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Sample records for rat fleas xenopsylla

  1. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii.

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    Eremeeva, Marina E; Warashina, Wesley R; Sturgeon, Michele M; Buchholz, Arlene E; Olmsted, Gregory K; Park, Sarah Y; Effler, Paul V; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2008-10-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  2. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii

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    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Warashina, Wesley R.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Olmsted, Gregory K.; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  3. Present susceptibility status of rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), vector of plague against organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids 1. The Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Shyamal, Biswas; Ravi Kumar, R; Sohan, Lal; Balakrishnan, N; Veena, Mittal; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.

  4. Genetic structure and gene flow of the flea Xenopsylla cheopis in Madagascar and Mayotte.

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    Harimalala, Mireille; Telfer, Sandra; Delatte, Hélène; Watts, Phillip C; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Ramihangihajason, Tojo Rindra; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-20

    The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers. Madagascan populations of X. cheopis differed, with the mean number of alleles per locus per population ranging from 1.78 to 4.44 and with moderate to high levels of genetic differentiation between populations. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, with different geographical distributions but with some apparent gene flow between both islands and within Malagasy regions. The approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) used to test the predominant direction of flea dispersal implied a recent population introduction from Mayotte to Madagascar, which was estimated to have occurred between 1993 and 2012. The impact of this flea introduction in terms of plague transmission in Madagascar is unclear, but the low level of flea exchange between the two islands seems to keep Mayotte free of plague for now. This study highlights the occurrence of genetic structure among populations of the flea vector of plague, X. cheopis, in Madagascar and suggests that a flea population from Mayotte has been introduced to Madagascar recently. As plague has not been reported in Mayotte, this introduction is unlikely to present a major concern for plague transmission. Nonetheless, evidence of connectivity among flea populations in the two islands indicates a possibility for dispersal by fleas in the opposite direction and thus a risk of plague introduction to Mayotte.

  5. Comparative Ability of Oropsylla montana and Xenopsylla cheopis Fleas to Transmit Yersinia pestis by Two Different Mechanisms.

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    B Joseph Hinnebusch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site. In this study, we compared the relative efficiency of the two modes of transmission for Xenopsylla cheopis, a flea known to become completely blocked at a high rate, and Oropsylla montana, a flea that has been considered to rarely develop proventricular blockage.Fleas that took an infectious blood meal containing Y. pestis were maintained and monitored for four weeks for infection and proventricular blockage. The number of Y. pestis transmitted by groups of fleas by the two modes of transmission was also determined. O. montana readily developed complete proventricular blockage, and large numbers of Y. pestis were transmitted by that mechanism both by it and by X. cheopis, a flea known to block at a high rate. In contrast, few bacteria were transmitted in the early phase by either species.A model system incorporating standardized experimental conditions and viability controls was developed to more reliably compare the infection, proventricular blockage and transmission dynamics of different flea vectors, and was used to resolve a long-standing uncertainty concerning the vector competence of O. montana. Both X. cheopis and O. montana are fully capable of transmitting Y. pestis by the proventricular biofilm-dependent mechanism.

  6. Transmission efficiency of the plague pathogen (Y. pestis) by the flea, Xenopsylla skrjabini, to mice and great gerbils.

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    Zhang, Yujiang; Dai, Xiang; Wang, Qiguo; Chen, Hongjian; Meng, Weiwei; Wu, Kemei; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xinhui; Rehemu, Azhati; Guo, Rong; Yu, Xiaotao; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli; Song, Yajun

    2015-05-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, is characterized by its ability to persist in the plague natural foci. Junggar Basin plague focus was recently identified in China, with Rhombomys opimus (great gerbils) and Xenopsylla skrjabini as the main reservoir and vector for plague. No transmission efficiency data of X. skrjabini for Y. pestis is available till now. In this study, we estimated the median infectious dose (ID50) and the blockage rates of X. skrjabini with Y. pestis, by using artificial feeders. We then evaluated the flea transmission ability of Y. pestis to the mice and great gerbils via artificial bloodmeal feeding. Finally, we investigated the transmission of Y. pestis to mice with fleas fed by infected great gerbils. ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was estimated as 2.04 × 10(5) CFU (95% CI, 1.45 × 10(5) - 3.18 × 10(5) CFU), around 40 times higher than that of X. cheopis. Although fleas fed by higher bacteremia bloodmeal had higher infection rates for Y. pestis, they lived significantly shorter than their counterparts. X. skrjabini could get fully blocked as early as day 3 post of infection (7.1%, 3/42 fleas), and the overall blockage rate of X. cheopis was estimated as 14.9% (82/550 fleas) during the 14 days of investigation. For the fleas infected by artificial feeders, they seemed to transmit plague more efficiently to great gerbils than mice. Our single flea transmission experiments also revealed that, the transmission capacity of naturally infected fleas (fed by infected great gerbils) was significantly higher than that of artificially infected ones (fed by artificial feeders). Our results indicated that ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was higher than other fleas like X. cheopis, and its transmission efficiency to mice might be lower than other flea vectors in the artificial feeding modes. We also found different transmission potentials in the artificially infected fleas and the naturally infected ones. Further studies are

  7. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar.

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    Kreppel, Katharina S; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia, the Americas but mainly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague is transmitted predominantly by two flea species which coexist on the island, but differ in their distribution. The endemic flea, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, dominates flea communities on rats caught outdoors, while the cosmopolitan flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is found mostly on rats caught in houses. Additionally S. fonquerniei seems restricted to areas above 800 m. Climatic constraints on the development of the two main vectors of plague could explain the differences in their distribution and the seasonal changes in their abundance. Here we present the first study on effects of temperature and relative humidity on the immature stages of both vector species. We examined the two species' temperature and humidity requirements under experimental conditions at five different temperatures and two relative humidities. By employing multivariate and survival analysis we established the impact of temperature and relative humidity on development times and survival for both species. Using degree-day analysis we then predicted the average developmental threshold for larvae to reach pupation and for pupae to complete development under each treatment. This analysis was undertaken separately for the two relative humidities and for the two species. Development times and time to death differed significantly, with the endemic S. fonquerniei taking on average 1.79 times longer to complete development and having a shorter time to death than X. cheopis under adverse conditions with high temperature and low humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on the development times of flea larvae and pupae. While humidity did not affect the development times of either species, it did influence the time of death of S. fonquerniei. Using degree-day analysis we estimated an

  8. [Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Xenopsyllinae), fleas in rural plague areas of high altitude Madagascar: level of sensitivity to DDT, pyrethroids and carbamates after 50 years of chemical vector control].

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    Ratovonjato, J; Duchemin, J B; Duplantier, J M; Chanteau, S

    2000-01-01

    The resistance of Xenopsylla cheopis from urban area to pyrethroids, to DDT, and their susceptibility to carbamate are known. We have evaluated the susceptibility of X. cheopis collected from three rural localities: Ambodisiarivo (district of Antananarivo Avaradrano), Mandoto (district of Betafo), Analaroa (district of Anjozorobe) in the province of Antananarivo and in Besoa (district of Ambalavao) in the province of Fianarantsoa. The standard WHO protocol was used and four insecticides were tested: deltamethrin 0.025%, cyfluthrin 0.15% (pyrethroids), DDT 4% (organochlorine), propoxur 1% and bendiocarb 0.1% (carbamate). X. cheopis has been shown resistance to DDT 4%, to deltamethrin 0.025% but was susceptible in the rural area around Antananarivo City. They were tolerant to deltamethrin 0.025% and cyfluthrin 0.15% but susceptible to propoxur 0.1% and bendiocarbe 1% in the districts of Betafo and Anjozorobe. In Besoa, X. cheopis was resistant to DDT 4%, tolerant to deltamethrin 0.025% and cyfluthrin 0.15% but susceptible to propoxur 0.1% and bendiocarbe 1%. These results indicate that DDT and pyrethroids can not be recommended any more for the vector control in the rural area around the capital. The use of pyrethroids in the other districts of the central highland must be joined with a X. cheopis susceptibility control. In case of resistance to pyrethroids, carbamates would be proposed to control plague vector in the rural area. The high level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroid in the rural area around the capital confirms the importance of studying the flea population in different area of Madagascar and the possibility of the gene resistance propagation.

  9. EKTOPARASIT (FLEAS PADA RESERVOIR DI DAERAH FOKUS PEST DI KABUPATEN BOYOLALI PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRat is a rodent (rodensia which cannot be separated from parasitic organism attacks the ectoparasites(fleas. In the presence of fleas plague focus areas need to watch out, for no increase in cases of plague(outbreak. Pest is a zoonosis in rat that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of fleas Xenopsyllacheopsis containing Yersinia pestis. Boyolali District is one of the plague focus areas in Central Java. Thisstudy aims to identify the species of rats and fleas, trap succes, flea infestation in rats and flea index as anindicator of vulnerability to transmission of plague. The study is a descriptive survey with cross sectionaldesign. The population is all the rats and fleas in Boyolali district. Samples are rats and fleas that werecaught using live trap with coconut roasted and salted fish is placed inside and outside the home (each 2trap. Rat combed for fleas. The results showed the number of mouses caught were 245. There are 4 speciesrats and small mammals found in R. tanezumi, R. tiomanicus, R. exulans, N. fulvescens and S.murinus withsucces trap at 5.71%. Only 3 species and S.murinus of infected fleas. Species of flea is X. cheopis and S.cognatus. Specific flea index: Xenopsylla cheopis by 1.67; flea index cognatus Stavilus common flea indexof 0.88 and 2.55. Based on the warning system indicator about the bubonic plague spreading,which isspecific flea index of X.cheopis >1 and fleas index >2, Selo sub distric should be aware to the spreading ofbubonic plague in its area, so that it is important to carry out the controlling of rat and flea population.Keyword: ectoparasite, reservoir, fleas, plague. ABSTRAK Tikus adalah hewan mengerat (rodensiayang tidak lepas dari serangan organisme parasit yaitu ektoparasit (pinjal.Pada daerah fokus pestt keberadaan pinjal perlu diwaspadai,agar tidak terjadi peningkatan kasus pestt (KLB. Pest merupakan zoonosispada tikusyang dapat ditularkan kepada manusia melalui gigitan pinjal Xenopsylla

  10. [The history of the flea in art and literature].

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    Roncalli Amici, R

    2004-06-01

    The flea has been, indirectly, one of the protagonists in the history of man. As one of the two vectors of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agents of the Black Death, the flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) has contributed, over the centuries, to the death of millions of people in many countries. Galileo Galilei was the first to observe the flea with a microscope (1624), but the credit of depicting it with a stunning drawing goes to the Britisher Robert Hooke in 1665. A number of zoologists, including Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek and Diacinto Cestoni, well described and illustrated the life cycle of the flea in the XVII century. Some of these reports inspired scholars such as J. Swift and J. Donne for the composition of classic poems. Also, the flea, alone and with its hosts, has inspired a number of artists to create fine paintings; among them: G. M. Crespi, G. B. Piazzetta, G. de la Tour and others. Colorful sonnets on the flea in the Roman dialect were written by G. Belli and Trilussa. The flea also, as a theme, inspired musicians such as G. F. Ghedini and M. Mussorgsky, play writers such as Feydeau and moviemakers such as Charlie Chaplin. The flea is, indissolubly, connected with the history of Black Death. This disease in man is, in fact, caused--as demonstrated by Yersin and Simond--by the triad: bacterium (Yersinia pestis)/rat/flea (Xenopsylla cheopis). Over the centuries, Black Death has had a deep impact on both the visual arts and literature and, as a result, a very large number of paintings and other works of art have been produced to remember these tragic episodes. In the field of literature, Black Death has been skillfully described by writers such as Boccaccio, Manzoni and Camus. Finally, in recent years, following the discovery of the existence of a large market for the control of fleas in small animals, the interest in this minute insect has been resurrected and, parallel to that, the rebirth of the flea iconography, through electromicroscopy, has also taken place.

  11. Xenopsylla cheopis record as natural intermediate host of Hymenolepis diminuta in Lima, Peru Registro de Xenopsylla cheopis como hospedero intermediario natural de Hymenolepis diminuta en Lima, Perú

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    Inés Gárate

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the role of rat fleas in the life cycle of Hymenolepis diminuta, between November 2009 and March 2010, 27 rats were captured in Cercado de Lima and their ectoparasites were examinated, using standard parasitological procedures. In examined rats, 22 (81.5% were infected with the parasite H. diminuta, 85,2% were infested with siphonapters of the species Xenopsylla cheopis. Of the 158 fleas that were found, 12% housed cysticercoids in its hemocoel, which were inoculated into albino rats of Holtzman strain, and then developed to adult stage of Hymenolepis diminuta. The results of this study are conclusive and constitute the first record of the role of X. cheopis as natural intermediate host in Peru, making it necessary to reconsider the risk factors and preventive measures.Con el objetivo de determinar el rol de las pulgas de las ratas en el ciclo biológico de Hymenolepis diminuta, entre noviembre del 2009 y marzo del 2010, se capturaron 27 ratas del Cercado de Lima y examinaron sus ectoparásitos, empleando los procedimientos parasitológicos estándares. De las ratas examinadas, 22 (81,5% de las ratas examinadas estuvieron infectadas con el parásito H. diminuta, el 85,2% de ratas estuvo infestado por sifonápteros de la especie Xenopsylla cheopis. De las 158 pulgas encontradas, el 12% albergaba cisticercoides en su hemocele, los que al ser inoculados en ratas albinas de la cepa Holtzman, desarrollaron hasta el estadio de adultos de la especie Hymenolepis diminuta. Los resultados del presente trabajo son concluyentes y constituyen el primer registro del rol de X. cheopis como hospedero intermediario natural en Perú, por lo que es necesario reconsiderar los factores de riesgo y las medidas de prevención.

  12. A confirmed case of DDT-resistance in Xenopsylla cheopis in India.

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    PATEL, T B; BHATIA, S C; DEOBHANKAR, R B

    1960-01-01

    The authors describe a technique, developed in their laboratory at Poona, Bombay State, for estimating the susceptibility of the oriental rat-flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, to insecticides. Using this technique, they compared the susceptibility to DDT, gamma-BHC and dieldrin of a field population of X. cheopis from a locality in Poona District which had been sprayed with DDT 28 times, with that of a similar population from a locality in North Satara District which had been sprayed only three times. The Poona strain proved to be highly resistant to DDT and moderately resistant to BHC, which has never been used in Poona District, but remained susceptible to dieldrin, although slightly less so than the Satara strain. The authors consider this a clear-cut case of the development of physiological resistance as a result of continued DDT spraying, and suggest that the rat-fleas in any area where DDT has been used on a large scale for disease control should be tested regularly for susceptibility so that, in the event of an outbreak of plague, the insecticide most likely to destroy the vector could be applied from the outset.

  13. Poor vector competence of fleas and the evolution of hypervirulence in Yersinia pestis.

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    Lorange, Ellen A; Race, Brent L; Sebbane, Florent; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Population genetics and comparative genomics analyses of the pathogenic Yersinia species have indicated that arthropodborne transmission is an evolutionarily recent adaptation in Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague. We show that the infectivity of Y. pestis to its most proficient vector, the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, and subsequent transmission efficiency are both low. The poor vector competence of fleas likely imposed selective pressure that favored the emergence and continued maintenance of a hypervirulent Y. pestis clone. In particular, the rapidly fatal gram-negative sepsis that typifies plague is a consequence of the high threshold bacteremia level that must be attained to complete the transmission cycle. Epidemiological modeling predicts that, to compensate for a relatively short period of infectivity of the mammalian host for the arthropod vector, plague epizootics require a high flea burden per host, even when the susceptible host population density is high.

  14. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia Asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya

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    Jiang, J.; Maina, A.N; Knobel, D.L.; Cleaveland, S.; Laudisoit, A.; Wamburu, K.; Ogola, E.; Parola, P.; Breiman, R.F.; Njenga, M.K.; Richards, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenoc...

  15. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar.

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    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae, to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%: only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down and KD90 (90% Knock-Down times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.

  16. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the

  17. Effectiveness of Fipronil as a Systemic Control Agent Against Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Madagascar.

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    Rajonhson, D M; Miarinjara, A; Rahelinirina, S; Rajerison, M; Boyer, S

    2017-03-01

    Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X. cheopis was fed and 2) rodent hosts, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and Rattus rattus (L.), which fed on fipronil-treated bait. As a standardized control method, the susceptibility of X. cheopis to fipronil was evaluated by exposure to impregnated paper within World Health Organization (WHO) insecticide test protocol to compare its effect to the systemic activity of the studied insecticide. Results showed that when administered in a systemic way, fipronil appears to be more effective: the toxicity level was evaluated to be ninefold higher compared with the WHO test. Compared with other methods, which require indiscriminate dusting of rodent burrows and human dwellings, fipronil applied in a systemic way enables the direct targeting of the plague vector. Thus, this method appears to be a superior alternative to fipronil-dusting for the control of the main plague vector in Madagascar. However, subsequent tests in the field are necessary to confirm the suitability of fipronil administration in a systemic way on large scales. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fleas and flea control

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    Dautović Živomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fleas as hemeatophagous arthropodes take part in the spreading of certain diseases such as bubonic plague, murine typhus, tick-borne typhus tularaemia, or can be transitory hosts for certain species of cestodes for dogs and cats. Depending on the type of host on which fleas persist and the habitat, measures that can be taken to control them can be only sanitary-hygiene, individual, or treatment of the habitat. Sanitary-hygiene measures mostly consist of regular cleaning. Individual protection implies the use of insecticides for re-impregnating clothing, spraying clothing and the use of repellents. Treatment of habitats comprises the use of insecticides of the group of organophosphates, metyl-carbamates, pyrethroids and organo-chlorine compounds, instruments for dusting and spraying. In addition to these compounds, preparations based on imidaclopride, fipronyl and inhibitors of insect growth (IGRs and development (IDIs are also used. Flea control in household pets is implemented using measures of individual protection and treatment of their habitats.

  19. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

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    Adélaïde Miarinjara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines. Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur. Only one insecticide (dieldrin was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  20. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

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    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  1. Host gender and offspring quality in a flea parasitic on a rodent.

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    Khokhlova, Irina S; Serobyan, Vahan; Degen, A Allan; Krasnov, Boris R

    2010-10-01

    The quality of offspring produced by parent fleas (Xenopsylla ramesis) fed on either male or female rodent hosts (Meriones crassus) was studied. The emergence success, duration of development, resistance to starvation upon emergence and body size of the flea offspring were measured. It was predicted that offspring of fleas produced by parents that fed on male hosts (i) will survive better as pre-imago, (ii) will develop faster, (iii) will live longer under starvation after emergence and (iv) will be larger than offspring of fleas fed on female hosts. The emergence success of pre-imaginal fleas was relatively high, ranging from 46.9% to 100.0% and averaging 78.4±3.0%, and was not affected by host gender. The duration of development of pre-imaginal fleas depended on the gender of the host of parents and differed between male and female offspring, with female fleas developing faster. Furthermore, male fleas developed faster if their parents fed on female rather than on male hosts, whereas no difference in the duration of development between host genders was found in female fleas. The time to death under starvation did not depend on the gender of either the flea or the host. A newly emerged flea, on average, lived 31.9±1.0 days without access to food. The relationship between host gender and body size of male flea offspring was the only effect that supported the predictions. An increase in body size in male fleas could increase their mating success and, ultimately, their fitness.

  2. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  3. Morphological asymmetry and habitat quality: using fleas and their rodent hosts as a novel experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-04-01

    Morphological asymmetry is widely used to measure developmental instability and higher levels of asymmetry often correlate with decreased mating success, increased inbreeding, increased stress and decreased habitat quality. We studied asymmetry and relationships between asymmetry and host identity in two flea species, host generalist Xenopsylla ramesis and host specialist Parapulex chephrenis , and asked: (1) what the level of asymmetry was in their femurs and tibiae; (2) which type of asymmetry predominates; and (3) whether fleas that fed on host species distantly related to their principal host species produced offspring that exhibited greater asymmetry compared with offspring of fleas that fed on their principal host species. We found fluctuating asymmetry in femurs and tibiae of X. ramesis and in the tibiae of P. chephrenis as well as significantly left-handed directional asymmetry in the femurs of P. chephrenis Host species identity significantly impacted asymmetry in leg segments of P. chephrenis but not in those of X. ramesis Offspring asymmetry increased when mother fleas fed on a host that was distantly related to the principal host. Fleas parasitizing multiple host species might compensate for developmental instability when utilizing a novel host species; therefore, host-switching events in host-specific parasites could be constrained by the relatedness between a novel and a principal host species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Abiotic factors influencing the ecology of wild rabbit fleas in north-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osacar-Jimenez, J J; Lucientes-Curdi, J; Calvete-Margolle, C

    2001-06-01

    During 1992, the population dynamics of rabbit fleas were compared at two sites in north-eastern Spain. The sites differed mainly in terms of annual rainfall and soil type. All flea species showed seasonal cycles of abundance, although peaks in numbers occurred at different times, reflecting their specific adaptations for coping with climatic variables. Adult Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were found largely parasitizing rabbits in spring and adult Caenopsylla laptevi (Beaucournu etal.) (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in the autumn. In contrast, monthly flea indices of Xenopsylla cunicularis (Smit) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and Echidnophaga iberica (Ribeiro et al.) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) peaked in summer. Spilopsyllus cuniculi was present at both sites, but was less common on the drier site, where monthly mean temperature and annual rainfall approached the flea's physiological limits. By contrast, E. iberica, X. cunicularis and C. laptevi, known to be better adapted for dryness, showed the opposite patterns of abundance. Nevertheless, even these arid-adapted species took advantage of the milder and wetter spring (X. cunicularis and E. iberica) or autumn (C. laptevi) for breeding and larval development. Although environmental temperature, rainfall and soil texture will influence the microclimate of the burrows where the flea larvae develop, burrow humidity seems to be more dependent on soil characteristics and past rainfall rather than the humidity of the external air.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Host Immune Status on Short-Term Yersinia pestis Infection in Fleas With Implications for the Enzootic Host Model for Maintenance of Y. pestis During Interepizootic Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAHAM, CHRISTINE B.; WOODS, MICHAEL E.; VETTER, SARA M.; PETERSEN, JEANNINE M.; MONTENIERI, JOHN A.; HOLMES, JENNIFER L.; MAES, SARAH E.; BEARDEN, SCOTT W.; GAGE, KENNETH L.; EISEN, REBECCA J.

    2015-01-01

    Plague, a primarily flea-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis, is characterized by rapidly spreading epizootics separated by periods of quiescence. Little is known about how and where Y. pestis persists between epizootics. It is commonly proposed, however, that Y. pestis is maintained during interepizootic periods in enzootic cycles involving flea vectors and relatively resistant host populations. According to this model, while susceptible individuals serve as infectious sources for feeding fleas and subsequently die of infection, resistant hosts survive infection, develop antibodies to the plague bacterium, and continue to provide bloodmeals to infected fleas. For Y. pestis to persist under this scenario, fleas must remain infected after feeding on hosts carrying antibodies to Y. pestis. Studies of other vector-borne pathogens suggest that host immunity may negatively impact pathogen survival in the vector. Here, we report infection rates and bacterial loads for fleas (both Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild) and Oropsylla montana (Baker)) that consumed an infectious bloodmeal and subsequently fed on an immunized or age-matched naive mouse. We demonstrate that neither the proportion of infected fleas nor the bacterial loads in infected fleas were significantly lower within 3 d of feeding on immunized versus naive mice. Our findings thus provide support for one assumption underlying the enzootic host model of interepizootic maintenance of Y. pestis. PMID:25276941

  6. Transit through the flea vector induces a pretransmission innate immunity resistance phenotype in Yersinia pestis.

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    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is transmitted to mammals by infected fleas. Y. pestis exhibits a distinct life stage in the flea, where it grows in the form of a cohesive biofilm that promotes transmission. After transmission, the temperature shift to 37 degrees C induces many known virulence factors of Y. pestis that confer resistance to innate immunity. These factors are not produced in the low-temperature environment of the flea, however, suggesting that Y. pestis is vulnerable to the initial encounter with innate immune cells at the flea bite site. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare the Y. pestis in vivo transcriptome in infective fleas to in vitro transcriptomes in temperature-matched biofilm and planktonic cultures, and to the previously characterized in vivo gene expression profile in the rat bubo. In addition to genes involved in metabolic adaptation to the flea gut and biofilm formation, several genes with known or predicted roles in resistance to innate immunity and pathogenicity in the mammal were upregulated in the flea. Y. pestis from infected fleas were more resistant to phagocytosis by macrophages than in vitro-grown bacteria, in part attributable to a cluster of insecticidal-like toxin genes that were highly expressed only in the flea. Our results suggest that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host.

  7. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Genelle F; Scheirer, Jessica L; Melanson, Vanessa R

    2015-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

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    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  10. Potential Roles of Pigs, Small Ruminants, Rodents, and Their Flea Vectors in Plague Epidemiology in Sinda District, Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Stanley S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Kangwa, Henry L; Mulenga, Evans; Moonga, Ladslav

    2017-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern part of Zambia that previously reported a plague outbreak. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of pigs, goats, and sheep as sero-surveillance hosts for monitoring plague, and to investigate the flea vectors and potential reservoir hosts to establish the current status of plague endemicity in the district. Serum samples were collected from 96 rodents, 10 shrews, 245 domestic pigs, 232 goats, and 31 sheep, whereas 106 organs were eviscerated from rodents and shrews. As for fleas, 1,064 Echidnophaga larina Jordan & Rothschild, 7 Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), and 382 Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) were collected from these animals in 34 villages. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests were performed on serum, and organs and fleas to determine IgG antibodies against Fraction 1 antigen and pla gene of Yersinia pestis, respectively. ELISA results showed that 2.83% (95% CI = 0.59-8.05) rodents, 9.0% (95% CI = 5.71-13.28) domestic pigs, 4.7% (95% CI = 2.39-8.33) goats, and 3.2% (95% CI = 0.08-16.70) sheep were positive for IgG antibodies against Fra1 antigen of Y. pestis. On PCR, 8.4% (95% CI = 3.96-15.51) of the rodents were detected with Y. pestis pla gene, whereas all fleas were found negative. The common fleas identified were E. larina from pigs, whereas X. cheopis were the only fleas collected from rodents. The presence of sero-positive animals as well as the occurrence of X. cheopis on local rodents suggests that Y. pestis remains a risk in the district. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Hey! A Flea Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Flea Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Flea Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit ...

  12. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N; Knobel, Darryn L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2013-08-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1 pool

  13. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos em Rattus Norvegicus norvegicus Ectoparasites in rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Fleas, anoplura and acari indices in Rattus norvegicus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marcos Linardi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos, globais e específicos foram determinados para os ectoparasitos de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capturados em zona urbana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de junho de 1980 a setembro de 1982. Tendo-se em vista os valores limites ou críticos atribuídos aos índices pulicidianos, sobretudo ao índice "cheopis" e propostos por diversos autores como medida complementar de vigilância epidemiológica para peste bubônica, a comunidade de Belo Horizonte poderia ter estado exposta a esta infecção, uma vez que os índices globais anuais de 0,3 a 2,4 e a pulga prevalente foi Xenopsylla cheopis (99,2%, com os maiores índices coincidindo com o final da estação seca-fria. Em duas ocasiões, a comunidade poderia ter permanecido altamente exposta à infecção, já que os índices-limites tolerados foram suplantados: 8,8 (outubro 1980 e 6,2 (setembro 1982. Sugere-se que medidas profiláticas como anti-ratização e desinsetização sejam eficazmente aplicadas ao final da estação seca-fria, ou anteriormente à chegada das chuvas, sendo sucedidas pela desratização. Informações sobre índices anoplurianos e acarianos são importantes para que se possa, no exclusivas de roedoresThe total and specific indices of fleas, lice and mites were determined for ectoparasites on Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capture in urban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas state, Brazil, from June 1980 to September 1982. In view of the limiting or critical values attributed to flea indices above all the [quot ]cheopis[quot ] index, proposed by several authors as a complementary measure for bubonic plague surveillance, the community of Belo Horizonte would have been exposed to this infection. The annual total indices ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 and the prevalent flea was Xenopsylla cheopis (99.2%, with the highest indices coinciding with the late dry-cool season. On two occasions, in this period, the community would

  14. A new flea from Iran

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    Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  15. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

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    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  16. Automatic recording of flea activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M T; Clark, F; Smith, J S

    1991-01-01

    An Insect Activity Monitor was created to measure the behavioural responses of fleas (Siphonaptera). The apparatus allows for a range of visual, chemo- and mechanoreceptor cues to be presented. The jumping response is detected by counting amplified pulses produced as the fleas land on a stretched membrane held over a microphone. Horizontal movements are detected using a system of infra-red beams and phototransistors which, when broken, are counted as a measure of activity. The apparatus was tested using Ceratophyllus hirundinis (Curtis), Ceratophyllus farreni (Rothschild) and Ceratophyllus rusticus (Wagner), co-inhabiting species from the nests of the house martin (Delichon u.urbica L.). No unaided emigration or immigration has been demonstrated in these species (Clark, 1988) and much of their time is spent confined to the darkness of the nest. In addition to species contrasts, females were more active than males and fleas were more active at 25 degrees C than at 18 degrees C. The more active bird flea Ceratophyllus garei (Rothschild) from the nest of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L), was tested for responses to light of varying intensity. Activity was stimulated by white light, but not proportional to light intensity.

  17. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Wilder, Aryn P; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2006-10-17

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of Xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Ng'habi, Kija R; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Katakweba, Abdul A; Lyimo, Issa N

    2012-09-19

    Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria have shown great promise as arthropod vector control tools. These agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea vectors of plague. A 3-h exposure to the fungi coated paper at a concentration of 2 × 108 conidia m-2 infected >90% of flea larvae cadavers in the treatment groups. The infection reduced the survival of larvae that had been exposed to fungus relative to controls. The daily risk of dying was four- and over three-fold greater in larvae exposed to M. anisopliae (HR = 4, pfungi can successfully infect and kill larvae of X. brasiliensis with a pooled median survival time (MST±SE) of 2 ± 0.31 days post-exposure. These findings justify further research to investigate the bio-control potential of entomopathogenic fungi against fleas.

  19. Flea diversity on small carnivores in the Northern Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , followed by the yellow mongoose, Cynictispenicillata. The flea community on the small carnivores consisted of fleas that prefer carnivores as principal hosts and also fleas that prefer rodents. The latter maybe acquired through predation on ...

  20. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  1. On the probability of dinosaur fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Katharina; Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-01-11

    Recently, a set of publications described flea fossils from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous geological strata in northeastern China, which were suggested to have parasitized feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and early birds or mammals. In support of these fossils being fleas, a recent publication in BMC Evolutionary Biology described the extended abdomen of a female fossil specimen as due to blood feeding.We here comment on these findings, and conclude that the current interpretation of the evolutionary trajectory and ecology of these putative dinosaur fleas is based on appeal to probability, rather than evidence. Hence, their taxonomic positioning as fleas, or stem fleas, as well as their ecological classification as ectoparasites and blood feeders is not supported by currently available data.

  2. The jumping mechanism of Xenopsylla cheopis. III. Execution of the jump and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M; Schlein, J; Parker, K; Neville, C; Sternberg, S

    1975-10-30

    The flea's hind legs are the chief source of jumping power, but in species which execute large jumps, take-off is accelerated by elastic energy released from a resilin pad (homologous with the wing hinge ligaments of flying insects) situated in the pleural arch. A central click mechanism, operated by a rapid twitch of the trochanteral depressor (the starter muscle), synchronizes the separate sources of energy which power the jump. Ciné photos confirm the morphological evidence that the flea takes off from the trochanters, not the tarsi. The loss of wings, associated with lateral compression of the body and the shortening of the pleural ridge (which thus lowers the position of the pleural arch) together with modifications of the direct and indirect flight muscles, are some of the main morphological features associated with the change from a flying to a saltatorial mode of progression. The flea's take-off basically resembles that of other Panorpoid insects (Diptera, Mecoptera, etc.). The release of elastic energy from the pleural arch is a system by which the force used to move the wings of flying insects is rapidly fed back into the legs and adds power to the jump.

  3. Flea-borne rickettsioses: ecologic considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, A. F.; Radulovic, S.; Higgins, J. A.; Noden, B. H.; Troyer, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Ecologic and economic factors, as well as changes in human behavior, have resulted in the emergence of new and the reemergence of existing but forgotten infectious diseases during the past 20 years. Flea-borne disease organisms (e.g., Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, and Bartonella henselae) are widely distributed throughout the world in endemic-disease foci, where components of the enzootic cycle are present. However, flea-borne diseases could reemerge in epidemic form because of...

  4. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  5. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  6. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    may occur with wild pigs and man on the other hand (Joo and Myers, 2004). As such, several ... a few cestodes among other parasites. Ectoparasites commonly encountered among. Gambian rats were the black rat flea; Xenopsylla cheopis, Ixodes rasus and Ornithonyssus bacoti while the endoparasites encountered were.

  7. Research about Flea Market : Case Oranssi Kirppis in Varkaus

    OpenAIRE

    Siwakoti, Dhruba

    2013-01-01

    Flea shop is an unconventional and interesting business entity that operates in a unique way compared to traditional retailers. Customer behavior and choices are influenced by different sets of factors and variable. Further, there exists vast variation in the preferences among vari-ous customer segment like age and income. This study aims to outline the unique mechanism of flea shop operation and also attempts to understand consumers’ perception towards flea shop. Customer survey was used as...

  8. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Biomechanics of jumping in the flea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Gregory P; Burrows, Malcolm

    2011-03-01

    It has long been established that fleas jump by storing and releasing energy in a cuticular spring, but it is not known how forces from that spring are transmitted to the ground. One hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring pushes the trochanter onto the ground, thereby generating the jump. A second hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring acts through a lever system to push the tibia and tarsus onto the ground. To decide which of these two hypotheses is correct, we built a kinetic model to simulate the different possible velocities and accelerations produced by each proposed process and compared those simulations with the kinematics measured from high-speed images of natural jumping. The in vivo velocity and acceleration kinematics are consistent with the model that directs ground forces through the tibia and tarsus. Moreover, in some natural jumps there was no contact between the trochanter and the ground. There were also no observable differences between the kinematics of jumps that began with the trochanter on the ground and jumps that did not. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the tibia and tarsus have spines appropriate for applying forces to the ground, whereas no such structures were seen on the trochanter. Based on these observations, we discount the hypothesis that fleas use their trochantera to apply forces to the ground and conclude that fleas jump by applying forces to the ground through the end of the tibiae.

  10. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health.

  11. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flea infection with the bacterium, Yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. In areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of Y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. The objective of this cross sectional study was to ...

  12. Prevalence of Fleas in Sheep and Goats in Ogun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flea samples were collected into universal bottles containing 1% formaldehyde. Location and severity of the flea on each animal were also recorded. The fleas were identified up to species level. Data on the animals, management factors and the prevalence of fleas were processed into contingency tables to establish the ...

  13. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices ...

  14. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, ?milie; Beugnet, Fr?d?ric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24?h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48?h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24?h and 48?h respectively. At 1?h...

  15. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  16. Flea (Siphonaptera) species richness in the Great Basin Desert and island biogeography theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Numbers of flea (Siphonaptera) species (flea species richness) on individual mammals should be higher on large mammals, mammals with dense populations, and mammals with large geographic ranges, if mammals are islands for fleas. I tested the first two predictions with regressions of H. J. Egoscue's trapping data on flea species richness collected from individual mammals against mammal size and population density from the literature. Mammal size and population density did not correlate with flea species richness. Mammal geographic range did, in earlier studies. The intermediate-sized (31 g), moderately dense (0.004 individuals/m(2)) Peromyscus truei (Shufeldt) had the highest richness with eight flea species on one individual. Overall, island biogeography theory does not describe the distribution of flea species on mammals in the Great Basin Desert, based on H. J. Egoscue's collections. Alternatively, epidemiological or metapopulation theories may explain flea species richness. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. Market Hydraulics and Subjectivities in the "Wild": Circulations of the Flea Market

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Hansson; Helene Brembeck

    2015-01-01

    Since consumer researchers started paying attention to flea markets they represent common consumer and market research objects. Arguably, in the "natural laboratory" of the flea market, researchers can observe and theorize market and consumer processes "in the wild", as forms of direct marketing and consumption. We build on existing flea market research through adopting a circulatory approach, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). Rather than presenting a theory of (flea) markets, ANT is u...

  18. The biology, ecology, and management of the cat flea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, M K; Dryden, M W

    1997-01-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. In addition to its annoyance to pets and humans, C. felis felis is responsible for flea bite allergy dermatitis and the transmission of dog tapeworm. The abiotic and biotic factors that affect the development of immature stages are reviewed with special emphasis given to those aspects directly affecting control. Factors influencing host selection and feeding by adults are summarized. Recent studies concerning mating and oviposition, especially as they impact the likelihood of survival by immatures, are discussed. There has been an increase in the number of reports of insecticide resistance in the past ten years. Greater attention has been placed on disrupting larval development in modern IPM programs. The immature stages of the cat flea are extremely susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity and insect growth regulators (IGRs). In recent years, the control of cat fleas has increasingly relied on the use of IGRs applied to the host or to the indoor environment. Finally, we discuss advances in pesticide chemistry that provide tools for better control of adult fleas on the host.

  19. Biocidal activity of three wood essential oils against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Panella, Nicholas A; Montenieri, John A; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2007-04-01

    The biocidal activity of three steam distilled wood essential oils-incense cedar, Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin; Port-Orford-cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.; and western juniper, Juniperus occidentalis (Hook)--were evaluated against adult Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). In vitro laboratory bioassays were conducted to establish baseline dose-mortality data through 24 h. Incense cedar heartwood was the most toxic to all three vector species followed in order of activity by western juniper and Port-Orford-cedar based on LC50 and LC90 values. Ae. aegypti were substantially more susceptible to the oils than either I. scapularis or X. cheopis.

  20. Examining the vector-host-pathogen interface with quantitative molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jason E; Lorange, Ellen A; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We developed PCR assays to detect and quantitate Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, in flea vector and mammalian host tissues. Bacterial numbers in fleas, fleabite sites, and infected lymph nodes were determined using real-time PCR with primers and probes for a gene target on a multi-copy plasmid specific to Y. pestis. Tissue-matched standard curves used to determine absolute bacterial numbers in unknown samples were linear over at least five orders of magnitude. The methods were applied to studies of transmission of Y. pestis by the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, but should be generally useful to investigate the transmission dynamics of any arthropod-borne disease.

  1. Factors that affect parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs by fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Hoogland, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that feed on vertebrate hosts. Fleas can reduce the fitness of hosts by interfering with immune responses, disrupting adaptive behaviors, and transmitting pathogens. The negative effects of fleas on hosts are usually most pronounced when fleas attain high densities. In lab studies, fleas desiccate and die under dry conditions, suggesting that populations of fleas will tend to decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared precipitation vs. parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by fleas at a single colony during May and June of 13 consecutive years (1976–1988) at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, USA. The number of fleas on prairie dogs decreased with increasing precipitation during both the prior growing season (April through August of the prior year) and the just-completed winter–spring (January through April of current year). Due to the reduction in available moisture and palatable forage in dry years, herbivorous prairie dogs might have been food-limited, with weakened behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. In support of this hypothesis, adult prairie dogs of low mass harbored more fleas than heavier adults. Our results have implications for the spread of plague, an introduced bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates prairie dog colonies and, in doing so, can transform grassland ecosystems.

  2. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day -1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  3. Flea species infesting dogs in Spain: updated spatial and seasonal distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, R; Montoya, A; Checa, R; Martín, O; Marino, V; Miró, G

    2017-03-01

    This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11.4%, 347 fleas); Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (6.9%, 208 fleas), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.03%, one flea). Variables observed to have effects on flea abundance were animal weight, sex, length of hair and habitat. In the seasonal survey conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, 1014 fleas were collected from 239 dogs at 30 veterinary practices across Spain. Peaks in C. felis abundance were observed in early summer and late autumn, whereas high numbers of P. irritans and C. canis were recorded in autumn. Numbers of fleas detected in winter were low overall. Based on these findings, the present study updates the spatial and seasonal distributions of flea species in Spain and assesses the impacts of host and habitat variables on flea infestation. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. 1 Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cycles with soil micro-organisms like amoeba and soil organic matter (Anisimov, 2002) which come in contact with burrowing rodents. Through interaction of sylvatic and commensal rodents disease pathogens are exchanged through vectors such as fleas (Witmer, 2004). It is envisaged that understanding landforms and the ...

  5. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E

    2009-06-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health. Recently, researchers have hypothesized that the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) responsible for plague maintains a continuous state of high virulence and thus only changes in transmission efficiency explain the shift between alternating enzootic and epizootic phases. However, if virulent transmission becomes too inefficient, strong selection might favor an alternate survival strategy. Another plausible non-exclusive hypothesis, best supported from Asian field studies, is that Y. pestis persists (locally) at foci by maintaining a more benign relationship within adapted rodents during the long expanses of time between outbreaks. From this vantage, it can revert to the epizootic (transmission efficient) form. Similarly, in the United States (US), enzootic plague persistence has been proposed to develop sequestered within New World rodent carriers. However, the absence of clear support for rodent carriers in North America has encouraged a broader search for alternative explanations. A telluric plague existence has been proposed. However, the availability of flea life stages and their hosts could critically supplement environmental plague sources, or fleas might directly represent a lowlevel plague reservoir. Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  6. Efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner for cats against adult Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, Adriano F; Everett, William R; Holzmer, Susan J; Cherni, Judith A; King, Vickie L; Rugg, Douglas; Geurden, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    A new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner was evaluated against fleas for adulticidal efficacy, and for the effect on egg production and hatching when applied to flea-infested cats. Ten male and ten female adult domestic shorthair cats were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment flea counts. Cats received topical treatment on Day 0 in a single spot to the dorsal scapular area with either a placebo formulation or with the combination formulation at the minimal dose of 6.0mg selamectin plus 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. On Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33, cats were infested with approximately 100 (±5) unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas. At 24h after treatment or 48h after subsequent flea infestation, cats were housed for a 20-h period in a cage to allow collection of flea eggs. At the end of this period, flea eggs were collected from the cages and cats were combed to remove and count live fleas. Emerged viable larvae and emerged adult fleas were counted 3days and 35days, respectively, after egg collection. The new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner provided 100% efficacy against adult fleas up to Day 36 following a single application. Fleas on placebo-treated cats produced large numbers of eggs throughout the study, with individual counts ranging from 110 to 1256 eggs. Following treatment, four flea eggs were collected from a single selamectin/sarolaner-treated cat on Day 29, but there were no eggs collected from any other selamectin/sarolaner-treated animal during the study. No larvae or adult fleas developed from these four eggs. From the eggs collected from the placebo-treated cats, the mean percentage of live larvae and adults that emerged ranged from 67.3% to 84.2% and from 50.7% to 81.8%, respectively. A single topical treatment with a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner at the minimum label dose thus controlled fleas on cats and was 100% effective in preventing flea reproduction

  7. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  8. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  9. Diversity of Flea (Siphonaptera) Parasites on Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D

    2017-09-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Eyam plague revisited: did the village isolation change transmission from fleas to pulmonary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B; Burattini, M N; Lopez, L F

    2004-01-01

    Back in the 17th century the Derbyshire village of Eyam fell victim to the Black Death, which is thought to have arrived from London in some old clothes brought by a travelling tailor. The village population was 350 at the commencement of plague, of which only 83 survived. Led by the church leaders, the village community realized that the whole surrounding region was at risk from the epidemic, and therefore decided to seal themselves off from the other surrounding villages. In the first 275 days of the outbreak, transmission was predominantly from infected fleas to susceptible humans. From then onward, mortality sharply increased, which indicates a changing in transmission pattern. We hypothesize that the confinement facilitated the spread of the infection by increasing the contact rate through direct transmission among humans. This would be more consistent with pulmonary plague, a deadlier form of the disease. In order to test the above hypothesis we designed a mathematical model for plague dynamics, incorporating both the indirect (fleas-rats-humans) and direct (human-to-human) transmissions of the infection. Our results show remarkable agreement between data and the model, lending support to our hypotheses. The Eyam plague episode is celebrated as a remarkable act of collective self-sacrifice. However, to the best of our knowledge, there were no evidence before that the confinement actually increased the burden payed by the commoners. In the light of our results, it can be said that the hypothesis that confinement facilitated the spread of the infection by increasing the contact rate through direct transmission is plausible.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: common water flea [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available common water flea Daphnia pulex Arthropoda Daphnia_pulex_L.png Daphnia_pulex_NL.png Daphnia_pulex..._S.png Daphnia_pulex_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=L... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=NS ...

  12. Bartonella Genotypes in Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) Collected from Rodents in the Negev Desert, Israel▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation. PMID:20802081

  13. Successful immunotherapy of canine flea allergy with injected Actinomycetales preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Alicia; Pirles, Mónica; Schiaffino, Laura; Bin, Liliana; Dávila, Héctor; Bottasso, Oscar A; McIntyre, Graham; Ripley, Paul R; Stanford, Cynthia A; Stanford, John L

    2011-08-01

    Can heat-killed, borate-buffered suspensions of Gordonia bronchialis, Rhodococcus coprophilus or Tsukamurella inchonensis be used to treat canine flea allergy? Organisms cultured on Sauton's medium into stationary phase were autoclaved in borate-buffered saline and stored at 10 mg wet weight/ml. Intradermal injections of 0.1 ml containing 1 mg of bacilli were administered on the first and 20th days of the study. G. bronchialis and R. coprophilus were most effective in a pilot study of a small number of dogs with flea allergy. A larger number of affected dogs were then randomized to receive placebo or either of the two selected reagents. The extent and severity of allergic signs and symptoms were scored and blood samples were collected just before the first injection and 28 days after the second. Both selected reagents reduced the extent and severity of lesions (p < 0.001) and reduced scratching. Eosinophil numbers were reduced (p < 0.0001) between the first and second assessment. Injections of G. bronchialis or R. coprophilus effectively reduce the signs and symptoms of flea allergy in dogs.

  14. FLEAS OF BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN THE MOVEMENT OF PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Grassel, Shaun M; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. Fleas are the primary vector of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. Fleas from ferrets were tested for Y. pestis in a post hoc assessment to investigate the plausibility that some ferrets could act as incidental transporter hosts of fleas infected with Y. pestis . Fleas were collected from ferrets captured on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in central South Dakota, US from 2009 to 2012. A total of 528 fleas collected from 67 individual ferrets were identified and tested for the presence of Y. pestis with a nested PCR assay. The predominant flea recovered from ferrets was Oropsylla hirsuta , a species that comprises 70-100% of the fleas recovered from prairie dogs and their burrows in the study area. Yersinia pestis was detected at low levels in fleas collected from ferrets with prevalence ranging from 0% to 2.9%; male ferrets harbored significantly more fleas than female ferrets. Six of 67 ferrets vaccinated against plague carried fleas that tested positive for Y. pestis , which suggests ferrets vaccinated against plague could inadvertently act as incidental transporter hosts of Y. pestis -positive fleas.

  15. Evaluation of afoxolaner chewables to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs in private residences in Tampa FL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Chwala, Monica; Jones, Emery; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C; Foley, Kaitlin M; Patton, Paula R; Hawkins, Anthony; Carithers, Doug

    2015-05-24

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of afoxolaner chewables to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs in private residences in Tampa FL, USA. Evaluations of on-animal and premises flea burdens, flea sex structure and fed-unfed premises flea populations were conducted to more accurately assess flea population dynamics in households. Thirty seven naturally flea infested dogs in 23 homes in Tampa, FL were enrolled in the study and treated with afoxolaner chewables. Chewables (NexGard® Chewables; Merial) were administered according to label directions by study investigators on study day 0 and once again between study days 28 and 30. Flea infestations on pets were assessed using visual area thumb counts and premises flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and once between study days 28-30, 40-45, and 54-60. Within 7 days of administration of afoxolaner chewable tablets, flea counts on dogs were reduced by 99.3%. By one month post-treatment, total flea counts on dogs were reduced by 99.9%, with 97.3% (36/37) of the dogs being flea free. Following the second dosing on study day 28-30, total on-dog flea burden was reduced by 100% on days 40-45 and 54-60. On day 0, the traps collected a geometric mean of 18.2 fleas. Subsequent reductions in emerging flea populations were 97.7 and 100% by days 28-30 and 54-60, respectively. There were 515 total fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) collected in the intermittent light flea traps on day 0, and 40.4% of those fleas displayed visual evidence of having fed. Seven days after initial treatment, only 13.1% of the fleas contained blood and by day 14 only 4.9% of the fleas collected in traps displayed evidence of having fed. On day 0, prior to treatment, 60% of the unfed fleas collected in intermittent-light flea traps were females, but by days 28-30, unfed males accounted for 78% of the population. This in-home investigation conducted during the summer of

  16. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard® against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day −1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p  97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study.

  17. The Fleas (Siphonaptera in Iran: Diversity, Host Range, and Medical Importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Maleki-Ravasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance.The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents' burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77 of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43, Ctenophthalminae (n = 20 and Amphipsyllinae (n = 17. Meriones

  18. Myrmeconycha new genus: the first myrmecophilous flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first myrmecophilous flea beetle genus (Myrmeconycha) with four new species (M. erwini – Ecuador, M. gordoni - Brazil, M. pakaluki - Panama and M. pheidole - Costa Rica) is described and illustrated. It is compared with Disonychine flea beetles and may be easily differentiated based on the exte...

  19. [Dependence of the reproductive capacity of fleas on repeated mating (Aphaniptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, I V; Tokanev, F I; Koxlov, M P

    1978-01-01

    The fleas of X. cheopis and C. tesquorum were found to be capable of laying eggs during the whole physiological active period without recurrent fertilization. The recurrent mating and fertilization occur in these species of fleas independently of their age and favour the rise in the abundance of their progeny.

  20. Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    We investigated host and flea species composition across different habitats during dry and rainy seasons in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. During both seasons, similarity in flea species composition increased with an increase in the similarity in host species composition. Nevertheles...

  1. Myxomatosis: some observations on breeding the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) in an animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W. R.; Menzies, W.; Conolly, Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit fleas for use in Myxomatosis investigations have been successfully bred on rabbits in an animal house. The timing of emergence appeared to be governed by a biological timing control interacting with different forms of disturbance. Yield was found to be related to litter size, the time the doe and her kittens were removed from the nest, the number of fleas put onto a doe before littering and the mean ambient temperature to which the doe was exposed in the week pre-partum. The survival rate of fleas in storage was affected by temperature, the degree of crowding, moisture content of the containers, whether fleas were fed or unfed and the source of fleas in terms of emergence times. PMID:4526409

  2. Dermal neutrophil, macrophage and dendritic cell responses to Yersinia pestis transmitted by fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shannon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is typically transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. Many aspects of mammalian innate immune response early after Y. pestis infection remain poorly understood. A previous study by our lab showed that neutrophils are the most prominent cell type recruited to the injection site after intradermal needle inoculation of Y. pestis, suggesting that neutrophil interactions with Y. pestis may be important in bubonic plague pathogenesis. In the present study, we developed new tools allowing for intravital microscopy of Y. pestis in the dermis of an infected mouse after transmission by its natural route of infection, the bite of an infected flea. We found that uninfected flea bites typically induced minimal neutrophil recruitment. The magnitude of neutrophil response to flea-transmitted Y. pestis varied considerably and appeared to correspond to the number of bacteria deposited at the bite site. Macrophages migrated towards flea bite sites and interacted with small numbers of flea-transmitted bacteria. Consistent with a previous study, we observed minimal interaction between Y. pestis and dendritic cells; however, dendritic cells did consistently migrate towards flea bite sites containing Y. pestis. Interestingly, we often recovered viable Y. pestis from the draining lymph node (dLN 1 h after flea feeding, indicating that the migration of bacteria from the dermis to the dLN may be more rapid than previously reported. Overall, the innate cellular host responses to flea-transmitted Y. pestis differed from and were more variable than responses to needle-inoculated bacteria. This work highlights the importance of studying the interactions between fleas, Y. pestis and the mammalian host to gain a better understanding of the early events in plague pathogenesis.

  3. Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, prevents flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction in vitro and in a simulated home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heike; Young, David R; Qureshi, Tariq; Zoller, Hartmut; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2014-06-19

    Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assessed using flea survival, egg hatchability, and control of oviposition, pupae, and flea emergence. Fluralaner efficacy for in vivo Ctenocephalides (C.) felis control on dogs was assessed using a simulated flea-infested home environment. During a pre-treatment period, dogs were infested twice on days -28 and -21 with 100 adult unfed fleas to establish a thriving population by day 0 of the study. On day 0, one group of dogs was treated with fluralaner (Bravecto™; n=10), while another group served as negative control (n=10). Following treatment, dogs were infested three times with 50 fleas on days 22, 50 and 78 to simulate new infestations. Live flea counts were conducted weekly on all dogs for 12 weeks starting 1 day before treatment. Fluralaner potently inhibited flea reproduction capacity in vitro. Oviposition ceased completely at concentrations as low as 25.0 ng/mL. While no ovicidal effect was observed, fluralaner exerted a larvicidal effect at exceptionally low concentrations (6.25 ng/mL). In the simulated flea-infested home environment, flea-control efficacy on fluralaner-treated dogs was >99% at every time point measured for 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in fluralaner-treated dogs. Fluralaner completely controls egg laying, larval development and flea reproduction even at sub-insecticidal concentrations. Oral treatment of dogs with fluralaner is highly effective for eliminating fleas in a simulated flea-infested home environment.

  4. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Socolovschi, Cristina; Tshilolo, Léon; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2008, 12 Amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (Manis gigantea). Two Haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (Onotragus leche). A total of 111 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 Ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 C. felis fleas, and 5 Trichodectes canis lice were sampled from 19 dogs. One C. canis flea was collected from a human. Six of the 12 A. compressum ticks were positive for rickettsial DNA, as determined by genus-specific qPCR. The ompA gene sequences amplified from positive samples showed 100% homology with Rickettsia africae (GenBank accession number CP001612). The detection of Ri. africae in A. compressum ticks, which are highly specialized parasites of pangolins, is consistent with our previous data showing the presence of Ri. africae in A. compressum ticks from Liberia. No other ticks contained rickettsial DNA. A total of 9 C. canis fleas (39%, 9/23) and 37 C. felis fleas (95%, 37/39) that was collected from dogs and one C. canis flea collected from a human harbored Ri. felis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Precipitation, Climate Change, and Parasitism of Prairie Dogs by Fleas that Transmit Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Hoogland, John L

    2017-08-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in the western United States: Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Furthermore, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease transmitted by fleas that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics

  6. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Rust

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of topically administered imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen and orally administered spinosad against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis): Impact of treated dogs on flea life stages in a simulated home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are one of the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and their environments. This study evaluated the efficacy of imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen (PPF) (Advantage® II for Dogs) and spinosad (Comfortis®) against established C. felis populations in dogs’ simulated home environments. Methods Thirty Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 dogs each and treated twice (Study Days 0 and 28) with imidacloprid + PPF, spinosad tablets, or a negative control (untreated). Dogs were housed individually in controlled simulated home environments capable of supporting the flea life cycle. Flea infestations were established in these environments by infesting each dog with 100 adult cat fleas on Study Days −21, -16 and 1. The impact of the treatments on fleas in the dogs’ environments were assessed by collecting floor mat samples from each simulated home environment, incubating them for 32 days, and counting the number of emerging adult fleas. On Study Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, after collection of the cocoa matting samples, each dog was infested with an additional 5 ± 1 fleas to maintain the environmental infestations. Flea comb counts on dogs were conducted on Study Days 0 (pretreatment) and 63. Results From Study Days 7–28, flea infestations in the imidacloprid + PPF environments were significantly lower (p < 0.03) than those in the spinosad environments. Following the second treatment, flea infestations in all the imidacloprid + PPF environments fell to zero for the remainder of the study. In contrast, flea infestations persisted in some of the spinosad environments through the study’s end. On Study Day 63 all 10 dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF were flea free, while only one of the 10 spinosad treated dogs was flea free. Flea counts on the other 9 spinosad treated dogs ranged from 3 to 46 fleas/dog (geometric mean = 8.6). A mean of 405 adult fleas

  8. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  9. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva M; Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; Davis, Wendell; Krieger, Klemens J

    2012-01-01

    The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice...

  10. Rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.

  11. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. in fleas from cats in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Knaus, Martin; Rapti, Dhimiter; Shukullari, Enstela; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Fleas can serve as vectors for bacterial pathogens like Bartonella and Rickettsia species, which have been isolated worldwide. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in general and thus on flea-borne diseases in Albania is limited. Therefore, from 78 free-roaming cats in Tirana, Albania, fleas (371 Ctenocephalides felis and 5 Ctenocephalides canis) were collected to examine them for the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species. Ten of the 371 C. felis (2.7%) were positive for Rickettsia felis, and 24 (6.5%) for Bartonella spp. (B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). In total, fleas from 15 cats (19.2%) were positive for either one or the other of the pathogens. The results of this study provided evidence for the presence of R. felis (causing flea-borne spotted fever) and Bartonella spp. (causing cat scratch disease) in Albania. Thus, these infectious diseases should be considered as differential diagnoses when febrile symptoms are presented, especially after contact with cats or their fleas.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of topically administered imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen and orally administered spinosad against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis: Impact of treated dogs on flea life stages in a simulated home environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Douglas H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are one of the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and their environments. This study evaluated the efficacy of imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen (PPF (Advantage® II for Dogs and spinosad (Comfortis® against established C. felis populations in dogs’ simulated home environments. Methods Thirty Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 dogs each and treated twice (Study Days 0 and 28 with imidacloprid + PPF, spinosad tablets, or a negative control (untreated. Dogs were housed individually in controlled simulated home environments capable of supporting the flea life cycle. Flea infestations were established in these environments by infesting each dog with 100 adult cat fleas on Study Days −21, -16 and 1. The impact of the treatments on fleas in the dogs’ environments were assessed by collecting floor mat samples from each simulated home environment, incubating them for 32 days, and counting the number of emerging adult fleas. On Study Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, after collection of the cocoa matting samples, each dog was infested with an additional 5 ± 1 fleas to maintain the environmental infestations. Flea comb counts on dogs were conducted on Study Days 0 (pretreatment and 63. Results From Study Days 7–28, flea infestations in the imidacloprid + PPF environments were significantly lower (p  On Study Day 63 all 10 dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF were flea free, while only one of the 10 spinosad treated dogs was flea free. Flea counts on the other 9 spinosad treated dogs ranged from 3 to 46 fleas/dog (geometric mean = 8.6. A mean of 405 adult fleas/animal were recovered from the control dogs on Study Day 63. Conclusion Flea infestations in environments of dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF declined more rapidly than in those containing dogs treated with spinosad. Flea infestations were completely eliminated by Study Day 56

  13. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  14. Patterns in the distribution and directional asymmetry of fleas living on the northern white-breasted hedgehog Erinaceus roumanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Foldvari, Gabor; Majlathova, Viktoria; Majlath, Igor; Rigo, Krisztina; Molnar, Viktor; Toth, Maria; Jankowiak, Lukasz; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2017-08-04

    Fleas infecting northern white-breasted hedgehogs, Erinaceus roumanicus (Barrett-Hamilton), collected from 2009-2011 in Budapest (Hungary) were studied. A total of 305 white-breasted hedgehogs were captured and 1,251 fleas were collected. The flea community comprised two species, the hedgehog flea Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouche, 1835) and the dog flea Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826), although the latter was only found on three hedgehogs. Fleas were found on half of the host specimens (51%; n = 156) where their distribution was strongly aggregated. The sex ratio of A. erinacei was biased towards females and was correlated with host size. Interestingly, the sex ratio of fleas became more equal on heavier hosts. It had been expected that, under high competition, the sex ratio would be female biased because it is known that female ectoparasites dominate on poorer hosts. The body size of a random sample of 200 fleas (100 female and 100 male) was measured under a microscope. The analyses showed directional asymmetry in two features - the distance between the top of the head and the eye, and head length. In this two body traits the left side was significantly greater than right side in both sexes of A. erinacei. Our data shed light on the complex nature of the flea population infecting northern white-breasted hedgehogs in an urban area.

  15. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-09-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  16. Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Tripp, Daniel W; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-06-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs.

  17. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  18. Assessment of the onset of lotilaner (Credelio™ speed of kill of fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lotilaner (Credelio™ is the newest member of the novel isoxazoline chemical class to be developed to treat canine ectoparasitism. Administered orally, lotilaner is rapidly absorbed with peak blood levels occurring within 2 h post-treatment. A study was undertaken to determine the earliest onset of lotilaner’s efficacy against existing flea infestations. Methods From 72 Beagles, 64 qualifying dogs were ranked in descending order of flea counts from a Day -8 infestation and placed into eight blocks. Within blocks, eight dogs were randomly allocated among eight groups: Groups 1 to 4 were treated orally with lotilaner, at as close as possible to the minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg within 30 (± 5 minutes after feeding; Groups 5 to 8 were untreated controls. All dogs were infested with 100 ± 5 fleas on Day -2, and whole-body flea counts were completed at 30 min and one, two and 8 h after treatment. Efficacy calculations were based on arithmetic and geometric means if an adequate infestation (at least six of eight untreated dogs with a flea retention of ≥ 50% was demonstrated in the equivalent control group. Results Adequate infestations were established in all control groups. At 30 min and 1 h post-treatment, relative to the matching untreated control group, there were no significant reductions in mean flea counts in lotilaner-treated dogs, although moribund fleas were evident at 1 h post-treatment. At 2 h after treatment, compared with the equivalent control group, the geometric mean flea count reduction in the lotilaner group was 64.0% (t (7 = 2.86, P = 0.0242. At 8 h after treatment, lotilaner efficacy was 99.6%. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that lotilaner flavored chewable tablets are well tolerated and begin to kill fleas within 2 h of treatment, achieving 99.6% efficacy within 8 h. Lotilaner can therefore be used to quickly alleviate the flea irritation

  19. Spatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1,402 domestic small mammals were captured in 54 stations using methods following Houémenou (2006). The most abundant small mammals were, Rattus rattus (black rat) (63.7%), Mastomys sp. (multimammate rat) (11.84%), Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) (11.48%) and Crocidura olivieri (7.85%). Among these rodents ...

  20. Neosomes of tungid fleas on wild and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of opportunistic agents. Although its effects on humans and domestic animals are well described in the literature, little is known about the impact of tungiasis on wild animals. This review focuses on the morphology, taxonomy, geographical distribution, hosts, prevalence, sites of attachment, and impact of tungid neosomes on wild and domestic animals. Because neosomes are the most characteristic form of the genus Tunga and also the form most frequently found in hosts, they are here differentiated and illustrated to aid in the identification of the 13 currently known species. Perspectives for future studies regarding the possibility of discovering other sand flea species, adaptation to new hosts, and the transfer of tungids between hosts in natural and modified habitats are also presented.

  1. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated

  2. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra? against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet Frédéric; Meyer Leon; Fourie Josephus; Larsen Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on ...

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Koshel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major, the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus, constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida. We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina.

  5. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  6. Off-host observations of mating and postmating behaviors in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M H; Wu, W J

    2001-05-01

    A blood meal was necessary for a male cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), to display the mating attempts to an unfed or fed female. More mating pairs resulted when both sexes were fed. Copulation occurred when fed fleas were placed on surfaces with temperatures from 34 to 42 degrees C. This article not only describes the mating and postmating behaviors of cat fleas, but also compares them with those of other fleas. The sequence of mating behavior began when a male approached a female ventrally, and the male's antennae and claspers became erect to attach to the abdomen of the female. Clasper attachment lasted until copulation ended, whereas the male retrieved his antennae immediately after genitalia linkage. The male generally grasped the female's tarsi with his claws during mating. The length of the mating interval terminated by the male ranged from 25 to 110 min and was significantly longer than that terminated by the female (averaging 12.11 min). After the mating pair separated, the male displayed a series of postmating behaviors discussed herein. This article documents grasping and postmating behaviors of the male cat flea.

  7. Market Hydraulics and Subjectivities in the "Wild": Circulations of the Flea Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hansson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since consumer researchers started paying attention to flea markets they represent common consumer and market research objects. Arguably, in the "natural laboratory" of the flea market, researchers can observe and theorize market and consumer processes "in the wild", as forms of direct marketing and consumption. We build on existing flea market research through adopting a circulatory approach, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT. Rather than presenting a theory of (flea markets, ANT is useful for studying markets from the perspective of grounded market-making processes. Consumption is understood as the interplay of consumers, marketers, retailers, and a wide array of artifacts and market mediators like products, economic theories and ideas, packaging, market space (in the physical sense and furniture, etc. Our results point out that not only does such an approach enable analysis of features commonly studied within consumer research such as calculative action and social interaction, but also issues more rarely in focus in such research, such as cognitive patterns of consumer curiosity, emotions, senses, and affect. Furthermore, even though flea markets foremost are places of commerce and exchange of second hand goods, there is a large variety of other forms of flows or circulations going on "backstage" that enable the surface phenomena of second hand consumption to come into being. Many of these circulations, we argue, are material rather than immaterial Vendor and buyer subjectivities are thus understood as outcomes of circulatory dynamism that involves a range of material and immaterial flows.

  8. Fleas, hosts and habitat: What can we predict about the spread of vector-borne zoonotic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases of humans and wildlife are experiencing resurgence across the globe. I examine the dynamics of flea borne diseases through a comparative analysis of flea literature and analyses of field data collected from three sites in New Mexico: The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, the Sandia Mountains and the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP). My...

  9. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both

  10. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  11. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined.

  12. Biodiversity of Ticks and Fleas of Dogs in the Western Balkans – Preliminary Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks and fleas infestation is the most common ectoparasitic condition of dogs with worldwide distribution. In period 2011-2013 we performed preliminary study on the biodiversity of ticks and flea of dogs, from the Western Balkan area. Parasites were collected from dogs in veterinary practices from several cities in various part of Serbia, Macedonia, Republic Srpska (BiH and Montenegro. During of the study of relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was absolutely dominant, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus. At same examinations three flea species were found at dogs Ctenocephalides felis felis was the most abundant, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans.

  13. Spatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... A new genus of mite (Acari: Acaridae) phoretic on bees (Ctenocolletes) in Australia. Records Western Australian Museum 11: 77-86. FengTYA andHimsworth GC, 2013.The secret life of the city rat: a review of the ecology of urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus). Urban ecology.

  14. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-30

    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Lappin, Michael R.; Davis, Wendell L; Hawley, Jennifer R.; Brewer, Melissa; Morris, Arianne; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C...

  16. Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.

  17. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Choera, Tsokyi; Yun Lim, Fang; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D.; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A.; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P.; Fahy, John V.

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  18. Assessing plague risk and presence through surveys of small mammal flea communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Friggens; P. L. Ford; R. R. Parmenter; M. Boyden; K. Gage

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, remains a threat to human and wildlife populations in the Western United States (Gage and Kosoy 2005). Several rodent species have been implicated as important maintenance hosts in the U.S., including Peromyscus maniculatus and Dipodomys spp. Fleas are a critical component of plague foci (Gage and Kosoy 2005)....

  19. Flea Bite Dermatitis in a Herd of Dairy Calves in Vom Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood. They feed on the blood of cats, dogs and other animals, including humans (Lyon, 1997; Kramer and Mencke, 2001). Flea infestation in cattle and other ruminants is rare; it has been more commonly reported in cats and dogs. Infestations of calves with Ctenocephalides felis felis have been reported in Israel (Yeruham ...

  20. 1 Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of. Lushoto District, Tanzania. PROCHES HIERONIMO*1, NGANGA I. KIHUPI1, DIDAS N. KIMARO1, HUBERT GULINCK2, LOTH S. MULUNGU3,. BALTHAZAR M. MSANYA4, HERWIG LEIRS5 and JOZEF A. DECKERS2. 1Department of ...

  1. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Flea-borne transmission model to evaluate vaccine efficacy against naturally acquired bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Clayton O; Sebbane, Florent; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Andrews, Gerard P; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2004-04-01

    A flea-to-mouse transmission model was developed for use in testing new candidate vaccines for the ability to protect against flea-borne plague. The model was used to evaluate a recombinant fusion protein vaccine consisting of the Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens. After one to three challenges with Y. pestis-infected fleas, 14 of 15 unvaccinated control mice developed plague, with an average septicemia level of 9.2 x 10(8) Y. pestis CFU/ml. None of 15 vaccinated mice developed the disease after similar challenges, and serological testing indicated that transmitted bacteria were eliminated by the immune system before extensive replication and systemic infection could occur. The transmission and development of disease in control mice correlated with the number of bites by blocked fleas but not with the total number of fleabites. The model provides a means to directly assess the efficacy of new vaccines to prevent naturally acquired bubonic plague and to study events at the vector-host interface that lead to dissemination and disease.

  3. The coevolutionary potential of a 'generalist' parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripet, F; Richner, H

    1997-10-01

    Hosts exert selection pressures on their parasites and it is often assumed that host-parasite coevolution with each host is less intense in a generalist parasite than for a parasite with a narrow host range. Selection pressure on the parasite, however, is rather determined by host specificity, i.e. the relative importance of each host, than simply by the range of hosts. The determination of host specificity requires an assessment of the prevalence and intensity of parasite infestation within each host's nests, as well as the local abundance of each host species. Since the hen flea, Ceratophyllus gallinae, is a rather generalist parasite of birds it could be concluded that there has been weak coevolution with each of its hosts. By reviewing the literature on the prevalence and intensity of hen flea infestations in bird nests we estimated the number of individuals produced in the nest of each host species. The comparative analysis shows (1) that the prevalence of infestation is highest in hole-nesting avian families, (2) that prevalence and intensity of infestation among bird families are highly correlated, and (3) that hole-nesting Paridae have the highest intensities of infestation and harbour the majority of the flea population. These results underline the fleas' potential for coevolution with Paridae despite their extensive host range.

  4. Population genetic structure of the prairie dog flea and plague vector, Oropsylla hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Martin, Andrew P; Jones, Ryan T; Collinge, Sharon K

    2011-01-01

    Oropsylla hirsuta is the primary flea of the black-tailed prairie dog and is a vector of the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis. We examined the population genetic structure of O. hirsuta fleas collected from 11 prairie dog colonies, 7 of which had experienced a plague-associated die-off in 1994. In a sample of 332 O. hirsuta collected from 226 host individuals, we detected 24 unique haplotype sequences in a 480 nucleotide segment of the cytochrome oxidase II gene. We found significant overall population structure but we did not detect a signal of isolation by distance, suggesting that O. hirsuta may be able to disperse relatively quickly at the scale of this study. All 7 colonies that were recently decimated by plague showed signs of recent population expansion, whereas 3 of the 4 plague-negative colonies showed haplotype patterns consistent with stable populations. These results suggest that O. hirsuta populations are affected by plague-induced prairie dog die-offs and that flea dispersal among prairie dog colonies may not be dependent exclusively on dispersal of prairie dogs. Re-colonization following plague events from plague-free refugia may allow for rapid flea population expansion following plague epizootics.

  5. Characterization of a Pantoea stewartii TTSS gene required for persistence in its flea beetle vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize is caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), a bacterium that is transmitted by the flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria. Few studies have focused on the molecular basis of the interactions of Pnss with its vector. Genome analyses indicated that Pnss carri...

  6. Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, prevents flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction in vitro and in a simulated home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Heike; Young, David R.; Qureshi, Tariq; Zoller, Hartmut; Anja R. HECKEROTH

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Methods Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assesse...

  7. A randomized, blinded, controlled USA field study to assess the use of fluralaner topical solution in controlling feline flea infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Cheyney; Guerino, Frank; Sun, Fangshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Fleas are a common ectoparasite of domestic cats and there is a need for novel treatments that improve feline flea control. Methods This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive-controlled study evaluated the flea control in cats provided by a single owner-applied treatment with a fluralaner topical formulation compared with a positive control. Households with up to five healthy cats, all at least 12?weeks of age and weighing at least 1.2?kg (2.6?lb), were randomized...

  8. Efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (Oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black‐tailed prairie dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    .... fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005...

  9. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Sebbane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  10. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2010-12-17

    Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt) siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  11. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  12. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  13. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  15. Effect of Rickettsia felis Strain Variation on Infection, Transmission, and Fitness in the Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sean P; Brown, Lisa D; Hagstrom, Melena R; Foil, Lane D; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    Rickettsia felis is a human pathogen transmitted by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (str. LSU), as well as an obligate symbiont of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) (str. LSU-Lb). The influence of genetic variability in these two strains of R. felis on host specialization and fitness and possible resulting differences on infection and transmission kinetics in C. felis is unknown. Utilizing an artificial host system, cat fleas were exposed to a R. felis str. LSU-Lb-infected bloodmeal and monitored for infection at 7-d intervals for 28 d. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine rickettsial load and infection density in newly exposed cat fleas, and transmission frequency between cat fleas. The effect of persistent R. felis infection on cat flea F1 progeny was also assessed. At 7 d postexposure 76.7% of the cat fleas successfully acquired R. felis str. LSU-Lb. In R. felis str. LSU-Lb-exposed cat fleas, the mean infection load (6.15 × 106), infection density (0.76), and infection prevalence (91/114) were significantly greater than R. felis str. LSU infection load (3.09 × 106), infection density (0.68), and infection prevalence (76/113). A persistent R. felis str. LSU-Lb infection was detected for 28 d in adult cat fleas but neither female:male ratio distortion nor vertical transmission was observed in F1 progeny. While infection kinetics differed, with higher intensity associated with R. felis str. LSU-Lb, no distinct phenotype was observed in the F1 progeny. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, de, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sexes flew than when fed continuously for the same period. In addition, the effect of the mating status of females of P. nemorum on their movement was determined. Mated females were more active than v...

  17. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a Ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp. as key hosts in Yersinia pestis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John; MacMillan, Katherine; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-01-08

    The distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of East Africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. We collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the West Nile region of Uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases. Seasonal changes in the small mammal and flea communities were examined along an elevation gradient to determine whether small mammal and flea populations exhibit differences in their response to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, temperature, and crop harvests in areas within (above 1300 m) and outside (below 1300 m) of a model-defined plague focus. The abundance of two potential enzootic host species (Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp.) increased during the plague season within the plague focus, but did not show the same increase at lower elevations outside this focus. In contrast, the abundance of the domestic rat population (Rattus rattus) did not show significant seasonal fluctuations regardless of locality. Arvicanthis niloticus abundance was negatively associated with monthly precipitation at a six month lag and positively associated with current monthly temperatures, and Crocidura spp. abundance was positively associated with precipitation at a three month lag and negatively associated with current monthly temperatures. The abundance of A. niloticus and Crocidura spp. were both positively correlated with the harvest of millet and maize. The association between the abundance of several small mammal species and rainfall is consistent with previous models of the timing of human plague cases in relation to precipitation in the West Nile region. The seasonal increase in the abundance of key potential host species within the plague focus, but not outside of

  19. A New Genus of Fleas with Associated Microorganisms in Dominican Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2015-11-01

    A flea preserved in Dominican amber is described as Atopopsyllus cionus, n. gen., n. sp. (Atopopsyllini n. tribe, Spilopsyllinae, Pulicidae). The male specimen has two unique characters that have not been noted in previous extant or extinct fleas, thus warranting its tribal status. These characters are five-segmented maxillary palps and cerci-like organs on abdominal tergite X. Additional characters are the absence of ctenidia, very small eyes, a lanceolate terminal segment of the maxillary palps, legs with six notches on the dorsal margin of the tibiae, five pairs of lateral plantar bristles on the distitarsomeres, and nearly straight ungues with a wide space between the basal lobe and tarsal claw. Trypanosomes and coccobacilli in the rectum and coccobacilli on the tip of the epipharynx of the fossil are depicted and briefly characterized. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of multiple mating on female reproductive output in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M H; Wu, W J

    2000-11-01

    Multiple mating behavior of female cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), was confirmed in this study, and its effects on fecundity and fertility were investigated as well. The number of fertile eggs produced by mated females was close to nil within 7 d after removal of males, but it was resumed when females were exposed to males again on day 7. Multiple-mated females displayed significantly higher fecundity (400.3 eggs per female) and fertility (182.8 viable eggs per female) than single-mated females (61.7 and 19.0, respectively) in the 24-d period, suggesting that multiple mating by females is an advantageous strategy for cat fleas. The duration of first mating averaged 63.1 min. The high ratio (55.56%) and short duration (34.0 min) of impotent mating suggested that cryptic female choice may be involved during copulation.

  1. FLEA BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: ALTICINAE) SPECIES OCCURRING ON AMARANTHUS spp. IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cagán, L.; Vráblová, M; Tóth, P.

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occurrence and abundance of flea beetle species associated with Amaranthus spp. was studied in Slovakia with the aim to assess their potential as biological control agents. Insects were collected by sweeping/catching at 10 localities three times during the growing season. Together 13 species from the subfamily Alticinae were collected on A. retroflexus L. and A. caudatus L. plants by sweeping net. They were Altica oleracea (L.), Chaetocnema concinna (Marsh.), C. leavicolis Thoms., C....

  2. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera) of bats (Order Chiroptera) and rodents (Order Rodentia) from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda López; Sánchez, R. Tatiana; Barquez, Ruben M.; Díaz, M. Monica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina. PMID:28769701

  3. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial, a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10–33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10 of the control dogs and 0% (0/10 of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p < 0.0031. Through its efficacy against fleas, NexGard Spectra® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study.

  4. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on cats in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, M.; Bouhsira, E.; Böhm, C.; Wolken, S.; Wolf, O.; Löhlein, W.; Wiseman, S.; Hayes, B.; Schnitzler, B.; Fisher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods An ectoparasiticide containing spinosad was evaluated as an oral formulation for cats. Two European laboratory studies and a European multicentre field efficacy and safety study assessed the use of a chewable tablet formulation of spinosad at a dose range of 50–75 mg/kg for treatment and control of flea infestations on cats. Results The studies with experimentally infested cats consistently demonstrated persistent activity against Ctenocephalides felis with >98 per cent efficacy at four weeks post-treatment. In the field study with naturally infested client-owned cats from 18 clinics across Germany and Italy, two monthly doses of spinosad were administered; selamectin was the comparator product. Safety was evaluated in 226 cats, each receiving at least one dose of spinosad or selamectin; both products were well tolerated. 113 spinosad-treated cats and 71 selamectin-treated cats showed >97 per cent reductions in geometric mean flea counts within 14 days post-treatment and at 60 days post-treatment efficacy was >98 per cent in both groups. Analysis of success rates showed 96 per cent in spinosad-treated cats compared with 90.9 per cent in selamectin-treated cats at day 60. The spinosad tablets were successfully administered to over 98 percent of cats. These studies indicate that this formulation of spinosad is safe and efficacious for treatment and prevention of flea infestations in cats. PMID:26392879

  5. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

  6. Relative importance of demographics, locale, and seasonality underlying louse and flea parasitism of raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monello, Ryan J; Gompper, Matthew E

    2009-02-01

    A variety of demographic, seasonal, and site-specific variables may influence parasitism, but the relative importance of these variables is generally unclear. We measured the relative ability of host characteristics, season, and site to explain louse (Trichodectes octomaculatus) and flea (Orchopeas howardi) infestation across 10 populations of raccoons (Procyon lotor). Lice are highly dependent on specific hosts and are predicted to display a relatively strong relationship with factors intrinsic to the host, when compared to fleas, which can infest multiple species and survive off-host for weeks without feeding. We developed a priori models that represented explicit hypotheses and contrasted their ability to predict infestation patterns. While the abundance of lice was seasonal, models that included solely host age and sex best predicted prevalence and abundance, in part because males were infested with 3 times the number of lice than were females. Conversely, flea prevalence and abundance, which peaks sharply in the spring, was best predicted by season; factors intrinsic to the host were relatively unimportant for predicting abundance. These, and other, recent findings emphasize the need to simultaneously assess the relative importance of multiple ecological variables between parasite species when attempting to describe general trends and constraints of host-parasite associations.

  7. FLEA BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: ALTICINAE SPECIES OCCURRING ON AMARANTHUS spp. IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cagán

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Occurrence and abundance of flea beetle species associated with Amaranthus spp. was studied in Slovakia with the aim to assess their potential as biological control agents. Insects were collected by sweeping/catching at 10 localities three times during the growing season. Together 13 species from the subfamily Alticinae were collected on A. retroflexus L. and A. caudatus L. plants by sweeping net. They were Altica oleracea (L., Chaetocnema concinna (Marsh., C. leavicolis Thoms., C. tibialis (Ill., Longitarsus longipennis Kutsch., L. melanocephalus Deg., L. nasturtii (F., L. pellucidus Foudras, Phyllotreta atra (F., P. cruciferae (Goeze, P. nigripes (F., P. vittula (Redt. and Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.. C. tibialis contained 41.17- 97.45 percent of all flea beetles population and it was found at all observed localities. It comprised 94.85-99.74 percent of flea beetles on cultivated A. caudatus. Another two Chaetocnema species, C. concinna and C. leavicollis did not overcome more than one percent of C. tibialis population. P. vittula was present at each locality. All the other species occurred on Amaranthus plants were probably concomitant. Species composition of subfamily Alticinae on cultivated species A. caudatus did not differ significantly from those on A. retroflexus.

  8. New record of a phoretic flea associated with earwigs (Dermaptera, Arixeniidae and a redescription of the bat flea Lagaropsylla signata (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hastriter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lagaropsylla signata (Wahlgren, 1903, previously known only from the Island of Java, Indonesia is redescribed and reported for the first time in Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (west coast of Borneo. Many were found clinging to the earwig Arixenia esau Jordan, 1909. A similar account of a phoretic flea (Lagaropsylla turba Smit, 1958 on the same species of cave-dwelling earwig has been reported in peninsular Malaysia in a well-documented association with the hairless naked bulldog bat, Cheiromeles torquatus Horsfield, 1824. The association of L. signata with A. esau is parallel to the evolution and co-existence with bats in Deer Cave just as in the case of L. turba, A. esau, and C. torquatus. The evidence suggests that L. turba and L. signata are obligate phoretic parasites whose survival depends on A. esau to access a bat host. Arixenia esau is reported for the first time in Deer Cave and the occurrence of L. signata on the island of Borneo represented a new record, previously being found only on the island of Java. Images of L. signata attached to A. esau are provided. Xeniaria jacobsoni (Burr, 1912, often associated with A. esau in other geographical areas, was not present in the material examined from Deer Cave. The natural history of the earwig genera Arixenia Jordan, 1909 and Xeniaria Maa, 1974 are discussed and summarized relative to their associations with phoretic fleas and their bat hosts.

  9. New record of a phoretic flea associated with earwigs (Dermaptera, Arixeniidae) and a redescription of the bat flea Lagaropsylla signata (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastriter, Michael W; Miller, Kelly B; Svenson, Gavin J; Martin, Gavin J; Whiting, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    Lagaropsylla signata (Wahlgren, 1903), previously known only from the Island of Java, Indonesia is redescribed and reported for the first time in Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (west coast of Borneo). Many were found clinging to the earwig Arixenia esau Jordan, 1909. A similar account of a phoretic flea (Lagaropsylla turba Smit, 1958) on the same species of cave-dwelling earwig has been reported in peninsular Malaysia in a well-documented association with the hairless naked bulldog bat, Cheiromeles torquatus Horsfield, 1824. The association of Lagaropsylla signata with Arixenia esau is parallel to the evolution and co-existence with bats in Deer Cave just as in the case of Lagaropsylla turba, Arixenia esau, and Cheiromeles torquatus. The evidence suggests that Lagaropsylla turba and Lagaropsylla signata are obligate phoretic parasites whose survival depends on Arixenia esau to access a bat host. Arixenia esau is reported for the first time in Deer Cave and the occurrence of Lagaropsylla signata on the island of Borneo represented a new record, previously being found only on the island of Java. Images of Lagaropsylla signata attached to Arixenia esau are provided. Xeniaria jacobsoni (Burr, 1912), often associated with Arixenia esau in other geographical areas, was not present in the material examined from Deer Cave. The natural history of the earwig genera Arixenia Jordan, 1909 and Xeniaria Maa, 1974 are discussed and summarized relative to their associations with phoretic fleas and their bat hosts.

  10. Efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Math, Lisa; Kallman, James; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2015-07-11

    Fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. This study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health) administered to dogs against adult Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production. Twelve purpose-bred dogs were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each. Dogs in treatment group 1 were administered a single fluralaner flavored chew to achieve a minimum dose of at least 25 mg/kg while treatment group 2 served as untreated controls. On Days -2, 28, 56, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 120 post-treatment, each dog was infested with approximately 200 unfed cat fleas, C. felis felis (KS1 strain). Forty-eight hours after treatment and 48 h after each infestation, eggs were collected over a 3-h period, counted and viability determined. Dogs were combed to remove any remaining fleas. Treatment of dogs with oral fluralaner provided a 100% reduction in flea counts 48 h after treatment and within 48 h of every post-treatment infestation through Day122. Egg production from fluralaner treated dogs was reduced by 99.9% (two eggs from one dog) within 48 h after treatment and not a single egg (100% efficacy) was thereafter collected from treated dogs. Adult flea counts and egg production from the fluralaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than for non-treated controls at all post-treatment evaluations (P fluralaner flavored chews provided 100% efficacy against repeated flea infestations on dogs for 4 months. Fluralaner reduced egg production of activity reproducing female fleas by 99.9% and then killed every single female flea before any eggs could be produced following each subsequent re-infestation for the entire 122-day evaluation period.

  11. Flea and Small Mammal Species Composition in Mixed-Grass Prairies: Implications for the Maintenance of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas, Lauren P; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague. The concept of a bridging vector has been used to explain the transmission of pathogens from one host species to another. In the case of sylvatic plague, this would require overlap in fleas between small mammals and prairie dogs, and potentially other species such as carnivores. Our goal was to evaluate the level of flea sharing between black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomis ludovicianus) and other small mammals in a mixed-grass prairie in South Dakota. We investigated the species richness of small mammals and small-mammal fleas in a mixed-grass prairie system and compared findings with previous studies from a short-grass ecosystem in Colorado. Over the summer field seasons 2014-2016 we live-trapped small mammals, collected fleas, and showed differences between both the flea and small mammal composition of the two systems. We also recorded higher densities of deer mice and lower densities of northern grasshopper mice in mixed versus shortgrass prairies. We confirmed, as is the case in shortgrass prairies, a lack of substantial flea species overlap on small mammal hosts and fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows. Moreover this study demonstrates that although small mammals may not play a large part in interepizootic plague cycling in shortgrass prairie ecosystems, their role in mixed-grass prairies requires further evaluation.

  12. Real-time PCR of the mammalian hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS gene for analysis of flea (Ctenocephalides felis feeding patterns on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chengming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise data on quantitative kinetics of blood feeding of fleas, particularly immediately after contact with the host, are essential for understanding dynamics of flea-borne disease transmission and for evaluating flea control strategies. Standard methods used are inadequate for studies that simulate early events after real-life flea access to the host. Methods Here, we developed a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting mammalian DNA within fleas to quantify blood consumption with high sensitivity and specificity. We used primers and fluorescent probes that amplify the hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS gene, an evolutionary divergent gene that is unlikely to be detected in insects by mammalian-specific primers and probes. To validate this assay, fleas were placed on dogs, allowed to distribute in the hair, and removed at specific time points with single-use combs. Fleas were then immediately homogenized by vigorous shaking with ceramic beads in guanidinium-based DNA preservation buffer for DNA extraction. Results The specificity of this assay was ascertained by amplification of canine, feline and equine blood with differential product melting temperatures (Tm, and lack of amplification of bovine and porcine blood and of adult fleas reared from larvae fed with bovine blood. Sensitivity of the assay was established by limiting dilution and detection of single copies of HMBS DNA equivalent to 0.043 nL blood. Application of the assay indicated that after 15 minutes on a dog, male and female fleas had ingested low, but similar amounts of approximately 1.1. nL blood. Saturation uptake of 118 and 100 nL blood per flea was found at 30 and 60 min on the dog, respectively. Conclusions The HMBS PCR method developed here offers the advantages of both exquisite sensitivity and specificity that make it superior to other approaches for quantification of blood ingested by fleas. The capability to detect minute quantities of

  13. Occurrence of Dipylidium caninum in fleas from client-owned cats and dogs in Europe using a new PCR detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Labuschagne, Michel; Fourie, Josephus; Jacques, Guillot; Farkas, Robert; Cozma, Vasile; Halos, Lénaïg; Hellmann, Klaus; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-09-15

    Ctenocephalides fleas are not only the most prevalent ectoparasites of dogs and cats but also the intermediate host of the cestode Dipylidium caninum. Due to the poor sensitivity of coproscopy to diagnose cat and dog infestation by Dipylidium, few epidemiological data are available on its prevalence among pet populations. A new PCR method was developed to specifically identify D. caninum rDNA inside single fleas. The PCR test was then applied to 5529 fleas of Ctenocephalides genus, 2701 Ctenocephalides felis fleas (1969 collected on 435 cats and 732 on 178 dogs) and 2828 Ctenocephalides canis fleas collected from 396 dogs. Precisely, 4.37% of cats were infested by a flea population infected with D. caninum. Out of the 1969 C. felis from cats, 2.23% were found to be infected with Dipylidium. From the 396 dogs infested with C. canis, 9.1%% were infested with the Dipylidium infected fleas, which is significantly higher than the observation made in cats (p=0.03). Moreover, 3.1% of the C. canis fleas were found to be infected with Dipylidium, which is not significantly different than in C. felis. Looking at the number of infected fleas in the positive samples (at least one PCR positive flea in a sample), the infestation rate in samples was varied from 3 to 100% with an average of 19.7% which is in favour of easy and regular Dipylidium reinfestations of both cats and dogs in households. For the first time, the spread of D. caninum between fleas and dogs and cats is confirmed throughout Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized, blinded, controlled USA field study to assess the use of fluralaner topical solution in controlling canine flea infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Cheyney; Guerino, Frank; Sun, Fangshi

    2017-01-19

    Orally administered fluralaner effectively controls fleas and ticks on dogs for 12 weeks. This study evaluates the flea control efficacy achieved with topically applied fluralaner in dogs. This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive controlled study evaluated flea control efficacy in dogs following a single owner-applied treatment of topical fluralaner. A positive control group received three treatments, at 4-week intervals, of a commercial formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene. All dogs in households randomized to the fluralaner group were dispensed an initial treatment at enrollment and a second treatment at week 12 for an additional 3-week observation of treatment safety. Households with up to five healthy dogs, all at least 12 weeks of age and weighing at least 2 kg (4.4 lb), were randomized in a ratio of 3:1 of fluralaner to positive control. Within households, one primary dog with at least 10 live fleas at enrollment was randomly selected. Flea counts were performed on all primary dogs every 4 weeks through week 12. Efficacy measurement was based on reduction from baseline flea counts. Treatment was considered effective if geometric mean live flea count reductions at weeks 4, 8, and 12 were 90% or greater and significantly different from counts at enrollment. In addition, for each time point the arithmetic mean live flea counts, the efficacy based on arithmetic means, the number and percentage of dogs with at least a 90% reduction in flea count, and the number and percentage of flea free dogs were calculated. Statistical comparisons were also made between treatment groups. At 12 sites, across 10 states, 121 households (221 dogs) were randomized to receive fluralaner and 44 households (100 dogs) were randomized to receive the positive control. Fluralaner was demonstrated to be significantly effective (all P ≤ 0.0001) at 4 weeks (99.8% reduction), 8 weeks (99.9%), and 12 weeks (99.9%). The positive control was significantly

  15. A randomized, blinded, controlled USA field study to assess the use of fluralaner topical solution in controlling feline flea infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Cheyney; Guerino, Frank; Sun, Fangshi

    2017-01-19

    Fleas are a common ectoparasite of domestic cats and there is a need for novel treatments that improve feline flea control. This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive-controlled study evaluated the flea control in cats provided by a single owner-applied treatment with a fluralaner topical formulation compared with a positive control. Households with up to five healthy cats, all at least 12 weeks of age and weighing at least 1.2 kg (2.6 lb), were randomized in an approximate 3:1 ratio of fluralaner to positive control. All cats in households randomized to the positive control group were dispensed three treatments, at 4-week intervals, of a commercial formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene. All cats in households randomized to the fluralaner group were dispensed an initial treatment at enrollment and a second treatment at week 12 for an additional 3-week observation of treatment safety. One primary cat with at least five live fleas at enrollment was randomly selected within each household. Flea counts were performed on all primary cats at 4-week intervals through week 12. Efficacy measurement was based on reduction in flea counts from baseline. Treatment was considered effective at weeks 4, 8 and 12 if mean live flea count reductions were 90% or greater and statistically significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from counts at enrollment. In 18 investigational veterinary clinics across 11 USA states, 116 households (224 cats) were randomized to receive topical fluralaner and 45 households (87 cats) were randomized to the fipronil-methoprene combination. Fluralaner was demonstrated to be effective at 4 weeks (99.1% flea count reduction), 8 weeks (99.5%), and 12 weeks (99.0%), and all reductions were significantly different from the enrollment count (all P fluralaner topical treatment was safe in cats and was highly effective in killing fleas over the subsequent 12 weeks.

  16. Factors influencing sperm transfer and insemination in cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) fed on an artificial membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Susan R; Meola, Roger W

    2002-05-01

    Sperm transfer through the epididymis, a prerequisite for insemination of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) was stimulated by exposure of unfed male fleas to juvenile hormone III residues for 3 d at 25 degrees C or exposure of unfed fleas to 37 degrees C for 6 d. Sperm transfer was completed at least three times faster in unfed males held at 37 degrees C than in those held at 25 degrees C. Although percentage sperm transfer in fleas fed water or 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C was not significantly increased over that of unfed fleas, a significantly greater percentage of blood-fed males completed sperm transfer at 2, 3, and 6 d. At least two factors influenced insemination: exposure of fleas to host body temperature and amount of food consumption. When blood-fed males and females were paired and fed 0.15 M saline, 0% were inseminated at 25 degrees C versus 35% at 37 degrees C. Because percentage insemination did not increase in blood-fed males and females that were paired and fed 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C for an additional 48 h, continuous bloodfeeding appeared to be required for maximal rates of mating and insemination. Furthermore, no females were inseminated when blood-fed males and females were paired at 37 degrees C and starved. Treatment of unfed fleas with juvenile hormone III did not substitute for bloodfeeding in stimulating mating and insemination; when blood-fed males were paired with JH III-treated females and vice versa and fed 0.15 M saline at 37 degrees C, 0% were inseminated. However, when fleas were fed 0.15 M saline and exposed to 1,250 ppm juvenile hormone III or fed whole blood and exposed to 12.5, 125, or 1,250 ppm juvenile hormone III, percent insemination was significantly increased in comparison to the controls. Therefore, juvenile hormone secretion in blood-fed fleas may regulate mating success indirectly by stimulating sperm transfer.

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  18. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  19. A small-scale open-label study of the treatment of canine flea allergy dermatitis with fluralaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Fluralaner is an isoxazoline systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides persistent flea-killing activity on dogs for 12 weeks. European and US field studies have shown that fluralaner treatment alleviates the signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in client-owned dogs. To assess the clinical response in FAD affected dogs over the 12-week period following a single oral fluralaner treatment. Twenty client-owned dogs were diagnosed with FAD on the basis of compatible clinical signs and a positive response in flea antigen tests, using intradermal and or serological methods. An open-label small-scale study with all dogs receiving a single oral fluralaner treatment. All enrolled dogs were diagnosed with FAD and then clinically monitored at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Twenty dogs completed the study. All dogs were flea-free at all post-treatment assessments except for one dog that had a single flea at the first post-enrollment assessment at 4 weeks. At the 4-week post-treatment assessment active FAD signs had resolved in all dogs; at 8 weeks post-treatment, two dogs showed mild signs. All clinical signs of FAD had resolved at the final assessment of 12 weeks after treatment. A single administration of fluralaner alleviated or resolved signs associated with FAD in all treated dogs over the recommended 12-week treatment period. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Intervet Australia Pty Ltd.

  20. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens; Robert R. Parmenter; Michael Boyden; Paulette L. Ford; Kenneth Gage; Paul Keim

    2010-01-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our...

  2. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Meyer, Leon; Fourie, Josephus; Larsen, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10–33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10) of the control dogs and 0% (0/10) of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p NexGard Spectra® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. PMID:28497745

  3. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra(®) against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Meyer, Leon; Fourie, Josephus; Larsen, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra(®) (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra(®) was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10-33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10) of the control dogs and 0% (0/10) of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p NexGard Spectra(®) treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  4. FleaTickRisk: a meteorological model developed to monitor and predict the activity and density of three tick species and the cat flea in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Beugnet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling is quite a recent tool in epidemiology. Geographical information system (GIS combined with remote sensing (data collection and analysis provide valuable models, but the integration of climatologic models in parasitology and epidemiology is less common. The aim of our model, called “FleaTickRisk”, was to use meteorological data and forecasts to monitor the activity and density of some arthropods. Our parasitological model uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF meteorological model integrating biological parameters. The WRF model provides a temperature and humidity picture four times a day (at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hours. Its geographical resolution is 27 x 27 km over Europe (area between longitudes 10.5° W and 30° E and latitudes 37.75° N and 62° N. The model also provides weekly forecasts. Past data were compared and revalidated using current meteorological data generated by ground stations and weather satellites. The WRF model also includes geographical information stemming from United States Geophysical Survey biotope maps with a 30’’ spatial resolution (approximately 900 x 900 m. WRF takes into account specific climatic conditions due to valleys, altitudes, lakes and wind specificities. The biological parameters of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis were transformed into a matrix of activity. This activity matrix is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 0 to 100, for each interval of temperature x humidity. The activity of these arthropods is defined by their ability to infest hosts, take blood meals and reproduce. For each arthropod, the matrix was calculated using existing data collected under optimal temperature and humidity conditions, as well as the timing of the life cycle. The mathematical model integrating both the WRF model (meteorological data + geographical data and the biological matrix provides two indexes: an

  5. Evaluation of fluralaner and afoxolaner treatments to control flea populations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions in naturally infested dogs in private residences in west central Florida USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C; Foley, Kaitlin M; Green, Kathryn; Tebaldi, Chantelle; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Heaney, Kathleen; Math, Lisa; Royal, Christine; Sun, Fangshi

    2016-06-28

    A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea and tick products to control flea infestations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions over a 12 week period on naturally infested dogs in west central FL USA. Thirty-four dogs with natural flea infestations living in 17 homes were treated once with a fluralaner chew on study day 0. Another 27 dogs living in 17 different homes were treated orally with an afoxolaner chewable on day 0, once between days 28-30 and once again between days 54-60. All products were administered according to label directions by study investigators. Flea populations on pets were assessed using visual area counts and premise flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and once between days 28-30, 40-45, 54-60 and 82-86. Dermatologic assessments were conducted on day 0 and once monthly. Pruritus assessments were conducted by owners throughout the study. No concurrent treatments for existing skin disease (antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anti-fungals) were allowed. Following the first administration of fluralaner or afoxolaner, flea populations on pets were reduced by 99.0 % and 99.3 %, respectively within 7 days. Flea populations on the fluralaner treated dogs were 0 (100 % efficacy) on days 54-60 and 82-86 after the administration of a single dose on day 0. Administration of 3 monthly doses of afoxolaner reduced flea populations by 100 % on days 82-86. Flea numbers in indoor-premises were markedly reduced in both treatment groups by days 82-86, with 100 % and 98.9 % reductions in flea trap counts in the fluralaner and afoxolaner treatment groups, respectively. Marked improvement was observed in FAD lesion scoring, Atopic Dermatitis lesions scoring (CADESI-4) and pruritus scores with both formulations. In a clinical field investigation conducted during the summer of 2015 in subtropical Florida, a single administration of an oral

  6. Small todents fleas from the bubonic plague focus located in the Serra dos Órgãos Mountain Range, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382, followed by P. (Neopolygenis pradoi, representing 20% (N:185 and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae, representing 18.9% (N:175. The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.

  7. Relative susceptibility of two sweetpotato varieties to storage root damage by sweetpotato flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Mark R; Kennedy, George G

    2011-02-01

    The feeding of soil dwelling insects on storage roots is one of the most serious management issues faced by sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), growers in the southern United States. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the relative susceptibility of two commonly grown sweetpotato varieties to sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae, various species). The incidence and severity of sweetpotato flea beetle damage was significantly lower in the variety Covington than Beauregard in two small plot replicated studies. Surveys conducted in commercial sweetpotato fields also showed significantly less sweetpotato flea beetle damage in fields planted to Covington compared with those planted to Beauregard. There was no clear evidence of varietal effect on the incidence of wireworm damage in the study. Results indicate that the severity of wireworm damage as measured by the size of feeding scars may be less in Covington than Beauregard.

  8. Presence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas suggests that ticks are carriers of Chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Rieille, Nadia; Kernif, Tahar; Bitam, Idir; Aeby, Sébastien; Péter, Olivier; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-06-01

    The Chlamydiales order includes the Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Waddliaceae, Simkaniaceae, Criblamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Clavichlamydiaceae, and Piscichlamydiaceae families. Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within eukaryotic cells of different origins including humans, animals, and amoebae. Many of these bacteria are pathogens or emerging pathogens of both humans and animals, but their true diversity is largely underestimated, and their ecology remains to be investigated. Considering their potential threat on human health, it is important to expand our knowledge on the diversity of Chlamydiae, but also to define the host range colonized by these bacteria. Thus, using a new pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we analyzed the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas, which are important vectors of several viral and bacterial infectious diseases. To conduct this study, 1340 Ixodes ricinus ticks prepared in 192 pools were collected in Switzerland and 55 other ticks belonging to different tick species and 97 fleas belonging to different flea species were harvested in Algeria. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in the 192 pools was equal to 28.1% (54/192) which represents an estimated prevalence in the 1340 individual ticks of between 4.0% and 28.4%. The pan-Chlamydiales qPCR was positive for 45% (25/55) of tick samples collected in Algeria. The sequencing of the positive qPCR amplicons revealed a high diversity of Chlamydiales species. Most of them belonged to the Rhabdochlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae families. Thus, ticks may carry Chlamydiales and should thus be considered as possible vectors for Chlamydiales propagation to both humans and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions.

  10. Bartonella, Rodents, Fleas and Ticks: a Molecular Field Study on Host-Vector-Pathogen Associations in Saxony, Eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Martin; Kiefer, Daniel; Kiefer, Matthias; Obiegala, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Bartonellae cause zoonotic diseases and are transmitted by arthropods. Rodents are reservoirs for most Bartonella spp. As the knowledge about Bartonella in rodents and their parasitizing ectoparasites is scarce in Germany, this study's objectives were to investigate Bartonella spp. in small mammals and in their ectoparasites. A total of 79 small mammals (seven species) were captured and their ectoparasites collected at seven sites around Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, in 2010 and 2011. Altogether, 79 spleen samples, 135 fleas (five species) and 365 ticks (three species) were investigated for Bartonella spp. by PCR targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region. In total, 52 (65.8 %) small mammals, 73 (54.1 %) fleas and 51 (16.3 %) ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. Most small mammals were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 29) followed by Bartonella grahamii (n = 12), Bartonella taylorii (n = 8) and Bartonella sp. N40 (n = 3). Likewise, most fleas were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 45) followed by B. grahamii (n = 14), B. taylorii (n = 8), B. sp. N40 (n = 5) and Bartonella elizabethae (n = 2). Most ticks were positive for B. sp. (n = 19) followed by B. grahamii (n = 10), Bartonella chomelii (n = 3), B. taylorii (n = 2) and B. sp. N40 (n = 1). This study's results suggest that rodents and fleas may be reservoirs and vectors, respectively. Zoonotic B. grahamii and B. elizabethae were found in rodents and their fleas. Therefore, humans may contract Bartonella infection by contact to wild rodents. Ticks seem of minor importance in transmitting Bartonella spp. found in fleas and rodents. However, ticks might be vectors of B. chomelii.

  11. Assessment of dog owner adherence to veterinarians' flea and tick prevention recommendations in the United States using a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Robert P; Tunceli, Kaan; Zhang, Dongmu; Normile, Dorothy; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-06-06

    Adherence to a prescribed therapeutic regimen is a critical factor for achieving medication effectiveness and therefore treatment success. In the case of companion animal ectoparasite control, suboptimal owner adherence to medication recommendations is thought to be a common cause of treatment failure, and previous reports have found pet owners applying an average of 4.0-4.6 monthly flea and tick treatments per year to their dogs. This study investigated: US veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion on flea/tick recommendations and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records. Veterinarians at 24 veterinary hospitals in 4 United States regions provided their flea and tick prevention recommendations. Five hundred fifty-nine dog owners, clients of the 24 hospitals, completed a survey evaluating their recollection of the hospitals' recommendations and their opinions regarding required treatment frequency. Almost all veterinary hospitals in this study recommended 12 months of flea and tick prevention but only 62% of participating dog owners recalled this recommendation. The average owner response was that their dogs require 10.5 months of flea and tick prevention annually. Owner opinions were significantly different among U.S. regions with pet owners in the northeast U.S. believing that they needed significantly less canine flea and tick protection than pet owners in other parts of the United States. The estimated actual flea and tick prevention coverage was 6.1 months based on owner medication purchases over a 12-month period. In the United States, dog owner opinions and actions show that their flea and tick treatment adherence falls short of veterinarians' recommendations.

  12. Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria

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    Oluwaseun Oguntomole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles, and livestock animals (23 articles were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp. and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity (LD(50)) of CHF1 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    submitted by SRI International, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) , and private industry, against a variety of mosquitoes , sand flies, fleas...required for registration of a new insect repellent are prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ). The basic animal toxicity tests required...0.5 t 5.0 gm /kg)(2). For this reason CHF1 is best classified as "slightly toxic." The slope of the dose response curve was greater for female rats

  14. A randomized, blinded, controlled USA field study to assess the use of fluralaner tablets in controlling canine flea infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Cheyney; Guerino, Frank; Sun, Fangshi

    2014-08-16

    The novel isoxazoline molecule fluralaner provides 12 weeks activity against fleas and 8 to 12 weeks against tick infestations according to label claims. This blinded, multi-center study in client-owned dogs evaluated the flea control provided by a single oral fluralaner treatment (25-56 mg/kg; Bravecto™, Merck Animal Health) compared to a control group administered three oral spinosad (30 - 60 mg/kg; Comfortis®, Elanco) treatments at 4-week intervals together with an amitraz collar (9%, Preventic®, Virbac). Households were randomized (3:1 ratio) to either fluralaner (224 dogs, 118 households) or control (70 dogs, 39 households). Within households, one primary dog with at least 10 live fleas at enrollment was randomly selected for whole body flea counts every 4 weeks through Week 12; all dogs were followed for safety until Week 12. Fluralaner dogs received two additional doses at Weeks 12 and 24 for further safety and palatability observations through Week 26. Geometric mean flea count reductions from baseline for the fluralaner group at Weeks 4, 8, and 12 were 99.7%, 99.8%, and 99.8%, respectively; and 96.1%, 99.5%, and 99.6% for the spinosad controls. Percentages of flea-free primary dogs at Weeks 4, 8, and 12 were 91.1%, 95.4%, and 95.3% for the fluralaner group; and 44.7%, 88.2%, and 84.4% for the controls; the differences were significant at Weeks 4 (P Fluralaner tablets were accepted free choice in over 90% of doses. The most common adverse event was vomiting, occurring in 7.1% of the fluralaner group and 14.3% of the controls. No treatment related serious adverse events were reported. A single treatment of dogs with the palatable fluralaner flavored chewable tablet provides a safe and effective option for 12 weeks of flea control at least equivalent to that of 3 sequential treatments with spinosad tablets. Linked to the high level of flea control was a substantial alleviation of associated signs of FAD.

  15. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

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    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  16. The effect of different seeding densities of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on flax flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Twardowski Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed, one of the oldest cultivated crops, is again gaining in importance, mainly due to its nutritional benefits and biomedical applications. Therefore, it is expected that herbivores will also exist in greater abundance. Among them the flea beetle, Aphthona euphorbiae Schrank and Longitarsus parvulus Paykull are considered to be serious pests of flax grown for fibre and seeds in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine flax flea beetles’ abundance, species richness and seasonal dynamics on linseed grown at different densities. It was expected that linseed seeding density can significantly affect flea beetle populations. The experiment was carried out in Lower Silesia, Poland, from 2011 to 2013. A genetically modified type of linseed overproducing flavonoids was used. Flea beetles and the damages they caused were determined on plants and also a sweep net was used for the collection of adult beetles. During the three years of the study 15 species of flea beetles were identified from oil flax plants, with A. euphorbiae and L. parvulus being dominant. In terms of the total catch, the tendency was for beetle numbers to decrease with increasing plant density. Flax flea beetles feeding on linseed plants, irrespective of plant density, had two peaks of abundance. The first peak was lower and occurred in June, when plants were at the blooming stage. This peak was caused by overwintering adults who colonized crops in spring. The second, higher peak of abundance was recorded in the second half of July, when plants were at the ripening stage. This peak was formed by adults of the new generation. Each year, at the higher population peak of abundance, the flea beetles were most numerous on plants grown at the lowest density. There was one period, lasting either from mid-May to the first few days of June, or from the beginning of June to mid-June, during which the number of holes and damage on plants of each treatment were highest. During the three

  17. SURVEILLANCE OF SEAPORT RODENTS AND ITS FLEA-INDICES IN CILACAP, CENTRAL JAVA AND PANJANG, SUMATERA, INDONESIA

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    K. C. Megawe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu survai terhadap tikus dan pinjal telah diselenggarakan di daerah pelabuhan Cilacap dan Panjang, pada November 1985 sampai Maret 1986. Dalam survai itu diidentifikasi empat spesies tikus, yaitu Rattus r. diardii, R. norregicus, Bandicota indica, dan Mus musculus, serta seekor insektivora, Suncus murinus. Kepadatan polusi binatang-binatang ini rendah di dalam pelabuhan dan sedang di perkampungan sekitarnya. R.r. diardii terbukti merupakan tikus yang terbanyak dijumpai baik di pelabuhan maupun di perkampungan sekitar. Kepadatan Xenopsylla cheopis ternyata rendah baik pada tikus-tikus maupun insektivora di kedua daerah pelabuhan. Indeks pinjal spesifik tertinggi didapatkan pada R.r. diardii. Tes kerentanan X. cheopis terhadap insektisida dengan menggunakan DDT 4%, melathion 0,5% dan fenit rothion 1% menunjukkan bahwa pinjal itu lebih sensitif terhadap melathion dan fenitrothion dibanding terhadap DDT, di kedua daerah pelabuhan.

  18. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  19. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  20. Systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Kurt; Armstrong, Rob

    2016-08-08

    Acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. Results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. Both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.Four general properties are considered related to the goal of providing optimal reduction in the risk of vector-borne pathogen transmission. These are: 1. Owner adherence to the recommended treatment protocol; 2. Rapid onset of activity following administration; 3. Uniform efficacy over all areas of the treated dog at risk for parasite attachment; 4. Maintenance of high efficacy throughout the retreatment interval. In considering these four factors, a systemically distributed acaricide can offer an option that is at least as effective as a cutaneously administered acaricide with regard to the overall goal of reducing the risk of vector-borne pathogen transmission.

  1. Comparison of Two Techniques for the Detection of Flea Faeces in Canine and Feline Coat Brushings

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    Marie-Christine Cadiergues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flea infestation is diagnosed after the detection of either adult parasites or flea faeces in the fur. The latter is generally tested with the wet blotting paper technique (WBPT. However, microscopical examination (MT of the coat brushing material is sometimes suggested as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of the two techniques. In dogs, the entire body was hand-brushed and cats were combed. One half of the collected material was mounted in liquid paraffin on a glass slide and examined microscopically at low magnification. The second half was placed on a blotting paper and sterile water was added. After drying, reddish aureoles were counted. 255 animals (158 dogs and 97 cats were included. 119 (47% and 94 (37% samples were revealed to be positive with WBPT and MT, respectively. 13 cases (5% were positive with MT only and 38 cases (15% were positive with WBPT only. 81 cases (32% were positive and 123 (48% were negative with both techniques. More positive cases were detected by WBPT than MT (P<0.001. Amongst the 51 samples which were found positive with a sole technique, infestation was considered low in 43 cases and WBPT detected significantly more positive samples (31 than MT (12, P<0.01.

  2. Suprageneric systematics of flea beetles (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) inferred from multilocus sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Deyan; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Chesters, Douglas; Yang, Xingke; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-03-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies of flea beetles (Alticinae) based on morphological or molecular data have focused on the relationship and possible paraphyly with respect to the closely related Galerucinae, while the supra-generic classification mainly dates back to the 19th century. Here, phylogenetic analysis was performed on DNA sequences for two mitochondrial (rrnL and cox1) and two nuclear (SSU and LSU rRNA) genes from 158 genera and 165 species that cover most suprageneric groups of flea beetles proposed in the older literature. Various alignment strategies and tree search methods were used to test the stability of major clades. Besides confirmation of the placement of several alticine lineages within Galerucinae, a preliminary framework for classification of the main alticine clades was obtained. It is proposed to recognize 18 groups of genera based on well-supported nodes. These include the Altica, Amphimela, Aphthona, Blepharida, Chabria, Chaetocnema, Dibolia, Disonycha, Griva, Lactica, Longitarsus, Manobia, Monoplatus, Nisotra, Oedionychis, Pentamesa, Phygasia and Pseudodera groups. These groups provide a novel perspective to the existing classification. The analysis of 14 morphological characters used in the traditional classification of Alticinae and Galerucinae revealed high levels of homoplasy with respect to the DNA-based tree, but significant hierarchical structure in most of them. Even if not unique to any particular group of genera, these traits largely corroborate the groupings established with DNA sequences. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, S; Franc, M; Bouhsira, E; Wiseman, S; Hayes, B; Schnitzler, B; Jacobs, D E

    2012-01-01

    The novel ectoparasiticide spinosad is a naturally occurring mixture of spinosyns A and D formed during a fermentation process. The spinosyns are tetracyclic macrolides with a unique ring system. Their mode of action differs from that of other commercially available insecticides. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the use of spinosad in a chewable tablet at a dose range of 45 to 70 mg/kg for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs in Europe. Laboratory studies with artificially infested dogs confirmed persistent activity against Ctenocephalides felis of higher than 99 per cent at three weeks post-treatment with values of 96.5 to 97.8 per cent at four weeks. Two multicentric field trials with naturally infected client-owned animals in five European countries used selamectin as comparator. Monthly doses were given during the summer when many homes were heavily infested. Households with spinosad-treated dogs showed cumulative benefits with flea burdens reduced by about 97 per cent at 14 and 30 days and by 99.6 per cent at 60 and 90 days. Corresponding figures for selamectin were significantly lower (P<0.05) at all time points: between 88.5 and 91 per cent at 14 and 30 days, then 97.8 and 98.2 per cent at 60 and 90 days. Thus, the performance of spinosad compared favourably with that of the established reference product.

  4. SPESIES TIKUS, CECURUT DAN PINJAL YANG DITEMUKAN DI PASAR KOTA BANJARNEGARA, KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA TAHUN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Supriyati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRats harm to human life, both in terms of economics and health. Rats transmitted disease, ectoparasites andendoparasites. Many potential sites where rat found in high enough quantities, one of those sites is a traditionalmarket. The purpose of this study was to know the presence of rats and fleas in the market town Banjarnegara,Banjarnegara District. This research is a descriptive study using survey methods. Research design using crosssectionalapproach. Rats data obtained by trapping rats using a live trap. Population was rats living in marketsBanjarnegara, Banjarnegara. The sample was rats that were caught using bait traps roasted coconut andcucumber. The collected data were analyzed descriptively. Result showed that 33 rats had been caught during thestudy. The most abundant species was Rattus tanezumi (84.85%, while the least is Rattus norvegicus (3.03%. Asmuch 20 (60.61% were male higger than female rat as much as 13 rats (39.39%. Rats in the market stalls(77,42% greater than the outside market stall (22,58%. The trap succes were 8.25% with the successful captureof the highest rats on day 2 (4.5%. While the success of trapping rats (trap success based on the location of thearrest shows that in the market stalls (6.5% greater than the outside market stall (1.75%. Number of fleas thatinfest species caught as many as 67 tails. Species of fleas that infest rats identified as Xenopsylla cheopis. Commonflea index as much 2,03 upper than standard. Control of rats and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis was needed.Key words: trap success, rats, fleasABSTRAKTikus merugikan bagi kehidupan manusia, baik dari sisi ekonomi maupun kesehatan. Tikus membawa kumanpenyakit, ektoparasit dan endoparasit. Pasar tradisional merupakan tempat potensial ditemukan tikus dalamjumlah cukup tinggi. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui keberadaan tikus, cecurut dan ektoparasit pinjal diPasar Kota Banjarnegara, Kabupaten Banjarnegara. Penelitian deskriptif dengan metode survei

  5. The efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin and pyriproxyfen against the southern African yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis elliptica, and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Fourie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic and residual efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin (40 % and pyriproxyfen (2 % against the tick Haemaphysalis elliptica and the flea Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Twelve dogs were infested with 50 ticks 2 days before they were treated and with approximately 100 fleas 6 days before treatment and again 2 days before treatment and with 50 ticks and approximately 100 fleas at weekly intervals thereafter. They were ranked according to their flea counts and sex 5 days before treatment and randomly allocated to an untreated control group of 6 dogs and a treated group of 6 dogs. Ticks and fleas were collected from the dogs 48 h after treatment and 48 h after each infestation and live and dead ticks and live fleas were counted. The counts of ticks and fleas were transformed to geometric means, and efficacy was calculated by comparing these means. The product had a therapeutic efficacy of 83.1 % against H. elliptica and 97.5 % against C. felis 2 days after treatment. The residual period of protection during which efficacy was ≥ 90 % was 5 weeks for both H. elliptica and C. felis.

  6. Pleiotropic effects associated with an allele enabling the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum to use Barbarea vulgaris as a host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Jong, de P.W.; Victoir, K.; Vrieling, K.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Danish region of Kværkeby, a mutation in an, as yet, unknown single autosomal gene has resulted in a dominant resistance (R-) allele in the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae). It enables the beetle to overcome the defences of Barbarea vulgaris ssp.

  7. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: I. An annotated checklist of fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Lewis; Chris. Maser

    1981-01-01

    During a trapping survey of small mammals (approximately 3,000 individuals), species of fleas (1,632 specimens) were collected in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon. Host mammals were represented by 15 species—6 insectivores and 9 rodents captured from June through September. The collections extend our knowledge of the fauna of Oregon.

  8. AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Victoir, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Meijden, van der E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2005-01-01

    A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), flea beetles imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...

  10. Inundative release of Aphthona spp. flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomlidae) as a biological "herbicide" on leafy spurge in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; G. Markin; J. Milan; T. Barbouletos; M.J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. The successful establishment of a flea beetle complex, mixed Aphthona lacertosa (Rosenhauer) and Aphthona...

  11. Inundative release of Aphthona spp. flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological "herbicide" on leafy spurge in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Progar; G. Markin; J. Milan; T. Barbouletos; M. J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. The successful establishment of a flea beetle complex, mixed Aphthona lacertosa (Rosenhauer) and Aphthona nigriscutus Foundras (87 and 13%,...

  12. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products

  13. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  14. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan Nambi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v and (S-methoprene 8.8% (w/v (Fiprofort® Plus was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n=35 and fleas infestation (n=15. On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v and (S-methoprene 8.8% (w/v spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3, 53.14% (day 7, 62.71% (day 14, 65.48% (day 21, 59.80% (day 28, and 58.82% (day 35, whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3, 64.34% (day 7, 89.67% (day 14, 95.40% (day 21, 100.00% (day 28, and 100.00% (day 35. Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks.

  15. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs presented as veterinary patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Judith A; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the control of fleas on dogs was evaluated in a randomized, controlled clinical study conducted in 19 general veterinary practices throughout the United States. Four hundred and seventy nine (479) dogs from 293 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner oral tablets (Simparica™, Zoetis) at the proposed label dose or an approved comparator product at the label dose (spinosad, Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed by their owners at home on Day 0 and on approximately Days 30 and 60. Dogs were examined at the clinics for general health, flea and tick infestation, and clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) at the initial visit and Days 14, 30, 60 and 90. Blood was collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 90. Sarolaner was well-accepted by dogs with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.5%) accepted free choice, by hand or in food. Geometric mean live flea counts were reduced by >99% at the first time measured (14 days) after initiation of treatment and continued to reduce through the study. Treatment success (proportion of dogs with ≥90% reduction in fleas) for the sarolaner-treated dogs was superior to that for spinosad-treated dogs at Days 14 and 30 and non-inferior on Days 60 and 90 (P≤0.025) The rapid reduction in flea infestations resulted in a similar rapid resolution of the clinical signs associated with FAD. Sarolaner chewable tablets were well tolerated with no treatment related adverse reactions. Most of the clinical signs reported were consistent with allergies and dermatitis or sporadic occurrences of conditions commonly observed in the general dog population. A wide variety of concomitant medications, including many commercially available heartworm preventatives and other anthelmintic drugs, were administered to study dogs and all were well tolerated. Sarolaner administered

  16. A field trial of a fixed combination of permethrin and fipronil (Effitix®) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzis, Manolis K; Psemmas, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Elias; Navarro, Christelle; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2017-04-28

    A large number of fleas parasitize dogs living with sheep in Greece. The primary aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of a permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix ® ) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep and the secondary aim was to examine the efficacy of this intervention on flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with these dogs. Thirty dogs living with sheep and infested by at least 10 fleas and all 80 sheep living on the same premises were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A dogs were treated three times, every 4 weeks, with a spot-on containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil, group A sheep were treated, on the same days, with a pour-on containing 1% deltamethrin, whereas group B dogs were sham-treated and group B sheep were placebo-treated. Flea counting was performed at the beginning of the trial (day 0) and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days and the first five fleas from each animal were used for species identification. At the same time points, flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were assessed. The percentage of dogs with zero flea counts was significantly higher in group A than in group B on days 14, 28, 56 and 84 and flea counts were significantly lower in group A dogs than in group B dogs at the same time points. The percent efficacy of the permethrin-fipronil combination was higher than 78% (arithmetic means) or than 96% (geometric means) throughout the study. No adverse reactions were recorded. Between the two flea species found on dogs, Ctenocephalides canis was predominant over C. felis. Flea-infected sheep were not found at the beginning or during the study and no significant changes in flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with the dogs were witnessed throughout the study. A spot-on solution containing 54.5% permethrin and 6.1% fipronil is

  17. Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Ghavami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.Methods: The essential oils (EOs of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field col­lected fleas. The effective doses of 50% and 90% of EOs and synthetic compounds were estimated by probit analysis of dose and response regression line.Results: Analysis of EOs revealed about 19 major components. All oils were found to be more repellent (ED50 range= 208–955µg cm-2 than DEET and permethrin (ED50 range= 27–182 x 103 µg cm-2. Thyme and myrtle oils showed high repellent activities and among the total detected terpenes, thymol (36.26% and α- pinene (32.5% were the major components of those oils respectively.Conclusion: Low repellent potency of DEET and permethrin against fleas might be related to flea olfactory system and further molecular and electrophysiological studies are required to conceive new ideas for the discovery and de­velopment of the next generation of repellents. Based on high repellent activity of thyme and myrtle essential oils against Pulex irritans further studies should be staged to develop their appropriate effective formulations. Likewise, field trials should be carried out to evaluate the operational feasibility and dermal toxicity over a long period.

  18. Grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Eads, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non-dusted colony carried at least one flea, whereas we did not find fleas on two dusted colonies. During focal observations, prairie dogs on the non-dusted colony groomed at higher frequencies and for longer durations than prairie dogs on the dusted colonies, lending support to the hypothesis that fleas stimulated grooming. However, the reduced amount of time spent grooming on the dusted colonies suggested that approximately 25% of grooming might be attributed to factors other than direct stimulation from ectoparasites. Non-dusted colony prairie dogs rarely autogroomed when near each other. Dusted colony prairie dogs autogroomed for shorter durations when far from a burrow opening (refuge), suggesting a trade-off between self-grooming and antipredator defense. Allogrooming was detected only on the non-dusted colony and was limited to adult females grooming young pups. Grooming appears to serve an antiparasitic function in C. ludovicianus. Antiparasitic grooming might aid in defense against fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague was introduced to North America ca. 1900 and now has a strong influence on most prairie dog populations, suggesting a magnified effect of grooming on prairie dog fitness.

  19. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto (fluralaner) against Frontline (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohdich, Nadja; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva

    2014-01-01

    ...) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas...

  20. Synergism of the IGRs Methoprene and Pyriproxyfen Against Larval Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Lance, W; Hemsarth, H

    2016-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) methoprene and pyriproxyfen are widely used as topical treatments to pets or applied to the indoor environment to control cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). The toxicity of methoprene, pyriproxyfen, and combinations of both IGRs to cat flea larvae was determined. The LC50 of methoprene and pyriproxyfen applied to larval rearing medium was 0.39 and 0.19 ppm, respectively. Combinations of methoprene:pyriproxyfen in ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1 produced LC50s of 0.06, 0.09, 0.19, and 0.13 ppm, respectively. The pyriproxyfen synergized the activity of methoprene as indicated by the combination indices (CI). The ratio of methoprene:pyriproxyfen (40:1) provided an LC50 of 0.42 ppm and the pyriproxyfen was not synergistic. Combinations of pyriproxyfen:methoprene in ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1 provided LC50s of 0.14, 0.20, 0.20 ppm, respectively, and the methoprene did not synergize the activity of pyriproxyfen. The dose-reduction indices (DRIs) indicated that the concentrations of IGRs in the combinations of methoprene:pyriproxyfen (ratios of 20:1 or less) could be reduced by at least one-third of the amount required by methoprene alone to provide similar larval mortality. Combinations of methoprene and pyriproxyfen may be effective in increasing the residual activity on pets and assist in reducing the likelihood of insecticide resistance developing to IGRs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) against Frontline™ (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. Methods A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline™ (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline™ (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline™ (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. Results At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto™ (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline™ (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto™ (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline™ (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline™ (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Conclusions

  2. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto (fluralaner) against Frontline (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdich, Nadja; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva

    2014-03-04

    Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Bravecto (fluralaner) administered once orally to dogs in a chewable

  3. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  4. A LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator, RovM, Senses Nutritional Cues Suggesting that It Is Involved in Metabolic Adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the Flea Gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis has evolved as a clonal variant of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause flea-borne biofilm-mediated transmission of the bubonic plague. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator, RovM, is highly induced only during Y. pestis infection of the flea host. RovM homologs in other pathogens regulate biofilm formation, nutrient sensing, and virulence; including in Y. pseudotuberculosis, where RovM represses the major virulence factor, RovA. Here the role that RovM plays during flea infection was investigated using a Y. pestis KIM6+ strain deleted of rovM, ΔrovM. The ΔrovM mutant strain was not affected in characteristic biofilm gut blockage, growth, or survival during single infection of fleas. Nonetheless, during a co-infection of fleas, the ΔrovM mutant exhibited a significant competitive fitness defect relative to the wild type strain. This competitive fitness defect was restored as a fitness advantage relative to the wild type in a ΔrovM mutant complemented in trans to over-express rovM. Consistent with this, Y. pestis strains, producing elevated transcriptional levels of rovM, displayed higher growth rates, and differential ability to form biofilm in response to specific nutrients in comparison to the wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that rovA was not repressed by RovM in fleas, but that elevated transcriptional levels of rovM in vitro correlated with repression of rovA under specific nutritional conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that RovM likely senses specific nutrient cues in the flea gut environment, and accordingly directs metabolic adaptation to enhance flea gut colonization by Y. pestis.

  5. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  6. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    species) only during the pupal and adult stages. Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis are economical, operationally feasible, and...12. Bees , Wasps and Hornets ..................................................................................31 B. Snakes...epidemic proportions. Transmission of the plague bacillus by fleas is species- specific. Not all fleas are competent vectors. Xenopsylla cheopis is the

  7. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine-ketoconazole shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Liebenberg, J E; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post-infestation. Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. © 2015 MSD Animal Health. Australian Veterinary Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  9. Fleas and Ticks in Carnivores From a Domestic-Wildlife Interface: Implications for Public Health and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo-Muñoz, Daniela A; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Escobar, Luis E; Astorga, Francisca; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Abarca, Katia; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    Fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. In rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris L.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. The aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and Rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in Central Chile, using morphological keys and molecular analysis. We surveyed 170 households from which 107 dogs and eight cats were sampled. From the natural reserve, we sampled two chilla foxes (Pseudalopex griseus Gray), two lesser grison (Galictis cuja Molina), three kodkods (Leopardus guigna Molina), and four dogs. From dogs, we collected Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans L., and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille; C. felis was the most frequent ectoparasite. Cats were infested only by C. felis and Rh. sanguineus s.l. From wild carnivores, we obtained C. canis and P. irritans, the latter being most frequent. Molecular analysis of P. irritans detected 10 haplotypes and two main clades, which tended to separate fleas from wild and domestic hosts. Molecular analysis of ompA and ompB genes confirmed the presence of Rickettsia felis in fleas collected from owned dogs and cats, which could represent a potential risk factor of R. felis transmission in the area. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A flea-induced pre-hatching maternal effect modulates tick feeding behaviour on great tit nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    Gallizzi, K; Gern, Lise; Richner, H

    2009-01-01

    1. A host's defence reaction against one parasite species can modulate the habitat quality for other parasites in two ways: it can provide cross-resistance against closely related species due to antigenic similarity, or it can reduce resistance to other cohabiting species, since the mounting of multiple defence reactions is more costly. 2. Here we test whether two completely unrelated parasite species can influence each other across host generations, that is, whether a hen flea-induced mater...

  11. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  12. Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Miehls, Andrea L J; Scott D Peacor; Andrew G. McAdam

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which...

  13. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  14. Efficacy and speed of kill of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against flea infestations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Cherni, Judith A; Vatta, Adriano F; King, Vickie L; Lin, Dan; Rugg, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    The efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against induced flea infestations in cats was confirmed in three placebo-controlled, blinded studies. Purpose-bred adult cats (n=8/group) were blocked by pre-treatment flea counts and randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo or with the spot-on formulation at the minimum dose of 6.0mg selamectin and 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Treatments were applied topically once on Day 0. All cats were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult Ctenocephalides felis prior to treatment and at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. In Studies 1 and 2 comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas 24h after treatment and subsequent weekly infestations. In Study 3, flea counts were conducted at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after treatment and 3, 6, 12 and 24h after subsequent weekly infestations to evaluate the speed of kill against fleas. Cats in the placebo-treated groups maintained flea infestations throughout all studies. In Study 1, no live fleas were found on any of the treated cats, resulting in 100% efficacy for 5 weeks after a single treatment (P≤0.0001). In Study 2, selamectin/sarolaner reduced flea counts by 92.4% immediately after treatment and by 97.7%-100% after re-infestations for five weeks (P≤0.0001). In the speed of kill study, selamectin/sarolaner started killing fleas within 12h after treatment administration and within 6h following re-infestation for at least 28days. Efficacy was 98.1% by 24h after treatment and 100% within 24h after re-infestations for 5 weeks. A single topical administration of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner at the minimum dose rapidly and consistently kills fleas on cats for at least 5 weeks. Copyright © 2017 Zoetis Services LLC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S-methoprene and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S-methoprene were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05 from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001 from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6 of the control cats and 0% (0/6 of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5% produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0% in the treated group were infected. The

  16. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection rates of the two groups were significantly different. The percent effectiveness for the Certifect treatment group for the prevention of D

  17. A randomised, blinded, controlled field study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™ in controlling fleas in client-owned dogs in European countries

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    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lotilaner is a novel isoxazoline developed for oral administration to dogs. In laboratory studies, lotilaner was shown to be safe and to produce a rapid flea and tick knockdown, with a sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment. A study was undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy, safety and palatability of three monthly doses of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco in controlling fleas under field conditions in Europe. Methods Dogs were enrolled at 17 veterinary clinics across Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households having no more than three dogs and one primary dog with at least five fleas was randomised 2:1 to a lotilaner (minimum dose rate 20 mg/kg or a topical fipronil group (administered per label. There were 128 and 64 households allocated to the lotilaner and fipronil groups, respectively. Treatments were dispensed to owners on Days 0, 28 and 56; supplementary household dogs received the same treatment as the primary dog. Post-enrollment flea counts and flea allergy dermatitis (FAD assessments were made on primary dogs on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy calculations were based on geometric mean percent reductions of live flea counts versus pre-treatment counts on Day 0. The safety and palatability of lotilaner tablets were also assessed. Results Lotilaner efficacy was 99.1, 99.5, 99.9 and 99.8% on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84, respectively. Corresponding reductions for fipronil were 93.4, 91.2, 94.4 and 97.0%. Lotilaner was superior to fipronil at all post-Day 0 assessments (t (186 ≥ 3.43, P ≤ 0.0007. At every post-treatment assessment, at least 90% of lotilaner-treated dogs were flea-free (98.4% on Day 84; fewer than 90% of fipronil group dogs were flea-free on the same time points. Lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets were palatable, and both products were well tolerated. Lotilaner alleviated or eliminated clinical signs of FAD, including pruritus. Conclusions

  18. Use of Insecticide Delivery Tubes for Controlling Rodent-Associated Fleas in a Plague Endemic Region of West Nile, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegler, Karen A; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph Tendo; Clark, Rebecca J; Delorey, Mark J; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2014-11-01

    Plague is a primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis that is often fatal in humans. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda where affordable means for the prevention of human plague are currently lacking. Traditional hut construction and food storage practices hinder rodent exclusion efforts, and emphasize the need for an inexpensive but effective host-targeted approach for controlling fleas within the domestic environment. Here we demonstrate the ability of an insecticide delivery tube that is made from inexpensive locally available materials to reduce fleas on domestic rodents. Unbaited tubes were treated with either an insecticide alone (fipronil) or in conjunction with an insect growth regulator [(S)-methoprene], and placed along natural rodent runways within participant huts. Performance was similar for both treatments throughout the course of the study, and showed significant reductions in the proportion of infested rodents relative to controls for at least 100 d posttreatment. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Assessment of the onset of action of afoxolaner against existing adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Bruce N; Drag, Marlene D; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The speed of kill of afoxolaner against experimental infestations by Ctenocephalides felis was evaluated after oral administration of afoxolaner in a soft chew (NEXGARD(®)) at a dose to achieve 2.5mg/kg bodyweight. Forty beagles were allocated to two treatment groups. Dogs in Treatment Group 1 were untreated controls. Dogs in Treatment Group 2 were treated on Day-0 with afoxolaner, according to their pre-treatment bodyweight. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 C. felis on Day-1. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 5 time points after treatment (i.e., 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24h after treatment). For each time point, counts were performed on 4 dogs from each of the treated and the untreated groups. Early curative flea killing efficacy was evaluated with respect to the untreated control group. The afoxolaner treated group had significantly fewer fleas than the untreated control group at 8, 12, and 24h (p99.5% efficacy at 8, 12, and 24h after treatment demonstrating an early onset of action. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of rodent blood meals confirms host sharing by flea vectors of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Heather A; Stapp, Paul; Cohen, Amybeth

    2010-12-01

    Elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the North American Great Plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, we determined that fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) associated with prairie dogs feed upon northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), a rodent that has been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of plague in prairie-dog colonies. Our results definitively show that grasshopper mice not only share fleas with prairie dogs during plague epizootics, but also provide them with blood meals, offering a mechanism by which the pathogen, Yersinia pestis, may be transmitted between host species and maintained between epizootics. The lack of identifiable host DNA in a significant fraction of engorged Oropsylla hirsuta collected from animals (47%) and prairie-dog burrows (100%) suggests a rapid rate of digestion and feeding that may facilitate disease transmission during epizootics but also complicate efforts to detect feeding on alternative hosts. Combined with other analytical approaches, e.g., stable isotope analysis, molecular genetic techniques can provide novel insights into host-parasite feeding relationships and improve our understanding of the role of alternative hosts in the transmission and maintenance of disease. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Impact of decreasing ratios of insecticide-treated seed on flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) feeding levels and canola seed yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Grenkow, Larry F; Irvine, R Byron

    2008-12-01

    Field studies were conducted at two locations on the Canadian prairies to investigate use of reduced ratios of insecticide-treated seed in controlling flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) damage to canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.). Five treatments were evaluated: bare seed control, fungicide-only (0X), and three ratios of insecticide plus fungicide in proportions of all (1X), two thirds (0.67X), or one third (0.33X) of the seeds coated with insecticide. Decreasing treated seed ratios by one third had no consistent deleterious effects on flea beetle damage, seedling growth, plant density, seed yield, or net cash return. Flea beetle injury to seedlings in the 1X treatment was similar to that of seedlings in the 0.67X treatment, with only two exceptions, and it was almost always lower than that of seedlings without insecticide. The 0.33X treatment generally had flea beetle feeding levels between those of the two high and the two noninsecticide treatments. Plant stand and seedling growth rates with 1X and 0.67X treatments were similar and higher than with bare seed or fungicide-alone treatments. Seed yields were inversely proportional to flea beetle feeding levels. Under very heavy flea beetle feeding, seed yields and net cash returns were highest in 1X plots, but when flea beetle feeding pressure was less extreme and canola growing conditions were favorable, 0.67X seed yields and profits from them were comparable to those in 1X treatments. On an economic basis, currently there is no advantage to decreasing the level of insecticide treated canola seed, but other considerations may affect this assessment.

  2. Efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 Ctenocephalides felis flea strain infesting cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryden Michael W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies were conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 flea strain infesting cats. In both studies the treatment groups were comprised of non-treated controls, 6% w/v selamectin (Revolution®; Pfizer Animal Health topical solution and 10% w/v imidacloprid + 1% w/v moxidectin (Advantage Multi® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health topical solution. All cats were infested with 100 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The difference in the studies was that in study #1 efficacy evaluations were conducted at 24 and 48 hours post-treatment or post-infestation, and in study #2 evaluations were conducted at 12 and 24 hours. Results In study #1 imidacloprid + moxidectin and the selamectin formulation provided 99.8% and 99.0% efficacy at 24 hours post-treatment. On day 28, the 24 hour efficacy of the selamectin formulation dropped to 87.1%, whereas the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided 98.9% efficacy. At the 48 hour assessments following the 28 day infestations, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations was 96.8% and 98.3% respectively. In study # 2 the efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after treatment was 100% and 69.4%, respectively. On day 28, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after infestation was 90.2% and 57.3%, respectively. In study #2 both formulations provided high levels of efficacy at the 24 hour post-infestation assessments, with selamectin and imidacloprid + moxidectin providing 95.3% and 97.5% efficacy, following infestations on day 28. Conclusions At the 24 and 48 hour residual efficacy assessments, the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations were similarly highly efficacious. However, the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided a significantly higher rate of flea kill against the KS1 flea

  3. Evaluation of indoxacarb and fipronil (s)-methoprene topical spot-on formulations to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs and cats in private residences in Tampa FL. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different spot-on topical flea products to control flea infestations on naturally infested dogs and cats in Tampa, FL USA. Methods Thirty-two dogs and 3 cats with natural flea infestations living in 18 homes were treated topically with a 19.53% w/w spot-on formulation of indoxacarb. Another thirty dogs and 2 cats living in 19 different homes were treated topically with either fipronil (9.8% w/w)/(s)-methoprene (8.89% w/w) or fipronil (9.8% w/w)/(s)-methoprene (11.8% w/w), respectively. All products were applied according to label directions by study investigators on day 0 and again between days 28 and 30. Flea populations on pets were assessed using visual area counts and premise flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28–30, 40–45, and 54–60. Results A single application of the indoxacarb or fipronil (s)-methoprene formulations reduced flea populations on pets by 97.8% and 85.5%, respectively within 7 days. One month (28–30 days) after treatment the indoxacarb and fipronil (s)-methoprene formulations reduced on-animal flea burdens by 95.0% and 49.5%, respectively. Following two monthly applications of either the indoxacarb or fipronil (s)-methoprene formulations, pet flea burdens were reduced by 99.1% and 54.8%, respectively, by days 54 – 60. At the end of the two month study, 77.1% and 15.6% of the dogs and cats in the indoxacarb and fipronil (s)-methoprene treatment groups, respectively were flea free. Flea numbers in the indoor-premises were markedly reduced in both treatment groups by days 54–60, with 97.7% and 84.6% reductions in intermittent-light flea trap counts in the indoxacarb and fipronil (s)-methoprene treatment groups, respectively. Conclusions This in-home investigation conducted during the summer of 2013 in subtropical Tampa, FL, is the first published U.S field investigation of the indoxacarb topical

  4. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Lebon, Wilfried; Liebenberg, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act ® /Frontect ® , Merial) on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days -2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act ® /Frontect ® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act ® /Frontect ® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  5. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, Merial on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected.

  6. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  7. Detection of Bartonellaspp. and Rickettsiaspp. in fleas, ticks and lice collected in rural areas of Peru

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    Abraham G. Cáceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis and rickettsiosis are commonly reported in Peru. In order to detect Bartonella sp. and Rickettsiasp. in fleas, ticks and lice, specimens from five distinct locations in Peru (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro were collected and screened for the presence of these bacteria using PCR and later confirmation by DNA sequencing. The specimens collected were distributed in 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 16 Pulex irritans, 5 Pediculus humanus, 2 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Boophilus spp., where Bartonellawas detected in 17 pools (6 of C. felis, 9 of P. irritans, 1 of C. canis, and 1 P. humanus. Also, Rickettsiawas detected in 76 pools (62 C. felis, 10 P. irritans, 2 P. humanus, and 2 C. canis. Bartonella clarridgeiaewas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 5.3%, 50% and 12.5%, respectively.Bartonella rochalimaewas detected in one C. felisand two P. irritanspools at 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Furthermore, B. henselaewas detected in one C. felispool and one P. humanuspool corresponding to 1.3% and 20%, respectively; and Bartonella spp.was also found in 5 pools of P. irritansat 31.3%. Additionally, R. feliswas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 76.3%, 100% and 37.5%, respectively; and Rickettsia spp. was detected in C. felis, P. irritansand P. humanuspools at 5.3%, 25% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate the circulation of these bacteria in Peru.

  8. [Ectoparasites. Part 2: Bed bugs, Demodex, sand fleas and cutaneous larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Schmoranzer, B; Paasch, U

    2009-09-01

    Ectoparasites or epidermal parasites include a very heterogenous group of infections of the outer layers of the skin. Worldwide the most common are scabies, lice, tungiasis, and hookworm-induced cutaneous larva migrans. In recent years, bed bug infestations in hotels or vacation homes seem to have become more frequent. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are found in the facial and scalp hair follicles in 95% of individuals. Classic Demodex folliculitis is often overlooked in differential diagnostic considerations. This inflammatory sebaceous gland disease as well as Demodex blepharitis both provide a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Permethrin can be used topically against demodicosis. Vacationers who go barefoot on beaches in tropical Africa, South America and subtropical Asia risk infestations from female sand fleas. The lesions can be curetted or removed with a punch biopsy, then treated with antiseptics or even systemic antibiotics if a secondary infection develops. Cutaneous larva migrans is one of the most common imported ectoparasite infections from the tropics. Topical treatment measures include thiabendazole or cryotherapy. If the infestation is severe, systemic antihelminthics or ivermectin can be employed.

  9. The effect of leg compliance in multi-directional jumping of a flea-inspired mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gwang-Pil; Choi, Hong-Cheol; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2017-02-10

    Inspired by the relationship between leg compliance and jumping performance in the false stick insect, this paper describes how variations in leg compliance and jumping direction affect the performance of a flea-inspired jumping mechanism. The amount of energy lost during jumping was determined by examining the ratio of kinetic energy to input energy (also called conversion efficiency). Leg compliance is modeled based on the compliant mechanics to determine energy transfer during jumping and determined the optimum degree of leg compliance for maximizing performance. Jumping experiments are then performed using six different legs with progressively greater degrees of stiffness and three different jumping directions. The experiments show that conversion efficiency decreases by approximately 3-5% as leg stiffness increases, compared to the optimal case. In the most compliant legs (i.e. stiffness of 0.0338 Nm rad-1 or less), conversion efficiency rapidly drops to near 0% because the leg bends so much that it cannot support the thrusting force. The optimal conversion efficiency tends to increase when the mechanism jumps vertically owing to reduced slippage and increased ground reaction force. These investigations show that optimizing leg compliance can improve the performance of a jumping robot by up to 5% by enabling more of the initially stored energy in the leg to be used. This finding will likely prove helpful for choosing the leg stiffness for a small-scale jumping robot.

  10. Comparative phylogeography between two generalist flea species reveal a complex interaction between parasite life history and host vicariance: parasite-host association matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mescht, Luther; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-06-10

    In parasitic taxa, life history traits such as microhabitat preference and host specificity can result in differential evolutionary responses to similar abiotic events. The present study investigates the influence of vicariance and host association on the genetic structure of two generalist flea species, Listropsylla agrippinae, and Chiastopsylla rossi. The taxa differ in the time spent on the host (predominantly fur vs. nest) and level of host specificity. A total of 1056 small mammals were brushed to collect 315 fleas originating from 20 geographically distinct localities in South Africa. Phylogeographic genetic structure of L. agrippinae and C. rossi were determined by making use of 315 mitochondrial COII and 174 nuclear EF1-α sequences. Both parasites show significant genetic differentiation among the majority of the sampling sites confirming limited dispersal ability for fleas. The generalist fur flea with a narrower host range, L. agrippinae, displayed geographic mtDNA spatial genetic structure at the regional scale and this pattern is congruent with host vicariance. The dating of the divergence between the L. agrippinae geographic clades co-insides with paleoclimatic changes in the region approximately 5.27 Ma and this provides some evidence for a co-evolutionary scenario. In contrast, the more host opportunistic nest flea, C. rossi, showed a higher level of mtDNA and nDNA spatial genetic structure at the inter-populational scale, most likely attributed to comparatively higher restrictions to dispersal. In the present study, the evolutionary history of the flea species could best be explained by the association between parasite and host (time spent on the host). The phylogeographic pattern of the fur flea with a narrower host range correspond to host spatial genetic structures, while the pattern in the host opportunistic nest flea correspond to higher genetic divergences between sampling localities that may also be associated with higher effective

  11. Characterization of the rat pneumonic plague model: infection kinetics following aerosolization of Yersinia pestis CO92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Foltz, Sheri M; Erova, Tatiana E; Walberg, Kristin G; Baze, Wallace B; Suarez, Giovanni; Peterson, Johnny W; Chopra, Ashok K

    2009-02-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of human bubonic and pneumonic plague, is spread during natural infection by the fleas of rodents. Historically associated with infected rat fleas, studies on the kinetics of infection in rats are surprisingly few, and these reports have focused mainly on bubonic plague. Although the natural route of primary infection results in bubonic plague in humans, it is commonly thought that aerosolized Y. pestis will be utilized during a biowarfare attack. Accordingly, based on our previous characterization of the mouse model of pneumonic plague, we sought to examine the progression of infection in rats exposed in a whole-body Madison chamber to aerosolized Y. pestis CO92. Following an 8.6 LD(50) dose of Y. pestis, injury was apparent in the rat tissues based on histopathology, and chemokines and cytokines rose above control levels (1h post infection [p.i.]) in the sera and organ homogenates over a 72-h infection period. Bacteria disseminated from the lungs to peripheral organs, with the largest increases in the spleen, followed by the liver and blood at 72h p.i. compared to the 1h controls. Importantly, rats were as sensitive to pneumonic plague as mice, having a similar LD(50) dose by the intranasal and aerosolized routes. Further, we showed direct transmission of plague bacteria from infected to uninfected rats. Taken together, the data allowed us to characterize for the first time a rat pneumonic plague model following aerosolization of Y. pestis.

  12. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.; Cully, Jack F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  13. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

    2008-07-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  14. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ogunniyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  15. Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided.

  16. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  17. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, J J; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg/kg body weight and those in another 25 mg/kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and + 7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days + 1 and + 8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  18. Results of a European multicentric field efficacy study of fipronil-(S methoprene combination on flea infestation of dogs and cats during 2009 summer*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing number of ectoparasiticides for pets and their use, flea infestations of cats and dogs are still widespread in Europe. It is therefore important to assess the maintenance of efficacy of the ectoparasiticides for cats and dogs. The present studies aimed to evaluate the efficacy of monthly treatments using a fipronil/(S-methoprene combination spot-on (Frontline Combo® on dogs and cats from private veterinary clinics located in seven European countries. The survey was conducted for three months during the flea season 2009. A total of 233 dogs and 180 cats were included. Each animal was treated at Days 0 (Day 0, 30 (D30 and 60 (D60 at the vet clinics. For each animal, at least three flea counts were performed at D0, D30 and/or D60 and/or day 90 (Day 90 in order to evaluate the prevalence of flea infestation and the efficacy of control. At the beginning of the study the prevalence of infested animals was 41.63 % (97/233 in dogs and 47.22 % (85/180 in cats. At D90, the number of dogs remaining infested fell to 8/211 therefore 91.75 % became flea-free. The number of infested cats fell from 85 to 9/173 at D90 therefore 89.41 % were cured. All animals still infested at Day 90 were living under epidemiological conditions that favour heavy flea burdens. These results are similar or better to previous studies, indicating the continuous high level of efficacy for fipronil 10 years after launch.

  19. Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, A; McCoy, K D; Richner, H; Doligez, B

    2016-05-01

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here, we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank), exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites, the great tit Parus major (Linnaeus) and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (Temminck). We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species in two distinct study areas during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. In the following year, hosts were monitored again to assess the long-term impact of cross-infestation. Our results partly support the local specialization hypothesis: in great tit nests, tit fleas caused higher damage to their hosts than flycatcher fleas, and in collared flycatcher nests, flycatcher fleas had a faster larval development rates than tit fleas. However, these results were significant in only one of the two studied areas, suggesting that the location and history of the host population can modulate the specialization process. Caution is therefore called for when interpreting single location studies. More generally, our results emphasize the need to explicitly account for host diversity in order to understand the population ecology and evolutionary trajectory of generalist parasites. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Propulsion of the Water Flea, Daphnia magna: Experiments, Scaling, and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2016-02-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward ( 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocity (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 ms in duration, ranging from 100 to 180 ms; this period is generally evenly split between the power and recovery strokes. The range of peak hop velocity was 27.2 to 32.5 mm/s, and peak acceleration was in the range of 0.68 to 1.8 m/s2. The results showed a distinct relationship between peak hop speed (Vmax 14 BL/s) and body size; these data collapsed onto a single time-record curve during the power stroke when properly non-dimensionalized. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The strength, size, and decay of the induced viscous vortex rings were compared as a function of organism size. Finally, the viscous vortex rings were analyzed in the context of a double Stokeslet model that consisted of two impulsively applied point forces separated by the animal width.

  2. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  3. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, J.J.; L.J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powd...

  4. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica®) in the treatment and control of naturally occurring flea infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Hodge, Andrew; Davis, Kylie; Six, Robert H; Maeder, Steven

    2017-08-16

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline compound, sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) and spinosad (Comfortis®, Elanco) as a positive control were evaluated for the treatment and control of natural flea infestations on dogs in two randomised, blinded, multi-centric clinical trials conducted in 11 veterinary clinics in northeastern and southeastern states of Australia. A total of 162 client-owned dogs (80 in northern study and 82 in southern study) from 105 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly allocated to receive either sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) or spinosad (Comfortis®, Elanco). Dogs were dosed on Days 0, 30 and 60 and physical examinations and flea counts were conducted on Days 0, 14, 30, 60 and 90. Efficacy assessments were based on the percentage reduction in live flea counts post-treatment compared to Day 0. In the northern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 772. At the first efficacy assessment on Day 14, sarolaner resulted in 99.3% mean reduction in live flea counts relative to Day 0, compared to 94.6% in the spinosad group. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.2% compared to 95.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.8%. In the southern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 156. Both sarolaner and spinosad resulted in ≥ 96.7% mean reduction in live flea counts on Day 14. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.5% compared to 89.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.6%. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either study. A single monthly dose of sarolaner (Simparica®) administered orally at 2-4 mg/kg for three consecutive months was well tolerated and provided excellent efficacy against natural infestations of fleas under a range of Australian field conditions including different

  5. A randomized, controlled field study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner flavored chewable tablets (Credelio™ in eliminating fleas in client-owned dogs in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Karadzovska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preclinical studies have shown that the novel isoxazoline, lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco administered orally to dogs, produces rapid flea and tick knockdown and sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment with a wide safety margin. A field study was undertaken to validate pre-clinical results. Methods Dogs were enrolled at 10 veterinary clinics across the United States. Qualifying households containing up to three dogs and one primary dog with at least 10 fleas were randomized 2:1 to receive lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco at the recommended minimum dose of 20 mg/kg, or afoxolaner (Nexgard®, Merial, administered per label, to give a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Treatments were dispensed on Days 0, 30 and 60 for administration by owners; all household dogs received the same treatment as the primary dog. Post-enrollment flea and tick counts were made on primary dogs on Days 30, 60 and 90, and all dogs were assessed for tablet palatability and safety. Results For efficacy assessments, data were used from 111 lotilaner-treated dogs and 50 afoxolaner-treated dogs; for safety, 197 and 86 dogs, respectively. Percent reductions from baseline in geometric mean flea counts for the lotilaner group were 99.3, 99.9 and 100% on Days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, and for afoxolaner 98.3, 99.8 and 99.8% (P < 0.001, both groups, all days. On Day 90, 100% of lotilaner-treated dogs and 93% of afoxolaner-treated dogs were flea-free. Too few ticks were present to allow assessment. There were no differences in palatability between products (P = 0.2132, with, respectively, 94% and 96% of lotilaner and afoxolaner treatments accepted when offered by hand, in an empty food bowl or with food. Both treatments were well tolerated, alleviating clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD in dogs affected at enrollment. Conclusion A single owner-administered lotilaner treatment was greater than 99% effective in reducing mean flea

  6. Sustained speed of kill and repellency of a novel combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ctenocephalides canis flea infestations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Soll, Mark; Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel

    2015-01-27

    Ctenocephalides canis is a major flea species in dogs in several European countries. The new topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act/Frontect, Merial) has been developed to control fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and biting flies on dogs. Considering the repellent and insecticidal effects of permethrin and the insecticidal effect of fipronil, the efficacy of the combination against fleas including C. canis was expected to be rapid. The study was conducted to measure the 1-hour, 6-hour and 24-hour efficacy, as well as the repellent activity, of the fipronil-permethrin combination on treated versus untreated dogs. 12 Beagle dogs were randomly allocated to one of two groups based on pre-treatment live flea counts. Dogs in Group 1 remained untreated whereas dogs in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. canis on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Dogs were combed for fleas 1 and 6 h after each infestation. Following this examination, fleas remaining on the liner at the bottom of each cage were collected and counted. All live fleas were placed back on each dog after the 1- and 6-hour counts. A comb-count was performed at 24 h post infestation on all dogs. Treated dogs had significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower flea counts than untreated dogs at every time point. The percent efficacy was ≥99.1% at 6 and 24 h after each weekly challenge up to the month. The 1-hour counts also showed good efficacy of 96.5%, 98.9%, 92.0%, 70.2% and 55.7% on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. The repellent efficacy, assessed on the liners at 1 h, was 86.5%, 94.9%, 79.5%, 58.4% and 43.9% on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of the fipronil and permethrin combination against C. canis, providing both a repellent and insecticidal effect as early as 1 h post infestation, and >99.1% efficacy calculated at 6 h during a month.

  7. Yersinia pestis insecticidal-like toxin complex (Tc family proteins: characterization of expression, subcellular localization, and potential role in infection of the flea vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinner Justin L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc family proteins were first identified as insecticidal toxins in Photorhabdus luminescens and have since been found in a wide range of bacteria. The genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, contains a locus that encodes the Tc protein homologues YitA, YitB, YitC, and YipA and YipB. Previous microarray data indicate that the Tc genes are highly upregulated by Y. pestis while in the flea vector; however, their role in the infection of fleas and pathogenesis in the mammalian host is unclear. Results We show that the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are highly produced by Y. pestis while in the flea but not during growth in brain heart infusion (BHI broth at the same temperature. Over-production of the LysR-type regulator YitR from an exogenous plasmid increased YitA and YipA synthesis in broth culture. The increase in production of YitA and YipA correlated with the yitR copy number and was temperature-dependent. Although highly synthesized in fleas, deletion of the Tc proteins did not alter survival of Y. pestis in the flea or prevent blockage of the proventriculus. Furthermore, YipA was found to undergo post-translational processing and YipA and YitA are localized to the outer membrane of Y. pestis. YitA was also detected by immunofluorescence microscopy on the surface of Y. pestis. Both YitA and YipA are produced maximally at low temperature but persist for several hours after transfer to 37°C. Conclusions Y. pestis Tc proteins are highly expressed in the flea but are not essential for Y. pestis to stably infect or produce a transmissible infection in the flea. However, YitA and YipA localize to the outer membrane and YitA is exposed on the surface, indicating that at least YitA is present on the surface when Y. pestis is transmitted into the mammalian host from the flea.

  8. Knock-down and speed of kill of a combination of fipronil and permethrin for the prevention of Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus J; Fankhauser, Becky; Beugnet, Frederic

    2016-02-02

    A topical combination of fipronil + permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act/Frontect, Merial) has recently been developed to control fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and stable flies on dogs. Two studies were conducted to assess its speed of kill and knock-down effect on Ctenocephalides felis fleas. The combination was compared to either fipronil alone or to a combination of permethrin, dinotefuran, and pyriproxyfen, In each study, 18 dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups: (Group 1: untreated dog; Group 2: treated once on D0 with the combination of fipronil and permethrin; Group 3: treated once on D0 either with fipronil alone (study 1) or with a combination of permethrin, dinetofuran and pyriproxyfen (study 2)). Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. felis fleas on Days 2 (study 2), 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were collected from dogs at 1 h and 12 h post- infestations (PI) (study 1) or at 2 h and 6 h PI (study 2) to assess efficacy and from collection pans underneath cages 1 h (study 1) or 5 min (study 2) PI to assess knock-down effect. All treated dogs had significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower flea counts than untreated dogs at every time point in both studies. For a whole month, a significant knock-down effect against infesting fleas is obtained in five minutes PI with the combination of permethrin and fipronil. Complete efficacy (>95%) was achieved in 1 h (study 1) or 2 h (study 2) PI for 14 days and by 6 h PI for all challenges conducted throughout the month. Efficacy remains >85% at 2 h PI for the whole month. A significantly higher efficacy of the fipronil + permethrin combination compared to other treatments was demonstrated at the earliest time points for the month (1 h knock-down effect and insecticidal efficacy compared to fipronil alone; 5 min knock-down effect compared to the combination of permethrin + dinetofuran + pyriproxyfen). The rapid flea knock-down effect and speed of kill demonstrated by the spot on combination of

  9. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks.

  10. [Resurgence of the plague in the Ikongo district of Madagascar in 1998. 2. Reservoirs and vectors implicated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplantier, J M; Duchemin, J B; Ratsitorahina, M; Rahalison, L; Chanteau, S

    2001-05-01

    Our survey of mammals and fleas arose as a result of an outbreak of bubonic plague at an usually low altitude in the Ikongo district (Madagascar), while a previous study had found anti-F1 antibodies in an endemic hedgehog. Animals were sampled with live traps in two hamlets (Antanambao-Vohidrotra, 540 m alt. and Ambalagoavy, 265 m alt.) and with pitfall traps in a neighbouring forest (750 m alt.). Rat fleas were collected by brushing the fur and free-living fleas by use of light traps. The introduced shrew Suncus murinus was found only in the village of Ambalagoavy while the black rat (Rattus rattus) was found in all three sites and the only seropositive rat was caught at Antanambao-Vohidrotra. In contrast, among the Tenrecidae (endemic shrews and hedgehogs) found in the forest near the first village, four animals were found seropositive for anti-F1 antibodies. One of them was carrying the endemic flea Paractenopsyllus pauliani, not yet reported as a vector of plague. The endemic vector of plague, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, was found only in the first village of Antanambao-Vohidrotra, and the cosmopolite flea Xenopsylla cheopis only in Ambalagoavy. Although no Yersinia pestis could be isolated and no F1-antigen could be detected in these animals, we found evidence of the recent transmission of plague in Antanambao-Vohidrotra and the nearby forest, but not in Ambalagoavy. These data corroborate with the sylvatic plague cycle hypothesis in Madagascar and its involvement in the outcome of the bubonic plague outbreak in this district.

  11. Analysis and comparison of a set of expressed sequence tags of the parthenogenetic water flea Daphnia carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqian; Song, Shuhui; Wang, Qun; Qin, Fen; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Zhao, Yunlong

    2009-08-01

    The water flea Daphnia carinata (D. carinata) reproduces both sexually and parthenogenetically, yet little is known about the genes involved in these processes. To further clarify the reproductive biology of Daphnia and elucidate their unique mechanism of reproductive transformation, we have generated and characterized an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set from D. carinata. A set of 1,495 clusters were generated from sequencing 3,072 randomly chosen clones from a parthenogenetic, juvenile water flea cDNA library. The nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with known GenBank sequences. Functional annotation found that 959 clusters showed significant homology with known genes involved in a broad range of activities, including metabolism, translation, development and reproduction, as well as genes involved in sensing environmental factors. We speculate that genes involved in development and reproduction, along with genes that allow the organism to sense changes in the environment, play important roles in the process of parthenogenetic reproduction and could be markers of the early steps of sexual differentiation. Additionally, 86% of the D. Carinata unique sequences could be stringently mapped to the D. pulex genome, of which 125 mapped to intergenic and intronic regions on the current assembly. Our results provide practical insight into crustacean reproductive biology, in addition to establishing a new animal model for reproductive and developmental biology.

  12. Toxicity, persistence, and efficacy of spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam on eggplant when applied against the eggplant flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Paul; Diaz, Francisco J; Johnson, Donn T

    2002-04-01

    A laboratory bioassay was developed for determining the toxicity of spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam against the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula Crotch, on eggplant foliage. Four days after initial exposure, LC50 values were 1.99, 2.50, and 0.88 ppm for spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam, respectively. By dividing the recommended field rate in ppm by the LC50 value, a field toxicity ratio was determined and ranged from 13.5 for spinosad to 73.9 for thiamethoxam. The high ratios suggest that field rates for all three insecticides could likely be reduced. This was supported by field studies in 2000 in which reduced rates of spinosad and thiamethoxam significantly reduced flea beetle numbers on eggplant. Mortality produced by thiamethoxam occurred more quickly than that for the other tested materials as shown with LT50 values of 1.8, 3.0, and 3.6 and days for thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and spinosad, respectively. Persistence studies indicated that while all three of the tested compounds initially produced high levels of mortality, chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam produced 50% or greater mortality after 6 d. Our data suggest that future management strategies for E. fuscula on eggplant can be successfully altered to meet the changing needs of the producer. Spinosad was recently registered, is effective against the E. fuscula, and offers a viable alternative to carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. Thiamethoxam and chlorfenapyr offer high levels of toxicity to E. fuscula and upon registration will offer additional effective tools for management.

  13. Potential resistance of crape myrtle cultivars to flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Gretchen V; Boyd, David W; Braman, S Kristine; Pounders, Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to identify potential resistance among crape myrtles, Lagerstroemia spp., to Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman and to flea beetles, Altica spp. Damage ratings revealed variation among cultivars in susceptibility to beetle feeding. Cultivars with Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne in their parentage exhibited the least amount of damage in choice and no-choice experiments, with few exceptions. The data indicate that both beetle species cause more feeding damage on certain cultivars of Lagerstroemia indica L., such as 'Country Red', 'Twilight', and 'Carolina Beauty' than interspecific cultivars with L. fauriei in their parentage, such as 'Natchez', 'Tonto', and 'Muskogee'. When comparing the effect of parentage on all of the major pests of crape myrtle, L. faurei confers resistance to all pests except crape myrtle aphid. No correlation was found between leaf toughness, leaf color, and leaf nutrients in estimating flea beetle cultivar preference. With this information, growers can more effectively target scouting measures to the most susceptible cultivars. and breeders can select plants that will require the fewest chemical inputs.

  14. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5 on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5 were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05 between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60. The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment

  15. Role of the Yersinia pestis plasminogen activator in the incidence of distinct septicemic and bubonic forms of flea-borne plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton O; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2006-04-04

    Yersinia pestis is transmitted by fleas and causes bubonic plague, characterized by severe local lymphadenitis that progresses rapidly to systemic infection and life-threatening septicemia. Here, we show that although flea-borne transmission usually leads to bubonic plague in mice, it can also lead to primary septicemic plague. However, intradermal injection of Y. pestis, commonly used to mimic transmission by fleabite, leads only to bubonic plague. A Y. pestis strain lacking the plasmid-encoded cell-surface plasminogen activator, which is avirulent by intradermal or s.c. injection, was able to cause fatal primary septicemic plague at low incidence, but not bubonic plague, when transmitted by fleas. The results clarify a long-standing uncertainty about the etiology of primary septicemic plague and support an evolutionary scenario in which plague first emerged as a flea-borne septicemic disease of limited transmissibility. Subsequent acquisition of the plasminogen activator gene by horizontal transfer enabled the bubonic form of disease and increased the potential for epidemic spread.

  16. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (I); Gansuapteris new genus and Primulavorus new genus (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new genera and species of flea beetles (Gansuapteris gen. nov., Primulavorus gen. nov., Gansuapteris fulvus sp. nov. and Primulavorus maculata sp. nov.) from South-west China are described and illustrated. The morphological differences of new genera and their allies are discussed....

  17. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  18. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo, E-mail: anyjoo@konkuk.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of silver nanowires (AgNWs) was studied in an aquatic food chain. • The transfer of AgNWs from algae to fish via water fleas was observed. • Toxicity of long AgNWs on aquatic organisms is higher than that of short ones. • AgNWs damage the gut of water fleas and may cause undernourishment. • Quantity of lipid droplets increased with increasing exposure concentration. - Abstract: Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20 μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10 μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health.

  20. Differential control of Yersinia pestis biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector by two c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730 control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis.

  1. The Yersinia pestis caf1M1A1 fimbrial capsule operon promotes transmission by flea bite in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2009-03-01

    Plague is a zoonosis transmitted by fleas and caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis. During infection, the plasmidic caf1M1A1 operon that encodes the Y. pestis F1 protein capsule is highly expressed, and anti-F1 antibodies are protective. Surprisingly, the capsule is not required for virulence after injection of cultured bacteria, even though it is an antiphagocytic factor and capsule-deficient Y. pestis strains are rarely isolated. We found that a caf-negative Y. pestis mutant was not impaired in either flea colonization or virulence in mice after intradermal inoculation of cultured bacteria. In contrast, absence of the caf operon decreased bubonic plague incidence after a flea bite. Successful development of plague in mice infected by flea bite with the caf-negative mutant required a higher number of infective bites per challenge. In addition, the mutant displayed a highly autoaggregative phenotype in infected liver and spleen. The results suggest that acquisition of the caf locus via horizontal transfer by an ancestral Y. pestis strain increased transmissibility and the potential for epidemic spread. In addition, our data support a model in which atypical caf-negative strains could emerge during climatic conditions that favor a high flea burden. Human infection with such strains would not be diagnosed by the standard clinical tests that detect F1 antibody or antigen, suggesting that more comprehensive surveillance for atypical Y. pestis strains in plague foci may be necessary. The results also highlight the importance of studying Y. pestis pathogenesis in the natural context of arthropod-borne transmission.

  2. Tick and flea infestation in a captive Margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 (Carnivora: Felidae: Felinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Considering that the captive Margay lived close to domestic dogs and cats, this interaction might be the source of that infestation. Based on this finding, careful attention should be paid to wildlife and domestic animals interactions as ectoparasites can be easily transmitted and new host-pathogen interactions are possible.

  3. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    hatching in the autumn. The focus of this project is the problematic aspect of the existing monitoring of the activity density as the only basis of forecasting and the variation in abundance between years. The main focus has been on the influence of temperature on five parameters of reproduction (the......Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...... of field invasion. Uncertainties are attached to this forecasting as it is based on monitoring of a non-damaging stage. Further, there is not always a direct correlation between trap catches and subsequent larval density since temperature influences the number of eggs laid as well as the number of eggs...

  4. Plague Studies in California: A Review of Long-Term Disease Activity, Flea-Host Relationships and Plague Ecology in the Coniferous Forests of the Southern Cascades and Northern Sierra Nevada Mountains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles R. Smith; James R. Tucker; Barbara A. Wilson; James R. Clover

    2010-01-01

    ... in the northern Sierra Nevada and the Southern Cascade mountains of northeastern California. We identify rodent hosts and their fleas and document long-term plague activity in each habitat type...

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  6. Myxomatosis: changes in the epidemiology of myxomatosis coincident with the establishment of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) in the Mallee region of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W

    1978-12-01

    Outbreaks of myxomatosis during the winter or spring have coincided with the establishment of the European rabbit flea in the Mallee region. The severity of these outbreaks has varied from causing complete suppression of the normal spring increase in rabbit numbers to being completely ineffective in a year in which late spring rains allowed rabbit breeding to extend into the early summer.In 1973 and 1974 effective spring myxomatosis caused heavy mortality in kittens before they emerged from the warrens. The age of the population increased as the result of few young rabbits coming into the population and of the lessened stress on old rabbits in a low summer-autumn population. This effect was reversed in the late-breeding year, 1976, when flea numbers were apparently too low to maintain a spring outbreak and rabbit numbers increased rapidly.

  7. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) in the treatment of naturally occurring flea and tick infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Mahabir, Sean P; Farkas, Robert; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    Two randomised, blinded, multi-centered field studies were conducted in Europe to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly oral doses of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) administered at a minimum dosage of 2.0mg/kg (range 2-4mg/kg) against natural flea or tick infestation of dogs presented as veterinary patients. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also investigated. The palatability of the sarolaner chewable tablet formulation was evaluated in both studies. Spinosad (Comfortis(®) Chewable Tablets, Elanco) and fipronil (Frontline(®) Spot on, Merial) were used as positive controls in the flea and tick study, respectively. Treatments were administered on Days 0, 30 and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live parasite counts on post-treatment days 14, 30, 60 and 90 versus the pre-treatment count on Day 0. Non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control products was assessed at each time-point using a margin of 15% at the one-sided 0.025 significance level. Dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 285 flea- and 181 tick-infested dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and 137 and 48 dogs were assessed for safety only, in the flea and tick study, respectively. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Efficacy against fleas was 98.8%, 99.4%, >99.9% and >99.9% in the sarolaner-treated group and 98.9%, 93.7%, 96.8% and 95.1% in the spinosad-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Sarolaner was non-inferior to spinosad at all time-points and was superior on Day 30. For the 42 dogs identified as having FAD at enrolment, the clinical signs of FAD improved in all dogs and the incidence was markedly reduced by the end of the study. Efficacy against ticks was 97.4%, 97.6%, 99.8% and 100% in the sarolaner-treated group and 94.1%, 88.5%, 89.9% and 98.1% in the fipronil-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively

  8. Design and synthesis of sarolaner, a novel, once-a-month, oral isoxazoline for the control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael P; Vaillancourt, Valerie; Goodwin, Richard M; Chubb, Nathan A L; Howson, William; McTier, Tom L; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich W; Meeus, Patrick F M; Woods, Debra J; Hedges, Laura; Stuk, Tim; Price, Jeffrey E; Koch, Jason D; Menon, Sanjay R

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, the isoxazoline motif has become the intense focus of crop protection and animal health companies in their search for novel pesticides and ectoparasiticides. Herein we report the discovery of sarolaner, a proprietary, optimized-for-animal health use isoxazoline, for once-a-month oral treatment of flea and tick infestation on dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica?) in the treatment and control of naturally occurring flea infestations in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Hodge, Andrew; Davis, Kylie; Six, Robert H.; Maeder, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline compound, sarolaner (Simparica?, Zoetis) and spinosad (Comfortis?, Elanco) as a positive control were evaluated for the treatment and control of natural flea infestations on dogs in two randomised, blinded, multi-centric clinical trials conducted in 11 veterinary clinics in northeastern and southeastern states of Australia. Methods A total of 162 client-owned dogs (80 in northern study and 82 in southern study) from 105 households were...

  10. [Present Status of Displaying Pharmaceutical Products for Sale on Flea Market Applications for Smartphones and the Responses to Illicit Selling by Service Providers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Fukushima, Noriko

    2017-12-01

     In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic OTC drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.

  11. Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank)

    OpenAIRE

    Appelgren A.; McCoy K.D.; Richner H.; Doligez B.

    2016-01-01

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest based parasite the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank) exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites the...

  12. Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Beaucournu, J-C

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera, Ceratophyllidae) are described from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, from Tjibodas, West Java (Jawa Barat), Indonesia at an elevation of 1500 m. Macrostylophora larisci sp. n. is described from three male specimens, Macrostylophora debilitata sp. n. is described from one male and Macrostylophora wilsoni sp. n. is described from one female. Non-genital morphological characters of the female specimen, including ctenidial spine shapes and lengths, show that it is not the corresponding female for either M. larisci sp. n. or M. debilitata sp. n. It is unusual for three different species of congeneric fleas to parasitize the same host species in the same geographical location. These three new species represent the first known records of Macrostylophora from Java and they could be enzootic vectors between rodents of flea-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia typhi and Yersinia pestis, both of which are established on Java. A list is provided of the 43 known species and 12 subspecies of Macrostylophora together with their known geographical distributions and hosts. A map depicting the distributions of known Indonesian (and Bornean) species of Macrostylophora is also included. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of dinotefuran-pyriproxyfen, dinotefuran-pyriproxyfen-permethrin and fipronil-(S)-methoprene topical spot-on formulations to control flea populations in naturally infested pets and private residences in Tampa, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A; Vicki, Smith; Riggs, Breanne; Davenport, Jacob; Kobuszewski, Denise

    2011-12-15

    Thirteen cats and 7 dogs living in 14 homes were treated topically with either a dinotefuran (22%, w/w)/pyriproxyfen (3.00%, w/w) (DP) or dinotefuran (4.95%, w/w)/pyriproxyfen (0.44%, w/w)/permethrin (36.08%, w/w) (DPP) topical spot-on, respectively. Twenty cats and 7 dogs living in 16 homes were treated topically with either a fipronil (9.8%, w/w)/(S)-methoprene (11.8%, w/w) or fipronil (9.8%, w/w)/(S)-methoprene (8.8%, w/w) topical spot-on (FM), respectively. All products were applied according to label directions by study investigators on day 0 and again between days 28 and 30. Flea populations on pets were assessed using visual area counts and premise flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28-30, 40-45, and 54-60. A single application of the DP-DPP and FM formations reduced flea populations by 87.35% and 88.44%, respectively within 7 days. Following two monthly applications of either the DP-DPP or FM formulations, pet flea burdens were reduced by 95.24% and 95.47%, respectively. Flea numbers in the indoor-premises were also markedly reduced by days 54-60, with 98.05% and 96.15% reductions in intermittent-light flea trap counts in the DP-DPP or FM treatment groups, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  16. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Heme Binding Proteins of Bartonella henselae Are Required when Undergoing Oxidative Stress During Cell and Flea Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea. PMID:23144761

  18. Exploring embryonic germ line development in the water flea, Daphnia magna, by zinc-finger-containing VASA as a marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Kazunori; Yamagata, Hideo; Shiga, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-01

    VASA is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD-box family that, in many organisms, is specifically expressed in germ line cells throughout the life cycle, making it a powerful molecular marker to study germ line development. To obtain further information on germ line development in crustaceans, we cloned VASA cDNAs from three branchiopod species: water fleas Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. RNA helicase domains in branchiopod VASA were highly conserved among arthropod classes. However, N-terminal RNA-binding domains in branchiopod VASA were highly diverged and, unlike other arthropod VASA reported so far, possessed repeats of retroviral-type zinc finger (CCHC) motifs. Raising specific antibodies against Daphnia VASA revealed that the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in this organism segregate at a very early cleavage stage of embryogenesis in parthenogenetic and sexual eggs. Clusters of PGCs then start to migrate inside the embryo and finally settle at both sides of the intestine, the site of future gonad development. RNA analyses suggested that maternally supplied vasa mRNA was responsible for early VASA expression, while zygotic expression started during blastodermal stage of development.

  19. A review of the flea genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild, 1915 (Siphonaptera, Ctenophthalmidae, Neopsyllinae, Phalacropsyllini) with new host and distributional records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roxana; Hastriter, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A redescription of the genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild is provided. Six species are recognized: Phalacropsylla allos Wagner, P. hamata Tipton and Mendez, P. morlani Eads and Campos, P. nivalis Barrera and Traub, P. oregonensis Lewis and Maser, and P. paradisea Rothschild. Phalacropsylla hamata is designated herein as a junior synonym of P. paradisea. The distribution of P. paradisea is more extensive than previously thought, extending from Arizona through southern Colorado, into New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico (State of Nuevo León). It is the least host-specific of all species of Phalacropsylla, occurring on 13 different host species including cricetid, heteromyid, murid, and sciurid rodents and several carnivores, although it most commonly occurs on Neotoma albigula Hartley. The range of P. oregonensis is expanded from eastern Oregon to southeastern Idaho. Numerous records are documented for the most common and ubiquitous species, P. allos, which is found in British Columbia, central to northern California, Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Neotoma cinerea Ord is the principal host of P. allos. Phalacropsylla allos is a winter flea west of the Rocky Mountains, but it has been reported in warmer months of the year on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Larimer County, Colorado. A distribution map and key are provided for all species in the genus Phalacropsylla. PMID:28769677

  20. A review of the flea genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild, 1915 (Siphonaptera, Ctenophthalmidae, Neopsyllinae, Phalacropsyllini with new host and distributional records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Acosta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A redescription of the genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild is provided. Six species are recognized: Phalacropsylla allos Wagner, P. hamata Tipton and Mendez, P. morlani Eads and Campos, P. nivalis Barrera and Traub, P. oregonensis Lewis and Maser, and P. paradisea Rothschild. Phalacropsylla hamata is designated herein as a junior synonym of P. paradisea. The distribution of P. paradisea is more extensive than previously thought, extending from Arizona through southern Colorado, into New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico (State of Nuevo León. It is the least host-specific of all species of Phalacropsylla, occurring on 13 different host species including cricetid, heteromyid, murid, and sciurid rodents and several carnivores, although it most commonly occurs on Neotoma albigula Hartley. The range of P. oregonensis is expanded from eastern Oregon to southeastern Idaho. Numerous records are documented for the most common and ubiquitous species, P. allos, which is found in British Columbia, central to northern California, Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Neotoma cinerea Ord is the principal host of P. allos. Phalacropsylla allos is a winter flea west of the Rocky Mountains, but it has been reported in warmer months of the year on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Larimer County, Colorado. A distribution map and key are provided for all species in the genus Phalacropsylla.

  1. A review of the flea genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild, 1915 (Siphonaptera, Ctenophthalmidae, Neopsyllinae, Phalacropsyllini) with new host and distributional records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roxana; Hastriter, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    A redescription of the genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild is provided. Six species are recognized: Phalacropsylla allos Wagner, P. hamata Tipton and Mendez, P. morlani Eads and Campos, P. nivalis Barrera and Traub, P. oregonensis Lewis and Maser, and P. paradisea Rothschild. Phalacropsylla hamata is designated herein as a junior synonym of P. paradisea. The distribution of P. paradisea is more extensive than previously thought, extending from Arizona through southern Colorado, into New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico (State of Nuevo León). It is the least host-specific of all species of Phalacropsylla, occurring on 13 different host species including cricetid, heteromyid, murid, and sciurid rodents and several carnivores, although it most commonly occurs on Neotoma albigula Hartley. The range of P. oregonensis is expanded from eastern Oregon to southeastern Idaho. Numerous records are documented for the most common and ubiquitous species, P. allos, which is found in British Columbia, central to northern California, Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Neotoma cinerea Ord is the principal host of P. allos. Phalacropsylla allos is a winter flea west of the Rocky Mountains, but it has been reported in warmer months of the year on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Larimer County, Colorado. A distribution map and key are provided for all species in the genus Phalacropsylla.

  2. Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Andrea L J; Peacor, Scott D; McAdam, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which could change within or across years. Clonal analysis of wild-captured Bythotrephes indicated that variance components for distal spine length were variable among but not within years. Spine length was always heritable but was not always influenced by maternal effects. In contrast, variance components for body length varied both within and among years, but likewise body length was always heritable and not always influenced by maternal effects. Results indicate that important Bythotrephes traits have heritable variation comparable to native species and other invasive species that would enable an evolutionary response to natural selection. This evolutionary capacity could contribute to the widespread success and dramatic effects of Bythotrephes invasion in systems with diverse biotic and abiotic conditions.

  3. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Fourie, L J; Rugg, D; Hellmann, K; Snyder, D E; Dryden, M W

    2013-05-01

    These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.

  4. Determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Fourie, Josephus J; Pullins, Aleah; Hedges, Laura; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. In the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. Fleas and ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation at 24h for fleas and 48h for ticks. The lowest dose of sarolaner (1.25mg/kg) provided 100% efficacy against fleas from treatment through Day 35 and 98.4% at Day 56. This dose of sarolaner resulted in 99.7-100% control of both species of ticks through Day 28. In Study 2, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner suspension formulations at 0.625, 1.25 or 2.5mg/kg and infested with Ixodes scapularis prior to treatment and weekly for 6 weeks, Amblyomma americanum (pretreatment and Day 26), Dermacentor variabilis (Day 33) and A. maculatum (Day 41). Ixodes scapularis was the most susceptible; the lowest dose (0.625mg/kg) providing>95% efficacy through Day 43. Efficacy against D. variabilis on Day 35 was>95% at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, whereas the 0.625mg/kg dose gave only 61.4% efficacy. Amblyomma spp. were the least susceptible ticks; efficacy of the 1.25mg/kg dose at Day 28 for A. americanum was markedly lower (88.5%) than achieved for D. reticulatus (100%) at Day 28 and also lower than for D. variabilis at Day 35 (96.2%). In Study 3, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner in the proposed commercial tablet (Simparica™) at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg, and infested with A. maculatum, one of the ticks determined to be dose limiting, prior to treatment and then weekly for 5 weeks. All doses gave 100% control of the existing infestation. The two highest dosages resulted in >93% control of subsequent challenges

  5. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  6. Prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bites and associated factors in children 1–6 years of age in Bogotá, D.C.

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    Evelyne Halpert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papular urticaria is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by exposure to arthropod bites. The disease has been reported in children attending medical centers, but the causes as the risk factors associated with the disease have not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bite and identify the risk factors in children between 1 to 6 years of age in Bogotá D.C, between March 2009 and June 2011. Methods A cross-sectional, two-stage, clustered study using random probability sampling and stratified with proportional allocation was carried out in children (1–6 years of age in educational institutions in Bogotá D.C. to determine the prevalence of the disease. Children underwent a dermatological examination by general practitioners with a previous training. Furthermore, digital photographs of skin lesions were taken for further confirmation of the diagnosis by dermatologists. A structured survey was completed by the parents or caregivers, and it was evaluated using an unconditional logistic regression to identify factors associated with the disease. Results A total of 2437 children were included in the study. The prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bite in this population was 20.3% (CI 95%: 18.2 to 22.5%. The major risk factors associated with the disease were the presence of fleas in households (OR 1.74, CI 95%: 1.35 to 2.25, using mattresses without springs (OR 1.73, CI 95%: 1.20 to 2.50, the use of daily public transportation to carry the children to the educational institutions (OR 1.76, CI 95%: 1.07 to 2.89, having a soil/earth floor in the main bedroom (OR 6.81, CI 95%:1.16–39.96, and having siblings with a history of atopic dermatitis (OR 1.76 CI 95%: 1.07–2.89. Conclusions A high prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bite was found in Bogotá D.C. The main factors associated with the disease might be modified with the

  7. Feeding Deterrent Activity of Melia azedarach Linn. and Phytolacca dodecondra (L’Herit) Plant Extracts Against Cabbage Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)

    OpenAIRE

    Geleta Mathewos; Alemayehu Bayable; Tedbabe Nigatu; Zewdinesh Aboset; Birtukan Mulat; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate feeding deterrent activity of cold and hot water extracts of Melia azedarach and Phytolacca dodecandra plant parts against cabbage flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae. Tap water was used for cold water extraction and 100°C boiled water was used for hot water extraction. Five concentrations (w/v) such as 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g, respectively of powder/100 mL of water was used to check feeding deterrent activity by leaf discs method. Feeding deterrent activ...

  8. Kinetics of disease progression and host response in a rat model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, Florent; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Gowen, Brian B; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Plague, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, primarily affects rodents but is also an important zoonotic disease of humans. Bubonic plague in humans follows transmission by infected fleas and is characterized by an acute, necrotizing lymphadenitis in the regional lymph nodes that drain the intradermal flea bite site. Septicemia rapidly follows with spread to spleen, liver, and other organs. We developed a model of bubonic plague using the inbred Brown Norway strain of Rattus norvegicus to characterize the progression and kinetics of infection and the host immune response after intradermal inoculation of Y. pestis. The clinical signs and pathology in the rat closely resembled descriptions of human bubonic plague. The bacteriology; histopathology; host cellular response in infected lymph nodes, blood, and spleen; and serum cytokine levels were analyzed at various times after infection to determine the kinetics and route of disease progression and to evaluate hypothesized Y. pestis pathogenic mechanisms. Understanding disease progression in this rat infection model should facilitate further investigations into the molecular pathogenesis of bubonic plague and the immune response to Y. pestis at different stages of the disease.

  9. Expellency, anti-feeding and speed of kill of a dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen spot-on (Vectra®3D) in dogs weekly challenged with adult fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) for 1 month-comparison to a spinosad tablet (Comfortis®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J; Blagburn, Byron L; Deflandre, Audrey

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of two ectoparasiticides against adult fleas on dogs: a topical (DPP, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen) and a systemic (S, spinosad). Dogs (n = 48; 10.21-22.86 kg BW) were allocated to six groups of eight dogs each (C1, C4, DPP1, DPP4, S1, S4). Dogs in the treated groups were administered a topical (3.6 mL of DPP) or a tablet (665 or 1040 mg of S) on day 0. Infestations with 100 unfed fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) occurred on days -6, -1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. An additional untreated group (QC, n = 6) was involved to evaluate the flea-anti-feeding efficacy. These dogs were infested once with 150 fleas prior to combing of at least 50 live fleas from each dog 5 or 10 min after infestation. In the treated group, dislodged dead and moribund fleas were collected from dogs 5, 10, 15 and 60 min (DPP1, S1) or 5, 10, 30 and 240 min (DPP4, S4) post-treatment and subsequent flea infestations on pans placed underneath the cages. Fleas were counted and removed from dogs by combing 1 (C1, DPP1, S1) or 4 h (C4, DPP4, S4) post-treatment and subsequent infestations. Quantitative PCR analysis of the canine cytochrome b gene was conducted on dislodged fleas collected from treated and control (QC) dogs 5 and 10 min after post-treatment infestations. The number of gene copies was used as a marker of blood volume ingested by fleas. Dislodgeability and insecticidal efficacy were calculated using arithmetic means. A rapid onset of killing was observed for DPP with 12.7 % of dead and moribund fleas being dislodged in average from dogs as soon as 5 min after infestation. DPP exhibited a significantly higher and sustained speed of kill than S. The average insecticidal efficacy was 86 ± 8.8 and 95.3 ± 2.1 % with DPP, whereas it was only 33.7 ± 19.9 and 57.6 ± 18.6 % with S at respectively 1 and 4 h after weekly reinfestations. The DPP combination significantly inhibited the feeding of fleas (89

  10. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

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    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  11. Study on Ectoparasites of Rhombomys opimus, the Main Reservoir of Zoonotic Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Endemic Foci in Iran

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    L Tajedin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Ectoparasites of mammalian hosts play an important role for transmission of diseases from the host res­ervoirs to human. The aim of this study was to determine the species composition and infestation parameters for para­sitic arthropods associated with Rhombomys opimus."nMethods: Ectoparasites of R. opimus were collected from seven endemic district of ZCL in Iran including Shirvan and Sfaraysen in North Khorasan Province, Kalaleh in Golestan Province, Damghan and Shahrood in Semnan Prov­ince, and Badrood and Habibabad in Isfahan Province. The areas of study were mainly desert and plain. Rodents were captured using Sherman life traps during active seasons from May to November 2008. Captured rodents were trans­ported to laboratory and their ectoparasites were picked up using brushing against the fur of the rodents. Ecto­parasites were stored in 70% ethanol for their preservation and then identified based on morphological characters."nResults: Ectoparasites belonged to one flea species of Xenopsylla nuttalli and one mite species of Ornithonussus ba­coti. The flea species with 75.3% was more common than the mite. O. bacoti might play an important role in trans­mission of rat mite dermatitis among R. opimus colony."nConclusion: Results will provide an essential clue for combating zoonotic diseases in the region.

  12. Study on Ectoparasites of Rhombomys opimus, the Main Reservoir of Zoonotic Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Endemic Foci in Iran

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    L Tajedin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Ectoparasites of mammalian hosts play an important role for transmission of diseases from the host res­ervoirs to human. The aim of this study was to determine the species composition and infestation parameters for para­sitic arthropods associated with Rhombomys opimus.Methods: Ectoparasites of R. opimus were collected from seven endemic district of ZCL in Iran including Shirvan and Sfaraysen in North Khorasan Province, Kalaleh in Golestan Province, Damghan and Shahrood in Semnan Prov­ince, and Badrood and Habibabad in Isfahan Province. The areas of study were mainly desert and plain. Rodents were captured using Sherman life traps during active seasons from May to November 2008. Captured rodents were trans­ported to laboratory and their ectoparasites were picked up using brushing against the fur of the rodents. Ecto­parasites were stored in 70% ethanol for their preservation and then identified based on morphological characters.Results: Ectoparasites belonged to one flea species of Xenopsylla nuttalli and one mite species of Ornithonussus ba­coti. The flea species with 75.3% was more common than the mite. O. bacoti might play an important role in trans­mission of rat mite dermatitis among R. opimus colony.Conclusion: Results will provide an essential clue for combating zoonotic diseases in the region.

  13. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  14. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae collected by malaise trap method in Gölcük Natural Park (Isparta, Turkey, with a new record for Turkish fauna

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    Aslan Gül E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on Alticinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae material collected by Malaise trapping which is different from other standardized collecting methods. A total of 19 flea beetle species belonging to 6 genera were collected from Gölcük Natural Park, Isparta (Turkey during 2009. The species are listed in a table together with distributional data in Turkey. Among them, Longitarsus curtus (Allard, 1860 is recorded for the first time in Turkey. L. monticola Kutschera, 1863 and L. curtus are recently separated synonyms and thus all data referring to the distribution of both species are currently important. Hence, the zoogeographical distribution of the new record is reviewed with some remarks; habitus and genitalia are illustrated.

  15. [Sympatric Speciation of the Plague Microbe Yersinia pestis: Monohostal Specialization in the Host-Parasite Marmot-Flea (Marmota sibirica-Oropsylla silantiewi) System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V

    2016-01-01

    An ecological scenario of the origin of the plague microbe that is interpreted in the light of modern Darwinism (synthetic theory of evolution) is presented. It is shown that the plague microbe emerged from a clone of the psychrophilic saprozoonotic pseudotuberculosis microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan time, 22000-15000 years ago, in the monohostal Mongolian marmot (Marmota sibirica)-flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) host-parasite system. It was noted that the evolutionary process described corresponds to the sympatric form of speciation by transition ofthe clone of migrant founders to a new, already-existing ecological niche. It was established that monohostal specialization of the plague microbe was made possible due to heterothermia (5-37 degrees C) of marmots in the hibernation period. The factors of the speciation process--isolation, the struggle for existence, and natural selection--were analyzed.

  16. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Hasok Chang (Sci Educ 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (HPLS). The project focuses on the study and use of descriptions, observations, experiments, and recording techniques used by early microscopists to classify various species of water flea. The first published illustrations and descriptions of the water flea were included in the Dutch naturalist Jan Swammerdam's, Historia Insectorum Generalis (1669) (Algemeene verhandeling van de bloedeloose dierkens. t'Utrrecht, Meinardus van Dreunen, ordinaris Drucker van d'Academie). After studying these, we first used the descriptions, techniques, and nomenclature recovered to observe, record, and classify the specimens collected from our university ponds. We then used updated recording techniques and image-based keys to observe and identify the specimens. The implementation of these newer techniques was guided in part by the observations and records that resulted from our use of the recovered historical methods of investigation. The series of HPLS labs constructed as part of this interdisciplinary project provided a space for students to consider and wrestle with the many philosophical issues that arise in the process of identifying an unknown organism and offered unique learning opportunities that engaged students' curiosity and critical thinking skills.

  17. Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Pimidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (Pimidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  19. Plague studies in California: a review of long-term disease activity, flea-host relationships and plague ecology in the coniferous forests of the Southern Cascades and northern Sierra Nevada mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles R; Tucker, James R; Wilson, Barbara A; Clover, James R

    2010-06-01

    We review 28 years of long-term surveillance (1970-1997) for plague activity among wild rodents from ten locations within three coniferous forest habitat types in the northern Sierra Nevada and the Southern Cascade mountains of northeastern California. We identify rodent hosts and their fleas and document long-term plague activity in each habitat type. The highest seroprevalence for Yersinia pestis occurred in the chipmunks, Tamias senex and T. quadrimaculatus, and the pine squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii. The most commonly infected fleas were Ceratophyllus ciliatus and Eumolpianus eumolpi from chipmunks and Oropsylla montana and O. idahoensis from ground squirrels. Serological surveillance demonstrated that populations of T. senex, T. quadrimaculatus and T. douglasii are moderately resistant to plague, survive infection, and are, therefore, good sentinels for plague activity. Recaptured T. senex and T. quadrimaculatus showed persistence of plague antibodies and evidence of re-infection over a two year period. These rodent species, their fleas, and the ecological factors common to the coniferous forest habitats likely promote the maintenance of plague foci in northeastern California.

  20. Field Evaluation of Two Different Treatment Approaches and Their Ability to Control Fleas and Prevent Canine Leishmaniosis in a Highly Endemic Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Brianti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the efficacy of two collars for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations. Additionally the effect of these collars on the incidence of Leishmania infantum infection as compared with a group of vaccinated dogs was evaluated. A total of 224 young dogs from private animal shelters were enrolled in April/May into four groups: G1, 55 dogs treated with 10% imidacloprid + 4.5% flumethrin collar (Seresto, Bayer Animal Health; G2, 60 dogs treated with 4% deltamethrin collar (Scalibor protector band, MSD Animal Health; G3, 54 dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish (Virbac Animal Health; and G4, 55 dogs left non-treated as controls. Dogs were followed up at days 120 (September, 210 (December, and 360 (April-May. At those time points, clinical assessments, ectoparasite counts and blood, bone marrow and skin samples, to detect the presence of L. infantum, were performed. The efficacy of Seresto in protecting dogs from flea infestation was 100% (P < 0.01 on day 120 and 210, while animals treated with Scalibor showed a prevalence of the infestation ranging from 23.3% to 33.3% on day 120 and 210, respectively. At the end of the study, the incidence of L. infantum infection in collared dogs-based on animals being positive in any of the tests-was 5.5% in Seresto-treated dogs and 20% in Scalibor-treated dogs, resulting in overall efficacy of prevention of 88.3% for Seresto and 61.8% for Scalibor. No statistical difference was detected in L. infantum positive dogs for bone marrow PCR and/or cytology at day 360 between the CaniLeish (15.4% and non-treated control dogs (10.0%. Both collars proved to be effective (P < 0.01 in preventing L. infantum infection throughout one transmission season, whereas no significant difference was recorded in the frequency of active infections between dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish and control dogs, emphasizing the importance of using repellent/insecticide actives as a priority measure for protection against

  1. Open field study on the efficacy of oral fluralaner for long-term control of flea allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Ile-de-France region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosaz, Odile; Chapelle, Elodie; Cochet-Faivre, Noëlle; Ka, Diane; Hubinois, Céline; Guillot, Jacques

    2016-03-23

    Fluralaner is the first orally administered isoxazoline to provide 12 weeks of activity against fleas and ticks after a single administration. As a result of its potent anti-flea activity, oral fluralaner may be proposed as a component of a strategy for the control of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in dogs. The open field study reported here assessed the efficacy of fluralaner for long-term control (up to 6 months) of FAD in affected client-owned dogs maintained under common household conditions in the Ile-de-France region. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment study. Client-owned dogs with clinical signs of FAD were recruited and treated with oral fluralaner (Bravecto®) at 25-56 mg/kg body weight on days 0 and 84. The dogs' condition was assessed at each visit (on days 0, 28, 84 and 168) using the following three parameters: (i) extent of skin lesions based on the scoring system for canine FAD; (ii) pruritus severity based on the pruritus visual analog scale; (iii) presence or absence of fleas or flea feces. Of the 26 dogs initially enrolled, 23 were presented on day 28, 20 on day 84 and 16 for the final evaluation on day 168. Eighteen out of 20 dogs (90 %) presented on day 84 and 15 out of 16 dogs (94 %) presented on day 168 showed a complete clinical resolution. The post-treatment FAD clinical scores on days 28, 84 and 168 were significantly different from that of the pre-treatment with a reduction of 89.8 %, 98.8 % and 99.8 %, respectively. The post-treatment pruritus index values on days 28, 84 and 168 were significantly different from that of the pre-treatment with a reduction of 45.2 %, 71.2 % and 80.8 %, respectively. The present study confirmed that oral fluralaner treatment should be considered as effective for long-term control of clinical signs in FAD affected dogs.

  2. Prenatal exposure to fipronil disturbs maternal aggressive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Julia Z; Udo, Mariana S B; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Bernardi, Maria M; Spinosa, Helenice S

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a second-generation phenilpirazol insecticide that is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for protection against fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches and other pests. The insecticide blocks the chloride channels associated with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors in mammals and the chloride channels associated with the GABA and glutamate (Glu) receptors in insects. In this study, a commercial product that contain fipronil was administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats at dosages of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/day from the 6th to the 20th day of gestation (n=10 pregnant rats/group) to assess the maternal aggressive behavior (on the 6th day of lactation) and the histopathology of the ovaries and the thyroid gland of the dams. The fipronil caused a disturbance of the maternal aggressive behavior; the aggression against a male intruder decreased at the lowest dose, but increased at the highest dose, without interfering with the general activity of the dams in the open field test at either dose. The histopathological analysis revealed no abnormalities. The differential effects of fipronil behavior appeared to be a consequence of actions on central nervous system areas that control these behaviors. We suggest that fipronil acts on maternal aggressive behavior through GABA(A) receptors.

  3. Efficacy and safety of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner in the treatment of naturally occurring flea and tick infestations in cats presented as veterinary patients in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Farkas, Robert; Lin, Dan; Rugg, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Two randomised, blinded, multi-centre field studies were conducted in Europe (Germany, Italy, France, Hungary) to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly applications of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea or tick infestations in cats presented as veterinary patients. The spot-on formulation was administered at the commercial dose range of 6.0-12.0mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also monitored. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer) and fipronil (Frontline® Spot on, Merial) were used as positive control products in the flea and tick studies, respectively. Treatments were administered on Days 0, 30 and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live parasite counts on post-treatment days 14, 30, 60 and 90 versus the pre-treatment count on Day 0. Non-inferiority of selamectin/sarolaner to the control products was assessed at each time-point using a non-inferiority margin of 15% at the one-sided 0.025 significance level. Cats were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (selamectin/sarolaner:comparator). In the flea study, 277 cats were assessed for efficacy and safety, and an additional 170 cats were assessed for safety only. On days 14, 30, 60 and 90, efficacy against fleas was 97.4%, 97.3%, 98.8% and 99.4% in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group and was 90.0%, 83.6%, 87.7% and 96.3% in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group, respectively. Selamectin/sarolaner was non-inferior to imidacloprid/moxidectin at all time-points. For the 16 cats identified as having FAD at enrolment, clinical signs related to FAD improved following treatment administration. In the tick study, 200 cats were assessed for efficacy and safety, and a further 70 cats were assessed for safety only. Four tick species were identified. Overall efficacy against

  4. Assessment of predatory ability of native and non-native freshwater gammaridean species: A rapid test with water fleas as prey

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    B.E.M.W. STOFFELS, J.S. TUMMERS, G. VAN DER VELDE, D. PLATVOET, H.W.M. HENDRIKS, R.S.E.W. LEUVEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation rate with relation to species, sex and water temperature was tested among four different gammaridean species: Dikerogammarus villosus, Gammarus roeselii, Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum. Tests were performed in microcosms in climate-controlled rooms at five different temperatures. Daphnia magna, a common water flea, served as prey. On ave- rage D. villosus showed the highest consumption rate of Daphnia magna over the entire temperature range, followed in decreasing order by G. pulex, G. roeselii and G. fossarum. The predation rate of all species showed a distinct peak at 20°C. Correction of predation rates for body size gave somewhat different results. D. villosus is then still the most predatory of all gammaridean species tested followed by G. pulex, G. fossarum and G. roeselii. The outcome of the Daphnia tests is consistent with results of other studies with different prey. This supports that the Daphnia test is a good and quick indicator of the predatory abilities in gammaridean species at varying temperatures, and allows the prediction of how changing temperature regimes influence invasion impacts [Current Zoology 57 (6: 836–843, 2011].

  5. Comparative Global Gene Expression Profiles of Wild-Type Yersinia pestis CO92 and Its Braun Lipoprotein Mutant at Flea and Human Body Temperatures

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    Cristi L. Galindo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Braun/murein lipoprotein (Lpp is involved in inflammatory responses and septic shock. We previously characterized a Δlpp mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 and found that this mutant was defective in surviving in macrophages and was attenuated in a mouse inhalation model of plague when compared to the highly virulent wild-type (WT bacterium. We performed global transcriptional profiling of WT Y. pestis and its Δlpp mutant using microarrays. The organisms were cultured at 26 and 37 degrees Celsius to simulate the flea vector and mammalian host environments, respectively. Our data revealed vastly different effects of lpp mutation on the transcriptomes of Y. pestis grown at 37 versus 26C. While the absence of Lpp resulted mainly in the downregulation of metabolic genes at 26C, the Y. pestis Δlpp mutant cultured at 37C exhibited profound alterations in stress response and virulence genes, compared to WT bacteria. We investigated one of the stress-related genes (htrA downregulated in the Δlpp mutant relative to WT Y. pestis. Indeed, complementation of the Δlpp mutant with the htrA gene restored intracellular survival of the Y. pestis Δlpp mutant. Our results support a role for Lpp in Y. pestis adaptation to the host environment, possibly via transcriptional activation of htrA.

  6. Invertebrate vectors, parasites, and rickettsial agents in Guam

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    Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-week field study of ectoparasites of humans and domestic animals throughout Guam. Thirteen species of ectoparasitic arthropods were collected. Ectoparasites of medical or veterinary significance included the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus, fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Xenopsylla cheopsis, and the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. Polymerase chain reaction based screening for rickettsial and protozoan pathogens detected pathogens in eight arthropods. These included Anaplasma platys, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis.

  7. Evaluation of biological control of rattus population by mongoose (Herpestidae, Carnivora in AbuMusa Island, Iran

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    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the rattus biological control program in Iranian Persian Gulf Island, Abu-Musa. Methods: This study was conducted on the Iranian island of Abu-Musa during April 2012 to March 2013. The rattus trapping was done using commercial live and baited rat trap, in different parts of the island. Also the island of Qeshm, with a similar weather and climatic conditions in the Persian Gulf was considered as a control area, which any comprehensive rattus control plan has not been implemented during the implementation of rattus biological control program on Abu-Musa Island. All ectoparasites were collected and stored at 70% ethanol. Ectoparasites, including fleas, lice and mites were identified using identification keys. In addition, a number of released mongooses were captured and identified. Results: Despite a year of trapping on the island, no rattus were caught in the traps. While on the island of Qeshm, as a control location, rate of rat trappings was estimated 33.3%. Among the 27 captured rodents in two islands, a total of 89 ectoparasites including fleas, Xenopsylla astia (32 females, 18 males and Cetenocephalides felis (9 females, 7 males, louse, Polyplax spinulosa (8 females, 2 males and mite, Laelaps nuttalli (13 females and males were collected. In this study, the introduced mongoose on the island of Abu-Musa, which has established and increased their population and been distributed in all parts of the island, was identified as Indian gray mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii. Conclusions: The introduced Indian gray mongoosehas successfully eradicated the rattus population in island of Abu-Musa, but we have no information about its direct and indirect impacts on other native faunal elements of this island.

  8. The sustained speed of kill of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) on dogs by a spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin (Effitix®) compared with oral afoxolaner (NexGard®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejić, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Neethling, Willem; Hellmann, Klaus; Liebenberg, Julian; Navarro, Christelle

    2017-08-30

    The rapid speed of kill of a spot-on, combination of fipronil-permethrin (Effitix ® , Virbac) was shown against infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Efficacy was determined against new infestations at weekly intervals for one month after treatment. Dogs were allocated randomly to either an untreated control or to a single administration, given on Day 0, of either topical fipronil-permethrin (6.7-13.4mg/kg and 60-120mg/kg, respectively) or oral afoxolaner (2.72-6.8mg/kg), based on pre-treatment, host-suitability flea counts. Dogs were infested with 50, unfed, adult R. sanguineus on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28, and with 100C. felis on Days 8, 15, 22 and 29. Tick counts were performed 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24h, and flea counts were performed 0.5 and 24h after each infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred. Dogs in the untreated group maintained viable infestations throughout the study. Following infestation, live tick and flea counts for dogs treated with fipronil-permethrin compared with untreated dogs were rapidly and significantly reduced with efficacy apparent at 0.5h after infestation. Flea efficacies (arithmetic mean counts) at 0.5h after infestation on Day 7 (Day 28) were significantly greater for fipronil-permethrin, 70% (34%) compared with 8% (18%) for afoxolaner (P≤0.05). Tick efficacies at 2h on Day 7 (Day 28) were 74% (63%) for fipronil-permethrin compared with 10% (0%) for afoxolaner (P≤0.05). Efficacies for tick repellency as indicated by counts of ticks off the dogs at 2h on Day 7 (Day 28) were greater for fipronil-permethrin, 32% (22%) compared with afoxolaner, 0% (0%) (P≤0.05). Anti-attachment efficacies at 12h were greater for fipronil-permethrin compared with afoxolaner. Tick efficacies at 24h, based on arithmetic (geometric) means, were significantly greater on Day 28 for fipronil-permethrin compared with afoxolaner (P≤0.05), 74% (87%) and 45% (60%), respectively, and were similar (P >0

  9. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  10. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hyman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world’s most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages, the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses, the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses, and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses. In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

  11. Distributional data and taxonomic notes on the flea Strepsylla (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae: Neopsyllinae: Phalacropsyllini Datos de distribución y notas taxonómicas de las especies de Strepsylla (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae: Neopsyllinae: Phalacropsyllini

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    Roxana Acosta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strepsylla Traub, 1950 is considered a New World flea genus, parasitizing, in most cases, species of Muridae, particularly peromyscines. Thirteen species of Strepsylla are addressed with respect to their taxonomic characters, host preferences and geographic distribution. A detailed list of material is included.Strepsylla Traub, 1950 es considerado un género de pulgas del nuevo mundo, que en la mayoría de los casos parasitan múridos, particularmente peromisinos. Se comentan algunos de los caracteres taxonómicos, preferencia de huéspedes, distribución geográfica y el material examinado de las 13 especies del género.

  12. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  13. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto® in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP. Methods 232 (IVP and 81 (CP cats and 271(IVP and 129 (CP dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP + 47 (CP cats and 197 (IVP + 94 (CP dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%. Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%. The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in

  14. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Rass, Julia; Radeloff, Isabel; Kruedewagen, Eva; Le Sueur, Christophe; Hellmann, Klaus; Krieger, Klemens

    2012-03-31

    The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs under field conditions. Therefore, it

  15. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-06-01

    The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Preston's lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations.

  16. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dwellings may help prevent rat-bite fever. Taking antibiotics by mouth after a rat bite may also help prevent this illness. Alternative Names Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic ...

  17. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  18. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...

  19. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  20. Influence of temperature, photoperiod and humidity on oviposition and egg hatch of the root-feeding flea beetle Longitarsus bethae (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), a natural enemy of the weed Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelane, D O

    2007-04-01

    The root-feeding flea beetle Longitarsus bethae Savini & Escalona, was introduced into South Africa as a candidate biological control agent for the noxious and invasive weed, Lantana camara L. As part of the study to predict the beetles' survival in its new range, the influence of climatic conditions on its egg development and reproductive performance were investigated in the laboratory. The threshold temperature (T degrees) and degree-days (DD) required for egg hatch were determined after exposing the eggs to various constant temperatures (12, 17, 22, 27 and 32 degrees C) in separate growth chambers. The DD required for egg hatch was 178.6, and the temperature threshold required for egg hatch was 11.3 degrees C. Survival of eggs varied from 27 to 56% at 32 and 17 degrees C, respectively, and was optimum between 17 and 25 degrees C. Oviposition was examined under high and low relative humidity (RH) regimes while egg hatch was determined at six RH levels, each maintained in a separate controlled growth chamber set at a constant temperature (25 degrees C). Whilst RH had no influence on oviposition, eggs were highly susceptible to aridity, and continuous exposure to relative humidity below 63% for more than three days was wholly lethal at 25 degrees C. Optimum egg hatch occurred at RH between 85 and 95% for up to 12 days. The effect of day length on oviposition and subsequent egg hatch was investigated under two photoperiod regimes. Neither oviposition nor subsequent egg hatch was influenced by photoperiod. The knowledge obtained will be useful for mass rearing as well as field release programmes for L. bethae.

  1. Influence of soil texture, moisture, and surface cracks on the performance of a root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelane, David O

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil texture, moisture and surface cracks on adult preference and survival of the root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae Savini and Escalona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a natural enemy of the weed, Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Adult feeding, oviposition preference, and survival of the immature stages of L. bethae were examined at four soil textures (clayey, silty loam, sandy loam, and sandy soil), three soil moisture levels (low, moderate, and high), and two soil surface conditions (with or without surface cracks). Both soil texture and moisture had no influence on leaf feeding and colonization by adult L. bethae. Soil texture had a significant influence on oviposition, with adults preferring to lay on clayey and sandy soils to silty or sandy loam soils. However, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in clayey soils than in other soil textures. There was a tendency for females to deposit more eggs at greater depth in both clayey and sandy soils than in other soil textures. Although oviposition preference and depth of oviposition were not influenced by soil moisture, survival in moderately moist soils was significantly higher than in other moisture levels. Development of immature stages in high soil moisture levels was significantly slower than in other soil moisture levels. There were no variations in the body size of beetles that emerged from different soil textures and moisture levels. Females laid almost three times more eggs on cracked than on noncracked soils. It is predicted that clayey and moderately moist soils will favor the survival of L. bethae, and under these conditions, damage to the roots is likely to be high. This information will aid in the selection of suitable release sites where L. bethae would be most likely to become established.

  2. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  3. Plague in Lushoto district, Tanzania, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S; Mbise, T J; Makundi, R H

    1992-01-01

    Rodents were live-trapped in selected plague-inflicted villages from June 1980 to March 1988. Flea infestation rates were determined and the animals were serologically tested for plague. Clinically suspected and clinically healthy people in the affected areas were similarly tested for plague antibodies. Of 1596 rodent sera tested, 91 (5.7%) were positive for plague. These were mostly from Rattus rattus, Mastomys natalensis, Otomys spp. and Pelomys fallax. A total of 1772 fleas, of which Dinopsyllus lypusus, Xenopsylla brasiliensis and Ctenophthalmus calceatus comprised the largest proportion, was collected from the captured rodents. Total flea indices ranged from 0.67 to 1.12 fleas per rodent. A total of 2809 human cases and a mortality rate of 10.2% were recorded in 1980-1988. It was concluded that most rodent species in the area were suitable reservoirs of plague and that D. lypusus, X. brasiliensis and C. calceatus were probably responsible for transmitting the pathogen. Lack of effective quarantine measures during outbreaks was partly responsible for the spread of the disease to many villages, while inadequate rodent and flea control and poor sanitary measures could be responsible for continued outbreaks of plague in the area.

  4. No Evidence of Rat Hepatitis E Virus Excretion in Urine Samples of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2017-05-24

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted in the urine of HEV-infected rats, we infected 3 Wistar and 6 nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat-HEV RNA in serum, fecal, and urine samples. We detected rat-HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all 9 rats but not in any of the urine samples. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  5. Testicular Toxicity and Sperm Quality Following Exposure to Solignum and reg;: A Permethrin-Containing Wood Preservative in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is widely used as a pesticide in agriculture, homes, gardens, and for treatment of ectoparasites such as fleas, lice, and scabies on human and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the testicular toxicity and sperm quality of adult male Wistar albino rats exposed to Solignum and reg; (SOL, a commercial permethrin-containing wood preservative. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. SOL mixed with olive oil (1:1 was orally administered to rats daily at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 28 days while the control received 1 ml of olive oil only. At the end of this study, animals were sacrificed and testes excised, weighed, and processed for histological examination. Results: Rats treated with SOL showed a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in body weight ranging from 127.30 +/- 5.95 to 84.50 +/- 15.37 g as compared with control group (138.50 +/- 6.7 g. Absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes decreased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in treated rats ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.44 to 0.22 +/- 0.18; 0.49 +/- 7.39 to 0.26 +/- 1.17, and 1.07 +/- 0.75 to 0.37 +/- 0.19, respectively, when compared with control groups (0.89 +/- 0.27; 0.64 +/- 4.00; and 1.40 +/- 0.35 for absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes, respectively after 28 days. However, there was a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and sperm viability, whereas sperm debris increased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control group. Furthermore, histological examination of the testes indicated that rats exposed to SOL were characterized by significant degenerative changes when compared with control group. Conclusion: Therefore, exposure to SOL may inhibit

  6. Longtransplantatie bij de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, Klaas Willem

    1983-01-01

    Op grond van de resultaten van het hierboven beschreven onderzoek en de eraan gewijde beschouwingen zijn de volgende conclasies getrokken: 1. Orthotope linkszijdige longtransplantatie bij de rat is operatietechnisch mogelijk. 2. Longpercusiescintigrafie met radioactief ,,gelabelde" microbolletjes is

  7. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Dipylidium Infection Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Biology Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  8. in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... cell carcinoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, atrophy, fibro- sarcoma, chronic inflammation, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and osteoma at the end of the experiment. The lesions were then diagnosed according to the histopathological changes by using ether to anesthetize the rats. All the animals were ...

  9. CAMALDULENSIS IN RATS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. Sub – acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT),. Aspartate ...

  10. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  11. Running the rat race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASA Refresher Course Texts: Running the rat race. 74. 2014;20(1) ... and feelings of existential despair which characterise the human condition, to emerge as they are today: whole, satisfied, well .... Pure efficiency only exists on paper. In the ...

  12. Rat on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  13. Behavior modulation of rats to a robotic rat in multi-rat interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Sugahara, Yusuke; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we study the behavioral response of rats to a robotic rat during multi-rat interaction. Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a robotic rat called WR-5 is put together with three laboratory rats. WR-5 is following one rat (target), while avoiding the other two rats (outside observers) during interaction. The behavioral characteristics of each target rat is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing, body grooming and mounting actions. Additionally, the frequency of being mounted by other rats is also measured. Experimental results show that the target becomes more active after interaction. The rat species, with more active behavioral characteristics, is more susceptible to being adjusted by the robot. The increased time spent by the outside observers in the vicinity of the robot indicates that a biomimetic robot has the promise for modulating rat behavior even without direct interaction. Thus, this study provide a novel approach to shaping the sociality of animals living in groups.

  14. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals ...

  15. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  16. Siphonaptera (Pulicidae) in dogs and cats of Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2010-10-29

    Flea infestation is a common worldwide problem, its effective control results in high costs and difficult implementation. During February to August 2007, an epidemiological study of Siphonaptera order in dogs and cats admitted at the University of Caldas-Colombia - Veterinary Hospital (UCVH), was carried out by corporal examination and recording epidemiological variables. Overall, 3698 fleas were collected from 140 dogs and 30 cats. Two main species were identified: Ctenocephalides felis (94.2%) and Pulex irritans (5.8%) and a single specimen of Xenopsylla cheopis were also collected. Owners also considered some products as improper or of doubtful efficacy and employed schedules defined as inadequate, both because of a poor choice and an erroneous use of the product. Epidemiological factors associated with flea infestation allowed estimating the effect of variables such as locality, sleeping area, preferred place, type of floor, presence of other animals, and type of hair. Performing epidemiological studies on canine and feline populations in other areas of the country is required for an adequate implementation of strategies for flea control in pets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cethromycin-Mediated Protection against the Plague Pathogen Yersinia pestis in a Rat Model of Infection and Comparison with Levofloxacin ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Brackman, Sheri M.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E.; Yeager, Linsey A.; Peterson, Johnny W.; Xu, Ze-Qi; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, has historically been regarded as one of the deadliest pathogens known to mankind, having caused three major pandemics. After being transmitted by the bite of an infected flea arthropod vector, Y. pestis can cause three forms of human plague: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic, with the latter two having very high mortality rates. With increased threats of bioterrorism, it is likely that a multidrug-resistant Y. pestis strain would be employed, and, as such, conventional antibiotics typically used to treat Y. pestis (e.g., streptomycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin) would be ineffective. In this study, cethromycin (a ketolide antibiotic which inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and is currently in clinical trials for respiratory tract infections) was evaluated for antiplague activity in a rat model of pneumonic infection and compared with levofloxacin, which operates via inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase and DNA gyrase. Following a respiratory challenge of 24 to 30 times the 50% lethal dose of the highly virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain, 70 mg of cethromycin per kg of body weight (orally administered twice daily 24 h postinfection for a period of 7 days) provided complete protection to animals against mortality without any toxic effects. Further, no detectable plague bacilli were cultured from infected animals' blood and spleens following cethromycin treatment. The antibiotic was most effective when administered to rats 24 h postinfection, as the animals succumbed to infection if treatment was further delayed. All cethromycin-treated survivors tolerated 2 subsequent exposures to even higher lethal Y. pestis doses without further antibiotic treatment, which was related, in part, to the development of specific antibodies to the capsular and low-calcium-response V antigens of Y. pestis. These data demonstrate that cethromycin is a potent antiplague drug that can be used to treat pneumonic plague. PMID:21859946

  18. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  19. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Marina R.; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats usin...

  20. Gravitational Biology: The Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Morphology of brain, pituitary and thyroid in the rats exposed to altered gravity; Biochemical Properties of B Adrenoceptors After Spaceflight (LMS-STS78) or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats; Influence of Hypergravity on the Development of Monoaminergic Systems in the Rat Spinal Cord; A Vestibular Evoked Potentials (VsEPs) Study of the Function of the Otolith Organs in Different Head Orientations with respect to Earth Gravity Vector in the Rat; Quantitative Observations on the Structure of Selected Proprioceptive Components in Adult Rats that Underwent About Half of their Fetal Development in Space; Effects of a Nine-Day Shuttle Mission on the Development of the Neonatal Rat Nervous System, A Behavioral Study; Muscle Atrophy Associated to Microgravity in Rat, Basic Data For Countermeasures; Simulated Weightlessness by Unloading in the Rat, Results of a Time Course Study of Biochemical Events Occurring During Unloading and Lack of Effect of a rhBNP-2 Treatment on Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Content in Unloading Rats; and Cytological Mechanism of the Osteogenesis Under Microgravity Conditions.

  1. Generation of Hprt-disrupted rat through mouse←rat ES chimeras

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Isotani; Kazuo Yamagata; Masaru Okabe; Masahito Ikawa

    2016-01-01

    We established rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from a double transgenic rat line which harbours CAG-GFP for ubiquitous expression of GFP in somatic cells and Acr3-EGFP for expression in sperm (green body and green sperm: GBGS rat). By injecting the GBGS rat ES cells into mouse blastocysts and transplanting them into pseudopregnant mice, rat spermatozoa were produced in mouse?rat ES chimeras. Rat spermatozoa from the chimeric testis were able to fertilize eggs by testicular sperm extraction...

  2. The Perfect Burrow, but for What? Identifying Local Habitat Conditions Promoting the Presence of the Host and Vector Species in the Kazakh Plague System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth; Addink, Elisabeth; Ageyev, Vladimir; Yeszhanov, Aidyn; Sapozhnikov, Valerij; Belayev, Alexander; Davydova, Tania; Eagle, Sally; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The wildlife plague system in the Pre-Balkhash desert of Kazakhstan has been a subject of study for many years. Much progress has been made in generating a method of predicting outbreaks of the disease (infection by the gram negative bacterium Yersinia pestis) but existing methods are not yet accurate enough to inform public health planning. The present study aimed to identify characteristics of individual mammalian host (Rhombomys opimus) burrows related to and potentially predictive of the presence of R.opimus and the dominant flea vectors (Xenopsylla spp.). Methods Over four seasons, burrow characteristics, their current occupancy status, and flea and tick burden of the occupants were recorded in the field. A second data set was generated of long term occupancy trends by recording the occupancy status of specific burrows over multiple occasions. Generalised linear mixed models were constructed to identify potential burrow properties predictive of either occupancy or flea burden. Results At the burrow level, it was identified that a burrow being occupied by Rhombomys, and remaining occupied, were both related to the characteristics of the sediment in which the burrow was constructed. The flea burden of Rhombomys in a burrow was found to be related to the tick burden. Further larger scale properties were also identified as being related to both Rhombomys and flea presence, including latitudinal position and the season. Conclusions Therefore, in advancing our current predictions of plague in Kazakhstan, we must consider the landscape at this local level to increase our accuracy in predicting the dynamics of gerbil and flea populations. Furthermore this demonstrates that in other zoonotic systems, it may be useful to consider the distribution and location of suitable habitat for both host and vector species at this fine scale to accurately predict future epizootics. PMID:26325073

  3. Transmission dynamics of Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's jirds (Meriones crassus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-02-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors.

  4. La peste, enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente Re-emergence of the plague: an infectious and contagious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plácido Pedroso Flaquet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La peste es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente. Su reservorio natural en los vertebrados son los roedores silvestres. Los conejos y las liebres, los carnívoros silvestres y los gatos domésticos también pueden ser fuente de infección para los seres humanos. Es causada por la bacteria Yersinia pestis y transmitida por la pulga Xenopsylla cheopis que afecta tanto a animales como a humanos. Causó una devastadora pandemia que asoló Europa en el siglo XIV. Es una zoonosis muy virulenta y potencialmente letal enfermedad bacteriana. Sigue persistiendo en focos naturales que producen brotes recurrentes en muchos lugares del mundo La peste se contrae de manera natural por la intromisión de las personas en el ciclo zoonótico, o por la introducción de roedores silvestres o sus pulgas infectadas en el habitad de los seres humanos. La prevención y las medidas de control van encaminadas a la disminución y el control de roedores y pulgas.Plague is a re-emergent infectious and contagious disease. Its natural reservoirs in vertebrates are the wild rodents. Rabbits and hares, the wild carnivores and the domestic cats also may be an infection source for human beings. It is caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted by the flea Xenopsylla cheopis affecting both animals and humans. In Europe during XIX century it caused a devastating pandemic. It is a zoonosis very virulent and a potentially lethal bacterial disease. It persists in natural foci producing recurrent outbreak in many world places. Plague is acquired in a natural way due to interference of people in the zoonosis cycle or due to introduction of wild rodents or their infected fleas in human beings habitat. Prevention and control measures must to be aimed to decrease and the control of rodents and fleas.

  5. model in female wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... cyclodextrin on wister rats : histopathologic analoges. Fundan Clin. Pharmacol.; 23(6) :747-755. Sandor, V., Cuparencu, B., Dumitrascu, L.D., Birt, A.M. and Krausz, L.T. (2006). Protective effects of amphetamine on gastric ulcerations induced by indomethacin in rats. World J. Gastroenterol.; 12(44): ...

  6. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  7. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2016-01-01

    Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  8. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  9. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Marina R; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats using light gas anesthesia and a custom-made platform for sperm collection.

  10. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  11. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  12. PENICILLIN EPILEPSY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test, in a model of experimental penicillin epilepsy, a hypothesis of primary and dominant role of cortex in genesis of epileptic discharges, by using recordings of electrocorticograms (EcoG. The experiments were made with around two and a half old male rats. The rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. In the case of the first group, antibiotics were applied intraperitoneally (i.p.. Epileptic generalized discharges of this group were not registered until administering a dosage of antibiotics higher than 1.8 x 106 IU/kg. In the second group, application of a dosage of 1.2 x 106 IU/kg resulted in individual discharges. In the third group, antibiotics were applied intracortically (i.c. in a dosage of 50 IU and caused individual discharges without big seizures. The fourth group needed a dosage of 100 IU/kg of penicillin applied i.c. to develop a big seizure. Discharges in the first three groups were registered first as unilateral with a subsequent development of bilateral synchrony. In the case of the fourth group, immediately and abruptly after the application of penicillin big seizures developed violently and repeated several times. We consider that the very implantation of electrodes provokes occurrence of discharging.

  13. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  14. Postural development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  15. Oxidative Stress in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Ramírez Ramírez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: aging is one of the major problems that the world is facing today due to its impact on all areas of society. Objective: to determine the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde as indicators of oxidative damage and to determine the antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione concentration in aged rats. Methods: a total of 20 male Wistar rats with a body weight of approximately 200 to 250 grams were selected to form two groups with 10 young adult rats and 10 old rats. 2 ml of blood was drawn from the paranasal sinus. The sample was collected in 5 ml vials and after being homogenized, it was sent to the Biomedical Research Center, where it was used to assess the following oxidative stress variables: degree of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense level. An analysis of variance was performed to study the behavior of the different groups. Differences were considered significant when P value was less than 0.05. Results: no significant changes were found in the concentrations of malondialdehyde and glutathione, as well as in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in aged rats compared to young. Concentration of advanced oxidation protein products increased significantly in aged rats. Conclusions: aged rats showed an increase in oxidative damage to proteins. Antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione concentration showed no changes.

  16. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities

  17. Contribution à l'étude de la peste au Vietnam : historique et inventaire des puces signalées (Insecta - Siphonaptera en zones anthropisées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaucournu J.-C.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Dix espèces de puces sont connues au Vietnam en zones anthropisées. Xenopsylla vexabilis est incluse dans cette liste en raison de son rôle dans d'autres foyers pesteux. La seule puce selvatique connue comme pouvant parasiter des rats synanthropes est Lentistivalius klossi, dont nous mettons en synonymie la sous-espèce bispiniformis (Li et Wang, 195 (syn. nov. décrite de Chine.

  18. Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M

    2007-09-01

    Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other

  19. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  20. TRANSFER OF A RESPONSE TO NAIVE RATS BY INJECTION OF RIBONUCLEIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM TRAINED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABICH, F R; JACOBSON, A L; BUBASH, S; JACOBSON, A

    1965-08-06

    Rats were trained in a Skinner box to approach the food cup when a distinct click was sounded. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the brains of these rats and injected into untrained rats. The untrained rats then manifested a significant tendency (as compared with controls) to approach the food cup when the click, unaccompanied by food, was presented.

  1. Whey Protein Concentrate and Dexamethasone Protected Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; ...

  2. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... albino rats (Rattus novergicus). Ejere, Vincent C.*, Ugwu, Godwin C., Chukwuka, Christian O. and Nnamonu, Emmanuel I. ... Similarly, lectin from M. sloanei has been reported as an effective and suitable cell ... male albino rats were then assigned into four groups (A, B, C, and. D) of 12 rats per group.

  3. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  4. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  5. Whey protein concentrate and dexamethasone protected rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; Group II: ...

  6. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex wer...

  7. Rat penis as a replantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamürsel, Sebat; Karamürsel, Tamer; Celebioğlu, Selim

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of rat penile replantation as a new microsurgical training model. The study was performed in 2 parts. ANATOMIC STUDIES: Fifteen Wistar albino rats were used to study and document the penile vascular anatomy. In 5 rats, dissections were performed after colored silicone injections, while 5 rats were operated under anesthesia to develop the strategy of flap elevation. In the remaining 5 rats, microangiographic study was performed with silicone-lead oxide mixture. FLAP STUDIES: As flap studies in 5 rats, penis were elevated based on right-side internal pudendal artery and internal pudendal vein and resutured. In 6 rats, penis were elevated as free flaps, and in 3 rats the penis were implanted in right thigh of the rats being the femoral artery and vein recipient. In the remaining 3 rats, penis were resutured in their original place, with saphenous artery and vein being the recipient and rerouted to the pubic region. At postoperative fifth day, the penis were examined for viability, and selected ones were histologically examined. Rat penis has a dual blood supply from bilateral internal pudendal arteries. Venous drainage is via both crural veins and dorsal vein. One side of the internal pudendal artery and anastomotic vein (branch of pudendal plexus) may be used as the vascular pedicle of the flap. Rat penis may be successfully elevated as a free flap and also may be replanted in its original place.

  8. Wild Rodent Ectoparasites Collected from Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Zarei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were trans­ferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identi­fied.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migrato­rius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectopara­sites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Cten­ocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prev­alent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.

  9. Sleep in spontaneous dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfi, Zoltan; Obal, Ferenc; Taishi, Ping; Gardi, Janos; Kacsoh, Balint; Unterman, Terry; Krueger, James M

    2006-09-07

    Spontaneous dwarf rats (SDRs) display growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to a mutation in the GH gene. This study investigated sleep in SDRs and their somatotropic axis and compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. SDRs had almost undetectable levels of plasma GH. Hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) mRNA was increased, whereas GHRH-receptor (GHRH-R) and somatostatin mRNAs were decreased in SDRs. Hypothalamic GHRH and somatostatin peptide content decreased in SDRs. Quantitative immunohistochemistry for GHRH and GHRH-R corroborated and extended these findings. In the arcuate nucleus, the number of GHRH-positive cells was significantly higher, whereas GHRH-R-positive perikarya were diminished in SDRs. Cortical GHRH and GHRH-R measurements showed similar expression characteristics as those found in the hypothalamus. SDRs had less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and more non-REMS (NREMS) than the control rats during the light period. The electroencephalogram (EEG) delta and theta power decreased during NREMS in the SDRs. After 4-h of sleep deprivation, SDRs had a significantly reduced REMS rebound compared to the controls, whereas NREMS rebound was normal in SDRs. The enhancement in delta power was significantly less than in the control group during recovery sleep. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of GHRH promoted NREMS in both strains of rats; however, increased REMS and EEG delta activity was observed only in control rats. Icv injection of insulin-like growth factor 1 increased NREMS in control rats, but not in the SDRs. These results support the ideas that GHRH is involved in NREMS regulation and that GH is involved in the regulation of REMS and in EEG slow wave activity regulation during NREMS.

  10. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  11. A Focused Microarray for Screening Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, James; He, Hong; Bui, Phuoc; Ryba-White, Ben; Rumi, Mohammad A.K.; Soares, Michael J.; Dutta, Debasree; Paul, Soumen; Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ying, Qi-Long; Rajanahalli, Pavan; Mark L. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a focused microarray for screening rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem (TS) cells, rat extraembryonic endoderm cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, and differentiated rat ESCs. Using this tool, genuine rat ESC lines, which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors (2i), for example, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mi...

  12. Swimming-based pica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that voluntary or forced running in activity wheels yields pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats (Nakajima, 2016; Nakajima and Katayama, 2014). The present study provides experimental evidence that a single 40-min session of swimming in water also generates pica in rats, while showering rats with water does not produce such behavior. Because kaolin intake has been regarded as a measure of nausea in rats, this finding suggests that swimming activity, as well as voluntary or forced running, induces nausea in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Susceptibility of laboratory rats against genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rat hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2013-04-12

    To determine whether or not rats are susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, each of group containing three laboratory rats (Wistar) were experimentally inoculated with genotypes 1, 3, 4 and rat HEV by intravenous injection. Serum and stool samples were collected and used to detect HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The virus infection was monitored up to 3 months after inoculation. None of the serum or stool samples collected from the rats inoculated with G1, G3, or G4 HEV indicated positive sign for virus replication. Although no alteration was observed in ALT level, rat HEV RNA was detected in stools from both of the rats inoculated with rat HEV, and both rats were positive for anti-rat HEV IgG and IgM from 3 weeks after inoculation. These results demonstrated that rats are susceptible to rat HEV but not to G1, G3, and G4 HEV. We also confirm that the nude rats were useful for obtaining a large amount of rat HEV and that the rat HEV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunochemistry of Rat Lung Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    3 * f.*. b; 3 - .’ • ~ -•. -. 3 *. 3 . , . 3• • . .• . • used in this set of experiments. Animals were anesthetized with methoxyflurane and...by supplying methoxyflurane to the rats’ noses in a small plastic funnel. The surgery consisted of making a small slit in the neck and injecting the

  15. wheat flour (dubbie) in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Central Food Technological Research Institute. Mysore 570013, Mysore, India. ABSTRACT: Anaemic rats were fed on diets containing sour dough bread. (Di/'0 dabbo) or porridge prepared from soy-fortified wheat flour (Dubbie) as the source of nonheme iron. The criteria used to determine the relative biological.

  16. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  17. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a loss of autoregulation in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats rendered hypertensive on a high-salt diet. To determine whether this was due to a decreased activity of either the myogenic or the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, we tested the TGF response...

  18. The rat GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Burhenne, Nicole; Christiansen, Bolette

    2007-01-01

    GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far elusive biological function. GPRC6A has been described in human and mouse as a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor. We now report the cloning, expression analysis and, functional characterization of the rat orthol...

  19. induced hepatic injury in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of Thymelaea hirsuta and protective effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in rats. ... There were no significant differences in red blood cells count (p<0.05), in Hemoglobin and Hematocrit serum levels but a significant increase in white blood cells count (p<0.001) and in platelets (p< 0.05) for all ...

  20. ideal hepatotoxicity model in rats using carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A study to produce ideal Hepatotoxicity rats' models using varying concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was carried out. A total of seventy five rats were divided into five (5) groups of twenty five (25) rats each; rats in group I are negative control, were not induced with lipid peroxidation. Rats in groups II, ...

  1. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M; Davis, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  3. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: ‘phenotype to gene’ and ‘gene to phenotype’. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies. PMID:25312505

  4. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoro, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: 'phenotype to gene' and 'gene to phenotype'. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies.

  5. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular end-organ damage in Ren-2 transgenic rats compared to spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; vanGilst, WH; vanGeel, PP; deGraeff, PA; Wagner, J; Paul, M

    To compare hypertensive end-organ damage in two genetic forms of hypertension we assessed cardiovascular function in two rat strains of generic hypertension: transgenic rats overexpressing the mouse Ren-2 gene [(TGR(mREN2)27]) and blood pressure matched spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Despite

  7. Unraveling the Obesity of OLETF Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Timothy H.

    2007-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a brain gut peptide that plays an important role in satiety. CCK inhibits food intake by reducing meal size. CCK’s satiety actions are mediating through its interaction with CCK1 receptors. Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats are a CCK1 receptor knockout model that allows the study of multiple CCK functions. OLETF rats are hyperphagic with the hyperphagia expressed as a significant increase in the size of meals. OLETF rat obesity is secondary to the hyperph...

  8. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... skin rejection, and antibody titers were also measured in the same groups of animals. The experiments showed that both allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafting cause a significant amplification of cells in the different T lymphocyte subpopulations. The functional tests, however, indicate that the T...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  9. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  10. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested...... that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...

  11. LIEER OF WISTAR RAT MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homeostasis synthesised in the liver, has been raised in cases of impaired liver. fimcflun. ... Bil rats served as co:|rtrols, while Eflmts more test animals. The .... between 13D-15tJg were used. These anin1alswe1'edividedlntotwo[2]n1eiJ1 groups: the control group and the test animals. Each group comprised sixty [60].

  12. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  13. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs. PMID:27436999

  14. Hyperparathyroidism is augmented by ovariectomy in Nagase analbuminemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, M; Morii, H; Katsumata, T; Goto, H; Ishimura, E; Kawagishi, T; Kamao, M; Okano, T; Nishizawa, Y

    2000-06-01

    The role of albumin in bone metabolism was studied in Nagase analbuminemic (NA) rats. Serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations did not differ between female NA and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at the time of ovariectomy (ovx), although serum ionized Ca was significantly lower in NA rats than in SD rats. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and urinary Ca excretion were significantly greater in NA rats than in SD rats, suggesting hyperparathyroidism and the resultant enhanced bone turnover in NA rats. Paradoxically, ovx increased serum PTH and OC in NA rats but not in SD rats. Ovx-induced exacerbation of hyperparathyroidism was confirmed by significantly greater conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D in ovx NA rats even after normalization to vitamin D-binding protein. Bone mineral density (BMD) in proximal tibia increased similarly in a time-dependent manner in sham-operated NA and SD rats. However, ovx ablated the time-dependent increase of BMD in SD rats and significantly decreased BMD in NA rats by 2 wk after ovx, resulting in a significantly lower BMD in ovx NA rats than in ovx SD rats. In summary, NA rats, which are analbuminemic with compensatory increases in lipid and protein synthesis, developed hyperparathyroidism, possibly due to an increase in serum Pi and a reduction of ionized Ca, and ovx induced a greater BMD reduction in NA rats than in SD rats, probably by exacerbating hyperparathyroidism.

  15. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  16. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania eVeuthey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Belgrade rat is an animal model of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1 deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in iron distribution to red blood cells as well as duodenal iron absorption. The Belgrade rat’s pathology has extended our knowledge of hepatic iron handling, pulmonary and olfactory iron transport as well as brain iron uptake and renal iron handling. For example, relationships between iron and manganese metabolism have been discerned since both are essential metals transported by DMT1. Pathophysiologic features of the Belgrade rat provide us with a unique and interesting animal model to understand iron homeostasis.

  17. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28

  18. THE GREATER CANE RATS (THRYONOMIS SWINDERIANUS,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The adrenal glands of domesticated greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), were studied using histological and ultrastructural techniques. A total of seven (7) adult male greater cane rats, aged from 10-14 months, with an average weight of 1.89 kg (range: 1.6 -2.2 kg) were used in this ...

  19. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  20. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  1. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  2. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  3. in Cardiac Muscles of Hemorrhagic Shocked Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of various resuscitating fluids on severe hemorrhagic shocked (HS) rats by comparing the expression changes of hsp90α in cardiac muscles and survival of rats. Methods: Western-blot and immunohistochemistry methods were performed to determine hsp90á expressions in ...

  4. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  5. Training pouched rats to find people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Londe, Kate B; Mahoney, Amanda; Edwards, Timothy L; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats equipped with video cameras may be a tenable option for locating living humans trapped under debris from collapsed structures. In the present study, 5 pouched rats were trained to contact human targets in a simulated collapsed building and to return to the release point after hearing a signal to do so. During test sessions, each rat located human targets more often than it located similar-sized inanimate targets on which it had not previously been trained and spent more time within 1 m of the human target than within 1 m of the other targets. Overall, the rats found humans, plastic bags containing clothes, and plastic bags without clothes on 83%, 37%, and 11% of trials, respectively. These findings suggest that using pouched rats to search for survivors in collapsed structures merits further attention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was investigated. Albino wistar rats were divided into three groups. Groups A rats had normal rat chow and water ad-libitum while groups B and C rats had Garcinia kola diet of 10% w/w and 15% w/w respectively, their blood pressures were ...

  7. Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the liver status of STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous root-bark extract of T. tetraptera for 35 days. Twenty-four (24) rats in four groups (normal control, diabetic control, T. tetraptera treated STZ induced diabetic rats at 150 mg/kg b. w. and T. tetraptera treated STZ-diabetic rats at 300 mg/kg ...

  8. Comparative bone marrow responses of albino rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It involved laboratory based experimental infection of albino rats as research models. A total of 32 adult albino rats of mixed sexes were used for this investigation. The rats were randomly grouped into three groups, A, B, C made up of 8 rats each, and infected with T. congolense, T brucei and mixed infection of these species ...

  9. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of histological and histometric changes in rats testes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological and histometric changes in the testes of albino Wistar rats were correlated. Wistar rats weighing between 180-240g were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each. One group served as control and the rats were given normal saline. The second and third groups received 2mg/kg and 4mg/kg body ...

  11. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M R; Murray, Teresa M; Williams, Jasper Z; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats' subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat's behavior on one session

  12. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, Ewart W; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as

  13. Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

  14. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Juan C; Song, Ying; Moore, Anthony; Borchert, Jeff N; Kohn, Michael H

    2010-05-24

    Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations underlying vkorc1-mediated

  15. Decline of umami preference in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Ooki, Makoto; Kanemaru, Norikazu; Harada, Shuitsu

    2014-08-08

    The effects of aging on the umami sensation were compared between the preference and neural responses from the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP innervating the soft palate) and the chorda tympani nerve (CT innervating the fungiform papillae) in the Sprague Dawley rat. A two-bottle preference test revealed that younger rats (5-12 weeks) preferred significantly 0.001 M 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), 0.01 M mono sodium glutamate (MSG), and binary mixtures of 0.001 M IMP+0.01 M MSG than deionized water. However, aged rats (21-22 months) showed no significant preference to these umami solutions compared to deionized water. Among the other four basic taste stimuli, there were no significant differences in preference between young and aged rats. Regardless of the age of the rat, neural responses from the GSP and CT produced robust integrated responses to all three umami solutions used in the two-bottle tests. These results indicate that the lack of preference to umami in aged rats is a central nervous system phenomenon and suggests that the loss of preference to umami taste in aged rats is caused by homeostatic changes in the brain incurred by aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes....... The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet...

  17. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to ...

  18. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia, little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth, survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria-bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from both lab-reared parthenogenetic eggs of a single genotype and from genetically diverse field-collected resting eggs. We showed that bacteria-free hosts are smaller, less fecund and have higher mortality than those with microbiota. We also manipulated the association by exposing bacteria-free Daphnia to a single bacterial strain of Aeromonas sp., and to laboratory environmental bacteria. These experiments further demonstrated that the Daphnia-microbiota system is amenable to manipulation under various experimental conditions. The results of this study have implications for studies of D. magna in ecotoxicology, ecology and environmental genomics.

  19. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Sison-Mangus Marilou P; Mushegian Alexandra A; Ebert Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from bot...

  20. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia, little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth, survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria-bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from b...

  1. Spatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... or complete lack of sanitation (Firdaus, 2012). Rodents are among the ... environment as: - Uninhabited areas or none resident putative high risk areas: swamps. - urban environments with four habitat types according to resident population .... Chandrahas, 1971; Philippines: Mercado, 1981). X. cheopis was ...

  2. [Parasite-host relations of fleas and rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinina, E F

    1982-01-01

    Not infrequently lice can reach great abundance on rodents. The distribution of lice on animals is uneven. The infection with lice depends not only on the physiological and ecological properties of the host but also on the environmental conditions. The distribution of lice on rodents can be affected by the development of transport communications. If a population of rodents is parasitized by two species of specific lice, they belong to different genera. On single animals only one species of lice occurs as a rule; if two species occur, then one of them is dominant. In this way decreases the interspecific competition between lice. Seasonal and age changes in lice infection are associated with those in host's biology and behaviour under certain climatic conditions. It is clearly displayed in rodents breeding once a year. The infection with lice increase with the rise in rodents abundance. Along with the confirmation of the general rule of poor infection with specific parasites at the borders of the species distribution a case of high infection with lice at the border of the host's distribution was noted. In addition to specific lice, alien species are recorded on small mammals which appear due to exchange of parasites between hosts. Examples are given all conquering new hosts by lice; as a result close species of lice can parasitize phylogenetically distant hosts.

  3. Neosomes of tungid fleas on wild and domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of opportunistic agents. Although its effects on humans and domestic animals are well described in the literature, little is known about the impact of tungiasis on wild...

  4. flea beetle populations and economic yield of okra as influenced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    ha-1). La présence de Podagrica uniformis sur les plantes était observée un peu plus tôt que le Nisotra sjostedti. La population de ... plus ou moins 1.0 kg ha-1 de carbofuran avait significativement (P<0.05) réduit les populations de coléoptères jusqu'à cinq ... juice of the fruits makes it a relish in the preparation of soup for ...

  5. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand ...

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ENFORCER FLEA SPRAY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Wa.h cjo~~!""J. pril1t ••• If In E,... I •• edi.tely flush eyes .ith plentv of .ater. ... Dr store ne.r fir., sp.rk. Dr he.td surf.c... Do not s.ok. while using this product. ...

  7. Detection of rat hepatitis E virus in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryll, René; Bernstein, Samuel; Heuser, Elisa; Schlegel, Mathias; Dremsek, Paul; Zumpe, Maxi; Wolf, Sandro; Pépin, Michel; Bajomi, Daniel; Müller, Gabi; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Spahr, Carina; Lang, Johannes; Groschup, Martin H; Ansorge, Hermann; Freise, Jona; Guenther, Sebastian; Baert, Kristof; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Pikula, Jiri; Knap, Nataša; Tsakmakidis, Ιoannis; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Zanet, Stefania; Imholt, Christian; Heckel, Gerald; Johne, Reimar; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-09-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12.4%) rats at the majority of sites in 11 of 12 countries. In contrast, a real-time RT-PCR specific for human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 and a nested broad-spectrum (NBS) RT-PCR with subsequent sequence determination did not detect any infections with these genotypes. Only in a single Norway rat from Belgium a rabbit HEV-like genotype 3 sequence was detected. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clustering of all other novel Norway and Black rat-derived sequences with ratHEV sequences from Europe, the USA and a Black rat-derived sequence from Indonesia within the proposed ratHEV genotype 1. No difference in infection status was detected related to age, sex, rat species or density of human settlements and zoological gardens. In conclusion, our investigation shows a broad geographical distribution of ratHEV in Norway and Black rats from Europe and its presence in all settlement types investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrocardiography in rats: a comparison to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelski, P; Ufnal, M

    2016-11-23

    Electrocardiography (ECG) in rats is a widely applied experimental method in basic cardiovascular research. The technique of ECG recordings is simple; however, the interpretation of electrocardiographic parameters is challenging. This is because the analysis may be biased by experimental settings, such as the type of anesthesia, the strain or age of animals. Here, we aimed to review electrocardiographic parameters in rats, their normal range, as well as the effect of experimental settings on the parameters variation. Furthermore, differences and similarities between rat and human ECG are discussed in the context of translational cardiovascular research.

  9. Oral Gavage in Rats: Animal Welfare Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V.; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew ...

  10. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Masami; WATANABE, Minoru; YOKOMI, Izuru; MATSUMOTO, Naoki; SUDO, Katsuko; SATOH, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Tsuneo; SEKI, Azusa; AMANO, Hitoshi; OHURA, Kiyoshi; RYU, Kakei; SHIBATA, Shunichi; NAGAYAMA, Motohiko; TANUMA, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats. PMID:25736479

  11. Use it or lose it: reproductive implications of ecological specialization in a haematophagous ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbiv, A; Khokhlova, I S; Ovadia, O; Novoplansky, A; Krasnov, B R

    2012-06-01

    Using experimentally induced disruptive selection, we tested two hypotheses regarding the evolution of specialization in parasites. The 'trade-off' hypothesis suggests that adaptation to a specific host may come at the expense of a reduced performance when exploiting another host. The alternative 'relaxed selection' hypothesis suggests that the ability to exploit a given host would deteriorate when becoming obsolete. Three replicate populations of a flea Xenopsylla ramesis were maintained on each of two rodent hosts, Meriones crassus and Dipodillus dasyurus, for nine generations. Fleas maintained on a specific host species for a few generations substantially decreased their reproductive performance when transferred to an alternative host species, whereas they generally did not increase their performance on their maintenance host. The results support the 'relaxed selection' hypothesis of the evolution of ecological specialization in haematophagous ectoparasites, while suggesting that trade-offs are unlikely drivers of specialization. Further work is needed to study the extent by which the observed specializations are based on epigenetic or genetic modifications. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  13. Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat and oral and intravenous administration. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Hughes , M., D. Ross...

  14. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  15. Thermal biology of the laboratory rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly review the literature and present a data base of the basic thermoregulatory parameters of the laboratory rat. This review surveys the pertinent papers dealing with various aspects of the thermal biology of the laboratory rat, including: metabolism, thermoneutrality, core and brain temperature, thermal tolerance, thermal conductance and insulation, thermoregulatory effectors (i.e., thermogenesis, peripheral vasomotor tone, evaporation, and behavior), thermal acclimation, growth and reproduction, ontogeny, aging, motor activity and exercise, circadian rhythm and sleep, gender differences, and other parameters. It is shown that many facets of the thermoregulatory system of the laboratory rat are typical to that of most homeothermic species. However, is several instances the rat exhibits unique thermoregulatory responses which are not comparable to other species.

  16. Comeback of the Rat in Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Wohr, M.; Alenina, N.

    2017-01-01

    Rats were the first mammalian species domesticated for scientific purposes, and they soon became the most widely used animal model in biomedical sciences, including cardiovascular research and behavioral neuroscience. Yet, after the development of technologies to manipulate genes, researchers

  17. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  18. Reduced graphene oxide: nanotoxicological profile in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendonça, Monique Culturato Padilha; Soares, Edilene Siqueira; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ceragioli, Helder José; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) administered intravenously in rats was detected inside the hippocampus after downregulation of the tight and adherens junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier...

  19. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  20. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  1. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Penile autotransplantation in rats is feasible and provides the basis for evaluation of the corpora cavernosa in an allotransplantation model. Long-term urethral continuity and dorsal neurovascular bundle survival in this model is difficult to establish.

  2. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    /kg) groups. At terminal gestation day (GD) ranging from 0-20, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples and amniotic fluids were collected. Thyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin assay was carried using the blood samples.

  3. A Focused Microarray for Screening Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, James; He, Hong; Bui, Phuoc; Ryba-White, Ben; Rumi, Mohammad A.K.; Soares, Michael J.; Dutta, Debasree; Paul, Soumen; Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ying, Qi-Long; Rajanahalli, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe a focused microarray for screening rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem (TS) cells, rat extraembryonic endoderm cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, and differentiated rat ESCs. Using this tool, genuine rat ESC lines, which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors (2i), for example, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors, and leukemia inhibitory factor, and genuine rat ESCs, which have been expanded in rat ESC medium containing four inhibitors (4i), for example, GSK3, MEK, Alk5, and Rho-associated kinase inhibitors were compared; as were genuine rat ESCs from 4 different strains of rats. Expression of Cdx2, a gene associated with trophoblast determination, was observed in genuine, undifferentiated rat ESCs from 4 strains and from both 2i and 4i ESC derivation medium. This finding is in contrast to undifferentiated mouse ESCs that do not express Cdx2. The rat ESC focused microarray described in this report has utility for rapid screening of rat ESCs. This tool will enable optimization of culture conditions in the future. PMID:22889370

  4. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  5. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L

    1990-01-01

    whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated...

  6. Autoprotection in acetaminophen intoxication in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Laursen, H; Bangert, K

    2001-01-01

    Autoprotection by acetaminophen, i.e. increased resistance to toxic effects caused by pretreatment, is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of the present work was to identify mechanisms for increased acetaminophen tolerance induced by pretreatment of rats. One group of female Wistar rats (pretre....... Pretreatment increased the tolerance to acetaminophen toxicity twice, as estimated by mortality. The data indicate that pretreatment may reduce the relative production of toxic metabolites, but it primarily enhances the protection against these metabolites by regenerating hepatocytes....

  7. Hyperlipoproteinemia in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, H; Roheim, P S; Eder, H A

    1976-06-01

    In order to study hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus, rats were made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin and the optimal conditions for production of severe and persistent hyperlipoprotenemia determined. Two groups of rats were compared: rats fed sucrose-rich diets and rats fed laboratory chow. The optimal dose of streptozotocin was 45 mg/kg body weight for the sucrose-fed rats. With this dose, plasma glucose reached a maximum of over 600 mg/100 ml., and plasma insulin was reduced by 60 per cent. Plasma triglycerides rose in the sucrose-fed rats to over 1,000 mg/100 ml. two days after the streptozotocin was given and then decreased to over 770 mg./100 ml. 12 days after treatment and then to 585 mg./100 ml. 10 weeks after induction of diabetes. With this dose, ketonuria did not occur nor did any of the animals die, as occurred with higher doses. In the chow-fed rats, plasma triglyceride levels were elevated with the induction of diabetes to levels of approximately 300 mg./100 ml. The concentration of all the plasma lipoproteins increased with the induction of diabetes. The concentration of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) protein in the sucrose-fed diabetic increased fivefold, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) protein increased, and especially striking was the increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) protein concentration, which became more pronounced with the duration of the diabetes. The diabetes produced by streptozotocin administration to sucrose-fed rats, thus, provides a useful model for the study of the hyperlipoproteinemia of diabetes.

  8. Finding prefrontal cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M

    2016-08-15

    The prefrontal cortex of the rat. I. Cortical projection of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections The cortical projection field of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) was identified in the rat using the Fink-Heimer silver technique for tracing degenerating fibers. Small stereotaxic lesions confined to MD were followed by terminal degeneration in the dorsal bank of the rhinal sulcus (sulcal cortex) and the medial wall of the hemisphere anterior and dorsal to the genu of the corpus callosum (medial cortex). No degenerating fibers were traced to the convexity of the hemisphere. The cortical formation receiving a projection from MD is of a relatively undifferentiated type which had been previously classified as juxtallocortex. A study of the efferent fiber connections of the rat׳s MD-projection cortex demonstrated some similarities to those of monkey prefrontal cortex. A substantial projection to the pretectal area and deep layers of the superior colliculus originates in medial cortex, a connection previously reported for caudal prefrontal (area 8) cortex in the monkey. Sulcal cortex projects to basal olfactory structures and lateral hypothalamus, as does orbital frontal cortex in the monkey. The rat׳s MD-projection cortex differs from that in the monkey in that it lacks a granular layer and appears to have no prominent direct associations with temporal and juxtahippocampal areas. Furthermore, retrograde degeneration does not appear in the rat thalamus after damage to MD-projection areas, suggesting that the striatum or thalamus receives a proportionally larger share of the MD-projection in this animal than it does in the monkey. Comparative behavioral investigations are in progress to investigate functional differences between granular prefrontal cortex in the primate and the relatively primitive MD-projection cortex in the rat. © 1969. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  9. Blood platelet serotonin following enterectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osim, E E; Wyllie, J H

    1991-01-01

    The role of the intestine as a source of platelet serotonin was investigated. Radioactive serotonin precursor. 5-Hydroxytryptophan was injected into enterectomised and sham-operated rats. Blood samples were taken at time intervals and serotonin uptake was estimated by radioactive counting. Soon (1-2 hrs) after surgery and under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia, platelet 5HT activity was higher in enterectomised rats than in controls. The intestine may not be the major source of platelet serotonin.

  10. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  11. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-02-08

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  12. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V Tamara

    2016-08-03

    Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats' natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats' ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats ( n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t -tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber's law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats' ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination.

  13. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor.

  14. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  15. Hypophysectomyinduced regression of female rat lacrimal glands. Partial restoration/maintenance by dihydrotestosterone and prolactin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte; Azzarolo, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ophthalmology, hypophysectomi, rats regression, lacrimal galnds, restoration, dihydrotestosterone, prolactin......Ophthalmology, hypophysectomi, rats regression, lacrimal galnds, restoration, dihydrotestosterone, prolactin...

  16. Expression of somatostatin mRNA and peptide in rat hippocampus after cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Robert; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology......Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology...

  17. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (Ppresbycusis of rats.

  18. Het domesticeren van de rat : Rat-mens relaties in de twintigste eeuw in het Westen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2009-01-01

    In de afgelopen eeuw heeft zich een opvallende verschuiving voorgedaan in de relatie tussen mens en rat. Terwijl de rat rond het begin van de twintigste eeuw in het algemeen nog ondubbelzinnig als ongedierte werd beschouwd, zijn ratten momenteel zowel een populair huisdier als het ultieme model van

  19. Effects of BCL-2 over-expression on B cells in transgenic rats and rat hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Pedros, Christophe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    The rat is an important biomedical experimental model that benefited from the recent development of new transgenic and knockout techniques. With the goal to optimize rat mAb production and to analyze the impact of Bcl-2 on B-cell development, we generated bcl-2 transgenic rats. Transgenic rats showed Bcl-2 over-expression in B cells, increased B cell numbers in lymphoid organs, elevated production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonged B-cell survival in vitro. Transgenic rats remained healthy, reproduced normally and did not develop autoimmunity. Fusions with bcl-2 transgenic splenocytes did not result in increased hybridoma generation. A comparison of on- and off-rates of 39 mAbs generated with bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type animals revealed no significant differences. Over-expression of Bcl-2 in hybridomas did not change cell proliferation but resulted in increased Ig production. Bcl-2 transgenic rats will be a useful tool for the generation of rat mAbs, the analysis of B cells in different pathophysiological models, such as autoimmunity, cancer or organ transplantation, and the study of rat B-cell biology.

  20. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  1. Prevention of red cell lysis in artesunate-treated rats: A role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -phosphate dehydrogenase activity in male rats. Twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats were control rats which received normal saline while group 2 rats were treated with artesunate orally for five ...

  2. Male rats transmit Brucella abortus biotype 1 through sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Baek, Byeong-Kirl

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate transmission of Brucella abortus biotype 1 via sexual intercourse in rats. Male and female virgin Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were experimentally infected intraperitoneally with 1×10(9)colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus biotype 1, a Korean bovine isolate. At 14 days after infection, infected male rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected female rats (n=10) and infected female rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected male rats (n=10) for a period of one month. During this period all uninfected female rats became pregnant and 6 of 10 infected female rats became pregnant. Serum from two out of 10 female uninfected rats had positive reactions in the Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPAT), Tube Agglutination Test (TAT) or the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); whereas none of the uninfected male rat had positive reactions in these tests. Using bacteriological culture and AMOS-PCR assay, B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated and identified from two uninfected female rats and all of the uninfected male rats were found negative for B. abortus biotype 1. It was concluded that transmission of B. abortus biotype 1 from infected male to uninfected female rats resulted from sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. OSMOTICALLY LYSED RAT LIVER MITOCONDRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasington, Frank D.; Greenawalt, John W.

    1968-01-01

    Osmotically lysed rat liver mitochondria have been utilized for a study of the biochemical and ultrastructural properties in relation to divalent ion accumulation. Osmotic lysis of mitochondria by suspension and washing in cold, distilled water results in the extraction of about 50% of the mitochondrial protein, the loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane, an increase in respiration, and a marked decrease in the ability to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, except for a decrease in the ability to accumulate Sr2+ by an ATP-supported process, these lysed mitochondria retain full capacity to accumulate massive amounts of divalent cations by respiration-dependent and ATP-supported mechanisms. The decreased ability of osmotically lysed mitochondria to accumulate Sr2+ by an ATP-energized process does not appear to be due to a loss or inactivation of a specific Sr2+-activated ATPase. The energy-dependent accumulation processes in lysed mitochondria show an increased sensitivity to inhibition by monovalent cations. Extraction of cytochrome c from osmotically lysed mitochondria results in a complete loss of phosphorylation and the respiration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+; a lesser, but significant, decrease in the ATP-supported accumulation of Ca2+ also was observed. The addition of cytochrome c fully restores the respiration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ to the level present in unextracted, osmotically lysed mitochondria. The ATP-supported process is not affected by the addition of cytochrome c to extracted mitochondria, indicating that cytochrome c is not involved in ion transport energized by ATP. The osmotically lysed mitochondria are devoid of outer membranes and contain relatively little matrix substance. The accumulation of Ca2+ and Pi by lysed mitochondria under massive loading conditions is accompanied by the formation of electron-opaque deposits within the lysed mitochondria associated with the inner membranes. This finding suggests that the

  4. Leptin responsiveness in chronically decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S; Bartness, Timothy J; Grill, Harvey J

    2007-10-01

    Peripheral infusions of physiological doses of leptin decrease body fat mass, but it is not known whether this results from direct effects on peripheral tissue or activation of central leptin receptors. In this study, we infused chronically decerebrate (CD) rats, in which the forebrain was surgically isolated from the caudal brainstem, with 60 microg leptin/d or PBS for 14 d from ip mini-osmotic pumps. The CD rats were tube fed an amount of food equivalent to the intake of ad libitum-fed intact controls or 75% of this amount to account for their reduced energy expenditure. Control rats fed ad libitum or tube fed 75, 100, or 125% of their ad libitum intake also were peripherally infused with leptin or PBS. CD rats had a lower serum testosterone, energy expenditure, and lean body mass compared with controls but had increased levels of adiponectin and leptin and were obese. Leptin increased body fat and decreased energy expenditure during the light period in 100%-fed CD rats, but not 75%-fed CD rats. Leptin decreased body fat of ad libitum- and 100%-fed but not 75%-fed or 125%-fed intact controls. Energy expenditure did not change in any control group. These results show that leptin can change body fat independent of a change in food intake or energy expenditure, that the forebrain normally prevents leptin from inhibiting energy expenditure through mechanisms initiated in the caudal brainstem or peripheral tissues, and that the leptin response in both intact and CD rats is determined by the energy status of the animal.

  5. Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Model in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Model in Female Wistar Rats. ... In this regard, an animal model experiment was carried-out to determine the ulcer-dose of indomethacin on female Wistar rats. Based on this objective, ... from 32 Countries:.

  6. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  7. fetal contamination with cadmilim following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FETAL CONTAMINATION WITH CADMILIM FOLLOWING CHRONIC. EXPOSURE OF RAT DAMS DURING GESTATION ... UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, PORT HARCOURT,'NIGERIA. ABSTRACT. Pregnant albino rats (n = 5) ..... Friberg, (1988) Biological monitoring of toxic metals, New York, London, Plenum Press,.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Rats, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Robert H.; Engle, Ronald E.; Rood, Michael P.; Kabrane-Lazizi, Yamina; Nguyen, Hanh T.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; St. Claire, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The role of rats in human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections remains controversial. A genetically distinct HEV was recently isolated from rats in Germany, and its genome was sequenced. We have isolated a genetically similar HEV from urban rats in Los Angeles, California, USA, and characterized its ability to infect laboratory rats and nonhuman primates. Two strains of HEV were isolated from serum samples of 134 wild rats that had a seroprevalence of antibodies against HEV of ≈80%. Virus was transmissible to seronegative Sprague-Dawley rats, but transmission was spotty and magnitude and duration of infection were not robust. Viremia was higher in nude rats. Serologic analysis and reverse transcription PCR were comparably sensitive in detecting infection. The sequence of the Los Angeles virus was virtually identical to that of isolates from Germany. Rat HEV was not transmissible to rhesus monkeys, suggesting that it is not a source of human infection. PMID:22172320

  9. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  10. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...

  11. High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guan, Dawei; Su, Juan; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng; Ke, Chang Wen

    2013-08-30

    Serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in Zhanjiang city in China from December 2011 to September 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) by exploring rat HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. By an ELISA based on recombinant rat HEV-like particles (HEV-LPs), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. The IgG-positive rates in Rattus norvegicus, Bandicota indica, Rattus flavipectus, Rattus rattoides losea, and Rattus rattus hainanus, were 27.8% (64/230), 23.0% (40/174), 19.9% (34/171), 21.5% (26/121), and 11.8% (2/17), while the IgM-positive rates were 8.3% (19/230), 6.9% (12/174), 8.2% (14/171), 10.7% (13/121), and 5.9% (1/17), respectively. The IgG-positive rate of the rats captured in rural areas, 24.1% (84/348), was higher than that in the central area of Zhanjiang city, 15.1% (32/212). The highest IgG-positive rates, as high as 45.3% (39/86), were detected in wild rats trapped in the garbage dump. Twelve of the 59 IgM-positive serum samples were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected in all of the wild rat species except R. rattus hainanus. A phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of rat HEV ORF1 indicated that all of the 12 HEV strains belong to rat HEV, and no other genotype HEV were detected. The rat HEV from Zhangjiang city could be classified into three separated clusters, suggesting that the infection due to rat HEV with a variety of genome entities occurs extensively among wild rats in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas. We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province. Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to

  13. Clinical Evalualtion in Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Ruxanda; Lucia Victoria Bel; Cristian Adrian Raţiu; Viorel Miclăuş; Cosmin Peştean; Liviu Ioan Oana

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on evaluation of induction, maintenance and emergence of inhaled anesthesia and comparison of these anesthetics times for isoflurane and sevoflurane. The biological material consisted of 12 Wistar rats divided into 2 groups, each containing a number of 6 rats. One group was anesthetized with isoflurane and the other with sevoflurane. We monitorized the rats during all stages of anesthesia, observing how the induction established, the state of the rats throughout the ...

  14. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  15. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Debing

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans. As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains. Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies.

  16. The queer life of a lab rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The laboratory rat is an important, if neglected, actor in the history of sexuality. From the 1920s and 1940s, a series of reports emerged from American psychology laboratories detailing instances of spontaneous "reversals" in sexual behavior within their rat colonies. Frank Beach, then at the American Museum of Natural History, developed a model for the "nature" of sexuality that stressed that all organisms had the neurological capacity to perform behavior of either sex. Beach enrolled his emerging specialty, behavioral endocrinology, in support of Alfred Kinsey's controversial findings. Both scientists highlighted the multitude of potential sexual outlets pursued by organisms and the prevalence of nonprocreative sexual behaviors. This article draws on elements of queer theory to elucidate how the landscape of the comparative psychologist's rat colony with its organisms, apparatus, practices, and rituals served an integral function in the redefinition of sex in the 20th century. Queer theory calls into question easy proclamations about what counts as natural or normal by drawing attention to the presumed binaries that frequently govern the classification of sex. The maintenance of the colony required the careful management of sex with its obstruction devices, hypersexualized indicator animals, segregation cages, and castrated rats injected with hormones. Moreover, Beach's own writings indicate how his own domestic life became entangled with the sex lives of the rats. An irony animates this Rockefeller-funded sexology: Research funded to elucidate the mechanisms underlying heterosexuality came to question its innateness and universality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Scene and object vision in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E L; Gaffan, E A

    1999-02-01

    Dark Agouti rats learned to discriminate large visual displays ("scenes") in a computer-controlled Y-maze. Each scene comprised several shapes ("objects") against a contrasting background. The constant-negative paradigm was used; in each problem, one constant scene was presented on every trial together with a trial-unique variable scene, and rats were rewarded for approaching the variable scene. By varying the manner in which variables differed from the constant, we investigated what aspects of scenes and the objects comprising them were salient. In Experiment 1, rats discriminated constant scenes more easily if they contained four objects rather than six, and they showed a slight attentional bias towards the lower halves of the screens. That bias disappeared in Experiment 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that rats could discriminate scenes even if the objects that comprised them were closely matched in position, luminance, and area. Therefore, they encoded the form of individual objects. Rats perceived shapes of the same class (e.g. two ellipses) as more similar than shapes from different classes (e.g. ellipse and polygon) regardless of whether they also differed in area. This paradigm is suitable for studying the neuropsychology of perceiving spatial relationships in multi-object scenes and of identifying visual objects.

  18. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim of the p......BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate whether periodontitis influences kidney changes in ZFRs. METHODS: Male adult ZFRs (N = 19) and their lean littermates (N = 18) were studied. Periodontitis was induced with ligatures in half of the ZFRs and lean rats, whereas the other half served as controls. After 4 weeks...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  20. Middle ear mucosa in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, N; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E; Cerne, A

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to review thoroughly the literature and summarize it in a standardized fashion; to study the mucosa, including the distribution of mast cells, in all parts of the middle ear cavity in rats; and to compare the experimental findings with those known in humans. Adult, healthy rats were studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The ciliated and secretory cells of the rat tympanic cavity are confined to two tracts, one anterior and one inferoposterior to the promontory. The tracts connect the epitympanum with the eustachian tube. The pars flaccida exhibits the highest density of mast cells, but mast cells are also distributed in the subepithelial layer of the tracts and in the floor of the tympanic bulla. The structure of the rat mucosa shows striking similarities to that of humans. Thus, from a morphological point of view, the rat seems to be a suitable model for middle ear studies. However, to be able to compare results obtained in different species and/or different laboratories, the areas of the middle ear from which the specimens have been taken must be carefully defined and presented in a standardized manner.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

  3. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yderstraede, K B; Starklint, H; Steinbruchel, D; Jørgensen, T W; Gotfredsen, C F

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes. The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet transplantation, 5 out of 6 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 20.5 days when no insulin was given post-transplantation. Four out of 5 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 23 days when supportive insulin therapy was administered after the transplantation. The results indicate that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding.

  4. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  5. Histological changes of the adult albino rats entorhinal cortex under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim K. Ragab

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... entorhinal cortex of the adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: The study was carried out on 40 adult male rats. The rats were divided equally into two groups: control group, ..... cerebral cortex consequently leads to development of oxida- tive stress.37. In this study, light microscopic examination of ...

  6. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Kuilman-Wahls, M.E.M.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to

  7. antidiabetic effect of emilia sonchifora in dithizone diabetic rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiabetic effect of a crude extract of Emilia sanchifora leaves was studied in rats with dithizone induced diabetes in rat. Three different concentrations of the crude chloroform – methanol extract were given orally to both normal and diabetic rats. The percentage blood glucose reduction for ES1 was 33.3, 14.2, 45.9, ...

  8. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets

  9. 1 and CTGF in Rats with Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control (NC), DN, and DN-treated with TG .... were cut at 80 - 90 nm, mounted on copper grids, ... RESULTS. Effect of TG on fasting BG and urine biochemical parameters. After the establishment of DN rat model, the DN rats appeared polydipsia, polyuria and.

  10. Gravimetric and Histologic Changes in Rat Testes Following Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the effect(s) of orally administered low doses of Congo red (CR) on rat testes was investigated using gravimetric and histologic methods. When compared to CR-free rats, the testes weights of rats exposed to 10, 20, 30 and 40mg CR/kg body weight (once a week for 6 weeks) significantly decreased (p < 0.05).

  11. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the 5'-3' exonuclease Rat1p partakes in transcription termination. Although Rat1p-mediated RNA degradation has been suggested to play a role for this activity, the exact mechanisms by which Rat1p helps release RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA template are poorly understoo...

  12. Changes in activities of tissues enzymes in rats administered Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effects of methanolic extract of Ficus exasperata leaf on the activities of some enzymes in the serum, liver, kidney and heart of albino rats. Twenty four rats were sorted into four groups: Group A (control) received distilled water while rats in groups B, C and D were administered graded doses.

  13. Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake | Alagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group ...

  14. Honey increases sperm count in male albino rats by enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of different doses of honey (H) and testosterone (T) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rats. Thirty-five male albino rats were randomly divided in a blinded fashion into 7 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 (control) was given 0.2 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were ...

  15. Rat islet isolation yield and function are donor strain dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M; de Haan, BJ; Schuurs, TA; van Schilfgaarde, R; Leuvenink, HGD; KEIZER, J

    Effective rat islet isolation is pertinent for successful islet transplantation and islet studies in vitro. To determine which rat strain yields the highest number of pure and functional islets, four commonly used rat strains were compared with regard to islet yield, islet purity and islet function.

  16. Biochemical and histological changes in female wistar rats following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves on some biochemical parameters and histology of liver, kidney and small intestine of rats. Twenty female rats (142.30 ± 7.56 g) were randomly assigned into four groups A, B, C and D. The rats were administered orally 1 mL of ...

  17. Dichloroacetate prevents hypoxic lactic acidosis in rats | Bosco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the induction of hypoxia, the rats were given to inspire a gas mixture containing 11% O2 during 45 minutes. There were 20 rats in the dichloroacetate group and 20 in the control group. The dichloroacetate group rats were given dichloroacetate 300 mg/kg in slow IV injection before the induction of hypoxia. We measured ...

  18. Pathogenicity of Trypanosoma brucei in African giant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenicity of Trypanosoma brucei in African giant rats ( Cricetomys gambianus , Water House) ... The course of trypanosomosis was investigated over a period of two weeks in six African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Six other rats served as uninfected control.

  19. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  20. Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant African pouched rats previously have detected tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples in which the presence of TB was not initially detected by smear microscopy. Operant conditioning principles were used to train these rats to indicate TB-positive samples. In 2010, rats trained in this way evaluated 26,665 ...