole-rats that represent separate allopatric rodent families namely Spalacidae and Bathyergidae respectively. While these species consume a similar diet of underground plant storage organs such as roots and tubers, T. splendens has been reported to additionally consume small amounts of aerial foliage. This study aims to provide detailed gross morphological and histological morphometric analyses of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these two subterranean species. The formalin fixed gastrointestinal tracts of T. splendens (n = 9) and H. emini (n = 6) were photographed, weighed and measured. The length and basal surface areas were calculated for each anatomically distinct region. Representative histological samples were prepared and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin. Microscopic luminal measurements were used to calculate a surface enlargement factor and the luminal surface area of each region. Tachyoryctes splendens had a large double chambered hemi-glandular stomach with a macroscopically visible transition from keratinized stratified squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium. The cecum was large and the luminal surface revealed a single spiral fold. The ascending colon of T. splendens was arranged in a spiral, with two centripetal and two centrifugal windings. The descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop, similar to H. emini. A narrow colonic groove was accompanied by V-shaped folds on either side. Heliophobius emini had a simple glandular stomach, a large, haustrated cecum that displayed a cecal appendix and the descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop. The internal aspect of the colon revealed a wide colonic groove extending from the ceco-colic junction to distal colon. As both species originate from a similar geographical region and ingest very similar diets, it is likely that the differences in the GIT

  11. Polyps in the gastrointestinal tract: discrepancy between endoscopic forceps biopsies and resected specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hye Young; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Se-Hyun; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Joon-Yeol; Park, Gyeong Sin; Kim, Jae Kwang; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-02-01

    An endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB) carries the risk of missing the neoplastic foci within a polyp as only a small portion of the lesion is sampled using this technique. Accordingly, the histological examination of specimens obtained by an EFB is of limited accuracy and patient management based on the histological findings is controversial. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the diagnostic concordance between an EFB and resected tissues of gastric and colon polyps. Between January 2006 and October 2007, 1312 gastrointestinal polyps from 896 patients were resected in our hospital. Patients with polyps of epithelial origin of at least 8 mm in diameter and not associated with polyposis syndromes were included in the study. Polyps of nonepithelial origin were excluded. One thousand two hundred and sixty-four polyps of epithelial origin [gastric polyps (n=268) and colon polyps (n=996)] obtained from 813 patients met the inclusion criteria. All patients underwent an EFB and resection of the polyp by endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection. Multiple polyps existed in 31.6% of the patients. The pathological diagnoses of resected gastric polyps were as follows: adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 46 (17.2%); adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, 42 (15.7%); hyperplastic polyps, 126 (47.0%); chronic inflammatory polyps, 29 (10.8%); and adenocarcinomas, 25 (9.3%). The discrepancy rate between an EFB and the pathology of the resected gastric polyps was 39.2% (the Kendall's tau-b and the kappa coefficient for agreement between the EFB and resected specimens of gastric polyps were 0.577 and 0.472, respectively; P value polyp and the concordance rate was observed. The pathological diagnoses of the resected colon polyps were as follows: adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 559 (56.1%); adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, 229 (23.0%); hyperplastic polyps, 44 (4.4%); adenocarcinomas, 53 (5.3%); and inflammatory polyps, 111 (11.1%). The discrepancy

  12. Extended depth of focus tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Barry; Yin, Biwei; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Liang, Chia Pin; Beatty, Matthew; Singh, Kanwarpal; Dong, Jing; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Endoscopy, the current standard of care for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, is not ideal as a screening tool because it is costly, necessitates a team of medically trained personnel, and typically requires that the patient be sedated. Endoscopy is also a superficial macroscopic imaging modality and therefore is unable to provide detailed information on subsurface microscopic structure that is required to render a precise tissue diagnosis. We have overcome these limitations through the development of an optical coherence tomography tethered capsule endomicroscopy (OCT-TCE) imaging device. The OCT-TCE device has a pill-like form factor with an optically clear wall to allow the contained opto-mechanical components to scan the OCT beam along the circumference of the esophagus. Once swallowed, the OCT-TCE device traverses the esophagus naturally via peristalsis and multiple cross-sectional OCT images are obtained at 30-40 μm lateral resolution by 7 μm axial resolution. While this spatial resolution enables differentiation of squamous vs columnar mucosa, crucial microstructural features such as goblet cells ( 10 μm), which signify intestinal metaplasia in BE, and enlarged nuclei that are indicative of dysplasia cannot be resolved with the current OCT-TCE technology. In this work we demonstrate a novel design of a high lateral resolution OCT-TCE device with an extended depth of focus (EDOF). The EDOF is created by use of self-imaging wavefront division multiplexing that produces multiple focused modes at different depths into the sample. The overall size of the EDOF TCE is similar to that of the previous OCT-TCE device ( 11 mm by 26 mm) but with a lateral resolution of 8 μm over a depth range of 2 mm. Preliminary esophageal and intestinal imaging using these EDOF optics demonstrates an improvement in the ability to resolve tissue morphology including individual glands and cells. These results suggest that the use of EDOF optics may be a

  13. Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several studies have evaluated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but so far no studies have specifically evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-FNAB in upper gastrointestinal tract......% in esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer, respectively. The staging-related clinical impact was similar for all three types of cancer (11-12.5%), whereas the diagnosis-related impact was highest in pancreatic cancer patients (86%). EUS-FNAB was inadequate in 13% and gave false-negative results in 5......%. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for EUS-FNAB were 80%, 78% and 80%, respectively. No complications related to the biopsy procedure were seen. CONCLUSIONS: If EUS-FNAB was performed only in cases where a positive malignant result would change patient management, then approximately one out...

  14. Endometriose do trato gastrintestinal: correlações clínicas e laparoscópicas Endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract: clinical and laparoscopic correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, quarenta pacientes selecionadas com endometriose pélvica e utilizando do método videolaparoscópico de corrida dos órgãos peritoneais na endometriose (COPE, puderam verificar se suas queixas encontram-se correlacionadas aos achados de lesões no trato gastrintestinal. O estudo avaliou 21 pacientes com e 19 pacientes sem sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais, visando estabelecer: associações e correlações entre os parâmetros clínicos que sinalizam a presença de focos endometrióticos e as localizações das lesões em cada segmento do trato gastrintestinal (TGI e a correlação entre o estadiamento da endometriose (ASRM, 1996 e o comprometimento intestinal. A pesquisa atestou, de modo significativo, a correlação entre a presença dos sintomas gastrintestinais em conseqüência das lesões no trato gastrintestinal. Os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais significativamente relacionados com a presença de endometriose ginecológica localizada no segmento retossigmóide e/ou íleo e com comprometimento do trato gastrintestinal foram: o puxo e o tenesmo cíclico, dor em cólica cíclica, obstipação cíclica, diarréia cíclica, dor acíclica, fezes afiladas e o sangramento intestinal cíclico. O estádio IV (ASRM correlacionou-se com a presença de endometriose no trato gastrintestinal. O presente estudo demonstrou a correlação positiva dos sinais e sintomas gastrointestinais e ginecológicos e o estadiamento da doença ginecológica com o comprometimento gastrointestinal pela doença.The peritoneal organs of 40 patients with pelvic endometriosis were scanned for endometriosis in this study by the videolaparoscopic method to verify the relation of their complaints with lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty one of these patients who had gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and 19 who did not, were evaluated in order to establish associations and correlations between clinical parameters pointing to endometriotic

  15. Effect of a Fermented Yeast Product on the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbial Diversity of Weaned Pigs Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium Dt104

    OpenAIRE

    Totty, Heather Renae

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microorganisms play important roles in animal health, including providing energy and vitamins, improving the host immune response and preventing pathogenic microorganisms from colonizing. Prebiotic feed supplementation offers an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters by stimulating key populations of the GIT bacteria that can ferment these non-digestible compounds, producing various short chain fatty acids used by the animal. The objective of this study wa...

  16. Effects of dietary fibers with high water-binding capacity and swelling capacity on gastrointestinal functions, food intake and body weight in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Peng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of dietary soluble fibers with high water-binding capacity (WBC) and swelling capacity (SC) on gastrointestinal tract mass, physicochemical properties of digesta, gastrointestinal mean retention time (MRT), body weight, and food intake in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch plus guar gum (PWMS+GG), andPWMS plus xanthan gum (PWMS+XG) for three weeks. Results: WBC and SC of diets followed the order of PWMS+GG > KF > PWMS + XG > control. PWMS+GG and KF groups had a lower average daily food intake than the control group, but all the groups showed no difference in final body weightand the weight gain rate. The high WBC and SC of the PWMS+GG and KF groupsled to an increase of WBC and SC in the stomach digesta, and a gain of the cecal digesta weight, due to increased cecal moisture content. Conclusion: The inclusion of the novel fiber, PWMS+GG, in the diet of male rats appears to facilitate the modulation of WBC and SC of stomach digesta and the reduction of food intake.

  17. Pathogenic potential of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 following sequential passage through soil, packaged fresh-cut lettuce and a model gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcia; Wijnands, Lucas; Abadias, Maribel; Aarts, Henk; Franz, Eelco

    2011-08-15

    From a quantitative microbial risk assessment perspective it is important to know whether certain food environments influence the pathogenic potential of pathogens and to what extent. The purpose of the present study was to examine the pathogenic potential of S. Typhimurium DT104, measured as the capability to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract system and the capability of adhering to and invading differentiated Caco-2 cells, after sequential incubation (without intermediate culturing) into soil, lettuce and cut lettuce stored under modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions. Two S. Typhimurium DT104 strains were used, one isolated from a pig carcass and one isolated from lettuce. The most important result of the present study is that the sequential incubation of S. Typhimurium in soil and lettuce slightly increased the capability of surviving the simulated gastric fluid, increased the capability to grow in the simulated intestinal fluid but decreased the capability of epithelial attachment and invasion and decreased the overall survival probability of the gastrointestinal tract system. Some variation in responses between the strains was observed, with the lettuce strain maintaining higher epithelial attachment capability and the carcass strains maintaining higher epithelial invasion capability. This study provided quantitative data on the effect of environmental and food matrices on the pathogenic potential of S. Typhimurium DT104 using a realistic system of sequential incubations in environmental and food matrices, followed by simulated gastrointestinal tract passage without intermediate culturing. These results could aid the development of more realistic quantitative microbial risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. administration on the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babińska, I; Rotkiewicz, T; Otrocka-Domagała, I

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of administration of probiotic bacteria on morphology of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas. The experiment was performed on 15 piglets at the age from 3 to 35 days, intragastrically administered with Bifidobacterium breve, B. animalis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. In all piglets examined, the development of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas was observed to progress normally. After microflora administration to the piglets, an increase in the number of fibrocytes and fibroblasts was observed in the mucosa lamina propria of stomach and intestines. An increase was also reported in the number and activation of endocrine cells in the stomach and small intestines. The activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases, as well as succinic (SDH) and lactic (LDH) dehydrogenases, was found to be higher after the administration of probiotics. The administration of bacteria, especially of Lactobacillus acidophilus, caused an increase in the number of lymphocytes and lymphoid cells in lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestine. Enhanced proliferation of crypt cells was observed in the crypts of intestinal glands; however, there were no statistically significant differences in the PCNA index between the control and probiotic-administered groups. The performed study showed that the administration of probiotic bacteria has no negative impact on the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas and is found beneficial to its functioning and immune processes.

  19. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  20. Evaluation of gastrointestinal tract transit times using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres and barium sulfate suspension in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E

    2010-03-01

    Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.