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Sample records for rat fetal skeleton

  1. Collagenous skeleton of the rat mystacial pad.

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    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Simony, Erez; Golomb, David; Ahissar, Ehud

    2011-05-01

    Anatomical and functional integrity of the rat mystacial pad (MP) is dependent on the intrinsic organization of its extracellular matrix. By using collagen autofluorescence, in the rat MP, we revealed a collagenous skeleton that interconnects whisker follicles, corium, and deep collagen layers. We suggest that this skeleton supports MP tissues, mediates force transmission from muscles to whiskers, facilitates whisker retraction after protraction, and limits MP extensibility.

  2. Efeitos de extratos de Nierembergia veitchii (Hook Solanaceae sobre a fertilidade de ratas e morfologia óssea dos fetos The effects of Nierembergia veitchii (Hook Solanaceae extracts in rat fertility and fetal skeleton morphology

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    João Roberto Braga de Mello

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da administração oral dos extratos aquoso (NvH2O, metanólico (NvmeOH, butanólico (Nvbut e hexano (Nvhex, obtidos, seqüencialmente, de 500g de Nierembergia veitchii (planta seca, foram comparados aos obtidos com vitamina D3 (2,5mg.kg-1 e aos de um grupo controle (solução fisiológica - SF, quando administrados, durante todo o período de gestação (21 dias, a ratas albinas Wistar. A redução do ganho de peso foi evidente nas fêmeas tratadas com Nvhex, Nvbut e vitamina D3. Nesses grupos, houve redução do número de implantes uterinos (9,3 ± 1,4; 9,6 + 1,4 e 8,4 ± 1,4, quando comparados com o controle (SF (11,2 ± 0,4. Essa redução também foi observada no número de filhotes por ninhada (8,1 ± 1,3; 9,0 ± 1,5; 5,1 ± 1,7 e 10,3 ± 0,6, e na massa corporal dos filhotes ao nascer (2,1g ± 0,5; 2,9g ± 0,4; 1,9g ± 0,1 e 3,3g ± 0,1. Os resultados obtidos com NvH2O e NvmeOH não diferiram dos obtidos com o grupo controle. Anomalias macroscópicas foram observadas em fetos de ratas tratadas com Nvhex e Nvbut, 0,1 e 0,2% respectivamente. Os resultados da análise da morfologia óssea dos fetos mostraram a ocorrência de 33,3%; 45%; 9,8% e 11,1% de anomalias para os grupos NvH2O, NvmeOH, Nvbut e SF, respectivamente. As anomalias ósseas mais freqüentemente observadas ocorreram no crânio e constaram de ossificação incompleta de supraoccipital, interparietais, parietais, frontal e temporal.The effects of oral administration of aqueous (NvH2O, methanolic (NvmeOH, buthanolic (Nvbut and hexan (Nvhex extracts, sequentialy obtained from 500g Nierembergia veitchii (dried plant were compared with a vitamin D3 treated group and with a control group (saline, when administered during the pregnancy to Wistar rats (21 days. Weigth gain was reduced in dams treated with Nvhex, Nvbut and vitamin D3. In these groups it was observed a reduction in uterine implantations (9.3 ± 1.4, 9.6 ± 1.4 and 8.4 ± 1.4 when compared with the control

  3. Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.

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    Hall, Natalie H; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex

    2012-09-01

    A rescued female manatee was observed expelling a fetal bone from the vulva. The manatee was anesthetized and diagnosed with uterine retention of a fetal skeleton by ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Episiotomy was performed to gain manual access to the vagina and uterus for removal of the skeleton. Second intention healing of the episiotomy site produced excellent results. Rescued female manatees should receive a thorough reproductive tract evaluation since presence of retained fetal tissues might not be evident in blood or hormone analyses. Retention of a whole or partial dead fetus can be life-threatening to manatees, and retained tissues should be removed as early as possible.

  4. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

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    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  5. Micro-CT imaging: Developing criteria for examining fetal skeletons in regulatory developmental toxicology studies - A workshop report.

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    Solomon, Howard M; Makris, Susan L; Alsaid, Hasan; Bermudez, Oscar; Beyer, Bruce K; Chen, Antong; Chen, Connie L; Chen, Zhou; Chmielewski, Gary; DeLise, Anthony M; de Schaepdrijver, Luc; Dogdas, Belma; French, Julian; Harrouk, Wafa; Helfgott, Jonathan; Henkelman, R Mark; Hesterman, Jacob; Hew, Kok-Wah; Hoberman, Alan; Lo, Cecilia W; McDougal, Andrew; Minck, Daniel R; Scott, Lelia; Stewart, Jane; Sutherland, Vicki; Tatiparthi, Arun K; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Wise, L David; Wood, Sandra L; Ying, Xiaoyou

    2016-06-01

    During the past two decades the use and refinements of imaging modalities have markedly increased making it possible to image embryos and fetuses used in pivotal nonclinical studies submitted to regulatory agencies. Implementing these technologies into the Good Laboratory Practice environment requires rigorous testing, validation, and documentation to ensure the reproducibility of data. A workshop on current practices and regulatory requirements was held with the goal of defining minimal criteria for the proper implementation of these technologies and subsequent submission to regulatory agencies. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is especially well suited for high-throughput evaluations, and is gaining popularity to evaluate fetal skeletons to assess the potential developmental toxicity of test agents. This workshop was convened to help scientists in the developmental toxicology field understand and apply micro-CT technology to nonclinical toxicology studies and facilitate the regulatory acceptance of imaging data. Presentations and workshop discussions covered: (1) principles of micro-CT fetal imaging; (2) concordance of findings with conventional skeletal evaluations; and (3) regulatory requirements for validating the system. Establishing these requirements for micro-CT examination can provide a path forward for laboratories considering implementing this technology and provide regulatory agencies with a basis to consider the acceptability of data generated via this technology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

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    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  7. Rat fetal ventral mesencephalon grown as solid tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglinger, G U; Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten;

    1998-01-01

    Free-floating roller tube (FFRT) cultures of fetal rat and human nigral tissue are a means for tissue storage prior to grafting in experimental Parkinson's disease. In the present study, FFRT cultures prepared from embryonic-day-14 rat ventral mesencephalon were maintained for 4, 8, 12, or 16 days...

  8. Effect of single chemotherapeutic agents on the growing skeleton of the rat.

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    van Leeuwen, B L; Kamps, W A; Hartel, R M; Veth, R P; Sluiter, W J; Hoekstra, H J

    2000-09-01

    To establish the effect of chemotherapeutics on the growing skeleton, male Wistar rats were studied. Between the ages of 4 and 13 weeks the rats were given i.v. doxorubicin 15 mg/m2 body surface area (BSA), methotrexate 60 mg/m2 BSA or cisplatin 7.5 mg/m2 BSA. For each group of drug-treated rats there was a diet-matched control group that was injected with a placebo only. Rats fed ad libitum served as the basic control group for length and weight growth. Body weight and tibial length were measured weekly. Kidney and liver weight were determined at the end of the study. Weight gain and length growth were significantly decreased in the diet controlled groups (P < 0.05). Doxorubicin reduced length growth with 4.12 mm or 18% (P < 0.05). Methotrexate reduced length growth with 1.11 mm or 5% (P < 0.05). Length growth in the cisplatin treated rats did not differ from the diet controls. Doxorubicin and methotrexate decrease length growth in the rat tibia by, respectively, 18% and 5%. Cisplatin does not affect length growth. The decrease in growth might be a direct effect of doxorubicin and methotrexate on the tibial growth plate and metaphysis, but may be more pronounced due to the malnutrition.

  9. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing fetal rat cerebral cortex

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    Chung, Woong Ki; Nam, Taek Keun; Lee, Min Cheol; Ahn, Sung Ja; Song, Ju Young; Park, Seung Jin; Nah, Byung Sik [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    The study was performed to investigate apoptosis by radiation in the developing fetal rat brain. Fetal brains were irradiated in utero between the 17th and 19th days of fetal life(E17-19) by linear accelerator. A dose of irradiation ranging from 1 Gy to 4 Gy was used to evaluate dose dependency. To test time dependency the rats were irradiated with 2 Gy and then the fetal brain specimens were removed at variable time course; 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the onset of irradiation. Immunohistochemical staining using in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique was used for apoptotic cells. The cerebral cortex, including three zones of cortical zone (CZ), intermediate zone (IZ), and ventricular zone (VZ), was examined. TUNEL positive cells revealed typical features of apoptotic cells under light microscope in the fetal rat cerebral cortex. Apoptotic cells were not found in the cerebral cortex of non-irradiated fetal rats, but did appear in the entire cerebral cortex after 1 Gy irradiation, and were more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone. The extent of apoptosis was increased with increasing doses of radiation. Apoptosis reached the peak at 6 hours after the onset of 2 Gy irradiation and persisted until 24 hours. Typical morphologic features of apoptosis by irradiation were observed in the developing fetal rat cerebral cortex. It was more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone, which suggested that stem cells or early differentiating cells are more radiosensitive than differentiated cells of the cortical zone.

  10. Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats

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    Chung-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation.

  11. THE ROLE OF SATELLITE CELLS IN CRUSH INJURY OF RAT SKELETON MUSCLE

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    DilekBURUKOĞLU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crush type of injury in rat skeletal muscle is often used in tissue degeneration and regeneration. After crush injury muscle tissue begins to regenerate. In this process, it is accepted that satellite cells play an important role which are very sensitive to muscle injury. The aim of this microscopic study was to examine role of satellite cells in muscle regeneration in crush injury. This research was done the department of Histology&Embryology in Eskişehir Osmangazi University in 2008. Ethic approval of this study has been received. During the study, the whole essential and ethics conditionshave been done. In the study 36 Spraque-Dawley rats were used. The rats were separated into 5 groups as test and control groups. Crush type of injury has been applied on muscles of right hind extremitiesof testing group rats by applying 3.5 kg of weight for 6 hours. In according to testing periods rats were anaesthetized intraperitoneally with ketamine 30mg/kg + xylazine 10mg/kg and sacrificied 3, 7, 14 and 21-day intervals. After crush injury, increased satellite cells were particularly observed on day 7. Alsosignificant increased of satellite cells and regenerated myofibrils were detected on day 14. However, satellite cells were seen on day-21 were similar to control group. In crush injuries, number of satellitecells were markedly increased and actively involved into regeneration process of the skeleton muscle.

  12. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

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    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  13. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  14. Embryonic skeleton development and neonatal learning and memory ability of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium: Differences of administration occasion and time

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    Changling Peng; Yuhua Zhu; Ankang Hu; Xiaorong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Generally speaking, anesthesia is often used in gravid body and it has been already proved that many kind of medicine can result in malformation.OBJECTIVE: To explore embryonic skeleton development and neonatal learning and memory of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium in gravid rats.DESIGN: A randomized control trial.SETTING: Laboratory Animal Center of Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: A total of 80 adult female SD rats, of clean grade and weighing 220-240 g, were selected in this study. The main reagents were detailed as follows: pentobarbital sodium (Shanghai Xingzhi Chemical Plant,batch number: 921019); MG-2 maze test apparatus (Zhangjiagang Biomedical Instrument Factory);somatotype microscope (Beijing Taike Instrument Co., Ltd.).METHODS: ① A total of 160 SD rats of half males and females were selected in this study. All rats were copulated. The day that the plug was checked out in the vagina next day was looked as the first day of pregnancy. Gravid rats were divided randomly into four groups, including early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group with 20 in each group. Rats in the early anesthesia group were injected with 25 mg/kg soluble pentobarbitone on the 7th day of pregnancy for once; rats in the second anesthesia group were anesthetized with 25 mg/kg soluble pentobarbitone on the 7th and the 14th days of pregnancy for once; rats in the late anesthesia group were anesthetized with 25 mg/kg soluble pentobarbitone on the 14th day of pregnancy for once; rats in the control group did not treat with anything. The time of anesthetizing was controlled in 3 to 4 hours and ether was absorbed while the time was not enough. ②Half of each group was sacrificed on day 20th of pregnancy and the fetus was taken out to be stained with alizarin red S. After stained, the fetal skeleton was examined. The learning and memorizing of one-month rats that were given birth by the rest gravid rats were tested

  15. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

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    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  16. Mineral distribution in rat skeletons after exposure to a microgravity model

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    Arnaud, Sara B.; Harper, Jennifer S.; Navidi, Meena

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to space flight models induces changes in the distribution of bone mineral in the human skeleton that has the features of a gravitational gradient. Regional bone mineral measurements with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in male adults exposed to head-down tilt bed rest for 30 days shown non-significant decrements in the pelvis and legs with 10% increases in the head region. Horizontal bed rest for 17 weeks reveals losses of bone mineral ranging from 2.2 to 10.4% from the lumbar spine to the calcaneus and an increase of 3.4% in the skull. Investigation of this phenomena would be most definitively carried out in an animal model. One candidate is the flight simulation model in the rat which removes body weight from the hind limbs and induces a cephalad fluid shift by suspending the animal by the tail. Weanling rats exposed to this model showed bone mineral to be lower in the hind limbs and higher in the skull after 3 weeks. These finds are similar in older 200 g animals after 2 weeks tail suspension. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on the distribution of skeletal mineral in this model.

  17. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. 5-azacytidine enhances proliferation in transplanted rat fetal epiglottis.

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    Marinovic-Kulisic, Sandra; Juric-Lekic, Gordana; Vikic-Topic, Masa; Lokosek, Vedran; Radujkovic, Vedran; Bulic-Jakus, Floriana; Katusic, Ana; Vlahovic, Maja; Serman, Ljiljana; Sincic, Nino

    2011-01-01

    Fetal rat epiglottis and its developmental potential in ectopic transplants under the influence of the epigenetic drug was investigated. Epiglottises from 17-days-old rat embryos were transplanted under kidney capsules of adult rats for 14 days. 5-azacytidine (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally during first three days and controls were sham treated. TEM, immunohistochemical detection and quantitative stereological analysis of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) expression (numerical density N(v)) were performed. Typical chondroblasts with long surface processes and sparse lipid droplets were found in fetal epiglottis and chondrocytes with shorter processes, numerous lipid droplets and elastic fibers in adult. PCNA was expressed in almost all cells of the fetal epiglottis while in the adult it was expressed in minority of cells. In transplants, differentiation progressed towards the differentiation found in the adult. Application of 5-azacytidine increased the capacity for proliferation (N(v PCNA)) in comparison to controls but no difference in differentiation was observed. Data about the developmental potential and induction of proliferation in mammalian epiglottis by epigenetic modulation is of importance for regenerative medicine.

  18. Cholesterol induces fetal rat enterocyte death in culture

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    Gazzola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on fetal rat enterocytes and IEC-6 cells (line originated from normal rat small intestine was examined. Both cells were cultured in the presence of 20 to 80 µM cholesterol for up to 72 h. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma was measured by RT-PCR. The addition of 20 µM cholesterol reduced enterocyte proliferation as early as 6 h of culture. Reduction of enterocyte proliferation by 28 and 41% was observed after 24 h of culture in the presence and absence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. Treatment of IEC-6 cells with cholesterol for 24 h raised the proportion of cells with fragmented DNA by 9.7% at 40 µM and by 20.8% at 80 µM. When the culture period was extended to 48 h, the effect of cholesterol was still more pronounced, with the percent of cells with fragmented DNA reaching 53.5% for 40 µM and 84.3% for 80 µM. Chromatin condensation of IEC-6 cells was observed after treatment with cholesterol even at 20 µM. Cholesterol did not affect HMG-CoA reductase expression. A dose-dependent increase in PPARgamma expression in fetal rat enterocytes was observed. The expression of PPAR-gamma was raised by 7- and 40-fold, in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum, respectively, with cholesterol at 80 mM. The apoptotic effect of cholesterol on enterocytes was possibly due to an increase in PPARgamma expression.

  19. Effect of Bile Acid on Fetal Lung in Rat Model of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

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    Ling Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Methods. Forty pregnant rats were treated with (A 5.5 mg/kg BA, (B 1.4 mg/kg BA, and (C 1 ml physiological saline. Levels of total bile acid (TBA, ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. Results. Groups A and B intervened with BA showed significant higher level of TBA in both maternal and fetal serum, more mortality rate of fetal rats, more concentration of SP-A in fetal serum, and wider alveolus mesenchyme of fetal rats than the control Group C. Higher level of BA associated with increased fetal risk and lower numerical density of mitochondria in type II alveolar epithelial cells. The levels of TBA in maternal serum were found to have significant positive correlation with those in fetal serum and SP-A level but negatively with the area of alveolus and the numerical density of lamellar body. Conclusions. The TBA level in maternal serum showed significant association with lung pathological changes in fetal rats.

  1. Stimulation of fetal hypothalamus induces uterine contractions in pregnant rats at term.

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    Endoh, Hisashi; Fujioka, Takashi; Endo, Hideki; Inazuka, Yukiko; Furukawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-10-01

    The fetal brain is thought to have a role in the onset and progression of labor. Evidence also exists for fetal oxytocin release just before and during parturition. The present study examined whether activation of the fetal brain could induce uterine myometrial contractions through oxytocin receptors in the dam. Under urethane anesthesia, electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus of fetal rats that were still connected with the dams by an intact umbilical cord induced uterine contractions in term pregnant rats. Intraperitoneal injections of synthetic oxytocin in fetuses induced uterine contractions in the dams similar to those induced by electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. Maternal intravenous injections of an oxytocin antagonist immediately attenuated uterine contractions induced by fetal oxytocin injections and electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. These findings suggest the possibility that oxytocin released from the fetal hypothalamus is involved in parturition.

  2. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

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    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  3. Zinc antagonizes homocysteine-induced fetal heart defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyu; Hong, Xinru; Zeng, Fang; Kang, Fenhong; Li, Li; Sun, Qinghua

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that zinc may have a protective role against heart defects during fetal development. We investigated the effects of zinc on the development of fetal cardiac malformations induced by homocysteine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into one of five groups: control (C), homocysteine (H), homocysteine + zinc (Z), homocysteine + folic acid (F), or homocysteine + zinc + folic acid (ZF) (each n = 8). Homocysteine (8 nmol/day) was administered intraperitoneally in the H, Z, F, and ZF groups on gestation days (GD) 8, 9, and 10. Zinc (30 mg/kg day), folic acid (30 mg/kg day), or both (30 mg/kg day each) were administered intragastrically daily in the Z, F, and ZF groups, respectively, throughout the pregnancy. In each group, two fetuses were removed on GD 13, 15, 17, and 19 and examined for cardiac malformations; maternal copper/zinc-containing-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity and metallothionein type I (MT-1) mRNA expression were measured simultaneously. The prevalence of cardiac malformations was significantly higher in group H than in group C, and significantly lower in group Z than in group H at the studied time points. Cu/Zn-SOD activity and MT-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in group H than in group C, and significantly higher in group Z than in group H. Our data suggest that zinc antagonizes homocysteine-induced teratogenic effects on the fetal heart, possibly via the inhibition of excessive peroxidation.

  4. Ontogeny of innervation of rat and ovine fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, W C; Wotus, C; Rose, J C

    1998-01-01

    The formation of adrenocortical zonation occurs in rats during late gestation. Since adult cortical function is modulated by neural mediators, it is possible that the development of differentiated function is dependent on cortical innervation. The goal of this study was to compare the pattern and timing of rodent and ovine adrenal innervation during late organogenesis by staining with antibodies directed against the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH). Rat adrenals were collected from fetal days 17-21 (term=21 days) and ovine adrenals from fetal days 101-136 (term=145 days). Adrenals were fixed, cryosectioned at 100 microns and immunostained using Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies. In both species, staining of VIP, CGRP, NPY and TOH fibers was observed in the capsule and subcapsular layers of the cortex during gestation. In late gestation, VIP- and NPY-positive ganglions cells were observed near the medulla extending processes toward the outer cortex; in ovine adrenals, fibers from ganglion cells appeared to surround nests of outer cortical (presumably, zona glomerulosa) cells. These data show that phenotypically distinct neural elements appear at different stages of adrenocortical development. The presence of neural elements in contact with adrenal cortical cells supports the possibility for neural control of adrenocortical development.

  5. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost;

    2012-01-01

    block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state...

  6. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost;

    2012-01-01

    Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......-based iteration control, where both skeletons offer supportive type safety by dedicated types geared towards stream communication for the iteration. The skeleton iteration framework is implemented in the parallel Haskell dialect Eden. We use example applications to assess performance and overhead....

  7. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  8. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  9. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  10. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  11. Embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity of nickel in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Mitchell, J.M.; Allpass, P.R.; Damjanov, I.

    1978-01-01

    Embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity of nickel chloride (NiCl/sub 2/) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were studied in Fischer rats. Injection of NiCl/sub 2/ (16 mg of Ni/kg, im) on Day 8 of gestation reduced the man number of live pups per dam and resulted in diminisehd body weights of fetuses on Day 20 of gestation and of weanlings at 4 to 8 weeks after birth. Injection of Ni/sub 2/S/sub 2/ (80 mg of Ni/kg, im) on Day 6 of gestation reduced the mean number of live pups per dam. No congenital anomalies were found in fetuses from any Ni-treated dams, including dams that recieved 10 im injections of NiCl/sub 2/ (2 mg of Ni/kg, twice daily, on Days 6 to 10 of gestation). /sup 63/NiCl/sub 2/ (12 mg of Ni/kg, im) was administered to a group of nonpregnant female rats and to groups of pregnant rats on Day 8 or 18 of gestation. After 24 hr, the relative concentrations of /sup 63/Ni in tissues were: kidney > serum > adrenal approx. = lung approx. = ovary > spleen approx. = heart approx. = liver > skeletal muscle. Pituitary /sup 63/Ni concentrations were much higher in pregnant rats than in non-pregnant females. /sup 63/Ni concentrations in products of conception (embryos and embryonic membranes) on Day 9 and in placentas on Day 19 were equivalent to /sup 63/Ni concentrations in adrenal, lung, and ovary tissues of the dams. Autoradiography of fetuses and placentas on Day 19 of gestation showed /sup 63/Ni localization in fetal urinary bladders and in the basal laminae and yolk sacs of the placentas. These studies show (a) that im injection of NiCl/sub 2/ and Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ during early gestation causes embryonic mortality at dosages that do not cause maternal mortality, and (b) that /sup 63/Ni(II) can cross the feto-maternal barriers and enter the fetuses during late gestation.

  12. Arterial flow regulator enables transplantation and growth of human fetal kidneys in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N K; Gu, J; Gu, S; Osorio, R W; Concepcion, W; Gu, E

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce a novel method of transplanting human fetal kidneys into adult rats. To overcome the technical challenges of fetal-to-adult organ transplantation, we devised an arterial flow regulator (AFR), consisting of a volume adjustable saline-filled cuff, which enables low-pressure human fetal kidneys to be transplanted into high-pressure adult rat hosts. By incrementally withdrawing saline from the AFR over time, blood flow entering the human fetal kidney was gradually increased until full blood flow was restored 30 days after transplantation. Human fetal kidneys were shown to dramatically increase in size and function. Moreover, rats which had all native renal mass removed 30 days after successful transplantation of the human fetal kidney were shown to have a mean survival time of 122 days compared to 3 days for control rats that underwent bilateral nephrectomy without a prior human fetal kidney transplant. These in vivo human fetal kidney models may serve as powerful platforms for drug testing and discovery.

  13. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    testosterone production. The present study investigated the effects of four different doses of DEHP on fetal testicular histopathology, testosterone production and expression of proteins and genes involved in steroid synthesis in fetal testes. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged from GD 7 to 21 with vehicle, 10...

  14. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  15. Placental transfer of metals of coal fly ash into various fetal organs of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Chauhan, S.S.; Srivastava, P.K.; Shukla, R.R.; Kumar, V.; Misra, U.K. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1990-03-01

    Fly ash (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered intratracheally to 14-day pregnant rats for 6 consecutive days. On day 20 of gestation the translocation of metals present in the fly ash to various maternal and fetal organs was studied. Fly ash administration to pregnant mothers retarded the growth of fetal heart and kidney as determined by their weights. Fly ash instillation increased organ levels of nearly all the metals studied in both mother and fetus. Most of the metals present in coal fly ash were transferred in significant amounts through placenta to several fetal organs. However, the pattern of their distribution into various fetal organs was different for different metals.

  16. Oncogene-mediated transformation of fetal rat colon in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pories, S; Jaros, K; Steele, G; Pauley, A; Summerhayes, I C

    1992-05-01

    Short-term maintenance of fetal rat colonic tissue in vitro has been demonstrated using a collagen matrix organ culture system. The introduction of single (v-myc, v-rasH, v-src) oncogenes or combinations of oncogenes (v-myc/rasH, v-myc/src) into normal colon mucosal elements was established using retroviral vectors, resulting in enhanced proliferation and migration of epithelial cells from the lumen of tissue implants. Expression of a single oncogene in normal colon epithelium did not result in the establishment of cell lines. In contrast, expression of cooperating oncogenic elements resulted in cell lines in greater than 80% of experiments, revealing different morphological characteristics dependent upon the oncogene combination used. Confirmation of the expression of viral transcripts was determined using Northern blot analysis and viral oncoprotein expression using Western blot analysis (p21) and an immunoprecipitation kinase assay (src). Expression of keratin filaments was lost following passaging of cell lines but could be induced by the myc/ras transformants by growth on Rat-1 feeder layers. This induction phenomenon was not observed with myc/src lines, and although these expressed high levels of sucrase isomaltase the epithelial origin of these cells is unclear. Karyotypic analysis performed on three myc/ras-transformed cell lines revealed a normal chromosome complement associated with transformation. In this report we describe a novel in vitro transformation system for normal rat colonic epithelium mediated by the introduction of oncogene elements using different retroviral vector constructs. The potential to generate cell lines representing different stages of neoplastic progression using relevant genetic components presents significant advantages for the study of cellular and molecular interactions underlying colon neoplastic progression.

  17. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  19. Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, M.G.; Synowiec, S.; Khan, S.; Thaete, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the rat. Methods. Timed-pregnant rats received L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg/h) with or without endothelin (ET-1) receptor A (ETA) antagonist from day 14 to 21 of gestation. In

  20. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  1. Fetal and maternal effects of continual exposure of rats to 970-MHz circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E.; Weil, C.; Phillips, P.A.; Carter, H.B.; House, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually continual exposure to970-MHz microwaves in circularly-polarized waveguides was used to elicit fetal responses in Sprague-Dawley rats during gestation. Two hundred fifty rats were exposed to microwave radiation at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.07, 2.4, or 4.8 W/kg, or concurrently sham-irradiated for 22 h/day from the 1st through the 19th day of gestation. At SAR of 4.8 W/kg, only fetal body weight was significantly altered (-12%, P=.012). Two of twelve rats died during the exposure at SAR of 4.8 W/kg. Bred, but non-pregnant, rats that were exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg had significantly lower body weight gain than sham-irradiated rats; similar lower gain is assumed to have occurred in the pregnant rats exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg, and whose fetuses were significantly smaller. The authors conclude that continual gestational exposure at SAR of 4.8 (but not 2.4 or lower) W/kg induces fetal alterations. Apparently, deleterious maternal effects are associated with these fetal changes. Although colonic temperature was not measured in these rats, it is expected that exposure at 4.8 W/kg was hyperthermal.

  2. Altered vestibular function in fetal and newborn rats gestated in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers evaluated vestibular development and function in rat pups flown during gestation on the NASA-NIH R1 and R2 missions. Fetal and postnatal vestibular function were examined. Altered vestibular-mediated responses in the experimental fetal pups are attributed to either direct effect of gravity on the vestibular system or indirect effects of microgravity transduced through the mother. The postnatal tests confirmed the hypothesis that the vestibular system continually adapts and responds to tonic stimulation.

  3. Nitric Oxide Overproduction Reduces Insulin Secretion from Isolated Islets in Fetal Hypothyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouintan, Z; Farrokhfall, K; Karbalaei, N; Ghasemi, A

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have developmental effects during fetal life. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity. Activity of nitric oxide synthases follows a heterogeneous pattern in hypothyroidism. Overactivity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release. The aim of this study was to examine if reduction in insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroidism is due to overproduction of nitric oxide. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the experimental group consumed water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil till delivery, while the control group consumed tap water. After delivery serum thyroid hormones were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in 6-month old offspring (n=8). After 3 weeks recovery, pancreatic islets were isolated and insulin secretion, inducible and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity were measured (n=4). Compared to controls, during intravenous glucose tolerance test, fetal hypothyroid rats had high plasma glucose concentration (p=0.003) and low plasma insulin levels (p=0.012) at 5-20 min and their insulin secretion from isolated islets at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine was lower. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly improved insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine. The results showed higher NOS activities in fetal hypothyroid rats (constitutive 17.60±1.09 vs. 47.34±4.44 and inducible 4.09±0.96 vs. 19.97±1.14 pmol/min/mg proteins, p=0.002). In conclusion, NO overproduction through NOS participates in decreased insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats.

  4. Effects of Boric Acid on Hox Gene Expression and the Axial Skeleton in the Developing Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestational exposure to boric acid (BA) causes reduced incidences of supernumerary ribs and shortening/absence of the 13th rib in the progeny of multiple laboratory species. To further explore this, Sprague-Dawley rats received 500 mg/kg b.i.d. on gestation days (GD) 6, 7, 8, 9,...

  5. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN DIFFERENT EXPRESSION ANDORGANIZATION OF COLLAGEN IN SKIN WOUNDS OFADULT AND FETAL RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the spatial and temporal distribution of collagen in fetal and adult rats wounds. Methods The organization of collagen deposition in fetal and adult rats skin wounds were observed by using van Gieson stain. The methods of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were applied to examine collagen type I and Ⅲ peptide and mRNA localization at serial time point during wound healing. Results Collagen type I and III were present in wounds of both fetal and adult rats, but the timing and pattern of collagen deposition varied. In the fetus, collagen was detected by 48h postwounding (PW), but was not present in the adult wounds until 5d PW. By in situ hybridization, signals in the area of the fetal wound were clearly greater and with increased number of cells as compared to that in the adjacent unwounded tissue. Adult rat wounds had evidence in increased signals of procollagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ production by wound fibroblasts on day 5. Collagen deposited and was arranged in reticular pattern as that of the normal in fetal wounds. While in the adult wounds, collagen de posited in the fashion of coarse bundles. Conclusion Fetal rat wounds appeared to produce collagen mainly by an increased number of fibroblasts in the area of the wound. In contrast, adult rat wounds underwent fibroblast migration and induction of procollagen mRNA synthesis. Our results suggest that the deposition of collagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ is regulated by their gene expres sion. Collagen type Ⅲ plays an important role in the arrangement of collagen deposition.

  7. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone Microarchitecture in the Axial and Appendicular Skeleton in Growing Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica A; Branscum, Adam J; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2015-12-22

    This study investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight on bone mass, density and microarchitecture in weight bearing (femur and humerus) and non-weight bearing (2(nd) lumbar vertebra and calvarium) bones in the context of ovarian hormone insufficiency. 12-week-old Fisher 344 rats were ovariectomized 2 weeks before flight and randomized into one of three groups: 1) baseline (n = 6), 2) ground control (n = 12) or 3) spaceflight (n = 12). Additional ground-based ovary-intact rats provided age-matched reference values at baseline (n = 8) and landing (n = 10). Ovariectomy resulted in bone- and bone compartment-specific deficits in cancellous bone volume fraction. Spaceflight resulted in lower cortical bone accrual in the femur but had no effect on cortical bone in the humerus or calvarium. Cancellous bone volume fraction was lower in flight animals compared to ground control animals in lumbar vertebra and distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis; significant differences were not detected in the distal humerus. Bone loss (compared to baseline controls) in the femur metaphysis was associated with lower trabecular number, whereas trabecular thickness and number were lower in the epiphysis. In summary, the effect of spaceflight on bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats was bone-and bone compartment-specific but not strictly related to weight bearing.

  8. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  9. Uranium deposition in bones of Wistar rats associated with skeleton development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Arruda-Neto, J D T; Pereira, R M R; Kleeb, S R; Geraldo, L P; Primi, M C; Takayama, L; Rodrigues, T E; Cavalcante, G T; Genofre, G C; Semmler, R; Nogueira, G P; Fontes, E M

    2013-12-01

    Sixty female Wistar rats were submitted to a daily intake of ration doped with uranium from weaning to adulthood. Uranium in bone was quantified by the SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detection) technique, and bone mineral density (BMD) analysis performed. Uranium concentration as a function of age exhibited a sharp rise during the first week of the experiment and a drastic drop of 70% in the following weeks. Data interpretation indicates that uranium mimics calcium. Results from BMD suggest that radiation emitted by the incorporated Uranium could induce death of bone cells.

  10. A novel mode-of-action mediated by the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resulting in developmental toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Terry, Claire; Millar, Neil S; Zablotny, Carol L; Gibb, Alasdair; Marshall, Valerie; Collins, Toby; Carney, Edward W; Billington, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Sulfoxaflor (X11422208), a novel agricultural molecule, induced fetal effects (forelimb flexure, hindlimb rotation, and bent clavicle) and neonatal death in rats at high doses (≥ 400 ppm in diet); however, no such effects occurred in rabbit dietary studies despite achieving similar maternal and fetal plasma exposure levels. Mode-of-action (MoA) studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the effects in rats had a single MoA induced by sulfoxaflor agonism on the fetal rat muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The studies included cross-fostering and critical windows of exposure studies in rats, fetal ((α1)(2)β1γδ) and adult ((α1)(2)β1δε) rat and human muscle nAChR in vitro agonism experiments, and neonatal rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm contracture studies. The weight of evidence from these studies supported a novel MoA where sulfoxaflor is an agonist to the fetal, but not adult, rat muscle nAChR and that prolonged agonism on this receptor in fetal/neonatal rats causes sustained striated muscle contracture resulting in concomitant reduction in muscle responsiveness to physiological nerve stimulation. Fetal effects were inducible with as little as 1 day of exposure at the end of gestation, but were rapidly reversible after birth, consistent with a pharmacological MoA. With respect to human relevance, sulfoxaflor was shown to have no agonism on human fetal or adult muscle nAChRs. Taken together, the data support the hypothesis that the developmental effects of sulfoxaflor in rats are mediated via sustained agonism on the fetal muscle nAChR during late fetal development and are considered not relevant to humans.

  11. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTRA- UTERINE HEALING OF FETAL RAT WOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 张群; 钱云良

    2000-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the fetal scarless wound healing, we developed an in vivo model to observe the process of wound healing occurring in SD-rat fetus. Methods SD-rat fetuses were given full-thickness incisional wounds in the upper lips under ether anesthesia. Wound specimens were removed successively 12,24,48,72h postwounding (PW) from fetus and 1,3,5,7d PW from adult rats for histological examination. Results In the fetus, re-epithelialization of the skin wound was completed by 24h PW, without apparent acute inflammatory response. Regenerated skin wound with normal architecture and elements was completed by 72h postoperation, indistinguishable from the surrounding normal skin. While in the adult rats, the wounds showed an acute inflammatory response resulting in thickened epithelia and scar formation. Conclusion Fetal wound is characterized by rapid and efficient healing without scar formation followed by real skin regeneration.

  12. Fetal Nerve Cell Transplantation in Early Post-Resuscitation Period in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damira Tazhibayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fetal cell transplantation is a promising biomedical approach for disease treatment; however, the use of fetal cell therapy is still experimental. This research was deemed a necessity to provide evidence-based research for the application of cell transplantation as a treatment method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fetal nerve cell transplantation in rat survivors (and non-survivors after clinical death by mechanical asphyxia.Methods. 68 white laboratory rats were divided into two groups of identical age and sex: a control group of 12-month adult male rats (n = 26 and an experimental group (n = 42. Rats were fixed under ether anesthesia. We then blocked the oral and nasal regions with cotton wool soaked in saline solution. A four-minute clinical death though acute mechanical asphyxia was simulated by applying the method of N. Shim. After the 4-minute clinical death, we resuscitated the rats using external cardiac massage and artifical respiration. Suspension of the fetal nerve cells was injected intraperitoneally at 1mm3 per 25g at the time of cardiac activity restoration. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels were examined in the homogenate cerebral cortex of reanimated animals. We recorded the survival rate during the post-resuscitation period and analyzed the integrative brain functions using anxiety-phobic status and latent inhibition.Results. After fetal nerve cell transplantation, the enzymatic reactions in the experimental group became normal with a significant decrease in LDH and an increase in CPK levels compared to the control group. In the control group, 10 rats died and 16 lived (62% survival rate, while 7 rats died and 35 lived (83% survival rate in the experimental group during the first 7 days. Rats that did not receive the treatment tended to die sooner than those in the experimental group. As a result of transplantation, the anxiety level in the experimental group

  13. Neuroplasticity Changes of Rat Brain by Musical Stimuli during Fetal Period

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    Siamak Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fetal development of the central nervous system is an important and sensitive stage which is affected by many external and internal stimuli. This study aimed to investigate effect of musical stimuli on fetal rat brain. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, twelve female Wistar rats were selected and evenly assigned to control and musical groups. The females were mated with a male rat of the same genotype. Musical group was exposed to classic music with 60 dB power for 90 minutes twice per day from 2nd to 20th day of gestation. The control rats were handled similar to the musical group, but were not exposed to music. Before parturition, all the dams were anesthetized, and their blood samples were obtained and used for corticosterone (COS measurement. They were transcardially perfused by electron microscope (EM fixative agent. The fetal brains were extracted intact and used for slice preparation. Horizontal slices were made for electron microscope preparation, and images were taken and analyzed in terms of cell density and morphological changes. Results: EM observation indicated significant morphological difference in cellular and intercellular spaces between the two groups. Music-treated fetuses had significantly higher cell density in parietal cortex and music-treated dams had lower COS level. Conclusion: It was concluded that prenatal music would have a great impact on neuroplasticity of fetal rat brain, at least indirectly. Although the rat fetuses cannot hear until birth, music-induced reduction in COS blood level of dams might be the reason for neuroplasticity of fetal brain.

  14. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    in saline for 19 min. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in cerebella of newborn rats. We found that tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased 12 h after fetal asphyxia, while the inflammatory cytokine response...

  15. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  16. The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ji; Yuhua, Zhang; Xiao-qian, Yang; Rongping, Jiang; Dong-mei, Guo; Xi, Cui

    2012-03-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones in our society has brought focus on the potential detrimental effects to human health by microwave radiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress and the level of neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal rats chronically exposed to cellular phones. The experiment was performed on pregnant rats exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones. Thirty-two pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups: CG, GL, GM, and GH. CG accepted no microwave radiation, GL group radiated 10 min each time, GM group radiated 30 min, and GH group radiated 60 min. The 3 experimental groups were radiated 3 times a day from the first pregnant day for consecutively 20 days, and on the 21st day, the fetal rats were taken and then the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HT) in the brain were assayed. Compared with CG, there were significant differences (Pcellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.

  17. Effects of melamine and cyanuric acid on embryo-fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; No, Kyeong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2013-10-01

    After the outbreak of acute renal failure associated with melamine-contaminated pet food, melamine and melamine-related compounds have become of great interest from a toxicologic perspective. We investigated the potential effects of melamine in combination with cyanuric acid (M + CA, 1:1) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in rats. M + CA was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational days 6 through 19 at doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of both melamine and cyanuric acid. Maternal toxicity of rats administered 30 mg/kg/day M + CA was manifested as increased incidences of clinical signs and death; gross pathologic findings; higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; lower body weight gain and food intake; decreased thymus weight; and increased heart, lung, and kidney weights. Histopathological examinations revealed an increase in the incidence of congestion, tubular necrosis/degeneration, crystals, casts, mineralization, inflammatory cells in tubules, tubular dilation, and atrophy of glomeruli in maternal kidneys, whereas fetal kidneys did not show any histopathological changes. Developmental toxicity included a decrease in fetal (28%) and placental weights and a delay in fetal ossification (n = 7). Increased incidence of gross and histopathological changes in the maternal kidney was also found in the middle dose group (n = 12). No treatment-related maternal or developmental effects were observed in the low dose group (n = 12). Under these experimental conditions, M + CA is embryotoxic at an overt maternotoxic dose in rats and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of M + CA is considered to be 3 mg/kg/day for pregnant dams and 10 mg/kg/day for embryo-fetal development.

  18. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Yousefzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05 and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05 were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201% and α- MHC expression was lower (47% than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.

  19. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Nasibeh; Jeddi, Sajad; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart. PMID:27411095

  20. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR’s expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801’s influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA’s direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development.

  1. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  2. Maternal endotoxemia, fetal anomalies, and central nervous system damage: a rat model of a human problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Altshuler, G

    1976-01-15

    Endotoxemia is a common consequence of the gram-negative urinary tract infections that complicate human pregnancies. Only rarely, however, have the effects of maternal endotoxemia been evaluated by animal experiments or by human investigations. Data of the Collaborative Perinatal Study suggest an association between maternal endotoxemia and fetal central nervous system damage. For these reasons we performed controlled studies of the fetal effects of treatment of pregnant rats, at appropriate gestational ages, with E. coli endotoxin. We found a maximum 7 per cent incidence of fetal anomalies in the treated animals but no anomalies in controls. Placental light microscopy examinations indicated the mechanism to include Shwartzman-lixemia produces periventricular leukomalacia. We obtained an incidence of neuronal necrosis in treated fetuses that was 10 times greater than in control fetuses. It is therefore of importance that additional studies of the pathologic effects of endotoxin be performed.

  3. Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2011-11-01

    Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart.

  4. Comparison of the disposition of diethylstilbestrol and estradiol in the fetal rat. Correlation with teratogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, E C; Miller, R K

    1986-06-15

    The dispositions of radiolabeled diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2) in the fetal rat were compared to determine whether kinetic differences accounted for their differences in teratogenic potency. 14C (from DES) was concentrated in fetal tissues relative to plasma, whereas 3H (from E2) was largely retained protein-bound in fetal plasma. Both compounds were rapidly metabolized in the fetus (and mother) to less or non-estrogenic products. Fetal levels of E2 declined faster than those of DES (E1 was the primary circulating estrogen within 1-3 hr of E2 injection) so that exposure to unchanged DES was of longer duration than to E2. The unchanged compounds were retained longer and at higher concentrations in the target genital tissue compared to other tissues. Although these differences were consistent with the potencies, the concentration of the unchanged estrogen in fetal genital tract was lower after a teratogenic dose of DES than after a threshold teratogenic dose of E2. However, the 3H in fetal plasma and genital tract cytosol at 1 hr after injection of [3H]E2 at 2 ng or 10 micrograms/fetus was found to be highly protein-bound. DES competed poorly for these binding sites. It is suggested that the concentration of E2 which is "free" in the cell (as DES is), rather than the total content, correlates with its teratogenicity. Thus, in the rat, rapid metabolism and extensive protein-binding, both extra- and intracellularly, reduce the teratogenicity of the natural estrogen compared to the synthetic estrogen.

  5. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  6. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...... were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation......Introduction: Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR. Objectives...

  7. Stimulation of DNA and Collagen Synthesis by Autologous Growth Factor in Cultured Fetal Rat Calvaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Peck, William A.; Raisz, Lawrence G.

    1980-11-01

    Conditioned medium derived from organ or cell cultures prepared from 19- to 21-day fetal rat calvaria stimulated the incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen and of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ cultures of the same tissue. Addition of cortisol enhanced the effect on collagen but not on DNA synthesis. These effects appeared to be due to a nondialyzable and heat-stable growth factor.

  8. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  9. Effect of water temperature on exercise-induced maternal hyperthermia on fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Fitzgerald, H M; Wilson, N C; Taylor, A W

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if water temperature influenced exercise-induced hyperthermia in swim-trained pregnant rats and the resulting fetal development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 weeks pre-pregnancy training were exercised daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation in water that was 34.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C (Cool Water Swimmers--CWS) or 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C (Warm Water Swimmers--WWS), for one hour/day. During this time period another group of pregnant rats was immersed to the neck in warm water (37.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C) (Warm Water Controls--WWC). On day 19 of gestation all animals were sacrificed and fetal development assessed. Maternal exercise in warm water elevated maternal body core temperature by 2.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C above resting values, with an increase in fetal abnormalities compared to the same exercise intensity in cool water. Fifty-eight percent of the abnormal fetuses and 60% of the resorption sites were found in the WWS group. Of the abnormalities determined, 65% were from the WWS group and 45% of these fetuses showed micrencephaly. Results suggest cool water may regulate maternal body temperature during swimming exercise and that swimming in warm water should be avoided during gestation because of potential teratogenic effects.

  10. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day of ge...... on GFA-content was seen any longer, although some few weakly GFA positive cells could be observed in all permanent cell lines. Fetal rat brain cells therefore seem to become less responsive to this differentiation inducer during neoplastic transformation in cell culture....

  11. Efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na fertilidade, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas Effect of jaundice on fertility, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na capacidade reprodutiva, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas, utilizando 53 ratas sexualmente maduras, distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 28 - ligadura do ducto biliopancreático e grupo 2 (n = 25 - controle. Pode-se concluir que, em presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, a fertilização é viável, a capacidade reprodutiva é muito reduzida, os ciclos estrais tornam-se irregulares, o epitélio vaginal permanece cornificado, os corpos lúteos ovarianos regridem, os corpos lúteos gravídicos não são alterados, aumentando progressivamente durante a prenhez, e o desenvolvimento fetal é gravemente alterado.The effect of jaundice on the reproductive capacity, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats was assessed in 53 sexually mature rats divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 28 - submitted to ligature of the biliopancreatic duct and group 2 (n = 25 - control - submitted only to sham operation. In jaundice rats fertilization is viable, the reproductive capacity is intensive reduced, the estrus cycles becomes irregular, the corpi lutea is presented in regression, the gravidic lutea is not modified increasing gradually during the pregnancy and the fetal development is seriously impaired.

  12. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  13. The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; Tumasonis, C; Briggs, R G; Narang, A S; Narang, R S; Rej, R; Stein, V; McMartin, D N; Kaminsky, L S

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  14. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  15. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-02-15

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency.

  16. Placental transfer and fetal distribution of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.R.; Kumar, V.; Banerjee, R.; Misra, U.K.

    1986-01-01

    The placental transfer of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid in vitamin A deprived and vitamin A supplemented pregnant female rats was studied on 20th day of gestation and compared with /sup 3/H-retinyl acetate. Radiolabelled compounds were administered to pregnant mothers orally in groundnut oil six hours before sacrifice. The distribution of radioactivity of the two compounds was studied in maternal intestine, liver and plasma and fetal brain, heart liver lung and placenta. The transfer of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid across placenta was restricted as compared to that of /sup 3/H-retinyl acetate which may explain the reason why retinoic acid does not support fetal growth.

  17. Development of epithelia in the ectopic transplant of the fetal rat epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisić, Sandra Marinović; Jurić-Lekić, Gordana; Bulić-Jakus, Floriana; Radujković, Vedran; Parcetić, Ida; Vlahović, Maja; Katusić, Ana; Sincić, Nino; Serman, Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic in situ development is strictly regulated within the specific microenvironment of developing tissues. However, for regenerative medicine purposes (supplementation of damaged tissues/organs), transplantation to ectopic sites has been considered. To investigate developmental potential of fetal epiglottic epithelia at an ectopic site, fetal epiglottis was transplanted under the kidney capsule and its development compared to fetal and adult epiglottis. Seventeen-day-old Fischer rat epiglottides were microsurgically isolated under a dissecting microscope and transplanted under the kidney capsule of adult males. After 14 days, classic histology and immunohistochemical detection of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were done in isolated and accordingly fixed transplants. The 17-day-old fetal epiglottis and adult epiglottis were processed in the same way. The 17-day-old fetal epiglottides were covered with immature epithelium expressing PCNA in almost all cells. Adult epiglottis was covered with two types of epithelia (stratified squamous epithelium and ciliated pseudostratified epithelium). In the stratified squamous epithelium PCNA was abundantly expressed in the basal cell layer and absent from more superficial and more differentiated cells. Transplants survived well during the experimental period. On their surface ciliated pseudostratified epithelium could be easily recognized, but squamous epithelium was almost absent. PCNA was expressed in basal cells of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium and was absent from the more differentiated superficial cells. It seems that at this ectopic site further differentiation of the epiglottic epithelia can proceed but differentiation of squamous epithelium seems not to be favored. It seems that this ectopic site is optimal for further differentiation of the epiglottic epithelium towards ciliated pseudostratified epithelium.

  18. The Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on Fetal Rats of FGR and the Expression of Caspase-3 in the Placenta of Maternal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZOU Li

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the fetal rats of FGR and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat; To explore the mechanism of using magnesium sulfate to cure the FGR. Establish model of FGR by a way of passive smoking: giving the maternal rats different agent of magnesium sulfate by subcutaneous injection: low agent group (300 mg/kg),high agent group (600 mg/kg). Concentration of magnesium sulfate was monitored. The expres sion of caspase-3 was measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry technology. Both of the concentrations of magnesium sulfate in high and low agents group are higher than the FGR group (P<0. 01); the weight of the placenta and fetal rat in high agent group are higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 and P<0.01); the expression of mRNA and protein of caspase-3 in the two agent group is higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 respectively); concentration of magnesium sulfate in the maternal rat blood correlate to the weight of fetal rat (r=0. 899, P=0. 038) and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat (r= 0.747, P 0.033; r=-0. 915, P=0.001).The research suggests that the weight of fetal rat could be increased by treatment of magnesium sulfate. Because it would imfrmove the placental function by depressing the expression of caspase-3.

  19. Toxicity of bryostatin-1 on the embryo-fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiangbo, Zhu; Xuying, Wan; Yuping, Zhu; Xili, Ma; Yiwen, Zheng; Tianbao, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Bryostatin-1, a highly oxygenated marine macrolide with a unique polyacetate backbone isolated from the marine animal Bugula neritina (Linnaeus), is now being developed as an anti-cancer drug for treating malignancy. In the present study, developmental toxicity of bryostatin-1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bryostatin-1 was intravenously administered to rats on gestation days 6-15 at 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 microg/kg on a daily basis. Then the reproductive parameters were determined in animals, and fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. The total weight gains were significantly different in animals between the control group and 8.0 and 16.0 microg/kg bryostatin-1 groups during and after treatment. The resorption and death fetus rates were significantly different between the bryostatin-1 group (16 microg/kg) and the control group. The fetal weight and fetal crown-rump length in the bryostatin-1 groups were significantly lower than that in the control group. Our results indicated that maternal toxicity occurred when the dose of bryostatin-1 was at 8.0 microg/kg, embryotoxicity at 16.0 microg/kg, and fetotoxicity at 4.0 microg/kg; but bryostatin-1 showed no teratogenic effect in rats. In light of our findings, bryostatin-1 should be used with caution in pregnant women with cancer, if they would like to continue the pregnancy.

  20. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

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    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  1. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  2. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  3. Caffeine-induced activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the hippocampus causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Benjian; Liang, Gai; Ping, Jie; Kou, Hao; Li, Xiaojun; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Dongcai; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational days 11-20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in

  4. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of α-cypermethrin on fetal rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Flavien; Antoine, Guillaume; Robert, Alain; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Eljarrat, Ethel

    2017-09-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the insecticide α-cypermethrin at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, or 10mg/kg/day, or di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) at 250mg/kg/day, by gavage, from gestation day (GD) 13 to 19. Testicular testosterone production and the expression of several key genes related to cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport were assessed in GD 19 male fetuses. Dams treated with 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin showed clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reduced body weight gain. α-Cypermethrin had no significant effect on post-implantation loss, fetal weight, incidence of male fetuses per litter, or anogenital distance of the male fetuses. In the fetal testes, mRNA expressions of HMG-CoA synthase and reductase, SRB1, StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450 17A1, and 17βHSD were not affected by exposure to α-cypermethrin. Testosterone production by the fetal testis was significantly reduced at 5 and 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin, although to a much smaller extent than in DIBP-exposed fetuses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Esophagus of Fetal Rats with Esophageal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Isbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Scarcity of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is related to motility disorders. In the study, we aimed to evaluate the number and density of ICCs in the fetal rat esophagus in the adriamycin - esophageal atresia (EA model. Material and Method: Rat fetuses were divided into three groups as a control, adriamycin group without EA and adriamycin group with EA. Four doses of adriamycin, 2 mg/kg each, were injected intraperitoneally to the adriamycin group rats between on 6 and 9 days of gestation. The presence of ICCs in the esophagus of the rat fetuses was determined by using an immunohistochemistry technique (c-kit, CD117. The average numbers of ICCs were calculated with microscopic evaluation by using a visual scoring system (range1 to 3. Results: Seven fetuses were included in each group. The ICCs score 3 distributions of fetuses were 5 (72% fetuses in the control group, 3 (43% fetuses in the adriamycin group without EA, 1 (14% fetus in the adriamycin group with EA. It have been found that there was a marked reduction of ICCs distribution in the adriamycin group with EA compared to control group (p 0.05. Discussion: ICCs density was significantly decreased in the rat fetuses with EA compared to the fetuses without EA. These findings support the idea that ICCs density may be congenitally abnormal in EA. This may be led to dismotility seen in the operated esophagus due to EA.

  7. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on uterine capacity and fetal development in gestation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy.

  8. Diabetic rats exercised prior to and during pregnancy: maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and frequency of fetal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Silva, Hellen Pontes; Vaz, Geizi Fátima; Vasques-Silva, Francine Aparecida; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise prior to or during pregnancy on maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and on fetal anomaly frequency in a rat pregnancy model utilizing chemically induced diabetes. Wistar rats (minimum n = 11 animals/group) were randomly assigned the following groups: group 1 (G1), sedentary, nondiabetic; G2, nondiabetic, exercised during pregnancy; G3, nondiabetic, exercised prior to and during pregnancy; G4, sedentary, diabetic; G5, diabetic, exercised during pregnancy; and G6, diabetic, exercised prior to and during pregnancy. A swimming program was utilized for moderate exercise. On day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized to obtain blood for biochemical measurements. The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents, and the fetuses were analyzed. The nondiabetic rats exercised prior to pregnancy presented a reduced maternal weight gain. Besides, G2 and G3 groups showed decreased fetal weights at term pregnancy, indicating slight intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the diabetic dams, the swimming program did not have antihyperglycemic effects. The exercise applied only during pregnancy caused severe IUGR, as confirmed by reduced fetal weight mean, fetal weight classification, and ossification sites. Nevertheless, exercise was not a teratogenic factor and improved the rats' lipid profiles, demonstrating that the exercise presented possible benefits, but there are also risks prior and during pregnancy, especially in diabetic pregnant women.

  9. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate in utero reduces testosterone production in rat fetal Leydig cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% Tween20 or PFOS (5, 20 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD 11-19. At GD20, testosterone (T production, FLC numbers and ultrastructure, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. The results indicate that exposures to PFOS have affected FLC function as evidenced by decreased T production, impaired FLC, reduced FLC number, and decreased steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol level in utero. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that PFOS is an endocrine disruptor of male reproductive system as it causes reduction of T production and impairment of rat fetal Leydig cells.

  10. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  11. Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipović, Branko R; Nestorović, Nataša M; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka T; Ristić, Nataša M; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of deltamethrin on the fetal rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Flavien; Antoine, Guillaume; Robert, Alain; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Moison, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered deltamethrin, at doses 0.1, 1, 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , or di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP) (250 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ), by gavage, from gestational day 13 to 19. Maternal toxicity was observed at 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , as evidenced by transient clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reductions in body weight, body weight gain and corrected weight gain. Deltamethrin had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of post-implantation loss, fetal weight or anogenital distance in the male fetuses. Unlike DnHP, deltamethrin induced no changes in the expression of several genes involved in cholesterol transport or in the steroid synthesis pathway in the testes of gestational day 19.5 male fetuses (SRB1, StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450 17 A1, 17βHSD). Fetal testicular levels of P450scc and P450 17 A1 protein were also unaffected by deltamethrin. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ex vivo fetal testicular production of testosterone and androstenedione after deltamethrin exposure, whereas DnHP markedly reduced these parameters. The deltamethrin metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, was detected in amniotic fluid. In summary, our results demonstrate that in utero exposure to deltamethrin during the period of sexual differentiation had no significant effect on the testosterone synthesis pathway in the male rat fetus up to a maternal toxic dose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ibrahim; Oglakci, Aysegul; Kartkaya, Kazim; Ol, Kevser Kusat; Sogut, Melis Savasan; Kanbak, Gungor; Inal, Mine Erden

    2015-03-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (Pboric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (Pboric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure.

  14. Evaluation of histological changes after tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the histological changes of tracheal cartilage and epithelium caused by tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model. METHODS: Rat fetuses were divided into two groups: a External control, composed of non-operated rats, and b Interventional group, composed of rats operated upon on gestational day 18.5 (term = 22 days, divided into triads: 1 Tracheal occlusion, 2 Internal control and 3 Sham (manipulated but not operated. Morphological data for body weight, total lung weight and total lung weight/body weight ratio were collected and measured on gestational days 19.5, 20.5 and 21.5. Tracheal samples were histologically processed, and epithelial, chondral and total tracheal thicknesses were measured on each gestational day. RESULTS: The tracheal occlusion group exhibited an increase in total lung weight/body weight ratio (p<0.001. Histologically, this group had a thicker epithelial thickness (p<0.05 and thinner chondral (p<0.05 and total tracheal thicknesses (p<0.001. These differences were more prominent on gestational days 20.5 and 21.5. CONCLUSION: Tracheal occlusion changed tracheal morphology, increased epithelial thickness and considerably decreased total tracheal thickness. These changes in the tracheal wall could explain the development of tracheomegaly, recently reported in some human fetuses subjected to tracheal occlusion.

  15. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  16. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen therapy on experimental fetal growth restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting WAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen on experimental fetal growth restriction(FGR in rats.Methods Forty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups(8 each: control group(group N,did nothing to rats,sham operation group(group M,rats were only anesthetized on day 12 of gestation and did nothing else except that,FGR model group(group F,rats accepted partial ligation of both uterine arteries and veins on day 12 of gestation and no therapy after that,hyperbaric oxygen therapy group(group A,rats accepted hyperbaric oxygen treatment after the operation,normobaric hyperoxia therapy group(group B,rats accepted normobaric oxygen treatment after the operation.On day 21 of gestation,the fetuses and placentas in all groups were surgically taken out and weighted,and the incidence of FGR and mortality in the fetus,and pathological changes of placentas were analyzed.Results Newborn’s weight in group F,N,M,A and B respectively were 3.26±0.49g,4.57±0.37g,4.46±0.36g,4.11±0.37g and 4.08±0.32g,and the placenta weight were 0.40±0.05g,0.54±0.07g,0.53±0.08g,0.47±0.05g and 0.46±0.05g.Newborn’s weight and placenta in group F were significantly lower than that in group N and M(P 0.05.FGR rates in group N,M,F,A and B respectively were 1.33%,2.94%,83.10%,13.63% and 13.89%,and mortality rates were 1.33%,1.47%,11.27%,6.06% and 6.94%.The incidence of FGR and the mortality in group F were significantly higher than that in group N(P < 0.01,and in group A and B were significantly lower than that in group N(P < 0.01.Blood stasis and villous ischemia were found in placenta of FGR model rats.Placental microcirculation was significantly improved in treatment groups.Conclusion Both hyperbaric oxygen and normobaric oxygen have a similar and good therapeutic effect on experimental FGR in rats.

  17. Quantitative analysis of motor neurons of the levator ani muscle in fetal rats with spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Yuan, Zheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2009-12-01

    With the combination of microsurgery and microinjection techniques, we investigated the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord of fetal rats with spina bifida occulta by injecting the retrograde trace FG into the levator ani muscle. The fetal rats were divided into 3 groups. On the day 9 of gestation, 6 mature Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) in the control group (group 1) were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL of normal saline at their hind limbs at 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. At these 2 time points, 15 rats in the treatment group (group 2 and group 3) were subcutaneously injected with 20% sodium valproate solution (400 mg/kg of body weight) at their hind limbs, too. On the day 20 of gestation, pregnant rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally, and then fetal microsurgery and microinjection were performed to expose the levator ani muscle, whereas 5% FG was administered with microinjector. Twenty-four hours later, transcardial perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was given to the operated fetus. After the spine sample was stained with Alcian blue GX, the image of stained spine was measured using a computer system for the distance of the 2 cartilaginous ends of the vertebra arch. Then, the lumbosacral spinal cord was cryopreserved in 20% sucrose in PBS for a later serial transverse cryosection after 24 hours. The FG-labeled motor neurons were visualized with a wide-band ultraviolet-fluorescent filter, and the number of the FG-labeled motor neurons was recorded. Nine fetal rats survived in group 1. Eighteen fetal rats survived in the treatment group, including 7 (with no malformation) of 18 fetuses in group 2 and 11 fetuses with spina bifida occulta in group 3. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of normal spinal cord clustered at the dorsolateral and dorsomedial corner of the ventral horn. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of deformed spinal cord were

  18. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Unit 30), Paris (France))

    1989-06-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I.

  19. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized pregnant dams treated with methyl-mercapto-imidazol to produce maternal and fetal hypothyroidism. Gene expression was then measured in the fetal cerebral cortex. T4 increased Camk4, Sema3c, and Slc7a3 expression, but T3 was without effect. To investigate the cause for the lack of T3 action we analyzed the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide (Oatp14, Slco1c1), a T4 transporter, and Mct8 (Slc16a2), a T4 and T3 transporter, by confocal microscopy. Both proteins were present in the brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. It is concluded that T4 from the maternal compartment influences gene expression in the fetal cerebral cortex, possibly after transport via organic anion transporter polypeptide and/or Mct8, and conversion to T3 in the astrocytes. On the other hand, T3 does not reach the target neurons despite the presence of Mct8. The data indicate that T4, through local deiodination, provides most T3 in the fetal rat brain. The role of Mct8 as a T3 transporter in the fetal rat brain is therefore uncertain.

  20. Isolation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To find a promising alternative to neurons or schwann cells (SCs) for peripheral nerve repair applications,this study sought to isolate stem cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants.Molecular expression analysis confirmed neural stem cell characteristics of DRG-derived neurospheres in terms of expressing neural stem cell-specific genes and a set of well-defined genes related to stem cell niches and glial fate decision.Under the influence of neurotrophic factors,bFGF and NGF,the neurospheres gave rise to neurofilament-expressing neurons and S100-expressing Schwann cell-like cells by different pathways.This study suggests that a subpopulation of stem cells that reside in DRGs is the progenitor of neurons and glia,which could directly induce the differentiation toward neurons,or SCs.

  1. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  2. Use of liposome encapsulated hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier for fetal and adult rat liver cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Huang, Hongyun; Ohara, Keikou; Matsumoto, Kunio; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-11-01

    Engineering liver tissue constructs with sufficient cell mass for transplantation implies culturing large numbers of hepatocytes in a reduced volume; however, providing sufficient oxygen to dense cell cultures is still not feasible using only conventional culture medium. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH), an oxygen-carrying blood substitute originally designed for short-term perfusion, may be a good candidate as an oxygen carrier to cultured liver cells. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of maintaining long term hepatocyte cultures using LEH. Primary fetal and adult rat liver cells were directly exposed to LEH for 6 to 14 days in static culture or in a perfused flat plate bioreactor. The functions and viability of adult rat hepatocytes exposed to LEH were not adversely affected in static monolayer culture and were even improved in the bioreactor. However, some cytotoxicity of LEH was observed with fetal rat liver cells after 4 days of culture. LEH, though a suitable oxygen carrier for long-term culture of mature hepatocytes, is not suitable in its present form for perfusing fetal hepatocyte cultures in direct contact with the liposomes; either the LEH will have to be made less toxic or a more sophisticated bioreactor that prevents the direct contact between hepatocytes and perfusates will have to be designed if fetal cells are to be used for liver tissue engineering.

  3. [Analysis of sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to 5-fluorouracil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiushina, O V; Damaratskaia, E I; Bueverova, E I; Nikonova, T M; Butorina, N N; Molchanova, E A; Starostin, V I

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was compared in vivo and in vitro. Cells from both tissues demonstrated a similar resistance to 5-FU in vitro; however, stromal stem cells from fetal liver proved notably more sensitive to 5-FU compared to marrow CFU-f in vivo. Cells forming colonies of different size were identified in stem cell populations from both tissues. Cells giving rise to small colonies had a higher resistance to 5-FU both in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  5. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in fetal skin of scarless and scar-forming periods of gestational rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the differences of gene expression between earlier gestational skin and later gestational skin of rats with the aids of single primer amplification (SPA) and high-density oligonucleotide DNA array to understand the molecular mechanism of scarless healing.Methods: Total RNAs were isolated from fetal rat skin of the scarless (E15) and scar-forming ( E18 ) periods of gestation ( term = 21.5 days). The RNAs from earlier gestational skin (EGS) and later gestational skin (LGS)were both reversely transcribed to cDNAs, then labeled with the incorporation of fluorescent dCTP for preparing the hybridization probes by SPA method. The mixed probes were then hybridized to the oligonucleotide DNA arrays which contained 5 705 probes representing 5 705 rat genes. After highly stringent washing, these DNA arrays were scanned for fluorescent signals to display the differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups of skin.Results: Among 5 705 rat genes, there were 53 genes (0.93 % ) with differentially expressed levels between EGS and LGS groups, 27 genes, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and follistatin were up-regulated (0.47 % ) and 26 genes were down-regulated ( 0.46 % ) in fetal skin during scarless period versus scar-forming period. Higher expressions of FGF2 and follistatin in EGS than those in LGS were also revealed by RT-PCR method. Conclusions: High-density oligonucleotide DNA array provided a powerful tool for investigating differential gene expression in earlier and later gestational fetal skins. This technology validates that the mechanism of fetal scarless healing is very complicate and the change of many gene expressions is associated with fetal scarless healing.

  6. Stem cells decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxic stress in primary fetal rat neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    To explore stem cell-mediated neuronal protection through extracellular signaling pathways by transplanted stem cells, we sought to identify potential candidate molecules responsible for neuronal protection using an in vitro coculture system. Primary fetal rat hippocampal neurons underwent hypoxia (≤1% oxygen) for 96 h nad then were returned to a normoxic condition. The study group then received rat umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells, while the control group received fresh media only. The experimental group showed decreased neuronal apoptosis compared to the control group [44.5 ± 1.6% vs. 71.0 ± 4.2% (mean ± SD, p = 0.0005) on day 5] and higher neuronal survival (4.9 ± 1.2 cells/100× field vs. 2.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.02 on day 5). Among 90 proteins evaluated using a protein array, stem cell coculture media showed increased protein secretion of TIMP-1 (5.61-fold), TIMP-2 (4.88), CNTF-Rα (3.42), activin A (2.20), fractalkine (2.04), CCR4 (2.02), and decreased secretion in MIP-2 (0.30-fold), AMPK α1 (0.43), TROY (0.48), and TIMP-3 (0.50). This study demonstrated that coculturing stem cells with primary neurons in vitro decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxia with significantly altered protein secretion. The results suggest that stem cells may offer neuronal protection through extracellular signaling.

  7. Tobramycin-induced changes in renal histology of fetal and newborn Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, A; Macrì, C; Stazi, A V; Ricciardi, C; Guastadisegni, C; Maranghi, F

    1992-01-01

    Effects on renal development were studied using tobramycin (TBM) as a model compound. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with TBM at 30 or 60 mg/kg body weight/day on gestational days (GD) 10-19. Kidneys from dams and conceptuses were examined on GD 20 and on postnatal day (PD) 9. The dosing regimen caused in dams moderate proximal tubular alterations and increased concentrations in serum creatinine. Fetal kidneys showed granularity and swelling of proximal tubule cells at the 30 mg/kg dose, poor glomerular differentiation at the 60 mg/kg dose, increased glomerular density at both doses, and no changes on macroscopic examination at either dose. In newborns were observed a moderate developmental delay and tubular lesions at the higher dose, and dose-related increases of glomerular density and relative medullary area at both doses. All findings were more pronounced in males. A maturational disruption of the tubular structures possibly leading to increased glomerular density was attributed to TBM exposure during renal organogenesis in the rat.

  8. The Skeletons' Halloween

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait…

  9. The Skeletons' Halloween

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait of…

  10. Maintaining Restored Bone with Bisphoshonate in the Ovariectomized Rat Skeleton: Dynamic Histomorphometry of Changes in Bone Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Tang, L.; Ke, H. Z.; Setterberg, R. B.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the Lose, Restore and Maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses ovariectomy (ox) to lose bone, an anabolic agent to restore bone mass and then switches to an anti-resorptive agent to maintain bone mass. We ox'd or sham-ox'd rats for 150 days (Loss Phase), treated them with 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (Restore Phase) and then stopped PGE2 treatment and began treatment with 1 or 5 micro-g/kg Risedronate, a bisphosphonate twice a week for 60 days (Maintain Phase). During the Loss Phase, cancellous bone volumes of the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) in the ox'd rat fell to 19% of initial controls. During the Restore Phase, the PTM bone volume in ox'd rats doubled. However, when PGE2 treatment was stopped, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, 5 micro-g of Risedronate inhibited the bone loss and maintained it at the PGE2 treatment level. The key dynamic histomorphometry value for the restore (R) and maintenance (M) phases was the ratio of bone formation to resorption rates. The ratio was elevated to 5.8 in the R phase and depressed to 0.4 for no and 1 micro-g Risedronate treated M phase and to a ratio of near unity of 1.1 for the 5 micro-g Risedronate treatment. These findings indicate that we were successful in maintaining the new PTM bone induced by PGE2 after discontinuing PGE2 by administering enough Risedronate, a resorption inhibitor. We concluded that the LRM concept is correct and such an approach should be considered when employing anabolic agents or growth factors in the treatment of osteoporosis. Continued use of an anabolic agent may not be appropriate because of cost, potential adverse side effects and a loss of efficacy.

  11. Maintaining Restored Bone with Bisphosphonate in the Ovariectomized Rat Skeleton: Dynamic Histomorphometry of Changes in Bone Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Tang, L.; Ke, H. Z.; Setterberg, R. B.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the Lose, Restore and Maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses ovariectomy (ox) to lose bone, an anabolic agent to restore bone mass and then switches to an antiresorptive agent to maintain bone mass. We ox'd or sham-ox'd rats for 150 days (Loss Phase), treated them with 6 mg PGE(sub 2)kg/d for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (Restore Phase) and then stopped PGE(sub 2) treatment and began treatment with 1 or 5 micrograms/kg Risedronate, a bisphosphonate twice a week for 60 days (Maintain Phase). During the Loss Phase, cancellous bone volumes of the Proximal Tibial Metaphysis (PTM) in the ox'd rat fell to 19% of initial controls. During the Restore Phase, the PTM bone volume in ox'd rats doubled. However, when PGE(sub 2) treatment was stopped, the PGE(sub 2)-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, 5 miligrams of Risedronate inhibited the bone loss and maintained it at the PGE(sub 2) treatment level. The key dynamic histomorphometry value for the Restore (R) and Maintenance (M) phases was the ratio of bone formation to resorption rates. The ratio was elevated to 5.8 in the R phase and depressed to 0.4 for no and 1 miligram Risedronate treated M phase and to a ratio of near unity of 1.1 for the 5miligrams Risedronate treatment. These findings indicate that we were successful in maintaining the new PTM bone induced by PGE(sub 2) after discontinuing PGE(sub 2) by administering enough Risedronate, a resorption inhibitor. We concluded that the LRM concept is correct and such an approach should be considered when employing anabolic agents or growth factors in the treatment of osteoporosis. Continued use of an anabolic agent may not be appropriate because of cost, potential adverse side effects and a loss of efficacy.

  12. An investigation of the endocrine-disruptive effects of bisphenol a in human and rat fetal testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millissia Ben Maamar

    Full Text Available Few studies have been undertaken to assess the possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA on the reproductive hormone balance in animals or humans with often contradictory results. We investigated possible direct endocrine disruption by BPA of the fetal testes of 2 rat strains (14.5-17.5 days post-coitum and humans (8-12 gestational weeks and under different culture conditions. BPA concentrations of 10(-8M and 10(-5M for 72 h reduced testosterone production by the Sprague-Dawley fetal rat testes, while only 10-5M suppressed it in the Wistar strain. The suppressive effects at 10-5M were seen as early as 24h and 48 h in both strains. BPA at 10(-7-10(-5M for 72 h suppressed the levels of fetal rat Leydig cell insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. BPA exposure at 10(-8M, 10(-7M, and 10(-5M for 72 h inhibited testosterone production in fetal human testes. For the lowest doses, the effects observed occurred only when no gonadotrophin was added to the culture media and were associated with a poorly preserved testicular morphology. We concluded that (i BPA can display anti-androgenic effects both in rat and human fetal testes; (ii it is essential to ascertain that the divergent effects of endocrine disruptors between species in vitro do not result from the culture conditions used, and/or the rodent strain selected; (iii the optimization of each in vitro assay for a given species should be a major objective rather than the search of an hypothetical trans-species consensual model-system, as the organization of the testis is intrinsically different between mammalian species; (iv due to the uncertainty existing on the internal exposure of the human fetal testis to BPA, and the insufficient number of epidemiological studies on the endocrine disruptive effects of BPA, caution should be taken in the extrapolation of our present results to the human reproductive health after fetal exposure to BPA.

  13. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  14. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O' Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  16. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghuan Ma; Yongxin Bao; Chenghao Li; Fubin Jiao; Hongjie Xin; Zhengwei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway.

  17. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinghuan; Bao, Yongxin; Li, Chenghao; Jiao, Fubin; Xin, Hongjie; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway. PMID:25337099

  18. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper describes the stapl Skeleton Framework, a highlevel skeletal approach for parallel programming. This framework abstracts the underlying details of data distribution and parallelism from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework are defined as parametric data flow graphs, and their compositions are defined in terms of data flow graph compositions. Defining the composition in this manner allows dependencies between skeletons to be defined in terms of point-to-point dependencies, avoiding unnecessary global synchronizations. To show the ease of composability and expressivity, we implemented the NAS Integer Sort (IS) and Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmarks using skeletons and demonstrate comparable performance to the hand-optimized reference implementations. To demonstrate scalable performance, we show a transformation which enables applications written in terms of skeletons to run on more than 100,000 cores.

  19. Exposure in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate alters the vimentin cytoskeleton of fetal rat Sertoli cells and disrupts Sertoli cell-gonocyte contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleymenova, Elena; Swanson, Cynthia; Boekelheide, Kim; Gaido, Kevin W

    2005-09-01

    Di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) is commonly used in personal care products and as a plasticizer to soften consumer plastic products. Male rats exposed to DBP in utero have malformations of the male reproductive tract and testicular atrophy characterized by degeneration of seminiferous epithelium and decreased sperm production. In the fetal testis, in utero exposure to DBP reportedly resulted in reduced testosterone levels, Leydig cell aggregates, and multinucleated gonocytes (MNG). We investigated whether exposure in utero to DBP affects rat fetal Sertoli cells and compromises interactions between Sertoli and germ cells in the developing testis. Histological examination showed that MNG occurred at low frequency in the normal fetal rat testis. Exposure in utero at the dose level of DBP above estimated environmental or occupational human exposure levels significantly increased the number of these abnormal germ cells. Postnatally, MNG exhibited aberrant mitoses and were detected at the basal lamina. MNG were not apoptotic in the fetal and postnatal rat testes, as indicated by TUNEL. Sertoli cells in DBP-exposed fetal testis had retracted apical processes, altered organization of the vimentin cytoskeleton, and abnormal cell-cell contacts with gonocytes. The effect of DBP on Sertoli cell morphology at the level of light microscopy was reversed after birth and cessation of exposure. Our data indicate that fetal Sertoli cells are targeted by exposure in utero to DBP and suggest that abnormal interactions between Sertoli and germ cells during fetal life play a role in the development of MNG.

  20. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  1. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  2. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sacerdoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  3. Fetal Kidney Cells Can Ameliorate Ischemic Acute Renal Failure in Rats through Their Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    Fetal kidney cells may contain multiple populations of kidney stem cells and thus appear to be a suitable cellular therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure (ARF) but their biological characteristics and therapeutic potential have not been adequately explored. We have culture expanded fetal kidney cells derived from rat fetal kidneys, characterized them and evaluated their therapeutic effect in an ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced rat model of ARF. The fetal kidney cells grew in culture as adherent spindle shaped/polygonal cells and expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD24 and CD133 markers. Administration of PKH26 labeled fetal kidney cells in ARF rats resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and decreased tubular necrosis in the kidney tissues (pkidney cells were observed to engraft around injured tubular cells, and there was increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of tubular cells in the kidneys (pkidney tissues of ARF rats treated with fetal kidney cells had a higher gene expression of renotropic growth factors (VEGF-A, IGF-1, BMP-7 and bFGF) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL10); up regulation of anti-oxidative markers (HO-1 and NQO-1); and a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio as compared to saline treated rats (pkidney cells express mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers, and ameliorate ischemic ARF predominantly by their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  4. Maternal saturated-fat-rich diet promotes leptin resistance in fetal liver lipid catabolism and programs lipid homeostasis impairments in the liver of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, María Belén; Fornes, Daiana; Capobianco, Evangelina; Higa, Romina; Jawerbaum, Alicia; White, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyze if an overload of saturated fat in maternal diet induced lipid metabolic impairments in livers from rat fetuses that persist in the offspring and to identify potential mechanisms involving fetal leptin resistance. Female rats were fed either a diet enriched in 25% of saturated fat (SFD rats) or a regular diet (controls). Fetuses of 21days of gestation and offspring of 21 and 140days of age were obtained and plasma and liver were kept for further analysis. Livers from a group of control and SFD fetuses were cultured in the presence or absence of leptin. Leptin or vehicle was administered to control fetuses during the last days of gestation and, on day 21, fetal livers and plasma were obtained. Lipid levels were assessed by thin-layer chromatography and mRNA gene expression of CPT1, ACO and PPARα by RT-PCR. Liver lipid levels were increased and CPT1 and ACO were down-regulated in fetuses and offspring from SFD rats compared to controls. After the culture with leptin, control fetal livers showed increased ACO and CPT1 expression and decreased lipid levels, while fetal livers from SFD rats showed no changes. Fetal administration of leptin induced a decrease in ACO and no changes in CPT1 expression. In summary, our results suggest that a saturated fat overload in maternal diet induces fetal leptin resistance in liver lipid catabolism, which might be contributing to liver lipid alterations that are sustained in the offspring.

  5. Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy enhances bile acid-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria J; Velasco, Elena; Monte, Maria J; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-08-15

    Ethanol is able to cross the placenta, which may cause teratogenicity. Here we investigated whether ethanol consumption during pregnancy (ECDP), even at doses unable to cause malformation, might increase the susceptibility of fetal rat liver to oxidative insults. Since cholestasis is a common condition in alcoholic liver disease and pregnancy, exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) has been used here as the oxidative insult. The mothers received drinking water without or with ethanol from 4 weeks before mating until term, when placenta, maternal liver, and fetal liver were used. Ethanol induced a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio in these organs, together with enhanced gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase activities in both placenta and fetal liver. Lipid peroxidation in placenta and fetal liver was enhanced by ethanol, although it had no effect on caspase-3 activity. Although the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher by fetal (FHs) than by maternal (AHs) hepatocytes in short-term cultures, the production of ROS in response to the presence of varying GCDCA concentrations was higher in AHs and was further increased by ECDP, which was associated to a more marked impairment in mitochondrial function. Moreover, GCDCA-induced apoptosis was increased by ECDP, as revealed by enhanced Bax-alpha/Bcl-2 ratio (both in AHs and FHs) and the activity of caspase-8 (only in AHs) and caspase-3. In sum, our results indicate that although AHs are more prone than FHs to producing ROS, at doses unable to cause maternal liver damage ethanol consumption causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal liver.

  6. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Yukio; Kotani, Tomomi; Ito, Mikako; Nagai, Taku; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ohno, Kinji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2׳-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  8. Development of an artificial neuronal network with post-mitotic rat fetal hippocampal cells by polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingfang; Ma, Jun; Gao, Erjing; He, Yu; Cui, Fuzhai; Xu, Qunyuan

    2008-03-14

    The selection of appropriate surface materials that promote cellular adhesion and growth is an important consideration when designing a simplified neuronal network in vitro. In the past, extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin (LN) or positively charged substances such as poly-l-lysine (PLL) have been used. In this study, we examined the ability of another positively charged polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to promote neuronal adhesion, growth and the formation of a functional neuronal network in vitro. PEI, PLL and LN were used to produce grid-shape patterns on glass coverslips by micro-contact printing. Post-mitotic neurons from the rat fetal hippocampus were cultured on the different polymers and the viability and morphology of these neurons under serum-free culture conditions were observed using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We show that neurons cultured on the PEI- and PLL-coated surfaces adhered to and extended neurites along the grid-shape patterns, whereas neurons cultured on the LN-coated coverslips clustered into clumps of cells. In addition, we found that the neurons on the PEI and PLL-coated grids survived for more than 2 weeks in serum-free conditions, whereas most neurons cultured on the LN-coated grids died after 1 week. Using AFM, we observed some neurosynapse-like structures near the neuronal soma on PEI-coated coverslips. These findings indicate that PEI is a suitable surface for establishing a functional neuronal network in vitro.

  9. Biological monitoring of embrio-fetal exposure to methamidophos or chlorothalonil on rat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, V L; Chiorato, S H; Pinto, N F

    2000-12-01

    Maternal exposure to pesticides during the pre-implantation and very early post-implantation periods of pregnancy is correlated with numerous adverse effects on the offspring and in reproductive parameters like an increase in resorption, a decrease in fetal survival and weight, and teratogenic effects. Although the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive as regards the risk of the adverse outcome of pregnancy and developmental toxicity events, the use of biomarkers in exposure assessment may contribute to recognizing a potential health impairment. The present study evaluated the influence of prenatal oral exposure to an insecticide (1.0 mg methamidophos/kg) or a fungicide (200.0 mg chlorothalonil/kg) during gestation days 1 to 6 on maturational and behavioral aspects of offspring development of rats. The pesticides did not affect the body weight gain of dams and offspring, nor did the exposure affect the weight of gravid uterus, fetus, placenta and ovary. There were no observed alterations in the swimming behavior tested at postnatal days 7, 14 and 21, but the pesticides interfered with physical and maturational development landmarks of offspring according to age, showing subtle effects on behavioral and physical development. These findings show the importance of categorizing developmental effects, establishing the relationship between age and important performances, to recognize potential impacts on human populations.

  10. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  11. Simultaneous transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue and encapsulated genetically modified cells releasing GDNF in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation. We found that rats grafted with VM transplants...

  12. Evaluation of 2-year-old intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation into host organs like the spleen may possibly provide a temporary relief after extensive liver resection or severe liver disease or may enable treatment of an enzyme deficiency. With time, however, dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of the ectopically transplanted cells may be possible. Thus, in the present study syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleen of adult male rats and evaluated 2 years thereafter in comparison to orthotopic livers for histopathological changes and (as markers for preneoplastic transformation) for cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression. Because inducibility of P450 and GST isoforms may be changed in preneoplastic foci, prior to sacrifice animals were additionally treated either with beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, or the respective solvent. In the 2-year-old grafts more than 70% of the spleen mass was occupied by the transplant. The transplanted hepatocytes were arranged in cord-like structures. Also few bile ducts were present. Morphologically, no signs of malignancy were visible. With all rats, transplant recipients as well as controls, however, discrete nodular structures were seen in the livers. Due to age, both livers and transplants displayed only a low P450 2B1 and 3A2 and GST class alpha and mu isoform expression. No immunostaining for P450 1A1 was visible. At both sites, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone treatment enhanced P450 1A1, P450 2B1 and 3A2, or P450 3A2 expression, respectively. No immunostaining for GST class pi isoforms was seen in the transplants. The livers of both transplant recipients and control rats, however, displayed GST pi-positive foci, corresponding to the nodular structures seen histomorphologically. Compared to the surrounding tissue, these foci also exhibited a more pronounced staining for GST class alpha and mu isoforms and a stronger inducibility of the P450 1A

  13. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F. (Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with ({sup 125}I)T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their ({sup 125}I)T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered.

  14. Intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon improve allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryuichiro; Ishida, Yasushi; Ebihara, Kosuke; Abe, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hisae; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Koganemaru, Go; Kuramashi, Aki; Funahashi, Hideki; Magata, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Keiichi; Nishimori, Toshikazu

    2014-06-24

    We previously reported that a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease showed allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation of the ipsilateral side of the rat hindpaw. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM) on the withdrawal response in 6-OHDA rats. The withdrawal threshold in response to the mechanical stimulation of the rat hindpaw was measured using von Frey filaments. In the ipsilateral side of the 6-OHDA lesions, the withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation significantly increased in 6-OHDA rats with VM grafts compared with those with sham grafts, but did not change in the contralateral side at 5 weeks after transplantation. The present results suggest that the intrastriatal grafts of fetal VM may relieve pain sensation induced by mechanical stimulation in 6-OHDA rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal testosterone-induced fetal growth restriction is associated with down-regulation of rat placental amino acid transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Gary DV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies. We examined whether maternal testosterone crosses the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth or if it modifies placental function to reduce the capacity for transport of nutrients to the fetus. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to testosterone propionate (TP; 0.5 mg/kg by daily subcutaneous injection from gestational days (GD 15-19. Maternal and fetal testosterone levels, placental nutrient transport activity and expression of transporters and birth weight of pups and their anogenital distances were determined. Results This dose of TP doubled maternal testosterone levels but had no effect on fetal testosterone levels. Maternal daily weight gain was significantly lower only on GD 19 in TP treated dams compared to controls. Placental weight and birth weight of pups were significantly reduced, but the anogenital distance of pups were unaffected by TP treatment. Maternal plasma amino acids concentrations were altered following testosterone exposure, with decreases in glutamine, glycine, tyrosine, serine, proline, and hydroxyproline and increases in asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine and arginine. In the TP dams, placental system A amino acid transport activity was significantly reduced while placental glucose transport capacity was unaffected. Decreased expression of mRNA and protein levels of slc38a2/Snat2, an amino acid transporter, suggests that reduced transporter proteins may be responsible for the decrease in amino acid transport activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that increased maternal testosterone concentrations do not cross the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth but affects amino acid nutrient delivery to the fetus by downregulating specific amino acid transporter activity.

  16. The Effect of Fetal Olfactory Mucosa on Tissue Sparing and Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Delaviz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs has been shown to have a neuroprotectiveeffect after transplanted in brain and spinal cord injury (SCI. This study was conductedto determine the possible beneficial results of transplantation of fetal olfactorymucosa (FOM that was the source of OECs in the recovery of locomotor function andin spinal tissue sparing after spinal cord hemisection.Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were spinallyhemisected at the L1 level and were randomized into the three groups of 16 animals.The first group, immunosuppressed injured animals were received cyclosporine A (CsAand FOM graft. The second group was received CsA and fetal respiratory mucosa(FRM graft, and the control group; non-immunosuppressed rats were received salineand gel foam. Locomotor performance was assessed weekly for 8 weeks after lesion,using locomotive rating scale developed by Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB. Afterbehavioral assessment, the spinal cord was examined by a histologist for spinal tissuesparing.Results: From weeks 6-8, the functional recovery of the FOM rats significantly increasedin comparison to the FRM, although a significant difference in tissue sparing was not apparent.From weeks, 2-8 the functional recovery of the FOM and FRM groups as well astissue sparing of the FOM group increased significantly compared to the control group.Conclusion: Thus, the FOM treatment may be effective to promote functional recoveryand partially preserving tissue sparing.

  17. Tensor Network Skeletonization

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new coarse-graining algorithm, tensor network skeletonization, for the numerical computation of tensor networks. This approach utilizes a structure-preserving skeletonization procedure to remove short-range correlations effectively at every scale. This approach is first presented in the setting of 2D statistical Ising model and is then extended to higher dimensional tensor networks and disordered systems. When applied to the Euclidean path integral formulation, this approach also gives rise to new efficient representations of the ground states for 1D and 2D quantum Ising models.

  18. In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiuni Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and β-III tubulin was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important

  19. Investigating the Human Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1982-01-01

    Instructions are provided for assembly of a pull-out, two-sided picture puzzle of the skeleton of a seven-year-old girl. Suggestions for activities using the assembled puzzle and comments on bones and bone morphology are also provided. (Author/JN)

  20. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han 

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods:NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers:βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2 (neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase (DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results:The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions:Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  1. Paternal dapoxetine administration induced deterioration in reproductive performance, fetal outcome, sexual behavior and biochemistry of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMazoudy, R; AbdelHameed, N; ElMasry, A

    2015-01-01

    Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is considered an antidepressant drug and has been developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Hence the objective was to assess whether dapoxetine administration to male rats adversely affect sexual behavior and pregnancy outcomes after mating with untreated female rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged with 0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg dapoxetine per kg body weight (bw) per day (DC, DI, DII and DIII groups, respectively) for 70 days prior to mating with untreated female rats. Weight gain, organ weights and feed consumption were decreased significantly in the DII and DIII groups. A significant decline in the number of spermatozoa in the DII and DIII groups is attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Levels of prolactin were significantly increased in the DII and DIII groups. Rats treated with a high dose of dapoxetine (8.0 mg kg(-1)) showed a significant inhibition in sperm motility and increment in sperm abnormalities. There was a pronounced decrease in fertility index in females mated with males treated chronically with 4.0 and 8.0 mg per kg bw dapoxetine. In addition, the treatment markedly increased the number of fetal resorptions in female rats impregnated by males in the DII and DIII groups reflecting their infertility. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were also notably decreased in female rats impregnated by males given 4.0 or 8.0 mg kg(-1) dapoxetine. These findings suggest that the long-term dapoxetine at high dosages causes failure of the fertilization or successful impregnation of the females mated with dapoxetine-treated male rats, which were clearly able to copulate. A detrimental effect of dapoxetine on fertility parameters was also revealed.

  2. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in fetal and maternal rat tissues after parenteral administration of cadmium during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Roelofsen, A.M.; Herber, R.F.M.; Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J.H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in rat maternal and fetal tissues after exposure to cadmium. Cadmium was administered subcutaneously as CdCl/sub 2/ in saline daily during pregnancy. Two experiments were performed. In expt. I we investigated the tissue concentration at day 19 (gestational age) after addministration of several doses: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 ..mu..mol Cd/kg/day. In expt. II the course of the Cd and Zn concentrations during pregnancy was investigated by collecting samples at days 14, 16, 18 and 20, after daily injections of 4.4 ..mu..mol Cd/kg. Cadmium concentrations in blood, maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver increased with dose and duration of exposure. Cadmium was heavily accumulated in the liver and transferred to the fetus only in small amounts. The zinc concentration in the maternal liver was positively correlated with the cadmium concentration. In the placenta the zinc concentration was not affected. Zinc in fetal liver was decreased from day 18 onward. Despite relatively high cadmium levels and decreased zinc levels in the fetus, we observed no adverse effects on various reproduction parameters, such as birth weights and obvious malformations.

  3. 1,25(OH) sub 2 D sub 3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R. (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medical (France))

    1988-04-01

    The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K}) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K} in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP{sub 9K} was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} depends on maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H){sub 2}D{sub 3} has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat.

  4. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2 g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against

  5. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-05

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  6. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  7. Grafts of fetal locus coeruleus neurons in rat amygdala-piriform cortex suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D I; Wanscher, B; Kragh, J; Bolwig, T G; Kokaia, M; Brundin, P; Björklund, A; Lindvall, O

    1989-11-01

    Hippocampal kindling was investigated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the forebrain catecholamine system after implantation of neural tissue from the fetal locus coeruleus region either bilaterally into the amygdala-piriform cortex (i.e., distant to the kindling site) or unilaterally into the hippocampus (close to the kindling site). Lesioned animals with either sham grafts or control grafts consisting of fetal striatal tissue showed a kindling rate much faster than that of normal controls. In contrast, in rats with bilateral locus coeruleus grafts in the amygdala-piriform cortex (implanted at three sites) the development of seizures was similar to that of controls and significantly slower than that in lesioned animals with sham grafts. All these animals had bilateral surviving grafts with a mean of 125 noradrenergic cells per implantation site. In the animals with locus coeruleus grafts in the stimulated hippocampus the kindling rate did not differ from that in the lesioned animals with control grafts. Most of these animals had large surviving grafts and showed a dense noradrenergic reinnervation of the implanted hippocampus. The present findings indicate that grafting of fetal pontine tissue (rich in noradrenergic neurons) to a site distant to the stimulation focus, but important for the generalization and spread of seizures, can retard the development of seizures in hippocampal kindling. Together with the data of our previous report this study also indicates that noradrenergic reinnervation of both hippocampi is important for the seizure-suppressant action in hippocampal kindling of locus coeruleus grafts implanted in the hippocampus.

  8. Developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase isoforms expression and activity in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Anschütz, Tino; Lindström-Seppä, Pirjo; Müller, Dieter

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms expression and in glutathione conjugation capacity in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. For this purpose, syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male Fischer 344 rats. Three days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, 2, 4, 6 months and 1 year later, transplant-recipients and control animals were sacrificed and class alpha, mu and pi GST isoforms expression and GST activities using the substrates o-dinitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were assessed in livers and spleens. In the hepatocytes of the adult livers no class pi, but a distinct class alpha and mu GST expression was seen. The bile duct epithelia were class pi GST positive. Fetal livers displayed almost no class alpha and mu, but a slight class pi GST expression. The same pattern was seen in 3-day-old intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. Up to 2 weeks after surgery the class alpha and mu GST expression increased in the hepatocytes of the transplants, whereas the immunostaining for class pi GST disappeared. No remarkable changes were seen thereafter. Normal conjugation capacities were observed with the livers of both groups of rats. Control spleens displayed only low GST activities. From 2 months after transplantation on activities were significantly higher in transplant-containing spleens than in respective control organs with a further increase up to one year after grafting. These results show that intrasplenically transplanted fetal liver cells proliferate and differentiate into mature cells displaying a GST expression pattern with respective enzyme activities similar to adult liver.

  9. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  10. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    with DEHA and DINP have led to the hypothesis that similarities inaction may also exist. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with vehicle, DEHP (300 or 750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DINP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DEHP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day) in combination...

  11. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Peter T; Beken, Sonja; Beyer, Bruce K; Breslin, William J; Cappon, Gregg D; Chen, Connie L; Chmielewski, Gary; De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Enright, Brian; Foreman, Jennifer E; Harrouk, Wafa; Hew, Kok-Wah; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia Y; Knudsen, Thomas B; Laffan, Susan B; Makris, Susan L; Martin, Matt; McNerney, Mary Ellen; Siezen, Christine L; Stanislaus, Dinesh J; Stewart, Jane; Thompson, Kary E; Tornesi, Belen; Van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Wood, Sandra; Piersma, Aldert H

    2016-11-01

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceuticals typically requires embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species (one rodent and one non-rodent). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the testing in a second species could be decided on a case-by-case basis. As part of a consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 compounds with EFDT studies (in both rat and rabbit animal models) conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceuticals for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes, including EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings. Manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%). EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with 58% (68 compounds) of rat studies and 42% (50 compounds) of rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discordance across species may be attributed to factors such as maternal toxicity, study design differences, pharmacokinetic differences, and pharmacologic relevance of species. The current analysis suggests that in general both species are equally sensitive on the basis of an overall EFDT LOAEL comparison, but selective EFDT toxicity in one species is not uncommon. Also, there appear to be species differences in the prevalence of various EFDT manifestations (i.e. embryo-fetal death, growth retardation, and dysmorphogenesis) between rat and rabbit, suggesting that the use of both species has a higher probability of detecting developmental toxicants than either one alone.

  12. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  14. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Sinzato, S. [UNESP; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha [UNESP; Damasceno,Débora Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment.Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats.Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueou...

  15. Experimental study on cleft palate repair of rat using rat fetal membrane%鼠胎膜修复大鼠腭裂的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 娜荷雅; 张幸竹; 王丝墨; 唐喜乐; 马振宇; 肖晶; 李武伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 以鼠胎膜对腭裂进行整复手术,研究修复腭裂的效果.方法 建立腭裂动物模型实验.30只SD大鼠按照腭部裂隙大小分为3组,每组10只.a组:长7 mm×宽0.9 mm;b组:长7 mm×宽1.1 mm;c组:长7mm×宽1.3 mm.术后12周处死所有大鼠,观察裂隙变化.手术关闭裂隙实验.10只SD大鼠分为3组.A组大鼠5只,手术造腭裂并以新鲜双层胎膜关闭裂隙;B组大鼠3只,手术造腭裂,令裂隙自行生长;C组2只作为空白对照组.术后4周处死动物,大体观察;制作切片,行组织学观察.结果 腭裂动物模型成功建立,确立b组7mm×1.1 mm为临界缺损.A组大鼠腭裂得到成功修复,口鼻腔黏膜分别愈合,完全覆盖腭裂,镜下见腭裂处口腔黏膜层次清楚,存在黏膜下层,顶部有完整的鼻腔黏膜.结论 鼠胎膜对SD大鼠腭裂具有良好的修复效果.%Objective To explore the feasibility of repairing the defect in cleft palate using fetal membrane in a rat model. Methods To establish the animal model of cleft palate. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group according to the different size of man - made cleft, group a: 7 mm × 0. 9 mm, group b: 7 mm × 1. 1 mm, group c: 7 mm × 1.3 mm. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the changes of clefts were compared. Repairing experiment for cleft palate. Ten SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, group A was underwent reduction with 5 rats, group B was only performed model operation with 3 rats, group C was blank with 2 rats. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks and the gross and histological observation was respectively carried out. Results The animal model of cleft palate was successfully established. Group b was determined to be the animal model group for critical - sized defect. Cleft palate was repaired successfully in group A with fetal membrane of rat, the structure of palate mucosa was similar to that of the group C in gross

  16. Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Schwarz, A; Spinosa, H S; Florio, J C; Bernardi, M M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory suggested that the administration of antihistaminics (H(1) receptor antagonists) to pregnant Wistar rats throughout pregnancy altered brain sexual differentiation and dopaminergic physiology of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 20 mg/kg diphenhydramine (DPH) administration to pregnant rats during the fetal period of pregnancy [Gestation Days (GDs) 16-21], a critical period for brain sexual differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) maturation. Maternal body weight and water and food consumption were measured during pregnancy and offspring physical and behavioral development were evaluated during lactation. Offspring open-field behavior was assessed at 21 and 100 days of age. After the final open-field test, male and female sexual behavior, stereotypy following an apomorphine challenge, striatal content of dopamine (DA), the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. There were no significant treatment-related changes in maternal reproductive parameters, but DPH treatment decreased maternal body weight gain during the treatment period. Offspring physical parameters were not altered in the treated group, and no significant treatment-related changes were found in female open-field measures, sexual behavior or in striatal neurochemical measurements. However, delayed testis descent and altered patterns of sexual behavior occurred in male offspring accompanied by increased striatal DA, decreased striatal DOPAC as well as reduced DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to DPH during the fetal period of rat development altered postnatal CNS maturation and sexual development of male offspring via changes in striatal bioamine systems.

  17. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  18. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditio...

  19. The fetal programming of dietary fructose and saturated fat on hepatic quercetin glucuronidation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Phase II biotransformation of flavonoids generates bioactive metabolites in vivo. However, data on the effect of environmental and physiological factors and fetal programming on phase II pathways toward flavonoids are limited. We examined the effect of parental exposure to a diet high in s...

  20. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  1. Gestation under chronic constant light leads to extensive gene expression changes in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichiger, Carlos; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Galdames, Hugo A; Mendez, Natalia; Alonso-Vazquez, Pamela; Richter, Hans G

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports account for altered metabolism in adult offspring from pregnancy subjected to abnormal photoperiod, suggesting fetal programming of liver physiology. To generate a pipeline of subsequent mechanistic experiments addressing strong candidate genes, here we investigated the effects of constant gestational light on the fetal liver transcriptome. At 10 days of gestation, dams were randomized in two groups (n = 7 each): constant light (LL) and normal photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark; LD). At 18 days of gestation, RNA was isolated from the fetal liver and subjected to DNA microarray (Affymetrix platform for 28,000 genes). Selected differential mRNAs were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while integrated transcriptional changes were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and other bioinformatics tools. Comparison of LL relative to LD fetal liver led to the following findings. Significant differential expression was found for 3,431 transcripts (1,960 upregulated and 1,471 downregulated), with 393 of them displaying ≥ 1.5-fold change. We validated 27 selected transcripts by qPCR, which displayed fold-change values highly correlated with microarray (r(2) = 0.91). Different markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were either upregulated (e.g., Ndn and Pnpla3) or downregulated (e.g., Gnmt, Bhmt1/2, Sult1a1, Mpo, and Mat1a). Diverse pathways were altered, including hematopoiesis, coagulation cascade, complement system, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The microRNAs 7a-1, 431, 146a, and 153 were upregulated, while the abundant hepatic miRNA 122 was downregulated. Constant gestational light induced extensive modification of the fetal liver transcriptome. A number of differentially expressed transcripts belong to fundamental functional pathways, potentially contributing to long-term liver disease.

  2. Effectiveness of xenotransplantation of human fetal hepatocytes in spleen of rats with acute liver failure induced by CCL4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human’s fetal hepatocytes (HFH were intrasplenic transplanted white non-pedigree rats with acute liver failure (ALF challenged by single per oral administration of hepatotropic toxin diluted in oil ССl4 at a dose 10 ml/kg (volumetric correlation 1:1 (10 mL/kg body weight as a 1:1 mixture of CCl4 and mineral oil. Transplantation had positive effect on all biochemical blood parameters of the studying animals. Morphologic study showed that reparative-restorative processes were arising in hepatic parenchyma after administration of HFH into splenic pulp of rats with model of ALF on days 14-21. Substantial and main factor in restoration of parenchyma was restoration of micro topographic interrelations in acinus as well as polyploidy of hepatic cells expressed in increase of hepatocytes’ nuclei sizes and hypertrophy of cells themselves. It is an indirect confirmation of engraftment of HFH in liver of rats with model of ALF.

  3. Effect of in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors on fetal steroidogenesis governed by the pituitary-gonad axis: a study in rats using different ways of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyazono, Yudai; Taura, Junki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Fujimura, Masatake; Takeda, Tomoki; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors on testicular steroidogenesis in fetal rats were investigated in a study involving in utero exposure. In the major part of this study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD)15 were given a single oral administration of the test substance, and then the expression of the following mRNAs in GD20 fetuses was determined: testicular steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), a cholesterol transporter mediating the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, a ß-subunit of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and a regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis. Among the substances tested, only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) reduced the expression of fetal testicular StAR. The others listed below exhibited little effect on fetal StAR: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether, tributyltin chloride, atrazine, permethrin, cadmium chloride (Cd), lead acetate (Pb) and methylmercury (CH3HgOH). None of them, including DEHP, lacked the ability to reduce the expression of pituitary LHß mRNA. The present study also examined the potential of metals as modifiers of fetal steroidogenesis by giving them to pregnant dams in drinking water during GD1 and GD20. Under these conditions, Cd and Pb at a low concentration (0.01 ppm) significantly attenuated the fetal testicular expression of StAR mRNA without a concomitant reduction in LHß. No such effect was detected with CH3HgOH even at 1 ppm. These results suggest that: 1) DEHP, Cd and Pb attenuate the fetal production of sex steroids by directly acting on the testis, and 2) chronic treatment during the entire gestational period is more useful than a single administration for determining the hazardous effect of a suspected endocrine disruptor on fetal steroidogenesis.

  4. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined its biosynthesis in cultured fetal rat brain neurones. We found D2-CAM to be synthesized initially as two polypeptides: Mr 186,000 (A) and Mr 136,000 (B). With increasing...... chase times the Mr of both molecules increased to 187,000-201,000 (A) and 137,000-158,000 (B). These were similar to the sizes of D2-CAM labeled with [14C]glucosamine, [3H]fucose and [14C]mannosamine, indicating that the higher Mr species are glycoproteins. In the presence of tunicamycin, which...... pulse or chase times, showing that these molecules are not interconverted. Thus, our data indicate that the neuronal D2-CAM glycoproteins are derived from two mRNAs....

  5. Autoradiographic localization of target cells for 1. cap alpha. , 25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in bones from fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbaitz, R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Huang, S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Thaw-mount autoradiographic studies after injection of /sup 3/H-1,25-D/sub 3/ were conducted on 18- and 20-day-old rat fetuses. In maxillary bones, ribs, and tibia, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Osteocytes and chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates were either unlabeled or weakly labeled. In competition experiments, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was blocked by the injection of a high dose of nonradioactive 1,25-D/sub 3/ prior to the administration of the labeled hormone, but not by a similar dose of nonradioactive 25-D/sub 3/. The results are interpreted as indicating that osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts are target cells for the direct action of 1,25-D/sub 3/ on fetal bone.

  6. Effects of an overload of animal protein on the rat: brain DNA alterations and tissue morphological modifications during fetal and post-natal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Boschi, G; Vetrani, A; Salvatore, G

    1985-01-01

    On account of many literature reports about the definite correlation between high animal protein intake and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the effect of a hyperproteic purified diet (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on fetal and post-natal (not further than 40th day) stage of the rat, when cell subdivision process is faster and therefore damage by nutritional imbalance is certainly more serious. Litters of rats were grouped according to mother's (either hyperproteic or common basic) and rat's (after lactation) diet. Brain DNA and histology of various organs were studied. Hyperproteic diet during fetal stage and lactation would inhibit brain cell subdivision since overall content of brain DNA would be decreased on autoptic finding. Structural changes were also shown in liver, heart, kidney and adrenal cortex, especially when hyperproteic diet was continued even after lactation.

  7. Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingli; Liang, Yuanxin; Lu, Hua; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Ru'en; Wang, Jinkun; Song, Xiaobin; Long, Jiang; Li, Yu; Lei, Deqiang; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.

  8. Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Deng

    Full Text Available Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.

  9. Co-Transplantation of GDNF-Overexpressing Neural Stem Cells and Fetal Dopaminergic Neurons Mitigates Motor Symptoms in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Ru’en; Wang, Jinkun; Song, Xiaobin; Long, Jiang; Li, Yu; Lei, Deqiang; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo. PMID:24312503

  10. Region-specific growth effects in the developing rat prostate following fetal exposure to estrogenic ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals.

  11. Late appearance of a type I alveolar epithelial cell marker during fetal rat lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1994-10-01

    Recent studies in fetal lung using immunological and molecular probes have revealed type I and type II cell phenotypic markers in primordial lung epithelial cells prior to the morphogenesis of these cell types. We have recently developed monoclonal antibodies specific for adult type I cells. To evaluate further the temporal appearance of the type I cell phenotype during alveolar epithelial cell ontogeny, we analyzed fetal lung development using one of our monoclonal antibodies (mAb VIII B2). The epitope recognized by mAb VIII B2 first appears in the canalicular stage of fetal lung development, at approx. embryonic day 19 (E19), in occasional, faintly stained tubules. Staining with this type I cell probe becomes more intense and more widespread with increasing gestational age, during which time the pattern of staining changes. Initially, all cells of the distal epithelial tubules are uniformly labelled along their apical and basolateral surfaces. As morphological differentiation of the alveolar epithelium proceeds, type I cell immunoreactivity appears to become restricted to the apical surface of the primitive type I cells in a pattern approaching that seen in the mature lung. We concurrently analyzed developing fetal lung with an antiserum to surfactant apoprotein-A (alpha-SP-A). Consistent with the findings of others, labeling of SP-A was first detectable in scattered cuboidal cells at E18. Careful examination of the double-labeled specimens suggested that some cells were reactive with both the VIII B2 and SP-A antibodies, particularly at E20. Confocal microscopic analysis of such sections from E20 lung confirmed this impression. Three populations of cells were detected: cells labeled only with alpha-SP-A, cells labeled only with mAb VIII B2, and a smaller subset of cells labeled by both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The ontogeny of scarless healing II: EGF and PDGF-B gene expression in fetal rat skin and fibroblasts as a function of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Z M; Rhee, S J; Hsu, M; Chang, J; Krummel, T M; Longaker, M T

    2001-10-01

    Twenty years ago, surgeons noted the ability of early-gestation fetal skin to heal in a scarless manner. Since that time, numerous investigators have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. As a result of this effort, it is now well established that many animals undergo a transition late in development from scarless cutaneous healing to a scar-forming, adultlike phenotype. The authors have been interested in the role played by cytokines known to be involved in the adult wound-healing process and how they relate to scarless repair. They therefore asked the following question: Are genes for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) expressed differentially as a function of gestational age in fetal rat skin and dermal fibroblasts? To answer this question, skin from fetal Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 56) at time points that represented both the scarless and scar-forming periods of rat gestation was harvested. In addition, fibroblasts derived from fetal rat skin were cultured in vitro at similar times. These cells were expanded in culture and, when confluent, total ribonucleic acid from both fibroblasts and whole skin was extracted and subjected to Northern blot analysis with probes for EGF and PDGF-B. Results demonstrated that neither EGF nor PDGF-B gene expression changed markedly as a function of gestational age in fetal fibroblasts alone. In whole skin, however, both EGF and PDGF-B demonstrated a marked decrease in gene expression with increasing gestational age. Furthermore, the most striking decrease in gene expression for both cytokines came between 16 and 18 days of gestation-the transition point between scarless and scar-forming repair in the fetal rat. These data suggest that EGF and PDGF may play a role in the mechanism of scarless cutaneous repair. Moreover, it appears that fetal fibroblasts are not the cell type responsible for this differential gene expression. These results raise questions about the

  13. Viabilidade de células do sistema nervoso central fetal no tratamento da lesão medular em ratos Viability of fetal central nervous system cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos Wistar para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa que identificarão outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos adultos foram submetidos a laminectomia, e lesão de 5mm de hemimedula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Quinze deste ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do sistema nervoso central de fetos de rato; os ratos foram monitorados por 2 dias e tiveram sua coluna vertebral extraída para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se que em 60% dos casos as células transplantadas permaneciam viáveis no sítio da lesão e que a reação inflamatória no grupo transplantado era sempre maior que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O presente trabalho demonstrou a possibilidade de contar com o modelo de pesquisa para transplante de células fetais que permanecem viáveis 2 dias após seu implante.OBJECTIVE: To propose an experimental model for transplantation of fetal cells from the nervous system of Wistar rats to the site of spinal cord injury in adult rats, to enable their survival and integration for research protocols that identify other factors of regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord trauma. METHODS: Twenty adult rats were submitted to laminectomy and a 5mm incision was made, using an optical microscope, In fifteen of these rats, the site of the spinal cord lesion was transplanted with cells from the fetal rat central nervous system; the rats were monitored for two days, then the spinal cord was removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of cases, the transplanted cells remained viable in the site of the lesion; the inflammatory response in the transplanted group was always greater than in the control group

  14. On the effect of propolis on the free radical metabolism in skeleton muscle once gradual load training rats%灌服蜂胶对训练小鼠骨骼肌自由基代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮定国

    2011-01-01

    According to the study, we can know the effect of propolis on the delay of fatigue in training rats. By setting up the model of gradual load training rats, the activity of skeleton muscle mitochondria SOD and the quantity of MDA were measured. The result shows the following: Firstly, rats which are in the propolis group, whose activity of skeleton muscle mitochondria SOD remained at a higher lever than the training group (P〈0.05) after training; Then the activity of skeleton muscle mitochondria SOD in resting group significantly higher than another two group (P〈0.05). After the gradual load training, the quantity of MDA is higher than the resting group (P〈0.05) ; After the rats took proplis, the quantity of MDA turned lower than that of the training group (P〈0.05); however, comparing the propolis group with the resting group, there is no significant divergence(P〉0.05). The result indicate that lipid per-oxidation was increased in or after the gradual load training and propolis produce stronger influence on the anti-oxidation, anti-free-radical, raising exercise endurance and delaying fatigue in rats.%通过建立灌服蜂胶小鼠的渐进负荷游泳训练实验模型,测定了小鼠骨骼肌中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性和丙二醛(MDA)的含量,以了解蜂胶对运动小鼠骨骼肌自由基代谢的影响.实验结果:灌服蜂胶以后药物组小鼠运动后骨骼肌组织SOD活性显著高于运动组(P〈0.05);安静组SOD活性显著高于运动组和药物组(P〈0.05);药物组MDA含量显著低于运动组(P〈0.05),安静组MDA含量显著低于运动组(P〈0.05).但安静组和药物组MDA含量并无显著差异(P〉0.05).结论:蜂胶具有较强的抗自由基氧化损伤的能力和作用.服用蜂胶能有效减轻运动所产生的内源性自由基对小鼠骨骼肌组织的破坏,有利于增强小鼠的运动能力和延缓疲劳的发生.

  15. The Study of Fetal Rat Model of Intra-Amniotic Isoproterenol Injection Induced Heart Dysfunction and Phenotypic Switch of Contractile Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a reliable isoproterenol induced heart dysfunction fetal rat model and understand the switches of contractile proteins, 45 pregnant rats were divided into 15 mg/kg-once, 15 mg/kg-twice, sham-operated once, sham-operated twice, and control groups. And 18 adult rats were divided into isoproterenol-treated and control groups. H&E staining, Masson staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed. Apoptotic rate assessed by TUNEL analysis and expressions of ANP, BNP, MMP-2, and CTGF of hearts were measured. Intra-amniotic injections of isoproterenol were supplied on E14.5 and E15.5 for fetuses and 7-day continuous intraperitoneal injections were performed for adults. Then echocardiography was performed with M-mode view assessment on E18.5 and 6 weeks later, respectively. Isoproterenol twice treated fetuses exhibited significant changes in histological evaluation, and mitochondrial damages were significantly severe with increased apoptotic rate. ANP and BNP increased and that of MMP-2 increased in isoproterenol twice treated group compared to control group, without CTGF. The isoforms transition of troponin I and myosin heavy chain of fetal heart dysfunction were opposite to adult procedure. The administration of intra-amniotic isoproterenol to fetal rats could induce heart dysfunction and the regulation of contractile proteins of fetuses was different from adult procedure.

  16. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihui; You, Nan; Dou, Kefeng

    2012-01-01

    Although stem cells are commonly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or magnetic affinity cell sorting, they are very expensive, and they need known markers. However, there is no specific marker for liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs). Here, we describe a convenient and efficient method (three-step method) to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence. Finally, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) were enriched from purified FLCs by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometric analysis combining with marker CD133 was used to detect the purity of FLSPCs and evaluate the isolating effects of the three-step method.

  17. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  18. Effect of Invigorating Spleen-Generating Blood Granule on Embryo-fetal Development of Rats%健脾生血颗粒对大鼠胚胎-胎仔发育毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵刚; 夏莹; 黄志军; 裴学军; 唐惠丹

    2015-01-01

    given pure water with same volume.Then the weight,body length,food consumption,and clinical features of pregnant rats were recorded.Pregnant rats were dissected at their 20 days’pregnancy.Then placentas,fetal rat appearances,skeleton,viscera,and numbers of corpus luteum,live fetus,dying fetus,absorbed fetus,im-plantation and other factors were recorded.Results:Obvious teratogenesis appeared in positive control rats,showed the reliability of the experiment.No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed in the rats of all treatment groups.There were no statistical differ-ences of numbers of corpus luteum,live fetus,dying fetus,absorbed fetus,and implantation among the rats of all treatment groups and negative control.No general toxicity was found from rats with low or medium dosage.But high dosage of extract may result in a decline of weight,and food consumption.Furthermore,the development of fetal rats was also affected.Conclusion:The safe dosage of Invigorating Spleen-Generating Blood Granule on embryo-fetal development of rats was under 3.48 g/kg,42 times of clinical dosage on human.

  19. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G T; Calderon, I M P; Sinzato, S; Campos, K E; Rudge, M V C; Damasceno, D C

    2011-12-08

    Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) was administered from day 0 to 20 of pregnancy. At day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples and maternal-fetal data. After treatment with Morus nigra extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. Fetuses from diabetic dams, regardless of Morus nigra treatment, were small for pregnancy age. In diabetic dams, plant treatment caused reduced MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels, and decreased placental index and weight as compared to diabetic group. The fetuses from diabetic rats treated with Morus nigra extract had lower frequency of skeletal and visceral anomalies as compared to diabetic group. Thus, Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract failed to control hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, Morus nigra treatment had antioxidant effect, contributing to reduce incidence of internal anomalies in offspring from diabetic dams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  1. Influence of recipient gender on intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats: cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Rost, Michael; Müller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern with consecutive differences in P450-mediated monooxygenase activities, which have been shown to be due to a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Parallel to previous investigations on P450 isoforms expression, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of recipient gender on P450-mediated monooxygenase activities in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants in comparison to orthotopic liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant-recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the vehicles and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. P450-dependent monooxygenase activities were assessed by a series of model reactions for different P450 subtypes in liver and spleen 9000 g supernatants. In spleens of male and female control rats only very low monooxygenase activities were detectable, whereas with most model reactions distinct activities were observed in transplant-containing organs. Livers and transplant-containing spleens from male rats displayed higher basal ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and testosterone 2alpha-, 2beta-, 6beta-, 14alpha-, 15alpha-, 15beta-, 16alpha-, 16beta- and 17-hydroxylase activities than those from females. On the other hand, like the respective livers, spleens from female transplant-recipients demonstrated more pronounced p-nitrophenol- and testosterone 6alpha- and 7alpha-hydroxylase activities than those from male hosts. With nearly all model reactions gender-specific differences in inducibility by BNF, PB or DEX could be demonstrated in livers as well as in transplant-containing spleens. These results further confirm that the P450 system of intrasplenic liver tissue transplants and the respective orthotopic livers is similarly influenced

  2. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  3. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months.

  4. [The relationship between the effects of MTA on mRNA expression of four iconic proteins in cells of fetal rat skull and cell culture environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Yuan; He, Li; Hu, Tu-qiang

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the influence of MTA on mRNA expression of Cbfa1, ALP, Col-Ⅰand BGP which are 4 kinds of iconic protein in cells of fetal rats skull, and explore its influence on cell culture environment and association of changes of calcium, phosphorus. Cells were obtained by 2 kinds of mixed enzymatic digestion for 3 steps from gestation fetal rat calvarial bone. The expression of Cbfa1mRNA, ALPmRNA, Col-1mRNA, BGP mRNA and extracellular calcium were detected. Phosphorus (P) and calcium concentration of fetal rat skull cells co-cultured with MTA for 3 weeks at different stages of cell differentiation was assessed atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. At the 4th day, P3- content decreased significantly (PMTA group increased most greatly and was 40 times of the control group. At the 14th to 18th day, the Ca2+ and P3- content reduced significantly (PMTA group rised most greatly which was about 7.71 times of the control group. Then Cbfalpha l mRNA in MTA group increased most strongly later which was about 7.38 times of the control group. Col Ⅰ mRNA increased minimally in all time points. The change of P3- content may be the initiating factor when MTA promoted differentiation of fetal rats skull cells in vitro, and Ca2+ could greatly accelerate the process of mineralization when accumulated to a certain extent. At the same time, the expression of ALPmRNA, BGPmRNA, Col Ⅰ mRNA and Cbfalpha lmRNA were regulated accordingly, which is the key to explain osteogenetic mechanism of MTA.

  5. Expression of AFP and Rev-Erb A/Rev-Erb B and N-CoR in fetal rat liver, liver injury and liver regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Volker; Tron, Kyrylo; Batusic, Danko; Elmaouhoub, Abderrahim; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Background Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression can resume in the adult liver under pathophysiological conditions. Orphan nuclear receptors were supposed to regulate AFP gene expression, in vitro. We were interested to study the expression of AFP and orphan nuclear receptors, in vivo. Results The expression of AFP gene and orphan nuclear receptors in the liver was examined in different rat models: (a) fetal liver (b) liver regeneration [partial hepatectomy (PH) with and without 2-acetyl-aminofl...

  6. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  7. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  8. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  9. Maternal and fetal toxicity of Wistar rats exposed to herbicide metolachlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina de Melo Tavares Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metolachlor is a selective pre-emergent herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metolachlor on reproductive performance of adult rats, as well as its teratogenic potential when administered during the period of organogenesis. Pregnant adult female rats were allocated into 4 experimental groups (n = 10 group-1, that received 0 (control; 150 (TA; 300 (TB; or 1000 mg kg-1 bw day-1 (TC of metolachlor, by gavage, from the 6th to 15th gestational day (GD. There is reduction in the weight gain of the animals from TB and TC groups compared to the control group. Liver and placenta weights were reduced in TB and TC groups, respectively, while the percentage of post-implantation loss was increased in the TC group. There were no external malformations in either rat of the control or treated groups. However, an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies and visceral anomalies (especially in the urogenital system was observed in TC group. These results demonstrate that exposure of pregnant rats to metolachlor can lead to signs of general toxicity, late embryonic losses and congenital anomalies.

  10. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    , the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio...

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, R; Obregón, M J; Ruiz de Oña, C; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1990-09-01

    To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and tissues (obtained near term) by specific RIAs. Several thyroid hormone-dependent biological end-points were also measured. MMI treatment resulted in marked fetal T4 and T3 deficiency. Infusion of T4 into the mothers increased both these pools in a dose-dependent fashion. There was a preferential increase of T3 in the fetal brain. Thus, with a T4 dose maintaining maternal euthyroidism, fetal brain T3 reached normal values, although fetal plasma T4 was 40% of normal and plasma TSH was high. The infusion of T3 pool into the mothers increased the total fetal extrathyroidal T3 pool in a dose-dependent fashion. The fetal T4 pools were not increased, however, and this deprived the fetal brain (and possibly the pituitary) of local generation of T3 from T4. As a consequence, fetal brain T3 deficiency was not mitigated even when dams were infused with a toxic dose of T3. The results show that (a) there is a preferential protection of the brain of the hypothyroid fetus from T3 deficiency; (b) maternal T4, but not T3, plays a crucial role in this protection, and (c) any condition which lowers maternal T4 (including treatment with T3) is potentially harmful for the brain of a hypothyroid fetus. Recent confirmation of transplacental passage of T4 in women at term suggests that present results are relevant for human fetuses with impairment of thyroid function. Finding signs of hypothyroidism at birth does not necessarily mean that the brain was unprotected in utero, provided maternal T4 is normal. It is crucial to realize that maintainance of maternal "euthyroidism" is not sufficient, as despite hypothyroxinemia, the mothers may be

  12. Influência da icterícia obstrutiva na capacidade reprodutiva, desenvolvimento fetal e morfologia ovariana em ratas Influence of jaundice in the reproductive capacity, fetal development and ovarian morphology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Resende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da icterícia obstrutiva sobre a capacidade reprodutiva e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 60 ratas sexualmente maduras e sabidamente férteis distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n=30- submetidas a ligadura do ducto biliopancreático e grupo 2 (n=30 -controles. A partir do 23? dia pós-operatório, as ratas foram acasaladas e seus ciclos estrais avaliados diariamente por meio de esfregaços vaginais, que permitiram determinar o dia da cópula e a idade gestacional em que foram mortas. Realizou-se estudo histológico dos corpos lúteos nos ovários de todas as ratas e analisou-se macroscopicamente a morfologia externa dos fetos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23 ratas controle (92% e 11 ratas ictéricas (39,3% desenvolveram prenhez (p=0,0002. As 17 ratas com hiperbilirrubinemia e sem prenhez (60,7% apresentaram somente corpos lúteos com aspecto involutivo em seus ovários e sofreram modificações em seus ciclos estrais, permanecendo vários dias em proestro ou estro. As ratas prenhes com hiperbilirrubinemia não apresentaram alterações em seus corpos lúteos, porém os seus fetos eram anormais. CONCLUSÃO: Em presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, a fertilização é viável, a capacidade reprodutiva é muito reduzida, os ciclos estrais tornam-se irregulares, o epitélio vaginal permanece cornificado, os corpos lúteos ovarianos regridem, os corpos lúteos gravídicos não são alterados aumentando progressivamente durante a prenhez e o desenvolvimento fetal é gravemente alterado.OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of jaundice on the reproductive capacity and fetal development in rats. METHODS: 60 sexually mature rats were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=30 - submitted to ligature of the biliopancreatic duct and Group 2 (n=30 -control- submitted only to sham operation. 23 days later, the animals were matted with sexually mature males for copulation. Vaginal smears were daily collected

  13. Influência da multimistura na gestação de ratas: pesos materno e fetal e triglicerídeos séricos Multimixture influence on rats gestation: maternal and fetal weights and serum triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Blondet de Azeredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa determinar a influência da multimistura (MM sobre o ganho de peso materno e fetal e sobre a hipertrigliceridemia materna no final do período gestacional. Foram utilizadas ratas Wistar (n= 120, divididas em quatro grupos: a à base da dieta habitual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (HERJ; b à base da dieta habitual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro adicionada de 2% de MM (HERJ+MM; c à base de caseína (CAS1 com 12% de proteína; d controle caseína (CAS2 com 20% de proteína. Os pesos materno e fetal foram registrados semanalmente nos dias 7, 14 e 21 do experimento. Para a determinação dos triglicerídeos séricos (mg/dL foram usados Kits BioClin (Química Básica-Quibasa, BH. De acordo com os resultados, a complementação da dieta HERJ com 2% de multimistura não aumentou o ganho de peso materno e fetal e não alterou a hipertrigliceridemia fisiológica. Conclui-se que a utilização da multimistura, na proporção usada durante a gestação, não possui nenhum efeito sobre os parâmetros estudados.The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the multimixture (MM on maternal and fetal weight gain and on maternal hypertriglyceridemia at the end of gestational period. Female Wistar rats (n = 120 were divided into four groups: a typical diet of the state of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil (HERJ; b HERJ diet supplemented with 2% of MM (HERJ+MM; c casein diet (CAS1 with 12% of protein; d casein control (CAS2 with 20% of protein. Maternal and fetal weights were weekly registered in the days 7,14 and 21 of the experiment. Serum triglycerides (mg/dL were determined by kits (BioClin. The results demonstrated that the supplementation of the HERJ diet with 2% of MM did not increase maternal and fetal weight gain and did not alter the hypertriglyceridemia. In conclusion, the multimixture utilization during gestation does not affect these studied parameters.

  14. Characterization of Fetal Antigen 1/Delta-Like 1 Homologue Expressing Cells in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liechti, Rémy; Ducray, Angélique D; Jensen, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1/delta-like 1 homologue (FA1/dlk1) belongs to the epidermal growth factor superfamily and is considered to be a non-canonical ligand for the Notch receptor. Interactions between Notch and its ligands are crucial for the development of various tissues. Moreover, FA1/dlk1 has been su...... adult rats. FA1/dlk1-ir cells were predominantly distributed in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNc) and in the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, the expression of FA1/dlk1 significantly increased in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir cells during early postnatal development. Co......-localization and tracing studies demonstrated that FA1/dlk1-ir cells in the SNc were nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and unilateral 6-OHDA lesions resulted in loss of both FA1/dlk1-ir and TH-ir cells in the SNc. Surprisingly, increased numbers of FA1/dlk1-ir cells (by 70%) were detected in dopamine-depleted striata...... as compared to unlesioned controls. The higher number of FA1/dlk1-ir cells was likely not due to neurogenesis as colocalization studies for proliferation markers were negative. This suggests that FA1/dlk1 was up-regulated in intrinsic cells in response to the 6-OHDA-mediated loss of FA1/dlk1-expressing SNc...

  15. Comparison on the Effects of Three Sex Hormones on the Fetal Rat Calvarial Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lulu; ZENG Tianshu; XIA Wenfang; KE Li

    2000-01-01

    17β-estradiol(E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were investigated for their effects on the proliferation and differentiation of primary rat calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Rat calvarial osteoblasts were cultured with l0-10 mol/L E2, 10-9-10-6 mol/L P and l0-10 mol/L T for 20days. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Cell differentiation was examined by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin gene expression and production, bone nodule formation in different periods of culture. Our results showed that no effect of three sex hormones was observed on cell proliferation, but, the responses of cell differentiation to the hormones were more or less different. Among these three hormones used in this study, P appeared to have multi-stimulating effect on cell differentiation. Effect of T seemed not so significant as that of P on cell differentiation. Although ALP activity and osteocalcin production were increased significantly by T, it had slight effect on osteocalcin mRNA and bone nodule formation. Besides, E2 did not demonstrate any effect on cell differentiation. It is concluded that the proliferation of rat calvarial osteoblasts was independent of the presence of sex hormones. However, the differentiation of these cells were stimulated in different levels and to different extent either by P or T. P appeared to be a multi-stimulator on differentiation of such cells.

  16. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  17. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal heterotrophic eukaryotes are mostly absent from the Precambrian, although algal eukaryotes appear about 2.2 billion years ago. Tintinnids, radiolaria and foraminifera have molecular origins well back into the Precambrian yet no representatives of these groups are known with certainty in that time. These data infer times of the last common ancestors, not the appearance of true representatives of these groups which may well have diversified or not been preserved since those splits. Previous reports of these groups in the Precambrian are misinterpretations of other objects in the fossil record. Reported tintinnids at 1600 mya from China are metamorphic shards or mineral artifacts, the many specimens from 635-715 mya in Mongolia may be eukaryotes but they are not tintinnids, and the putative tintinnids at 580 mya in the Doushantou formation of China are diagenetic alterations of well-known acritarchs. The oldest supposed foraminiferan is Titanotheca from 550 to 565 mya rocks in South America and Africa is based on the occurrence of rutile in the tests and in a few modern agglutinated foraminifera, as well as the agglutinated tests. Neither of these nor the morphology are characteristic of foraminifera; hence these fossils remain as indeterminate microfossils. Platysolenites, an agglutinated tube identical to the modern foraminiferan Bathysiphon, occurs in the latest Neoproterozoic in Russia, Canada, and the USA (California). Some of the larger fossils occurring in typical Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic) assemblages may be xenophyophorids (very large foraminifera), but the comparison is disputed and flawed. Radiolaria, on occasion, have been reported in the Precambrian, but the earliest known clearly identifiable ones are in the Cambrian. The only certain Precambrian heterotrophic skeletal eukaryotes (thecamoebians) occur in fresh-water rocks at about 750 mya. Skeletonized radiolaria and foraminifera appear sparsely in the Cambrian and radiate in the Ordovician

  18. Comparative Study on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Between Fetal and Postnatal Rat Spinal Cord Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Songying; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Zhao, Guifeng; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Hui; Wang, Lili; Fan, Yang; An, Dong; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we established a prenatal surgical approach and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the fetal rat spinal column to treat neural tube defects (NTDs). We found that the transplanted MSCs survived and differentiated into neural lineage cells. Various cytokines and extracellular signaling systems in the spinal cord niche play an important role in cell differentiation. In this study, we observed the differentiation of transplanted MSCs in different spinal cord niches and further observed the expression of neurotrophic factors and growth factors in the spinal cord at different developmental stages to explore the mechanism of MSC differentiation in different spinal cord niches. The results showed that transplanted MSCs expressed markers of neural precursor cells (nestin), neurogliocytes (GFAP), and neurons (β-tubulin). The percentages of GFP(+)/nestin(+) double-positive cells in transplanted MSCs in E16, P1, and P21 rats were 18.31%, 12.18%, and 5.06%, respectively. The percentages of GFP(+)/GFAP(+) double-positive cells in E16, P1, and P21 rats were 32.01%, 15.35%, and 12.56%, respectively. The percentages of GFP(+)/β-tubulin(+) double-positive cells in E16, P1, and P21 were 11.76%, 7.62%, and 4.88%, respectively. The differentiation rates of MSCs in embryonic spinal cords were significantly higher than in postnatal spinal cords (p < 0.05). We found that the transplanted MSCs expressed synapsin-1 at different developmental stages. After MSC transplantation, we observed that neurotrophic factor-3 (NT-3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), FGF-8, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) significantly increased in the MSC transplantation group compared with the blank injection group. Furthermore, FGF-2 and VEGF expression were positively correlated with the number of surviving MSCs. In addition, we found that the expression of brain

  19. Influence of recipient gender on cytochrome P450 isoforms expression in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-06-30

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern which is regulated by a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether liver cell transplants at an ectopic site are also subject to this influence. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the solvents and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. Livers and intrasplenic transplants were evaluated for the expression of the P450 subtypes 1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 by means of immunohistochemistry. The livers of both male and female rats displayed nearly no P450 1A1, but a distinct P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression. Whereas no sex differences were seen in the P450 1A1 expression, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in males and that for P450 2E1 in females. Similarly, in the intrasplenic liver cell transplants almost no P450 1A1, but a noticeable P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression was observed. Like in the respective livers, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in the transplants hosted by male than by female rats, whereas the opposite was the case for the P450 2E1 expression. Both in livers and transplants with some sex-specific differences P450 1A1 and 2E1 expression was induced by BNF, that of P450 2B1 by BNF and PB, and that of P450 3A2 by PB and DEX. These results indicate that the P450 system of ectopically transplanted liver cells is influenced by the gender of the recipient organism like that of the orthotopic livers.

  20. Investigation of the effects of acrylamide applied during pregnancy on fetal brain development in rats and protective role of the vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, M E; Turkoz, Y; Altinoz, E; Elibol, E; Dogan, Z

    2016-12-01

    A liberal amount of acrylamide (AA) is produced as a result of frying or baking foods in high temperatures, and individuals take certain amounts of AA everyday by consuming these food items. Pregnant women are also exposed to AA originating from food during pregnancy and their fetus are probably affected. The rats were divided into five different groups: control (C), corn oil (CO), vitamin E (Vit E), AA, and Vit E + AA, with eight pregnant rats in each group. On the 20th day of pregnancy, fetuses were removed and brain tissues of fetuses were examined for biochemical and histological changes. AA caused degeneration in neuron structures in fetal brain tissue and caused hemorrhagic damages; dramatically decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels; increased malondialdehyde, total oxidant capacity levels; and decreased reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity levels (p E, a neuroprotectant and a powerful antioxidant, suppressed the effects of AA on fetal development and fetal brain tissue damage for the above-mentioned parameters (p E as a protection to minimize the toxic effects of food-oriented AA on fetus development due to the widespread nature of fast-food culture in today's life and the impossibility of protection from AA toxicity.

  1. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  2. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) have been used as general indexes in relative research about neurons, but it is lack of reports that c-Fos protein and NOS are applied synchronously to study the neurons of hypoxic fetal rats in uterus.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hypoxia in uterus on the expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats and whether Angelica sinensis has the protective effect on these neurons in hypoxia.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Luzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat with bodymass from 220 to 250 g were chosen. Parenteral solution of Angelica sinensis mainly contained angelica sinensis, 10 mL/ampoule, was provided by Department of Agent of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical University (batch number: 01062310).METHODS: This experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Luzhou Medical College from September 2003 to June 2004. ① Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat were housed in one rearing cage. Vaginal embolus was performed on conceive female rat at 8:00 am next day.On the 15th conceiving day,all conceiving rats were divided randomly into three groups:control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group with 4 in each group. Rats in hypoxia group and Angelica group were modeled with hypotonic hypoxia in uterus. Angelica group: Rats were injected with 8 mL/kg Angelica sinensis injection through caudal veins before hypoxia.Hypoxia group:Rats were injected with the same volume of saline.Control group:Rats were not modeled and fed with normal way. ② Twenty embryos of rats were chosen randomly from each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were cut from the brain of embryos to anterior fontanelle. Double-label staining was used to detect the expression of nNOS and c-Fos in

  3. Somatostatin and leu-enkephalin in the rat auditory brainstem during fetal and postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungel, M; Friauf, E

    1995-05-01

    A transient expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin has been described in several brain areas during early ontogeny and several opioid peptides, such as leu-enkephalin, have also been found in the brain at this stage in development. It is therefore believed that somatostatin and leu-enkephalin may play a role in neural maturation. The aim of the present study was to describe the spatiotemporal pattern of somatostatin and leu-enkephalin immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem nuclei of the developing rat and to correlate it with other developmental events. In order to achieve this goal, we applied peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry to rat brains between embryonic day (E) 17 and adulthood. Somatostatin immunoreactivity (SIR) was found in all nuclei of the auditory brainstem, yet it was temporally restricted in most nuclei. SIR appeared prenatally and reached maximum levels around postnatal day (P) 7, when great numbers of immunoreactive neurons were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and in the lateral lemniscus. At that time relatively low numbers of cells were labeled in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olive (LSO), and the inferior colliculus (IC). During the same period, when somata in the VCN were somatostatin-immunoreactive (SIR), a dense network of labeled fibers was also present in the LSO, the medial superior olive (MSO), and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). As these nuclei receive direct input from VCN neurons, and as the distribution and morphology of the somatostatinergic fibers in the superior olivary complex (SOC) was like that of axons from VCN neurons, these findings suggest a transient somatostatinergic connection within the auditory system. Aside from the LSO, MSO, and MNTB, labeled fibers were found to a smaller extent in all other auditory brainstem nuclei. After P7, the SIR decreased and only a few immunoreactive elements were found in the adult auditory brainstem nuclei, indicating

  4. Effect of behavior training on learning, memory and the expression of NR2B, GluR1 in hippocampus of rats offspring with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang Li; Wenli Gou; Yunping Sun; Huang Pu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of behavior training on learning, memory and the expression of NR2B, GIuR1 in hippocampus of rat's offspring with fetal growth restricfion(FGR). Methods: The rat model of FGR was established by passive smoking method. The rats offspring were divided into the FGR group and the control group, then randomly divided into the trained and untrained group, respectively. Morris water maze test was procezded on postnatal month(PM2/4) as a behavior training method, then the learning-memory of rats was detected through dark-avoidance and step-down tests. The expressions of NR2B and GluR1 suhunits in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down tests, the performance record of rats with FGR was worse than that of control rats, and the behavior-trained rats was better than the untrained rats, when the FGR model and training factors were analyzed singly. The model factor and training factor had significant interacfion(P < 0.05). The expressions of NR2B and GIuR1 subunits in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of rats with FGR reduced. In contrast, the expressions of GIuR1 and NR2B subunits in CA1 area of behavior-trained rats increased, when the FGR model and training factors were analyzed singly. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the effect of behavior training on the expressions of NR2B and GiuR1 subunits in CA1 area should be the mechanistic basis for the training-induced improvement in learning-memory abilities.

  5. Iodothyronine deiodinase activities in fetal rat tissues at several levels of iodine deficiency: a role for the skin in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-van der Elst, J P; van der Heide, D; Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregón, M J

    1998-05-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases, types I, II, and III (D1, D2, and D3) activities were measured in tissues of fetal rats, at 18 and 21 days of gestation, at several levels of iodine deficiency (ID): mild ID diet (MID) and moderately severe ID, MID + 0.005% perchlorate (MID+P). D2 was present in fetal skin, increased between days 18 and 21, and also in MID and MID+P. In skin, D3 increased during ID at day 18, whereas there was a decrease at day 21. Skin T4 decreased in MID and MID+P, showing an inverse relationship with D2. Skin T3 decreased at day 18 in MID and MID+P but increased at day 21, probably because of the increased D2 and decreased D3, maintaining T3 concentrations. No effect of ID was observed on hepatic D1. D2 increased in brain and brown adipose tissue at day 21 in MID+P. No changes were found in maternal placental D2 and D3, but D2 and D3 increased in the fetal placenta at day 18 in MID+P. A higher level of D2 is present in fetal skin than in the brain. As the activity is increased, in even mild ID (and already at 18 days) it can be concluded that skin D2 is likely to be of considerable physiological importance, at least for fetal thyroid hormone economy, by contributing to the intracellular T3 content of the skin and, possibly, to the plasma T3.

  6. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  7. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase Expression by Cigarette Smoke Condensate in Cultured Rat Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Chen, Keyang; Zhao, Yinzhi; Rich, Celeste B.; Chen, Lijun; Li, Sandy J.; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Phillip; Li, Wande

    2005-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslinking of collagen and elastin essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). To understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate matter of CS, on LO mRNA expression in cultured rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of RFL6 cells to 0–120 μg CSC/ml for 24 h induced a dose-dependent inhibition of LO steady-state mRNAs, for example, reducing transcript levels to below 10% of the control in cells incubated with 80–120 μg CSC/ml. Nuclear run-on assays indicated a marked reduction in LO relative transcriptional rates amounting to 27.7% of the control in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. The actinomycin D-chase assay showed that CSC enhanced the instability of LO transcripts. The t1/2 for LO mRNA decay was decreased from 24 h in the control to 4.5 h in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. Moreover, 80–120 μg CSC/ml also inhibited LO promoter activity as revealed by suppression of reporter gene expression in cells transfected with LO promoter-luciferase vectors. Thus, inhibition of LO transcription initiation and enhancement of LO mRNA instability both contributed to downregulation of LO steady-state mRNA in CSC-treated cells. Note that inhibition of LO mRNA expression by CSC was closely accompanied by markedly decreased levels of transcripts of collagen type I and tropoelastin, two substrates of LO. Thus, transcriptional perturbation of LO and its substrates may be a critical mechanism for ECM damage in CS-induced emphysema. PMID:15933228

  8. Development of adrenal zonation in fetal rats defined by expression of aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, C; Levay-Young, B K; Rogers, L M; Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Engeland, W C

    1998-10-01

    The adult rat adrenal cortex is comprised of three concentric steroidogenic zones that are morphologically and functionally distinguishable: the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, and the zona fasciculata/reticularis. Expression of the zone-specific steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo), and P450 11beta hydroxylase (P45011beta), produced by the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata/reticularis, respectively, can be used to define the adrenal cortical cell phenotype of these two zones. In this study, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to determine the ontogeny of expression of P450aldo and P45011beta to monitor the pattern of development of the rat adrenal cortex. RIA was used to measure adrenal content of aldosterone and corticosterone, the resulting products of the two enzymatic pathways. Double immunofluorescent staining for both enzymes at gestational day 16 (E16) showed P45011beta protein expressed in cells distributed throughout most of the adrenal intermixed with a separate, but smaller, population of cells expressing P450aldo protein. Whereas expression of P45011beta protein retained a similar pattern of distribution from E16 to adulthood (ignoring distribution of SA-1 positive, presumptive medullary cells), P450aldo protein changed its pattern of distribution by E19, becoming localized in a discontinuous ring of cells adjacent to the capsule. By postnatal day 1, P450aldo protein distribution was similar to that observed in adult glands; P450aldo-positive cells formed a continuous zone underlying the capsule. In situ hybridization showed that the pattern of P45011beta messenger RNA expression paralleled protein expression at all times, whereas P450aldo messenger RNA paralleled protein at E19 and after, but was undetectable before E19. However, adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone, as measured by RIA, were detected by E16, supporting the functional capacity of both phenotypes for all ages studied. These

  9. Ability of tetraploid rat blastocysts to support fetal development after complementation with embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masumi; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Goto, Teppei; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Hochi, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    This study was undertaken to generate rat offspring via tetraploid blastocyst complementation with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Tetraploid blastocysts were prepared by electrofusion of blastomeres from two-cell stage embryos, and subsequent in vivo culture for 4 days. Microinjection into the tetraploid blastocoel of an inner cell mass isolated by immunosurgery resulted in the generation of rat offspring, suggesting the successful contribution of tetraploid blastocysts to their placenta. Tetraploid blastocyst complementation was attempted with a total of 4 ES cell lines (2 lines of female karyotype and 2 lines of male karyotype). In the rESWIv-3i-5 (XX) cell line, normal-sized fetuses with heartbeats were harvested on E11.5 (12.1%), E12.5 (9.5%), and E13.5 (9.1%), but no viable fetuses were detected on E14.5. Similarly, use of the rESWIv-3i-1 (XX) cell line resulted in no viable fetus production on E14.5. Using the rESBLK2i-1 (XY) cell line, viable fetuses were harvested not only on E11.5-E13.5 (2.6-5.5%), but also on E14.5 (3.0%). The transfer of a total of 487 tetraploid blastocysts complemented with rESBLK2i-1 cells resulted in 256 implantation sites (52.6%) on E21.5, but no viable offspring was detected. Use of the rESBLK2i-1/huKO (XY) cell line also resulted in no viable offspring production on E21.5. Analyses of the methylation pattern in differentially methylated regions and transcript level of genes that are imprinted in mice (H19, Meg3, Igf2r, Peg5, and Peg10) in the E14.5 conceptuses indicated a marked difference between the ES cell-derived and control normal fetuses, but not between the tetraploid and control diploid placenta.

  10. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon

  11. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates and compares skeleton-based Eden implementations of different FFT-algorithms on workstation clusters with distributed memory. Our experiments show that the basic divide-and-conquer versions suffer from an inherent input distribution and result collection problem. Advanced a...... approaches like calculating FFT using a parallel map-and-transpose skeleton provide more flexibility to overcome these problems. Assuming a distributed access to input data and re-organising computation to return results in a distributed way improves the parallel runtime behaviour....

  12. Abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum of ETU-induced fetal rats with anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Jia, Huimin; Zhang, Hailan; Chen, Qingjiang; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yuzuo; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2011-05-16

    To investigate whether anorectal malformations (ARMs) were associated with a global neuromuscular maldevelopment of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and anorectum, the distribution of neuronal markers protein gene product (PGP9.5), nitric oxide synthases (NOs), neuromuscular junction markers (synaptophysin, SYP), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) marker (c-kit) within the terminal rectum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in rat embryos with ethylenethiourea (ETU) induced ARMs. From Gestational day16 (Gd16) to Gd21, neural crest-derived cells (NCC) migrated from the proximal gut into the terminal colon, colonising it along its entire length, gradually proliferated and differentiated to innervate the distal gut. From Gd19 to Gd21, significant gross-morphological differences of the anorectum of normal (n=90) and ARMs (n=90) embryos were found. Different myenteric plexus (MPs) development of the anorectum suggested that ARMs were associated with a global abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum in gestational course and might have some postoperative effect.

  13. Early effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on the fetal cerebral cortex in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to gamma radiation from a 137Cs irradiator on gestational Day 15. Fetuses that received 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 Gy were examined 24 h after irradiation for changes in the cells of the cerebral mantle of the developing brain. The extent of changes following 0.5 Gy was studied at 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after exposure. Cortical thickness of the cerebral mantle was not significantly altered. The number of pyknotic cells, number of macrophages, nuclear area, and number of mitotic cells were altered in a dose-related way. The number of pyknotic cells was significantly increased at all doses. A positive correlation between the number of pyknotic cells and the number of macrophages developed with time. At 3 h after irradiation about 60% of pyknotic cells were found in the subventricular zone and about 25% in the intermediate zone and cortical plate. The number of such cells in the upper layers of the cortex steadily increased up to 24 h, at which time about 70% of pyknotic cells were in these two layers. The relationship of the movement of pyknotic cells to migration of postmitotic neuroblasts is discussed.

  14. Purification and Identification of Microglia in Fetal Rat Brain%胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞的分离纯化和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马怡然; 马英桓; 颜永红

    2011-01-01

    目的 分离纯化和鉴定胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞,为小胶质细胞的研究奠定基础.方法 盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞.免疫荧光技术和流式细胞技术鉴定小胶质细胞的纯度.结果 通过盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离法,得到纯度>98%的小胶质细胞.结论 盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离法是一种能获得较高纯度胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞的方法.%Objective To explore a method to isolate, purify and identify the microglia in fetal rat brain. Methods Fetal rat microglia cells in brain were isolated and purified by adding lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing,and the identification of microglia was completed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results 98% of microglia cells were successfully collected by the method of adding lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing. Conclusion The method of lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing can collect microglia with high purity in fetal rat brain.

  15. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres incorporated tetanus toxoid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, R; Giri, D K; Chaudhury, M R

    1996-04-01

    Tetanus Toxoid loaded biodegradable microspheres (MTT) (poly (DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) were administered intramuscularly to pregnant Wistar rats from Days 6 to 15 of gestation, at 1, 5 and 10-times the human equivalent dose of TT. Developmental defects in relation to soft tissues and skeleton, weight and sex of live pups and early fetal deaths from treated and control rats were analysed. The findings in treatment groups were comparable to those in the controls. These observations show that MTT was safe for pregnant rats and developing pups.

  16. Safety evaluation of a vaccine: Effect in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats using a leishmanial vaccine as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thaigra S.; Silva, Ana Luiza T.; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C.; Takano, Maria A. S.; Akamatsu, Milena A.; Kubrusly, Flávia S.; Lúcio-Macarini, Fernanda; Raw, Isaias; Iourtov, Dmitri; Ho, Paulo Lee; Bueno, Lilian L.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Volpato, Gustavo T.

    2017-01-01

    While the immunogenic potential of the vaccination against infectious diseases was extensively shown, data on the safety assessment of recombinant proteins in vaccine formulations administered during pregnancy are still scarce. In the current study, the antigenicity of a vaccine against leishmaniasis (based on Leishmania braziliensis recombinant protein peroxidoxin) during pregnancy and possible maternal reproductive outcomes and fetal anomalies after immunization with a leishmanial vaccine or adjuvant alone (Bordetella pertussis derived MPLA adjuvant) were assessed. Rats were mated and allocated in three groups: Control—rats received saline; Adjuvant—rats received the adjuvant MPLA, and Vaccine—rats received the combination of MPLA and peroxidoxin. The administration was subcutaneously at the dorsal region, three times (days 0, 7, 14 of pregnancy). On day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were bled for biochemical and immunological measurements. The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents, and the fetuses were analyzed. The immunization with peroxidoxin induced a significant production of circulating IgG levels compared to other groups but caused a significant in post-implantation loss (14.7%) when compared to Control (5.0%) and Adjuvant (4.4%) groups. Furthermore, a significantly high rate of fetal visceral anomalies, such as hydronephrosis and convoluted ureter, was also observed in animals that received vaccine when compared to Control or Adjuvant groups. These data indicate the importance of safety evaluation of vaccines during pregnancy and the limited use of peroxidoxin administration during pregnancy. More importantly, the safety monitoring of immunization with MPLA derived from Bordetella pertussis demonstrated no reproductive outcomes associated with adjuvant administration, suggesting its safe use during pregnancy. PMID:28249007

  17. Effects of cytotoxic deletions of somatic sensory cortex in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkewicz, L; Valentino, K L; Floeter, M K; Fleshman, J W; Jones, E G

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant rats were injected on the 14th day of gestation with the cytotoxic drug methylazoxymethanol acetate. This compound causes the death of neural precursor cells that were synthesizing DNA at the time of injection. After birth, the progeny of treated mothers grew to maturity with a neocortex that was greatly reduced in area by the death of all cells, particularly at the frontal and occipital poles but at medial and lateral margins of neocortex as well. In the remaining cortex layers II through IV failed to develop. The experiment deprived growing thalamocortical axons, which innervate the somatic sensory cortex late in development, of part of their normal target area and of a substantial number of their definitive target cells. It also deprived them of any cues they might have received from these target cells migrating through them as the axons accumulate beneath the cortical plate. Anatomical experiments indicated that, despite these defects, thalamocortical axons could still colonize the sensorimotor areas and form synapses in their typically bilaminar pattern, though the outer, denser lamina of terminations occurred abnormally at the level of the apices of layer V pyramidal cell bodies. Receptive field mapping of single and multiunit responses in the somatic sensory region showed brisk responses and receptive fields of normal size. It also indicated the formation of a body map that was topographically intact except for deletions at its periphery; that is, a total map was not compressed into a smaller area. This suggests that somatic sensory thalamocortical fibers recognize only remaining cortical target cells in appropriate fields. Moreover, successful ones among them seem to recognize neighborhood relations and conserve synaptic space at the expense of those that would have innervated the deleted peripheral parts of the area. Pyramidal neurons in the remaining cortical layers and in ectopic islands of cells that had incompletely migrated from the

  18. 妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中水通道蛋白8mRNA的表达%The expression of mRNA of aquaporin 8 in fetal membrane of gestationai diabetes mellitus rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广智; 刘金梅; 王志军; 郭小丽; 姚玉洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨在影响妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜通透性方面的可能机制.方法 选取造模成功的妊娠期糖尿病大鼠(模型组)和正常妊娠大鼠(对照组)各30只,在妊娠19 d时于无菌条件下留取大小1.0 cm×1.0 cm胎膜2块,采用RT-PCR反应检测胎膜中AQP8 mRNA的表达.结果 2组大鼠胎膜上均有AQP8 mRNA的表达,且AQP8 mRNA在模型组大鼠胎膜上的表达明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 水通道蛋白8 mRNA在孕足月大鼠胎膜有表达,其在妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中的表达降低可能参与了羊水量异常的调控.%Objectives To investigate the possible mechanism of permeability changes in fetal membrane of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) rats by detecting the aquaporin 8 ( AQP8 ) gene' s expression in the fetal membrane by using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) technique. Methods The 30 gestational diabetic rats (model group) and 30 normal full-term pregnancy rats (control group) were enrolled in the study. At 19 days after pregnancy, two pieces of fetal membranes with size about 1. 0 cm x 1. 0 cm were taken out under sterile condition, and the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane was detected by RT-PCR. Results The both groups showed the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of rats, furthermore, the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of the rats of model group was significantly lower than that of rats in control group ( P < 0. 05 )*. Conclusion The aquaporins 8 mRNA expresses in the fetal membrane of full-term pregnancy rats,and the decrease of expression in the fetal membrane of gestational diabetic mellitus rats may be involved in the regulation of the abnormality of amniotic fluid amount.

  19. Maternal obesity induced by a 'cafeteria' diet in the rat does not increase inflammation in maternal, placental or fetal tissues in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity during pregnancy can cause serious complications for maternal and infant health. While this has often been attributed to increased inflammation during obese pregnancy, human and animal studies exhibit variable results with respect to the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta and fetus. Cafeteria (CAF) feeding induces more inflammation than standard high-fat feeding in non-pregnant animal models. This study investigated whether maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet increases maternal, fetal or placental inflammation. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy CAF feeding. Maternal plasma inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, MCP1, GRO/KC, MIP-2 and TNFα) and expression of inflammatory genes (Tnfα, Il-6, Il-1β, Tlr2, Tlr4, Cox2 and Emr1) in maternal, placental and fetal tissues were measured at day 21 of gestation. Despite CAF animals having 63% more central body fat than controls at day 21 of gestation, plasma inflammatory markers were not increased; indeed, levels of IL-6, IL-12p40 and MIP2 were reduced slightly. Similarly, inflammatory gene expression remained largely unaffected by CAF feeding, except for slight reductions to Tlr4 and Emr1 expression in CAF maternal adipose tissue, and reduced Tlr4 expression in male labyrinth zone (LZ). The junctional zone (JZ) displayed increased Il-6 expression in CAF animals when fetal sexes were combined, but no inflammatory genes were affected by the CAF diet in fetal liver. Maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet before and during pregnancy does not increase the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta or fetus in late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photogrammetric survey of dinosaur skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedemann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To derive physiological data of dinosaurs, it is necessary to determine the volume and the surface area of this animals. For this purpose, a detailed survey of reconstructed skeletons is required. The skeletons of three dinosaurs in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and two skeletons in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris have been surveyed using stereo photogrammetry. Two of the Berlin skeletons were also surveyed with the close range laser scanners of the Institut für Navigation of the Universität Stuttgart. Both data acquisition techniques require a geodetic control network as a geometric reference system. The surveying methods used, together with results of mathematical approaches for the determination of the volume and surface of the animals are presented in this paper. Zur Herleitung physiologischer Daten der Dinosaurier ist es erforderlich, zunächst Volumen und Oberfläche ihres Körpers zu bestimmen. Dazu wurde eine detaillierte Vermessung rekonstruierter Skelette durchgeführt. Die Skelette dreier Saurier im Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin und zweier im Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris wurden stereophotogrammetrisch vermessen. Bei zwei der Berliner Skelette wurden zusätzlich die Laserscanner des Instituts für Navigation der Universität Stuttgart eingesetzt. Beide Datenerfassungstechniken benötigen ein Paßpunktfeld als geometrisches Referenzsystem. Die verwendeten Vermessungsmethoden, die mathematischen Ansätze für die Berechnung von Volumina und Oberflächen und die Ergebnisse werden in diesem Aufsatz vorgestellt. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020108

  1. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  2. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Grijota Martínez, María del Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized ...

  3. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L;

    2008-01-01

    is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes...

  4. Characterisation of the maternal response to chronic phase shifts during gestation in the rat: implications for fetal metabolic programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Varcoe

    Full Text Available Disrupting maternal circadian rhythms through exposure to chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod has lifelong consequences for the metabolic homeostasis of the fetus, such that offspring develop increased adiposity, hyperinsulinaemia and poor glucose and insulin tolerance. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which these poor metabolic outcomes arise, we investigated the impact of chronic phase shifts (CPS on maternal and fetal hormonal, metabolic and circadian rhythms. We assessed weight gain and food consumption of dams exposed to either CPS or control lighting conditions throughout gestation. At day 20, dams were assessed for plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and glucose and insulin tolerance. Additionally, the expression of a range of circadian and metabolic genes was assessed in maternal, placental and fetal tissue. Control and CPS dams consumed the same amount of food, yet CPS dams gained 70% less weight during the first week of gestation. At day 20, CPS dams had reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight (-15%, and time-of-day dependent decreases in liver weight, whereas fetal and placental weight was not affected. Melatonin secretion was not altered, yet the timing of corticosterone, leptin, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were profoundly disrupted. The expression of gluconeogenic and circadian clock genes in maternal and fetal liver became either arrhythmic or were in antiphase to the controls. These results demonstrate that disruptions of the photoperiod can severely disrupt normal circadian profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites, as well as gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues. Disruptions in the timing of food consumption and the downstream metabolic processes required to utilise that food, may lead to reduced efficiency of growth such that maternal weight gain is reduced during early embryonic development. It is these perturbations that may contribute to

  5. The pathogenicitv of melamine on fetal kidney in SD rats%三聚氰胺对SD胎鼠肾脏致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡仕彬; 吴玉; 冯洋; 刘智涛; 苏萍; 王继红; 杜永洪

    2011-01-01

    and yellow precipitates were not found in kidneys of 720 mg/( kg· d ) dose group. Tubules dearly expanded. Conclusion: Melamine could penetrate into fetal rats through placental barrier, and accumulate in the kidney, which may result in the injury of the growth and development of fetal rat kidney.

  6. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Zoe E; Vickers, Mark H; Bernal, Angelica; Yap, Cassandra; Sloboda, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation. Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON) or high-fructose (FR) diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day (P)10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR. Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes. Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may point to impaired immune sensing.

  7. 牙周炎与胎鼠生长受限相关性的实验研究%The experiment study between periodontitis and fetal growth restriction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宗蕊; 林垚; 台保军; 江汉; 杜民权

    2012-01-01

    Objectine: To study the relationship between periodontitis and fetal growth restriction in rats on the basis of the establishment of periodontitis and pregnancy rat model. Method:11 female SD rats were ligated thread in bilateral mandibular first molar. 7 female SD rats belonged to the control group. The female rats mated male rats 2 weeks later and were killed before production. We collected maternal heart blood and rat fetal.measured fetal weight and crown- rump length, tested the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TTSF-α) in maternal serum by ELISA technology. Result: The incidence of fetal growth restriction in the periodontitis group was 8.3 %> significantly higher than that in the control group. The serum concentrations of TNF-α in pregnant rats which prouducted fetal growth restriction in the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in the control group. (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Periodontitis is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction, and it may be associated with the changing of cytokine such as TNF-a induced by periodontitis.%目的:在建立大鼠牙周炎及大鼠怀孕模型基础上,研究牙周炎与生长受限胎鼠之间的相关关系.方法:11只雌性SD大鼠双侧下颌第一磨牙丝线结扎制作牙周炎动物模型,7只雌性SD大鼠作对照组,2周后将雌鼠与雄鼠合笼建立大鼠怀孕模型.分娩前处死孕鼠,收集孕鼠心脏血、胎鼠,测量胎鼠体重、顶臀长度,ELISA方法检测孕鼠血清中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的浓度.结果:牙周炎组中胎鼠生长受限的发生率为8.3%,显著高于对照组胎鼠生长受限的发生率.牙周炎组生长受限胎鼠的孕鼠TNF-α血清浓度显著高于对照组孕鼠血清浓度(P<0.05).结论:牙周炎是胎鼠生长受限发生的危险因素,可能与牙周局部感染引起血液中TNF-a等炎性细胞因子的改变有关.

  8. Distinct efficacy of pre-differentiated versus intact fetal mesencephalon-derived human neural progenitor cells in alleviating rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuanWang; YanyanLu; HuanqingZhang; KunWang; QihuaHe; YueWang; XianyuLiu; LinsongLi; XiaominWang

    2005-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have shown tile effectiveness in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, but tile therapeutic efficacy remains variable. One of important factors that determine the efficacy is the necessity ofpre-differentiation of progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons before transplantation. This study therefore investigated the therapeutic efficacy of mesencephalon-derived human neural progenitor cells with or without the pre-differentiation in alleviating a rat model of Parkinson's disease. We found that a combination of 50ng/ml fibroblast growth factor 8, 10ng/ml glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and 10μM forskolin facilitated the differentiation of human fetal mesencephalic progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro. More importantly, after transplanted into the striatum ofparkinsonian rats, only pre-differentiated grafts resulted in an elevated production ofdopamine in the transplanted site and the amelioration of behavioral impairments of the parkinsonian rats. Unlike pre-differentiated progenitors, grafted intactprogenitors rarely differentiated into dopaminergic neurons in vivo and emigrated actively away from the transplanted site. These data demonstrates the importance ofpre-differentiation of human progenitor cells before transplantation in enhancing therapeutic potency for Parkinson's disease.

  9. Investigation of the protective effect of ellagic acid for preventing kidney injury in rats exposed to nicotine during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyun, H T; Karadeniz, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possible protective effects of ellagic acid on rat kidneys exposed to nicotine during the fetal period. Twenty pregnant female rats were divided randomly into four groups: control (C), nicotine (N), ellagic acid (EA) and nicotine + ellagic acid (N + EA). Nicotine and ellagic acid treatments were continued throughout the pregnancies and for 15 days after delivery. On day 15, all neonatal pups were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for biochemical and histopathological examination. The nicotine treatment significantly decreased body weight, total glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the N group compared to controls. EA treatment ameliorated decreased body weight, GSH, GSH-Px and SOD activities, and increased MDA and NO levels in group N + EA compared to group N (p kidney damage as shown by incomplete development of glomeruli and Bowman's capsules. Nicotine also caused greater apoptosis in group N compared to group C. Ellagic acid treatment produced histological kidney structure that was closer to normal and it exerted an anti-apoptotic effect in the N + EA group compared to the N group. EA played a protective role against nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats owing to its antioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic effects.

  10. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver cells as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-hui; Li, Ren; Dou, Ke-feng

    2011-03-01

    Although the stem cells are commonly isolated by FACS or MACS, they are very expensive and these is no specific marker for liver stem/progentior cells (LSPCs). This paper applied a convenient and efficient method to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC) from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence (DTDA). Flow cytometric analysis revealed more than half of the purified FLCs expressed alternative markers of LSPCs (CD117, c-Met, Sca-1, CD90, CD49f and CD133). In other words, the purified FLCs were heterogeneous. Therefore, they were sequentially layered into six fractions by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC). Both CD133 and CD49f expressed decreasingly from fraction 1 to 6. In fraction 1 and 2, about 85% FLCs expressed CD133, which were revealed to be LSPCs by high expressions of AFP and CK-19, low expressions of G-6-P and ALB. To conclude, the purity of CD133(+) LSPCs enriched by combination of PDGC, DTDA and PCGC is close to that obtained by MACS. This study will greatly contribute to two important biological aspects: liver stem cells isolation and liver cell therapy.

  11. Human ESC-derived dopamine neurons show similar preclinical efficacy and potency to fetal neurons when grafted in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-11-06

    Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human ESC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Show Similar Preclinical Efficacy and Potency to Fetal Neurons when Grafted in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L.; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25517469

  13. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions.

  14. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  15. Tracer kinetic studies of the low density lipoprotein metabolism in the fetal rat: An example for estimation of flux rates in the nonsteady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonne, D.; Schlag, B.; Winkler, L.; Dargel, R. (Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-05-01

    To get insight into the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB flux in the rat fetus near term and in the early postnatal period, homologous apoE-free 125I-labeled LDL was injected into the umbilical vein of the rat fetus immediately after Caesarean section. Since the serum LDL-apoB spontaneously declined after birth, a time-dependent two-pool model was used to calculate the flux rates in the neonate from the specific activities of LDL-apoB up to 15 h post partum. An approximate value of LDL-apoB flux in the fetus at birth was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic data to the time of injection of the tracer. The data revealed that the turnover of LDL-apoB in the fetus (18.6 micrograms LDL-apoB/h per g body weight) exceeded that in the adult rat (0.4 microgram/h per g body weight) by at least one order of magnitude. Even 15 h after delivery, the LDL-apoB influx amounted to 2.5 micrograms/h per g body weight. The fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apoB in the fetus at term (0.39, h-1) slightly exceeded that in the adult animal (0.15, h-1) and reached the adult level within the first 3 h after birth and remained constant thereafter. In the rat fetus, LDL-apoB flux greatly exceeds that of VLDL-apoB. The data support the view of a direct synthesis and secretion of LDL, most probably by the fetal membranes.

  16. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing

    2008-01-01

    and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  17. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  18. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  19. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  20. Electroacupuncture atBaihui (DU20) acupoint up-regulates mRNA expression of NeuroD molecules in the brains of newborn rats sufferingin utero fetal distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Chen; Yan Liu; Qiao-mei Lin; Lan Xue; Wei Wang; Jian-wen Xu

    2016-01-01

    NeuroD plays a key regulatory effect on differentiation of neural stem cells into mature neurons in the brain. Thus, we assumed that electroacupuncture atBaihui (DU20) acupoint in newborn rats exposed toin utero fetal distress would inlfuence expression of NeuroD. Electroacupuncture atBaihui was performed for 20 minutes on 3-day-old (Day 3) newborn Sprague-Dawley rats exposed toin utero fetal distress; electroacupuncture parameters consisted of sparse and dense waves at a frequency of 2–10 Hz. Real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of NeuroD, a molecule that indicates NeuroD, increased with prolonged time in brains of newborn rats, and peaked on Day 22. The level of mRNA expression was similar between Day 16 and Day 35. These ifndings suggest that electro acupuncture atBaihui acupoint could effectively increase mRNA expression of molecules involved in NeuroD in the brains of new-born rats exposed to in utero fetal distress.

  1. Fuzzy Object Skeletonization: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Saha, Punam; Jin, Dakai; Liu, Yinxiao; E Christensen, Gary; Chen, Cheng

    2017-08-10

    Skeletonization offers a compact representation of an object while preserving important topological and geometrical features. Literature on skeletonization of binary objects is quite mature. However, challenges involved with skeletonization of fuzzy objects are mostly unanswered. This paper presents a new theory and algorithm of skeletonization for fuzzy objects, evaluates its performance, and demonstrates its applications. A formulation of fuzzy grassfire propagation is introduced; its relationships with fuzzy distance functions, level sets, and geodesics are discussed; and new results are presented. A notion of collision-impact of fire-fronts at skeletal points is introduced, and its role in filtering noisy skeletal points is demonstrated. A fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is developed using new ideas of surface- and curve-skeletal voxels, digital collision-impact, and continuity of skeletal surfaces. A skeletal noise pruning algorithm is presented using branch-level significance. Accuracy and robustness of the new algorithm are examined on computer-generated phantoms and micro- and conventional CT imaging of trabecular bone specimens. An application of fuzzy object skeletonization to compute structure-width at a low image resolution is demonstrated, and its ability to predict bone strength is examined. Finally, the performance of the new fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is compared with two binary object skeletonization methods.

  2. A SPECIAL SKELETONIZATION ALGORITHM FOR CURSIVE WORDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinherz, T.; Intrator, N.; Rivlin, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel approach for finding a pseudo­skeleton of a cursive word\\\\'s image. This pseudo­skeleton preserves all the necessary components of a cursive word such as: loops, curves, junctions, end­points etc. It is expected to be useful for cursive word recognition

  3. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  4. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  5. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens

  6. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis in fetal rat type II alveolar epithelial cells by microRNA-26a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qin; Liang, Hong-Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a unique developmentally regulated, phospholipid-rich lipoprotein, is synthesized by the type II epithelial cells (AECII) of the pulmonary alveolus, where it is stored in organelles termed lamellar bodies. The synthesis of pulmonary surfactant is under multifactorial control and is regulated by a number of hormones and factors, including glucocorticoids, prolactin, insulin, growth factors, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines acting through beta-adrenergic receptors, and cAMP. While there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and physiological process, the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis remains unknown. miRNA-26a (miR-26a) has been predicted to target SMAD1, one of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins that plays a key role in differentiation of lung epithelial cells during lung development. In this study, we explored the regulation role of miR-26a in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. An adenoviral miR-26a overexpression vector was constructed and introduced into primary cultured fetal AECII. GFP fluorescence was observed to determinate the transfection efficiency and miR-26a levels were measured by RT-PCR. MTT was performed to analyze AECII viability. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of SMAD1 and surfactant-associated proteins. The results showed that miR-26a in fetal AECII was overexpressed after the transfection, and that the overexpression of miR-26a inhibited pulmonary surfactant synthesis in AECII. There was no significant change in cell proliferation. Our results further showed that overexpression of miR-26a reduced the SMAD1 expression both in mRNA and protein level in fetal AECII. These findings indicate that miR-26a regulates surfactant synthesis in fetal AECII through SMAD1.

  7. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Wortziger, Rasmus Henrik Sorgenfryd

    2008-01-01

    of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect....... DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In mates, DiBP reduced anogenital testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. distance, PPAR alpha mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females...

  8. Selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin modulates diabetes-induced blood oxidative damage and fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mehmet; Erdemoglu, Evrim; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of diabetic complications. In the current study, we investigated the effect of selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the non-pregnant control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. Vitamin E plus selenium and melatonin were administered to the diabetic pregnant rats consisting fourth and fifth groups, respectively. Diabetes was induced on day 0 of the study by STZ. Blood samples were taken from all animals on the 20th day of pregnancy. LPO level was higher in diabetic pregnant rats than in control, although superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in diabetic pregnant animals than in control. LPO levels were lower both in the two treatment groups than in the diabetic pregnant rats, whereas selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes (pmelatonin in diabetic pregnant rats. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic pregnant treated with melatonin group. Vitamin E plus selenium may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects.

  9. Morphological and functional aspects of acute kidney injury after fetal programing in the offspring of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Karla Roberta Martins; Pereira Júnior, Carlos Donizete; Idaló, Priscila Barbosa; Moreira, Ana Carolina Santana Pinheiro; Rocha, Laura Penna; Rodrigues, Aldo Rogélis Aquiles; Reis, Luiz Carlos Dos; Gomes, Roseli A da Silva; Rocha, Lenaldo Branco; Guimarães, Camila Souza de Oliveira; Reis, Marlene Antônia Dos; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of folic acid (FA)-induced renal failure in young offspring of diabetic mothers. The offspring of streptozotocin-induced diabetic dams were divided into four groups: CC (controls receiving vehicle); DC (diabetics receiving vehicle); CA (controls receiving FA solution, 250 mg/kg) and DA (diabetics receiving FA solution, 250 mg/kg). Renal function tests and morphometry results were analyzed. An increase in creatinine and urea levels was observed in CA and DA groups at two and five months. FA administration caused a significant reduction in the number of glomeruli in the offspring of diabetic dams. The diabetes group treated with FA had fewer glomeruli compared to controls at two and five months. FA caused an increase in the area of the urinary space both in controls and offspring of diabetic dams at two and five months. The number of glomeruli and area of the urinary space at two months were negatively correlated. Fetal programing promotes remarkable changes in kidney morphology and function in offspring. We suggest that the morphological changes in the kidneys are more pronounced when fetal programing is associated with newly acquired diseases, e.g. renal failure induced by FA.

  10. Development of the insulin secretion mechanism in fetal and neonatal rat pancreatic B-cells: response to glucose, K+, theophylline, and carbamylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Mendonça

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old, neonatal (3-day-old, and adult (90-day-old rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K+, 5 mM theophylline (Theo and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch. No effect of glucose or high K+ was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127% above basal levels, respectively. High K+ also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54% above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179% above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396% above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K+ that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells.

  11. [Physical exercise and the skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlet, J P; Coxam, V; Davicco, M J

    1995-12-01

    The skeleton provides more than only a framework for the body. Bone is a calcified conjunctive tissue sensitive to various mechanical stimuli, mainly to those resulting from gravity and muscular contractions. Numerous animal and human studies demonstrate the importance of weight-bearing physical activity as well as mechanical loading for maintaining skeletal integrity. Lack of weight-bearing activity is dangerous for the skeleton: a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in animals and humans under conditions of weightlessness or immobilization. Other studies have also reported a lower vertebral BMD among young amenorrheic athletes than among athletes with regular cycles and/or non athletes. The main factor responsible for this lower BMD in the amenorrheic athletes is the persistent low level of endogenous estrogen observed among these women. However this does not represent a premature and irreversible loss of bone mass since the resumption of menses following a decrease in training is the primary factor for a significant increase in vertebral BMD in these formerly amenorrheic athletes. A weight-bearing exercise is likely to be more beneficial at weight-bearing than at non weight-bearing sites, and hypogonadism resulting from very intensive training and exercise is more detrimental to trabecular than cortical bone. Bone deficit at non weight-bearing sites may be attenuated by maintenance of body weight. Nevertheless the etiology of "stress fractures" among athletes remains poorly understood, and the exact relationship between soft tissue mass and BMD is not clear. Osteoporosis, the most common bone disorder in France, is a pathological condition associated with increased loss of bone mass, resulting in a greater risk of fracture. Although symptoms of osteoporosis do not generally occur until after menopause, recent evidence suggests that bone loss starts much earlier in life. Therefore osteoporosis might be prevented by increasing peak bone

  12. Morbus paget of the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, R.; Baldauf, M.

    1984-09-01

    Paget's disease of bone seems to be a slow virus infection of a single or several areas of the skeleton. Pagetic lesions are rather common among elderly people, but the disease does not manifest very often. Compared to the incidence of Paget's disease in England, it seems to be rarer in this country. The pelvis is most frequently involved, followed by bones of the leg, skull, lumbar spine. The patients suffer from pains and deformities, arthroses of the adhering ankles, increased temperature of the area, nerval irritation and nerve damage due to increased bone growth (e.g. hearing loss due to Paget's disease of the skull). The development of sarcoma is rare and is only seen in severe cases. Diagnosis is made by X-ray, confirmed by bone biopsy, if necessary. Asymptomatic lesions are detected by bone scintigraphy. The activity of the disease is expressed by increased alkaline serum phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline excretion. For treatment calcitonins and diphosphonates (especially EHDP, Diphos) are used. Both inhibit the overactive osteoclasts, and the increased bone turnover is normalized. The patients feel considerable relief, the elevated biochemical parameters fall to about 50% of initial values after calcitonin- or EHDP monotherapy. In severe cases the combination of both substances may be profitable. The cytostatic drug mithramycin which can also be effective is only needed exceptionally.

  13. Study on Virtual Human Skeleton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧; 李亦

    2004-01-01

    A solution of virtual human skeleton system is proposed. Some issues on integration of anatomical geometry, biodynamics and computer animation are studied. The detailed skeleton system model that incorporates the biodynamic and geometric characteristics of a human skeleton system allows some performance studies in greater detail than that performed before. It may provide an effective and convenient way to analyze and evaluate the movement performance of a human body when the personalized anatomical data are used in the models. An example shows that the proposed solution is effective for the stated problems.

  14. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  15. Venation Skeleton-Based Modeling Plant Leaf Wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglian Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A venation skeleton-driven method for modeling and animating plant leaf wilting is presented. The proposed method includes five principal processes. Firstly, a three-dimensional leaf skeleton is constructed from a leaf image, and the leaf skeleton is further used to generate a detailed mesh for the leaf surface. Then a venation skeleton is generated interactively from the leaf skeleton. Each vein in the venation skeleton consists of a segmented vertices string. Thirdly, each vertex in the leaf mesh is banded to the nearest vertex in the venation skeleton. We then deform the venation skeleton by controlling the movement of each vertex in the venation skeleton by rotating it around a fixed vector. Finally, the leaf mesh is mapped to the deformed venation skeleton, as such the deformation of the mesh follows the deformation of the venation skeleton. The proposed techniques have been applied to simulate plant leaf surface deformation resulted from biological responses of plant wilting.

  16. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  17. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2014-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  18. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Mencel, Liam A.

    2014-05-06

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (log n) log r) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomised, and runs in expected O(n √(h+1) log² n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (log n) log r + r^(4/3 + ε)) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (log n) log r + r^(17/11 + ε))

  19. The effect of chemotherapy on the morphology of the growth plate and metaphysis of the growing skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, BL; Hartel, RM; Jansen, HWB; Kamps, WA; Hoekstra, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To establish the effect of three single chemotherapeutic agents on the growing skeleton, male Wistar rats were studied. Methods: From the age of 4 weeks the rats were given iv doxorubicin (DOX) IS mg/m(2) body surface area (BSA), methotrexate (MTX) 60 mg/m(2) BSA or cisplatin (CDDP) 7.5 mg/m(2)

  20. Maternal iron deficiency worsens the associative learning deficits and hippocampal and cerebellar losses in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Tran, Tuan D; Rufer, Echoleah S; Crump, Peter M; Smith, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Gestational alcohol exposure causes lifelong physical and neurocognitive deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Micronutrient deficiencies are common in pregnancies of alcohol-abusing women. Here we show the most common micronutrient deficiency of pregnancy-iron deficiency without anemia-significantly worsens neurocognitive outcomes following perinatal alcohol exposure. Pregnant rats were fed iron-deficient (ID) or iron-sufficient diets from gestational day 13 to postnatal day (P) 7. Pups received alcohol (0, 3.5, 5.0 g/kg) from P 4 to P 9, targeting the brain growth spurt. At P 32, learning was assessed using delay or trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC). Cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IPN) and hippocampal CA1 cellularity was quantified using unbiased stereology. Global analysis of variance revealed that ID and alcohol separately and significantly reduced ECC learning with respect to amplitude (ps ≤ 0.001) and conditioned response [CR] percentage (ps ≤ 0.001). Iron and alcohol interacted to reduce CR percentage in the trace ECC task (p = 0.013). Both ID and alcohol significantly reduced IPN (ps learning impairments persisted even though the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Supporting our previous work, gestational ID exacerbates the associative learning deficits in this rat model of FASD. This is strongly associated with cellular reductions within the ECC neurocircuitry. Significant learning impairments in FASD could be the consequence, in part, of pregnancies in which the mother was also iron inadequate. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. NON-SKELETON BUILDING OF MULTIPURPOSE DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Першаков

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The non-skeleton structure of multipurpose destination is developed from typical reinforce-concrete slabs and intended for building of objects of agroindustrial complex. Fixed building is under the test loadings. After researches was established, that a construction has sufficient bearing capacity. Non-skeleton building is urgent for storage of agricultural production and storage of eguipment, placing of markets and sport complexes.

  2. Effects of lead on ultrastructural charactristics of sinusoidal endothelial cell of fetal rat's spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Z

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Amount of environmental lead pollution is increased with progression of industry. This pollution is able to damage the living beings in many ways. Blood and Immune systems are more sensitive to toxic effects of lead. 30 female and 6 male rats from Sprague dawley race are chosen by simple random sampling. After copulation and vaginal plug observation, expectant rats are calssified in test and control groups. Since the first day of pregnancy, test group is given a drink containing lead acetate 0.13% in distilled water and control group is given distilled water. After delivery, for ultrastrectural studies, spleen specimens of newborn rats are fixed in glutaraldehyde solution 2% and after processing are studied by T.E.M. Sinusoidal endothelial cell show: morphological changes in mitochondria, appearance of primary & secondary lysosomes and multivesicular bodies and swelling in ER. It seems that these changes are caused by interaction of lead with enzymathic functions or lead accumulation in these cellular organels.

  3. Flunarizine and lamotngine propnyiaxis effects on neuron-specific enolase,S-100,and brain-specific creatine kinase in a fetal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li He; Jingyi Deng; Wendan He

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Calcium antagonists may act as neuroprotectants,diminishing the influx of calcium ions through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. When administered prophylactically,they display neuroprotective effects against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in newborn rats.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the neuroprotective effects of flunarizine(FNZ),lamotrigine (LTG)and the combination of both drugs,on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in fetal rats.DESIGN AND SETTING:This randomized,complete block design was performed at the Department of Pediatrics.Shenzhen Fourth People's Hospital,Guangdong Medical College.MATERIALS:Forty pregnant Wistar rats,at gestational day 20,were selected for the experiment and were randomly divided into FNZ,LTG,FNZ+LTG,and model groups,with 10 rats in each group.METHODS:Rats in the FNZ.LTG,and FNZ+LTG groups received intragastric injections of FNZ (0.5 mg/kg/d),LTG(10 mg/kg/d),and FNZ(0.5 mg/kg/d)+LTG(10 mg/kg/d),respectively.Drugs were administered once a day for 3 days prior to induction of hypoxia-ischemia.Rats in the modeJ group were not administered any drugs.Three hours after the final administration,eight pregnant rats from each group underwent model establishment hypoxia-ischemia brain damage to the fetal rats.Cesareans were performed at 6,12,24,and 48 hours later;and 5 fetal rats were removed from each mother and kept warm.Twe fetuses without model establishment were removed by planned cesarean at the same time and served as controls.A total of 0.3 mL serum was collected from fetal rats at 6,12,24,and 48 hours,respectively,following birth.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Serum protein concentrations of neuron-specific enolase and S-100 were measured by ELISA.Serum concentrations of brain-specific creatine kinase were measured using an electrogenerated chemiluminescence method.RESULTS:Serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase,S-100,and brain-specific creatine kinase were significantly higher in the hypoxic-ischemic fetal rats.compared with the non

  4. An experimental model for the transplantation of fetal central nervous system cells to the injured spinal cord in rats Modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso central fetal para lesão de medula espinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury is one of the most disabling conditions occurring in man and thus stimulates a strong interest in its histopathological, biochemical, and functional changes, primarily as we search for preventive and therapeutic methods. PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model for transplantation of cells from the fetal rat central nervous system to the site of an injured spinal cord of an adult rat in which the transplanted cells survive and become integrated. This experimental model will facilitate investigations of factors that promote regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats underwent laminectomy, and an spinal cord lesion was made with microdissection. Fetal spinal cord tissue was then transplanted to the site of the injury. The rats were monitored over a 48-hour period, and then their vertebral column was completely removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of transplanted rats, the fetal tissue at the injured site remained viable in the site of the lesion.INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão traumática da medula espinal consiste numa das mais incapacitantes lesões que o ser humano pode sofrer e tem despertado grande interesse no conhecimento das alterações histopatológicas, bioquímicas, funcionais e principalmente na busca de métodos de prevenção e tratamento. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa para identificar outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 15 ratos adultos que foram submetidos a laminectomia e lesão de 5mm de hemimelula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Os ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do

  5. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph N; Marquart, Chloe L; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four-layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel-fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel-fibred bone, showing osteon-like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we interpret the

  6. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  7. Induction of pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats into insulin-producing cells with fetal bovine serum: A natural protocol and its use for patch clamp experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Leng; Fu-Er Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To induce the pancreatic duct cells into endocrine cells with a new natural protocol for electrophysiological study.METHODS: The pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats were isolated, cultured and induced into endocrine oells with 15% fetal bovine serum for a period of 20 d. During this period, insulin secretion, MTT value, and morphological change of neonatal and adult pancreatic islet cells were comparatively investigated. Pancreatic β-cells were identified by morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, while ATP sensitive potassium channels(KATP), voltage-dependent potassium channels (KV), and voltage-dependent calcium channels (KCA) in β-cells were identified by patch clamp technique.RESULTS: After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the neonatal duct cells budded out, changed from duct-like cells into islet clusters. In the first 4 d, MTT value and insulin secretion increased slowly (MTT value from 0.024±0.003 to0.028±0.003, insulin secretion from 2.6±0.6to 3.1±0.8 mIU/L). Then MTT value and insulin secretion increased quickly from d 5 to d 10 (MTT value from 0.028±0.003 to 0.052±0.008, insulin secretion from 3.1±0.8to 18.3±2.6 mIU/L), then reached high plateau (MTT value >0.052±0.008, insulin secretion >18.3±2.6 mIU/L).In contrast, for the isolated adult pancreatic islet cells,both insulin release and MTT value were stable in the first 4 d (MTT value from 0.029±0.01 to 0.031±0.011,insulin secretion from 13.9±3.1 to 14.3±3.3 mIU/L), but afterwards they reduced gradually (MTT value <0.031±0.011, insulin secretion <8.2±1.5 mIU/L), and the pancrearic islet cells became dispersed, broken or atrophied correspondingly. The differentiated neonatal cells were identified as pancreatic islet cells by dithizone staining method, and pancreatic β-cells were further identified by both morphological features and electrophysiological characteristics, i.e. the existence of recording currents from KATP KV, and KCA.CONCLUSION: Islet

  8. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  9. Cloning of the Eukaryotic Expression Vector with Nerve Growth Factor in Rats and Its Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesencephal Neural Stem Cells of Fetal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minhua LIN; Lin YANG; Rong FU; Hongyang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic expression vector containing full-length cDNA sequence of rate nerve growth factor (NGF) β subunit was constructed and its effects on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. By using PCR, full-length cDNA sequence of NGF β subunit in rats was cloned and ligated into the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-NGE The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF was transfected into the mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats by Lipofectamin and transiently expressed. MTT method was used to determine the effects of NGF on proliferation of neural stem cells, and under phase-contrast microscopy, the effects of NGF on growth of nervous processes following differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. Sequence analysis indicated that the cloned full-length cDNA sequence of rat NGF β was identical to that of published sequence encoding NGF in gene GeneBank. The transfection of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF into mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats could obviously promote proliferation of neural stem cells and faciliate the growth of neural stem cells-derived nerve cells. It was suggested that neural stem cells could be used as a vehicle of gene transfer, and the expression of NGF β subunit in the neural stem cells could promote the growth of nerve cells derived from neural stem cells.

  10. Placental Protein 13 Administration to Pregnant Rats Lowers Blood Pressure and Augments Fetal Growth and Venous Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Sigurdardottir, Elisabet Run; Meiri, Hamutal; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Mandalá, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2016-01-01

    Reduced first-trimester concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13) are associated with subsequent development of preeclampsia, a major pregnancy disorder. We previously showed that PP13 has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure and augments expansive remodeling of the uteroplacental vasculature in pregnant rats. In this study, slow-release osmotic pumps were implanted in gravid rats (on day 8) to provide 1 week of PP13 supplementation. Treatment was associated with a reversible blood pressure reduction that returned to normal on day 15. In addition, PP13 caused venous expansion that is larger in the venous branches closer to the placenta. Then, it increased placental and pup weights. Similar administration of a truncated PP13 variant (DelT221) that is unable to bind carbohydrates (a rare spontaneous mutation associated with a high frequency of severe early preeclampsia among Blacks in South Africa) produced a hypotensive effect similar to the full-length molecule, but without venous remodeling and increased placental and pup weights. These results indicate the importance of PP13 carbohydrate binding for inducing vascular remodeling and improving reproductive outcome. Future studies are needed to determine whether beneficial effects would be evident in animal models of preeclampsia or in women predisposed to the development of preeclampsia.

  11. Plasma concentrations and placental immunostaining of interleukin-10 and tumornecrosis factor-α as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and the placental development of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Sinzato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 appears to be the key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy and inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. However, there are no studies evaluating the profile of these cytokines in diabetic rat models. Thus, our aim was to analyze IL-10 and TNF-α immunostaining in placental tissue and their respective concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy in diabetic rats in order to determine whether these cytokines can be used as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development. These parameters were evaluated in non-diabetic (control; N = 15 and Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes (N = 15. At term, the dams (100 days of life were killed under anesthesia and plasma and placental samples were collected for IL-10 and TNF-α determinations by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The reproductive performance was analyzed. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were reduced in STZ rats compared to controls (7.6 ± 4.5 vs 20.9 ± 8.1 pg/mL. The placental scores of immunostaining intensity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05. Prevalence analysis showed that the IL-10 expression followed TNF-α expression, showing a balance between them. STZ rats also presented impaired reproductive performance and reduced plasma IL-10 levels related to damage during early embryonic development. However, the increased placental IL-10 as a compensatory mechanism for the deficit of maternal regulation permitted embryo development. Therefore, the data suggest that IL-10 can be used as a predictor of changes in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development in pregnant diabetic rats.

  12. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-10-01

    The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

  13. Assessment of the Protective Role of Prenatal Zinc versus Insulin Supplementation on Fetal Cardiac Damage Induced by Maternal Diabetes in Rat Using Caspase-3 and KI67 Immunohistochemical Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Shams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal diabetes mellitus (DM affects early organogenesis. Metabolic disorders of DM are associated with a depleted zinc status. This study evaluated the effect of maternal DM on cardiac development of rat fetuses and protective roles of prenatal zinc versus insulin supplementation. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups ((I control, (II STZ-induced DM, (III STZ-induced DM treated with Zn, and (IV STZ induced DM treated with insulin, all sacrificed on GD 20. Fetal heart weight of diabetic rats showed significant decrease compared to controls (P<0.05. H&E stained section of controls had normal appearance of the myocardium, compared to diabetics that showed myocardial disarray with characteristic degenerative changes. Sections of zinc treated group showed restored architecture of normal myofibrils with minimal degenerative changes, while those of insulin treated group show partial restoration of the normal architecture of cardiomyocytes with focal improvement of cardiac tissue. Caspase-3 immunostained slides showed positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in diabetic group. But KI67 immunostained slides revealed negative nuclear immunoreaction in diabetics. We observed that gestational diabetes was associated with increased risk of fetal myocardial damage that might be caused by increased apoptotic level. Treating diabetic pregnant subjects with zinc and insulin was associated with improvement in myocardial integrity.

  14. Human skeleton proportions from monocular data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG En; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the skeleton proportions ofa human figure from monocular data.The proposed system will first automatically extract the key frames and recover the perspective camera model from the 2D data.The human skeleton proportions are then estimated from the key frames using the recovered camera model without posture reconstruction. The proposed method is tested to be simple, fast and produce satisfactory results for the input data. The human model with estimated proportions can be used in future research involving human body modeling or human motion reconstruction.

  15. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  16. Effects of engrafted neural stem cells derived from fetal rat on model rat with Parkinson's diseases%鼠胚神经干细胞移植对帕金森模型大鼠的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 陈新成; 吴旻; 邓引生; 陶轶

    2011-01-01

    背景:干细胞移植是治疗帕金森的有潜力的方法之一.目的:观察神经干细胞纹状体移植对帕金森模型大鼠旋转行为及脑内多巴胺含量的影响.方法:采用6-羟基多巴胺定点注射毁损黑质纹状体的方法构建帕金森大鼠模型;向造模成功的大鼠纹状体内分别移植1×106(共计20 μL)的第3代胚鼠神经干细胞或等量生理盐水.结果与结论:神经干细胞移植后,帕金森大鼠的旋转行为明显改善.干细胞移植后3周,免疫组化检测发现移植干细胞的帕金森大鼠脑黑质部位酪氨酸羟化酶阳性细胞数增多,纹状体内可见酪氨酸羟化酶阳性细胞;荧光显微镜下观察发现Hoechst 33324d标记神经干细胞在移植针道附近最为密集,并向远隔部位迁徙.干细胞移植后8周,高效液相色谱检测显示移植干细胞的帕金森大鼠纹状体内多巴胺含量明显增高(P < 0.01).说明神经干细胞脑内移植能够减轻6-羟基多巴胺引起的大鼠中脑黑质多巴胺能神经元的损伤,改善大鼠的旋转行为.%BACKGROUND: Stem cells transplantation is one of the potential methods for the treatment of Parkinson's diseases (PD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of neural stem cells engrafted into the striatum on rotational behavior and dopamine concentration of rat model with PD.METHODS: Rat models of PD were established by point injection with 6-hydroxy dopamine to damage nigrostriatal. The 1×106 (total 20 μL) passage 3 fetal rat neural stem cells or normal saline were injected into the striatum of the established rat model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After neural stem cells were transplanted into the striatum. The rotational behavior of the PD rat was improved obviously. Three weeks later, the results of immun oh isto chemistry detection showed that the number of tyros in e hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra of transfected PD rat was increased obviously, and the tyrosine hydroxylase

  17. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  18. Effective analysis on treatment of rat acute liver failure by human fetal hepatocyte transplantation%人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗大鼠急性肝衰竭的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯歌; 尚红利; 赵慧; 牛春燕; 汪雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗急性肝衰竭(ALF)的疗效及能否成为移植细胞源.方法 采用四甲基偶氮唑盐法检测人胚胎肝细胞增殖情况;免疫细胞化学检测其ALB、细胞角蛋白-18(CK-18)的表达; D-氨基半乳糖(D-gal)药物诱导ALF的实验动物模型;人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗ALF的动物模型,包括移植组与对照组在肝功能指标[ALT、AST、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、总胆红素(TBIL)]的差异性比较.免疫组织化学法检测植入脾脏中的人胚胎肝细胞ALB及CK-18的表达.结果 培养第5天左右细胞数量达到最高峰,每天完成4~5次分裂,胚胎肝细胞的生长曲线呈抛物线型.免疫细胞化学检测提示其具有表达ALB、CK-18的功能; D-gal 1.6 g/kg腹腔注射72 h后大鼠ALF模型制备成功;移植第3~5天后,移植组与对照组比较,肝功能(ALT、AST、ALP、TBIL)指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).植入脾内的肝细胞具有分泌并表达CK-18、ALB的功能.结论 人胚胎肝细胞脾内移植能有效治疗ALF,并可能成为肝细胞移植的靶细胞源.%Objective To investigate the effect of treating rat acute liver failure and alternative sources of cells for transplantation by human fetal hepatocyte transplantation Methods The proliferation,expression of albumin and cytokeratin-18 of human fetal hepatocyte were detected by MTT and immunocytochemistry.The animal models of rat acute liver failure were made by D-galactosamine.Hepatic functions.such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured between the treated and the control groups.The expression of albumin and cytokeratin-18 of human fetal hepatocyte transplanted in spleen were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The cell population reached a peak, when human fetal hepatocyte were cultivated for 5 d.The cell division had 4 - 5 times per day,its growth curve present parabola.Immunocytochemistry revealed the

  19. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  20. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  1. Teratological Effects of Gamma-Irradiation during three Gestaional Intervals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Al-Shaibani, **Nadia, H. Ismail, ***Omaima S. Eissa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: The present study aimed to evaluate the teratological effects of gamma-irradiation during three intervals of gestation; pre-implantation, organogenesis and fetal periods in rats. Material and methods: Four groups of pregnant rats were used in this study; the first one (GI served as control. The second (GII, third (GIII and fourth (GIV groups were subjected to whole body -radiation at a sub-lethal single dose level of 4 Gy at the third day, 10th day and 14th day of gestation respectively. Pregnant rats were sacrificed at the 20th day of gestation, implantation sites, resorption, embryonic death, fetal death, growth retarded fetuses, external malformations and skeletal malformation were recorded. Results: The results showed that whole body -irradiation caused resorption in the embryos of pregnant rats especially in those exposed during the pre-implantation period than the two other periods. The embryonic and fetal deaths were prominent in the fetuses maternally exposed to whole body -irradiation during the organogenesis period. The highest percentage of growth retarded fetuses was found in fetuses maternally exposed to -rays during the organogenesis period followed by fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the fetal period and then fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the pre-implantation period. The skeletal malformations as a result of -irradiation were mostly represented in less ossification in the skull bones, less ossification in the vertebral centra and wavy ribs. The most affected fetal skeleton was perceptive in GIII (fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the organogenesis period followed by GII and then GIV.

  2. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of apoptotic cell death accompanying development of the fetal rat olfactory nerve layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellier, V; Saucier, D; Oestreicher, A B; Astic, L

    1996-07-01

    It has been previously shown that the embryonic olfactory nerve contains, in addition to glial ensheathing cells, a large population of differentiated neurons that migrate from the developing olfactory epithelium, in close association with the olfactory axon fascicles. The purpose of our study was to verify the hypothesis according to which a process of physiological cell death might be involved in the progressive disappearance of these migrating neurons that has been reported during late embryonic stages in several immunocytochemical studies. To do so, we have investigated the development of the olfactory nerve layer in rat embryos by using light and electron microscopy, with special reference to the presence of cell death processes within this structure. We have also applied the histochemical TUNEL method allowing in situ visualization of cells degenerating by apoptosis. In order to determine if neurons were present among dying cells, a procedure of double-labeling was performed by combining the DNA-specific bisbenzimide with two neuronal markers, the protein B-50/GAP-43 and the lectin Ulex europaeus I. Results brought out the precise temporal and spatial patterns of programmed cell death accompanying the morphogenesis of the olfactory nerve layer. A cell death process was observed within the olfactory nerve layer from its onset at embryonic day 13 (E13). While only few pycnotic cells were observed in E13 and E14 embryos, their number increased from E15 to reach a maximum at E16 and then diminished. Few dying cells were also observed along the olfactory axon fascicles when they penetrated the olfactory nerve layer. Degenerating cells appeared strongly TUNEL-labeled and exhibited morphological features of cell death by apoptosis. Double-labeling experiments revealed that some of the apoptotic cells were neurons. These observations indicate that apoptosis may account for the progressive decrease in the number of migrating neurons present within the embryonic

  3. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  4. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  5. Oxidative stress as a signal to up-regulate gamma-cystathionase in the fetal-to-neonatal transition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J A; Pereda, J; Martínez-López, I; Escrig, R; Miralles, V; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R; Vento, M; Viña, J; Sastre, J

    2007-11-30

    Hepatic gamma-cystathionase, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of L-cysteine from L-methionine in the trans-sulphuration pathway, exhibits significantly higher activity in the newly born infant as compared to the fetus. The aim of this work was: 1) To determine whether the increase in gamma-cystathionase activity occurring in the fetal-to-neonatal transition is due to up-regulation of its mRNA and protein, 2) To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this increase in gamma-cystathionase activity. Our results show that expression of gamma-cystathionase at both the mRNA and protein levels was higher in newborn than in fetal liver. gamma-Cystathionase activity in fetal hepatocytes in vitro increased when incubated with tert-butyl-hydroperoxide at low concentration (0.01 mM). Hence, moderate oxidative stress would act as a signal to up-regulate gamma-cystathionase in the fetal to neonatal transition. Stress hormones, such as phenylephrine or glucagon also increased gamma-cystathionase activity in fetal hepatocytes. We also report a competitive inhibition of purified gamma-cystathionase by L-cysteine, which would help to maintain physiological low L-cysteine levels in hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results show that increased hepatic gamma-cystathionase activity in the fetal-to-neonatal transition is due to up-regulation of its gene expression mediated by stress hormones together with the physiological oxidative stress that occurs at birth.

  6. SkelTre: Robust skeleton extraction from imperfect point clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Bucksch, A.; R. Lindenbergh; M. Menenti

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry of real world objects as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm developed for the skeletonization of a laser scanner point cloud. The skeletonization algorithm proposed in this paper consists of three steps: (i) extraction of a graph from an octree organization, (ii) reduction of the graph to a skeleton, and (iii) embedding of the skeleton into the point cloud. For these three steps, only one input parameter is required. The results...

  7. Insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas: repercussões fetais e placentárias Effect of insulin therapy in on pregnancy of diabetic rats: fetal and placental repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza V.C. Rudge

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as repercussões feto-placentárias da insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas. A droga diabetogênica foi aloxana na dose de 42 mg/kg de peso por via intravenosa. Formaram-se cinco grupos experimentais: controle (G1, n=12; diabete moderado não-tratado (G2, n=10; diabete moderado tratado com insulina (G3, n=11; diabete grave não-tratado (G4, n=12 e diabete grave tratado com insulina (G5, n=10. Foram obtidos 634 recém-nascidos e respectivas placentas. O resultado perinatal do tratamento com insulina teve relação direta com a qualidade do controle glicêmico. O tratamento inadequado do diabete moderado determinou níveis de hiperglicemia moderada nos recém-nascidos, não interferiu com o peso corporal dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos grandes para a idade da prenhez (GIP. O controle adequado do diabete grave normalizou a glicemia dos recém-nascidos, aumentou o peso dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade da prenhez (PIP. A administração de doses adequadas de insulina no grupo de ratas diabéticas grave diminuiu o peso das placentas mas sem modificar o índice placentário.Fetal and placental effects of insulin therapy on pregnancy of diabetic rats were studied. Alloxan was administered intravenously at the dose of 42 mg/kg of body weight. Five experimental groups were formed: control (G1, n=12, non-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G2, n=10, insulin-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G3, n=11,non-treated rats with severe diabetes (G4, n=12 and insulin-treated rats with severe diabetes (G5, n=10. Six hundred and thirty-four newborn rats and placentas wereprocured. The perinatal result of insulin therapy was directly related to the quality of glycemia control. Thus, inadequate control of moderate diabetes produced levels of moderate hyperglycemia, did not interfere with the newborn rats' body weight and decreased the proportion

  8. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  9. The facial skeleton: Armor to the brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Satishkumar G.; Patil, Bindu S.; Joshi, Udupikrishna; Allurkar, Soumya; Japatti, Sharanabasappa; Munnangi, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other au...

  10. A Stochastic Skeleton Model for the MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, S. N.; Thual, S.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales and planetary spatial scales. Despite the primary importance of the MJO and the decades of research progress since its original discovery, a generally accepted theory for its essential mechanisms has remained elusive. In recent work by two of the authors, a minimal dynamical model has been proposed that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (i) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 m/s, (ii) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω/dk≈0, and (iii) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model, the skeleton model, depicts the MJO as a neutrally stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture, and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. In this article, it is shown that the skeleton model can further account for (iv) the intermittent generation of MJO events and (v) the organization of MJO events into wave trains with growth and demise, as seen in nature. The goal is achieved by developing a simple stochastic parameterization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity, which is coupled to otherwise deterministic processes in the skeleton model. In particular, the intermittent initiation, propagation, and shut down of MJO wave trains in the skeleton model occur through these stochastic effects. This includes examples with a background warm pool where some initial MJO-like disturbances propagate through the western region but stall at the peak of background convection/heating corresponding to the Maritime Continent in nature. Also shown are examples with an idealized seasonal cycle, namely a background warm pool state of heating/moistening displacing meridionally during the year. This seasonally varying case considers both equatorial and off-equatorial components of the envelope of synoptic scale convective

  11. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  12. Gray Cerebrovascular Image Skeleton Extraction Algorithm Using Level Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguity and complexity of medical cerebrovascular image makes the skeleton gained by conventional skeleton algorithm discontinuous, which is sensitive at the weak edges, with poor robustness and too many burrs. This paper proposes a cerebrovascular image skeleton extraction algorithm based on Level Set model, using Euclidean distance field and improved gradient vector flow to obtain two different energy functions. The first energy function controls the  obtain of topological nodes for the beginning of skeleton curve. The second energy function controls the extraction of skeleton surface. This algorithm avoids the locating and classifying of the skeleton connection points which guide the skeleton extraction. Because all its parameters are gotten by the analysis and reasoning, no artificial interference is needed.

  13. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  14. Effect of prenatal high-salt exposure on cardiac cell cycle in the fetal rats%孕期高盐饮食对胎鼠心肌细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕琴; 吕娟秀; 李世刚; 徐智策; 茅彩萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察孕期给予高盐饮食后,胎鼠心肌细胞周期是否有改变及其与血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)的关系.方法 将SD大鼠随机分为正常组和高盐组,在孕3至21 d分别给予正常盐饮食和高盐饮食,孕21 d时检测母鼠和胎鼠的血钠浓度、血浆渗透压、血浆AngⅡ浓度以及胎鼠心脏组织中的AngⅡ含量,称量孕21 d胎鼠的心脏质量后,分离出心肌细胞,培养后检测细胞周期.结果 与正常组相比,高盐组母鼠和胎鼠的血钠、血浆渗透压无明显改变(均P>0.05),母鼠和胎鼠血浆AngⅡ浓度明显降低,而胎鼠心脏局部AngⅡ明显增加(均P<0.05).胎鼠心肌细胞G1期比例明显降低而S期比例明显增加,AngⅡ明显降低心肌细胞G1期比例并明显增加S期比例(均P<0.05),AngⅡ受体Ⅰ型(AT1R)阻断剂可以阻断AngⅡ引起的细胞周期改变,而AngⅡ受体2型(AT2R)阻断剂对由AngⅡ引起的细胞周期改变无影响.结论 孕期高盐饮食可能激活了胎鼠心脏局部AngⅡ,进而改变心肌细胞周期和影响胎鼠心脏发育,且AT1R介导了AngⅡ对心肌细胞周期的影响.%Objective To determine the effect of high-salt diet during pregnancy on angiotensin-re-lated cardiac cell cycles. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to either normal-salt diet or high-salt diet during gestational day 3 ~ 21. Blood samples from maternal and fetal rats were prepared for measuring sodium,osmolality,and the hormones. Fetal heart weight was measured. Cardiac cells were cultured for analyzing cell cycle. Results There was no significantly difference of blood sodium concentrations and osmolality in both maternal and fetal rats between the control and high-salt group (all P >0.05). High-salt diet caused plasma Ang Ⅱ decreased in both the mothers and fetuses, and Ang Ⅱ in the fetal myocardium was significantly increased ( all P > 0.05). Gl phase percentage was significantly decreased, whereas S phase percentage was

  15. Effect of the exogenons glucocorticoid on GR expression in fetal rat lung%外源性糖皮质激素对胎鼠肺糖皮质激素受体基因的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glucocorticoid receptor(GR)in late gestation fetal lung around the time of the onset of augmented surfactant production. Methods GR mRNA was meaanred by Northern blots and hybridizations. GR binding activity was measured by Wrang's method. Results Maternal administration of a high dose dexamethatone increased fetal rat lung GR binding activity, without alteration in GR mRNA levels. Also incubation of fibroblasts (FIB)with 10-7 mol/L cortisol increased GR immunoreactive protein and binding activity without affecting GR mRNA. Identical treatment, epithelial eells(EPI)were followed by decrease of GR protein without changes of GR mRNA. Conclusion The regulation of GR by glucocorticoid in fetal rat lung occurs at a posttranscriptional level, and increasing circulation glucocorticoid concentration during late gestation may be important to the maturation of fetal lung.%目的研究糖皮质激素在妊娠后期肺表面活性物质合成过程中对糖皮质激素受体(GR)的调节作用。方法采用分子生物学杂交技术、Northern印迹法测定胎鼠肺及其二种主要细胞的GR mRNA及Wrang法测定外源性糖皮质激素对胎鼠肺及二种主要细胞GR结合活性的作用。结果大剂量地塞米松可使胎鼠肺GR结合活性增加而GR mRNA无变化。在成纤维细胞(FIB)培养液中加入10-7mol/L的可的松,GR结合活性和蛋白量增加,GRmRNA无变化。上皮细胞(EPI)GR蛋白量减少,GR mRNA无变化,肺表面活性物质蛋白(SP-A)经同样处理其值增加。结论胎鼠肺GR的调节发生于转译后水平,妊娠后期使用糖皮质激素对胎鼠的成熟有重要生理意义。

  16. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for ... Fetal mortality is a major, but often overlooked, public health problem. Fetal mortality refers to spontaneous intrauterine ...

  17. Effects of GDNF pretreatment on function and survival of transplanted fetal ventral mesencephalic cells in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andereggen, Lukas; Meyer, Morten; Guzman, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic (DA) neurons offers an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The low availability and the poor survival and integration of transplanted cells in the host brain are major obstacles in this approach. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF...

  18. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  19. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  20. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    论 FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡显著增多.孕鼠补充牛磺酸可以显著减少FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡,其机制可能与牛磺酸能够促进GDNF表达和减少caspase-3表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of antenatal taurine supplementation on cerebral apoptosis and the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and caspase-3 in fetal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods Fifteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,FGR model group (model group) and FGR with antenatal taurine supplementation group (taurine group).Taurine was added into the diet of taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from the 12th day of gestation until natural delivery.Two appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn rats were randomly selected from each mother in control group and two FGR fetal rats were randomly selected from each mother both in model and taurine groups.Apoptosis of neural cells in the brain was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Changes in protein expression of GDNF and caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemistry.Levene method,one-way ANOVA and SNK-test,or Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Tamhane’ s test were applied for statistical analysis.Results (1)The total amounts of fetal rats in control group,model group and taurine group were 65,60 and 59.The mean body weight of fetal rats were (6.36±0.44) g,(4.55 ± 0.45) g and (5.11±0.67) g,respectively.All fetal rats developed FGR in model group,while 76.3%(45/59) of fetal rats were FGR in taurine group.Therefore,FGR model was successfully established.(2) In control group,there were few expression of TUNEL positive cells in cerebral cortex.A large amount of TUNEL positive cells were found in the cortex,hippocampal and white matter area in model group,but less positive cells were identified in taurine group than in model group.The amount of apoptotic brain cells in the three groups

  1. The Influence of Mordified Dan Shou Decoction on Rat Model of Fetal Loss Induced by BPA%加味丹寿汤对双酚A染毒孕鼠妊娠丢失的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫爱武; 王润之; 何东杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To explore the influence of Mordified Dan Shou Tang on pregnant rat models of felal loss induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Methods: 10-week-old SD pregnant rats were divided randomly into nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group 、nouris-hing kidney group 、 model group 、negative control group and blank group. From the first day of pregnancy,rats in nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group were given Mordified Dan Shou Tang through intragastric administration; rats in nourishing kidney group were given the formula of nourishing kidney ;while rats in other groups were given the physiological brine respectively through intragas-tric administration. From the seventh to the eleventh day of pregnancy,nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group,nourishing kidney group and model group were given multi-site intraperitoneal injection of BPA with a dosage of 50mg · (kg · d) ‐1 while negative control group were given multi-site intraperitoneal injection of sesame oil with the same volume. On the eighteenth day of pregnancy,rats in all the five groups were killed for samples to calculate fetal absorption rate,fetal weight and living birth rate. Results:Compared with model group,nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group and nourishing kidney group could dramatically reduce the fetal absorp-tion rate, increase fetal weight, enhance the content of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor ( P < 0.05) and significantly improve the placental pathological condition with nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group displaying better effects in the above items ( P<0.05). Conclusion: Modified Dan Shou Decoction could dramatically increase the content of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and improve the placental pathological condition, thus decreasing fetal absorbility of pregnant rats of BPA and increasing fetal weight and the chances of pregnancy.%目的:探讨补肾活血方——加味丹寿汤对双酚A染毒孕鼠模

  2. 大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植后子代的健康安全性研究%Health safety of the offspring after orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春霞; 薛敏; 徐大宝

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植术后自然生育的子代健康安全性问题.方法:选胚胎卵巢原位移植术后确定妊娠的19只雌性大鼠(研究组)和正常妊娠的10只雌性大鼠(对照组),观察其妊娠后有无流产征象、死产、幼鼠死亡(观察至出生后第3天),并比较观察结果;随机抽取2组大鼠的子代各40只;比较子代大鼠35日龄时的体质量;应用常规G显带技术对2组子代大鼠进行核型分析,观察大鼠的染色体数目和结构的变异情况.结果:研究组及对照组均无流产征象、无死产、无幼鼠生后3d内死亡;研究组和对照组子代大鼠35日龄的体质量分别为(93.80±4.93)g和(94.13±4.53)g,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组子代大鼠的核型均为42,XX或42,XY,未发现染色体数目和结构异常.结论:大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植后生育的子代在健康方面是安全的.%Objective To investigate the health safety of the offspring delivered following natural pregnancy after orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation in rats. Methods Any symptoms of spontaneous abortion during pregnancy and of any possible still birth and death of infant rats within 3 days after the delivery were observed and compared in 19 pregnant rats (the study group) after the orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation and in another 10 pregnant rats (the control group). Forty offspring rats from each group were selected randomly. The mean weight at day 35 after the birth of offsprings was measured and compared. By routine G-banding technique, the karyotype was analyzed and the chromosomal number and structure were observed. Results There was no spontaneous abortion, still birth, or death in the infants within 3 days after the birth in both groups. The body weight of offsprings at 35 days in both groups was (93. 80 ±4. 93) g and (94. 13 ±4. 53) g, respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The karyotype a

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasia with 3D CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Satoshi [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kosaki, Rika [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Strategic Medicine, Division of Clinical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Clinical use of 3D CT for fetal skeletal malformations is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fetal 3D CT using three protocols with different radiation doses and through comparing findings between fetal CT and conventional postnatal radiographic skeletal survey. Seventeen fetuses underwent CT for suspected skeletal dysplasia. A relay of three CT protocols with stepwise dose-reduction were used over the study period. The concordance between the CT diagnosis and the final diagnosis was assessed. Ninety-three radiological findings identifiable on radiographs were compared with CT. Fetal CT provided the correct diagnosis in all 17 fetuses, the detectability rate of cardinal findings was 93.5 %. In 59 % of the fetuses an US-based diagnosis was changed prenatally due to CT findings. The estimated fetal radiation dose in the final protocol was 3.4 mSv (50 %) of the initial protocol, and this dose reduction did not result in degraded image quality. The capability of fetal CT to delineate the skeleton was almost the same as that of postnatal skeletal survey. The perinatal management was altered due to these more specific CT findings, which aided in counseling and in the management of the pregnancy. (orig.)

  4. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  5. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2010-10-17

    The theory for skeletonized least squares wave equation migration (LSM) is presented. The key idea is, for an assumed velocity model, the source‐side Green\\'s function and the geophone‐side Green\\'s function are computed by a numerical solution of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green\\'s functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green\\'s function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF for every trial image point. The key to an efficient implementation of iterative LSM is that at each conjugate gradient iteration, the MGF is reused and no new finitedifference (FD) simulations are needed to get the updated migration image. It is believed that this procedure combined with phase‐encoded multi‐source technology will allow for the efficient computation of wave equation LSM images in less time than that of conventional reverse time migration (RTM).

  6. Landform skeleton reconstruction from unorganized points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingliang; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Xuejun; Bian, Lu

    2007-11-01

    Landform skeleton are lines that indicate significant topographic features of the terrain. It is widely used in mapping and surveying, hydrology simulation, topography representation and engineering designing. In order to derive the landform skeleton, many kinds of data source have been used, including digitized contour lines, Grid-DEMs and TIN. As time goes by, more and more unorganized points have been acquired, created, maintained and disseminated in many fields. Those unorganized points are the most original and important information which is vital for mapping and surveying. How to extract the feature lines from unorganized points has been the hot-pot in computer design and reverse-engineering. Methods used to extract landform features in existence have shown dependence on data types and thresholds more or less. In the paper, the view sheds principle used to extract the feature points has been put forward and then those points have been organized into feature lines according to related rules. The result has shown that the view sheds principle can extract the features and give the levels of feature points.

  7. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  8. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  9. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Female rats were studied on day 20 of pregnancy after being fed either a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet or a 20% lactalbumin (adequate) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Rats on the lower intake of protein showed decreased serum levels of rat placental lactogen and reduced numbers of lactogenic receptors in the maternal liver. These changes were accompanied by much reduced serum levels of somatomedins IGF I(insulin-like growth factor) and II (multiplication-stimulating activity, MSA)...

  10. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  11. 孕期亚临床维生素A缺乏对胎鼠肺形态发育的影响%Effects of marginal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on the lung morphology of fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨孕期亚临床维生素A(vitamin A,VA)缺乏对胎鼠肺形态发育的影响. [方法]建立孕期VA正常(vitamin A normal,VAN)和亚临床缺乏(marginal vitamin A deficiency,MVAD)动物模型,每组均于孕19 d剖宫取胎鼠.比较其体重、肺重、肝重和肺组织VA含量及其肺视黄酸受体(retinoic acid receptor,RAR)mRNAs的表达,HE染色光镜观察胎鼠肺的形态结构. [结果]1)胎鼠基本情况的比较体重、肺重和肝重三个指标VAN组均显著高于MVAD组(P<0.05);2)胎肺大体形态比较低倍镜(×200)与高倍镜(×400)下观察结果显示,VAN组肺泡样结构分布较规则,肺泡间隔较薄,肺实质发育较好,肺间质毛细血管较丰富,肺泡2型细胞较明显,大多处于小管期;而MVAD组上述指标均相对较差,发育幼稚,局部为小管期,大多为假腺体期;3)胎鼠肺单位组织VA水平VAN组>MVAD组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);4)胎鼠肺RAR-α、RAR-y和RAR-β mRNAs表达水平VAN组<MVAD组,三个基因的表达水平两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). [结论]孕期VA水平不同能影响胎鼠基本发育、胎肺形态结构、肺单位组织VA水平及其RAR mRNAs的表达;孕期MVAD时其胎肺发育相对较差.%[Objective] To observe the effects of marginal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on the lung' morphology of fetal rats. [Methods] Prenatal vitamin A norma( VAN)and marginal vitamin A deficiency(MVAD)of Spra-gue-Dawley rat models were employed. There were 6 mice in each group. On the gestational day 19 .fetal rats were harvested by cesarean section. Then weighed their body,lung and liver. The fetal lung morphology were observed by light microscope after hematoxylin and eosin stain. The vitamin A concentrations of lung were detected by high-performance liquid chroma-tography(HPLC) ,and the levels of retinoic acid receptor(RAR) mRNAs were detected by semi-quantitative reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction

  12. The Hoshino wooden skeleton, the first wooden model of a human skeleton, made during the Edo era in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2007-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called the wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object from the Edo era, in Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep a human skeleton for study and teaching purposes. There are three types of wooden skeletons: (i) Hoshino made in 1792; (ii) Kagami made by 1810; and (iii) Okuda made around 1820. The former two are of adult males and the latter is of a female. The wooden skeletons were made with surprising accuracy compared with figures that appeared in the medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests a scientific readiness of the doctors and the skill of the craftsmen. In the cases of the Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons, it is hard to consider that all wooden bones were assembled to show the entire body. Conversely, the Okuda wooden skeletons were made for showing in the sitting position. The skull of the Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap was not cut, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and the sulci for venous sinuses, were made with considerable accuracy. The skull caps of the Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons were cut, as those used in modern medical education.

  13. Conophylline Promotes the Proliferation of Immortalized Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Fetal Porcine Pancreas (iPMSCs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-ru; HUA Jin-lian; LI Dan; CAO Hui; L Xiao; CHU Yuan-kui; BAI Yao-fu; JIN Ya-ping; PENG Sha; DOU Zhong-ying

    2013-01-01

    Conophylline, is a bis (indole) alkaloid consisting of two pentacyclic aspidosperma skeletons, isolated from Tabernaemontana divaricata, which has been found to induce b-cell differentiation in rat pancreatic acinar carcinoma cells and in cultured rat pancreatic tissue. However, the precise role of conophylline in the growth and survival of immortalized pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) derived from fetal porcine pancreas were not understood at present. To determine whether this molecule is involved in controlling the proliferation of iPMSCs, we examined the effects of conophylline on iPMSCs. We found that conophylline can robustly stimulate iPMSCs proliferation, even promote their potential differentiation into islet-like clusters analyzed by cell counting, morphology, RT-PCR and real-time PCR, Western blotting, glucose-stimulated insulin release and insulin content analysis. The effects of conophylline were inhibited by LY294002, which is the inhibitor of the PI3K pathway. These results suggest that conophylline plays a key role in the regulation of cell mass proliferation, maintenance of the undifferentiated state of iPMSCs and also promotes iPMSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells.

  14. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  15. DPIV Measurements of Olympic Skeleton Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Leong, Chia Min; Wu, Vicki; Wei, Timothy; Peters, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a mock section of a bobsled track which was positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. DPIV measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position. In the fluid dynamics video shown, the athlete slowly raised his head while DPIV measurements were made behind the helmet in the separated flow region.

  16. Acid-Base and the Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis increases urine calcium (Ca) excretion in the absence of a concomitant increase in intestinal Ca absorption resulting in a net loss of total body. The source of this additional urine Ca is almost certainly the skeleton, the primary reservoir of body Ca. In vitro metabolic acidosis, modeled as a primary reduction in medium bicarbonate concentration, acutely (24 h) cell-mediated mechanisms predominate. In cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, acidosis-induced, cell-mediated Ca efflux is mediated by effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Metabolic acidosis inhibits extracellular matrix production by osteoblasts, as determined by measurement of collagen levels and levels for the non-collagenous matrix proteins osteopontin and matrix gla protein. Metabolic acidosis upregulates osteoblastic expression of RANKL (Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand), an important osteoclastogenic and osteoclast-activating factor. Acidosis also increases osteoclastic activity as measured by release of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme whose secretion correlates with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  17. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-09-06

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  18. SkelTre: Robust skeleton extraction from imperfect point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Lindenbergh, R.; Menenti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry of real world objects as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm developed for the skeletonization of a laser scanner point cloud. The skeletonization algorithm proposed in this paper consists of three steps: (i) extraction of a graph from

  19. A Skeleton for Distributed Work Pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  20. Leptin promotes fetal lung maturity and upregulates SP-A expression in pulmonary alveoli type-II epithelial cells involving TTF-1 activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Cheng, Rui; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present study, we found that antenatal treatment with leptin for 2 d significantly enhanced the relative alveolus area and improved the maturity of fetal lungs in a rat model of fetal growth restriction (FGR...

  1. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  2. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  3. Genetic loci for ventricular dilatation in the LEW/Jms rat with fetal-onset hydrocephalus are influenced by gender and genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga David A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LEW/Jms rat strain has inherited hydrocephalus, with more males affected than females and an overall expression rate of 28%. This study aimed to determine chromosomal positions for genetic loci causing the hydrocephalus. Methods An F1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. BC1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F], designated C group. All hydrocephalic and a similar number of non-hydrocephalic rats from these two groups were genotyped with microsatellite markers and the data was analyzed separately for each sex by MAPMAKER. Results The frequency of hydrocephalus was not significantly different between the two groups (18.2 and 19.9 %, but there was a significant excess of males in the B group. The mean severity of hydrocephalus, measured as the ventricle-to-brain width ratio, was ranked as B group Conclusion Phenotypic expression of hydrocephalus in Lew/Jms, although not X-linked, has a strong male bias. One, and possibly two chromosomal regions are associated with the hydrocephalus.

  4. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  5. Modelo experimental para restrição do crescimento fetal em ratos: efeito sobre o glicogênio hepático e morfometria intestinal e renal Experimental rat model for fetal growth restriction: effects on liver glycogen and intestinal and renal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia do modelo de RCIU por ligadura da artéria uterina simulando insuficiência placentária em ratos. MÉTODOS: fetos de ratas prenhes Sprague-Dawley foram divididos em três grupos: RCIU (restrição de crescimento intrauterino, com fetos submetidos à ligadura da artéria uterina com 18,5 dias de gestação (termo = 22 dias, C-RCIU (controle da restrição, com fetos do corno contralateral à ligadura, CE (Controle Externo, com fetos de ratas sem manipulação. Com 21,5 dias de gestação, foi realizada cesárea, os fetos foram pesados e dissecados para análise morfométrica e histológica do fígado, intestino e rins. RESULTADOS: os dados morfométricos avaliados mostraram o peso corpóreo (PC, hepático (PH e intestinal (PI dos fetos com RCIU menor que C-RCIU e CE (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effectiveness of the IUGR model by uterine artery ligation mimicking placental insufficiency in rats. METHODS: sprague-Dawley rat fetuses were divided into three groups: IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction, with fetuses in the right horn of pregnant rats subjected to right uterine artery ligation at 18.5 days of gestation (term = 22 days; C-IUGR (control of restriction, with control fetuses in the left horn, and EC (external control, with fetuses of intact rats. Animals were harvested by cesarean section at day 21.5 days of gestation. Fetuses were weighed and then sacrificed. The intestine, liver, kidney and placenta were weighed and dissected for morphometric and histological analysis. RESULTS: the morphometric data showed decreased body weight (BW, liver weight (LW and intestinal weight (IW of fetuses with IUGR compared to C-IUGR and EC (p<0.001. The placental weight (PW, renal weight (RW and LW/BW, IW/BW, and RW/BW ratios did not change. IUGR fetuses had decreased kidney thickness (p<0.001 and decreased thickness of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa (p<0.05. Histological evaluation showed reduction of liver glycogen

  6. Cytochrome P450 mRNA expressions along with in vitro differentiation of hepatocyte precursor cells from fetal, young and old rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wiaderkiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-differentiated cells are attractive targets for cell therapy. During liver regeneration oval cells intensively proliferate and differentiate extending their metabolic activity. Hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs can be linked either with metabolic activation of toxic compounds or drug metabolism. We investigated the differentiation and biotransformative potential of non-differentiated cells in primary cell cultures isolated from livers of fetuses (16-days-old, young (4-months-old and old (20-months-old rats. Under the conditions of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, adult rats were fed for three weeks with CDE diet. Liver cells were cultured and precursor cells were differentiated to hepatocytes following induction with sodium butyrate (SB or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in culture on MesenCult medium. We identified a number of cells expressing Thy-1, CD34, alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratines--CK18 or CK19 and glutathione transferases--GSTpi or GSTalpha. In vitro differentiation of these cells, isolated from CDE-treated rats begun earlier as compared to non-treated ones. Age-dependent changes in the cell differentiation sequence, as well as CYPmRNA expression sequence accompanying precursor cells differentiation, were also observed. mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1 was higher in the cells of young rats, but in the case of CYP2E1--in the cells of old rats. It was concluded that both proliferation and differentiation potential of oval cells, decreased with age.

  7. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  9. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  10. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, Catherine; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud "Nessie" lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity ($p-p-v$) space as traced by lower density $\\rm {CO}$ and higher density ${\\rm NH}_3$ gas. Nessie was presented as the first "bone" of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy's "skeleton." Here, we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use $\\rm {CO}$, ${\\rm N}_2{\\rm H}^+$, $\\rm {HCO}^+$, and ${\\rm NH}_3$ radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in ${\\it p-p-v}$ space. Of the ten candidates, si...

  11. The 3D skeleton of the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Sousbie, T; Courtois, H; Colombi, S; Novikov, D; Sousbie, Thierry; Pichon, Christophe; Colombi, St\\'ephane; Novikov, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    The length of the three-dimensional filaments observed in the fourth public data-release of the SDSS is measured using the {\\em local skeleton} method. It consists in defining the set of points where the gradient of the smoothed density field is extremal along its isocontours, with some additional constraints on local curvature to probe actual ridges in the galaxy distribution. A good fit to the mean filament length per unit volume, $\\cal{L}$, in the SDSS survey is found to be ${\\cal{L}}=(52500\\pm6500) (L/{\\rm Mpc})^{-1.75\\pm0.06}\\rm{Mpc}/(100 \\rm{Mpc})^{3}$ for $8.2 \\leq L \\leq 16.4$ Mpc, where $L$ is the smoothing length in Mpc. This result, which deviates only slightly, as expected, from the trivial behavior ${\\cal{L}} \\propto L^{-2}$, is in excellent agreement with a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, as long as the matter density parameter remains in the range $0.25 < \\Omega_{\\rm matter} < 0.4$ at one sigma confidence level, considering the universe is flat. These measurements, which are in fact dominated by ...

  12. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  13. Efficient volume preserving approach for skeleton-based implicit surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史红兵; 童若锋; 董金祥

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient way to preserve the volume of implicit surfaces generated by skeletons. Recursive subdivision is used to efficiently calculate the volume. The criterion for subdivision is obtained by using the property of density functions and treating different types of skeletons respectively to get accurate minimum and maximum distances from a cube to a skeleton. Compared with the criterion generated by other ways such as using traditional Interval Analysis, Affine Arithmetic, or Lipschitz condition, our approach is much better both in speed and accuracy.

  14. The Derivation of Skeleton Lines for Terrain Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The geometric and physical analysis methods are conventional methods for the derivation of skeleton lines in the fields of cartography,digital photogrammetry,and related areas.This paper proposes a stepwise approach that uses the physical analysis method in the first stage and the geometric analysis method in the subsequent stage.The physical analysis method analyses the terrain globally to obtain a rough set of skeleton lines for a terrain surface.The rough skeleton lines help to structure the ordering of feature points by the geometric analysis method.

  15. Analysis of Single Phase Skeleton Type BLDC Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Cho, K. Y.; Shin, H. J. [LG Electronics Inc., Digital Appliance Research Laboratory (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    An analysis of the skeleton type BLDC motor is presented. The single phase skeleton type BLDC motor consists of the stator, rotor with the permanent magnet, and drive circuit with hall sensors that detect the rotor position. The major factors for the initial starting, efficiency, and torque ripples of the skeleton type BLDC motor are the detent groove of the stator and the lead angle of the phase voltage. The performance characteristics according to the angle and height of the detent groove is analyzed. The optimum lead angles of the phase voltage with the torque ripple and motor efficiency is described using the finite element method. (author). 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanxue; Ming, Chengguo; Qin, Yueting

    A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed.

  17. Regulation of glucose metabolism and the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kong Wah

    2011-08-01

    Complex interactions occur among adipose tissue, the central nervous system, bone and pancreas to integrate bone remodelling, glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. Data obtained largely from the judicious use of gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic mouse models show that leptin, an adipocyte-secreted product, indirectly inhibits bone accrual through a central pathway comprising the hypothalamus and central nervous system. Increased sympathetic output acting via β2-adrenergic receptors present in osteoblasts decreases bone formation and causes increased bone resorption. Insulin is a key molecular link between bone remodelling and energy metabolism. Insulin signalling in the osteoblasts increases bone formation and resorption as well as the release of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. An increase in the release of bone-derived undercarboxylated osteocalcin into the systemic circulation enables it to act as a circulating hormone to stimulate insulin production and secretion by pancreatic β-cells and adiponectin by adipocytes. Insulin sensitivity increases, lipolysis and fat accumulation decreases while energy expenditure increases. Whether this model of integrative physiology involving the skeleton, pancreas and adipose tissue, so elegantly demonstrated in rodents, is applicable to humans is controversial. The mouse Esp gene, encoding an intracellular tyrosine phosphatase that negatively regulates insulin signalling in osteoblasts, is a pseudogene in humans, and a homolog for the Esp gene has so far not been identified in humans. A close homologue of Esp, PTP1B, is expressed in human osteoblasts and could take the role of Esp in humans. Data available from the limited number of clinical studies do not provide a sufficient body of evidence to determine whether osteocalcin or undercarboxylated osteocalcin affects glucose metabolism in humans. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  19. Remodeling the dentofacial skeleton: the biological basis of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, M C

    2007-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is dependent upon the remodeling of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone by mechanical means. Facial sutures are also fibrous articulations, and by remodeling these joints, one can alter the positional relationships of the bones of the facial skeleton. As might be expected from the structure and mobility of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), this articulation is more resistant to mechanical deformation, and whether functional mandibular displacement can alter the growth of the condyle remains controversial. Clinical investigations of the effects of the Andresen activator and its variants on dentofacial growth suggest that the changes are essentially dento-alveolar. However, with the popularity of active functional appliances, such as the Herbst and twin-block based on 'jumping the bite', attention has focused on how they achieve dentofacial change. Animal experimentation enables informed decisions to be made regarding the effects of orthodontic treatment on the facial skeleton at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Both rat and monkey models have been widely used, and the following conclusions can be drawn from such experimentation: (1) Facial sutures readily respond to changes in their mechanical environment; (2) anterior mandibular displacement in rat models does not increase the mitotic activity of cells within the condyle to be of clinical significance, and (3) mandibular displacement in non-human primates initiates remodeling activity within the TMJ and can alter condylar growth direction. This last conclusion may have clinical utility, particularly in an actively growing child.

  20. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  1. Program Transformation to Identify List-Based Parallel Skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithmic skeletons are used as building-blocks to ease the task of parallel programming by abstracting the details of parallel implementation from the developer. Most existing libraries provide implementations of skeletons that are defined over flat data types such as lists or arrays. However, skeleton-based parallel programming is still very challenging as it requires intricate analysis of the underlying algorithm and often uses inefficient intermediate data structures. Further, the algorithmic structure of a given program may not match those of list-based skeletons. In this paper, we present a method to automatically transform any given program to one that is defined over a list and is more likely to contain instances of list-based skeletons. This facilitates the parallel execution of a transformed program using existing implementations of list-based parallel skeletons. Further, by using an existing transformation called distillation in conjunction with our method, we produce transformed programs that contain fewer inefficient intermediate data structures.

  2. A reservoir skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Traditional stochastic reservoir modeling,including object-based and pixel-based methods,cannot solve the problem of reproducing continuous and curvilinear reservoir objects. The paper first dives into the various stochastic modeling methods and extracts their merits,then proposes the skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics(SMPS) for the fluvial reservoir. The core idea is using the skeletons of reservoir objects to restrict the selection of data patterns. The skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics consists of two steps. First,predicting the channel skeleton(namely,channel centerline) by using the method in object-based modeling. The paper proposes a new method of search window to predict the skeleton. Then forecasting the distributions of reservoir objects using multiple point geostatistics with the restriction of channel skeleton. By the restriction of channel centerline,the selection of data events will be more reasonable and the realization will be achieved more really. The checks by the conceptual model and the real reservoir show that SMPS is much better than Sisim(sequential indicator simulation) ,Snesim(Single Normal Equation Simulation) and Simpat(simulation with patterns) in building the fluvial reservoir model. This new method will contribute to both the theoretical research of stochastic modeling and the oilfield developments of constructing highly precise reservoir geological models.

  3. Changes of multiple biotransformation phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzyme activities in human fetal adrenals during fetal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jie PING; Ren-xiu PENG; Jiang YUE; Xue-yan XIA; Qi-xiong LI; Rui KONG; Jun-yan HONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Fetal adrenal, which synthesizes steroid hormones, is critical to fetal growth and development. Our recent research showed that some xenobiotics could inter-fere with steroidogenesis and induce intrauterine growth retardation in rats. The study on the characteristics of biotransformation enzymes in fetal adrenals still seems to be important with respect to possible significance in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity. In this study, the activities of several important xenobiotic-related phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzymes in human fetal adrenals were examined and compared with those in fetal livers. Methods: The activity and mRNA expression were determined by enzymatic analysis and RT-PCR. Results: The levels of cytochrome (CYP)2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A7 isozymes in fetal adrenals were 82%, 92%, and 33% of those in fetal livers, respectively. There was a good positive correlation between adrenal CYP2A6 activity and gestational time. The values of α glutathione S-transferase (GST), πGST, and μGST in adrenals were 0.5, 4.4, and 8.3-fold of those in the livers, respectively, and the activity of adrenal πGST was negatively correlated with gestational time. The uridine diphosphoglucuronyl transferase activities, which were measured using p-hydroxy-biphenyl and 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin as substrates, were 9% and 3%, respectively, of those in the fetal livers. Conclusion: Our investiga-tion suggested that adrenal could be an important xenobiotic-metabolizing or-gan in fetal development and may play a potential role in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity.

  4. A Comparison Study of the Effects of Echinacea purpurea Ethanolic Extract and Mesna on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Macroscopic Fetal Defects in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s There are some reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Echinacea purpurea extract is antioxidative and immunomodulator drug. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate is used for decreasing side effects of CPA, especially hemorrhagic cystitis. In this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of CPA. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into 4 groups. The first group (control group received normal saline and the other groups received CPA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 13th day of gestation. Mesna and E. purpurea extracts were administrated at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg by IP injection, respectively, along with it and 12 hr later, after CPA injection. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested and after determination of gross malformations they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. ResultsCleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only CPA, CPA with mesna and CPA with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum, and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract.ConclusionE. purpurea has significant effect on preventing CPA-induced malformations and better prophylactic effect than mesna on cases like CPA-induced cleft palate.

  5. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  6. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  7. Expression and localization of VEGF receptors in human fetal skeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M; Sarchielli, E; Toce, M; Acocella, A; Bertolai, R; Ciulli, C; Orlando, C; Sgambati, E; Vannelli, G B

    2012-12-01

    During development the vertebrate skeleton is the product of deriving cells from distinct embryonic lineages. The craniofacial skeleton is formed by migrating cranial neural crest cells, whereas the axial and limb skeletons are derived from mesodermal cells. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) / receptors (VEGFRs) system plays an important role in angiogenesis, as well as osteogenesis, during bone development, growth, and remodeling, attracting endothelial cells and osteoclasts and stimulating osteoblast differentiation. Recent evidence has shown that during development VEGFR-3 is also expressed in neural and glial precursors of forebrain and cerebellum, as well as in the eye. In this study, we found that VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 are expressed in human bone both in fetal and adult life. The gene expression levels were significantly higher in fetal samples especially in mandibles. In addition, higher levels of VEGFR-3 in orofacial district were confirmed by western blotting analysis. We also observed that in fetal mandibular samples VEGFRs colocalized in several osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoprogenitor cells. Furthermore, some cells coexpressed VEGFR-3 and ET-1, a marker of neural crest cells. The results demonstrated different expression of VEGFRs in human mandibular and femoral bones which could be correlated to their different structure, function and development during organogenesis. VEGFR-3 might represent a specific signal for ectomesenchymal lineage differentiation during early human development.

  8. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology.

  9. 胎儿期生长受限对雌性大鼠胰岛素抵抗及生殖的影响%Effects of fetal growth retardation on insulin resistance and fertility in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔谷媛; 赵辉平; 马向东; 陈必良; 黄艳红; 张建芳; 王德堂; 郭会灵; 徐佳; 王胜春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influences of fetal growth retardation ( FGR ) and insulin resistance at their adult stage on ovarian development, function and glucose metabolism in female rats. Methods FGR models were constructed by ligating uterine artery of pregnant rats. The Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) pregnant rats on day 17 of gestation were divided into experimental group ( n = 14 ) performing bilateral uterine artery ligation ( UAL ) and control group ( n = 8 ) performing sham operation. Thirty newborn female rats were chosen from FGR group and control group respectively, and they were divided into two groups and provided with normal diet. Fasting plasma glucose ( FPG ) and fasting insulin ( FINS ) of FGR group and control group were detected, and glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamp test were processed to calculate glucose intake rate ( GIR ). Islet β -cell endocrine function and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue were evaluated. The change of oestrous cycle and testosterone level were observed in both groups. The ovarian tissues of both groups were evaluated, and Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the content and expression of GSK-3β. Results FPG and insulin level of adult FGR rats were 5. 60 ±0. 82mmol/L and 59. 06 ± 14. 00mU/L respectively, which were significantly higher than those of rats in control group (4. 55 ±0.57mmol/L and 47.20 ±15. 00mU/L respectively, t was -3. 353 and 2. 203 , both P<0.05). GIR in experimental group was ( 7. 95 ±0. 80 )mg · kg-1 · min-1 , which was lower than that ( 12. 99 ±0. 35 )mg · kg-1 · min-1 in control group ( P <0.05 ). Compared with that of control group, the estrous cycle of FGR rats prolonged significantly, and testosterone level rose. The estrous cycle of FGR group ( 8. 3 ±1.5 days ) was longer than that of control group (5.1 ±0. 9 days ). Ovarian follicle of various stages and corepus luteum were found in ovary of two groups, but the differences in ovarian

  10. Fetal skull analysis in ultrasound images based on iterative randomized Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yufei; Yu, Jinhua; Shen, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2009-02-01

    Analysis of ultrasound fetal head images is a daily routine for medical professionals in obstetrics. The contours of fetal skulls often appear discontinuous and irregular in clinical ultrasound images, making it difficult to measure the fetal head size automatically. In addition, the presence of heavy noise in ultrasound images is another challenge for computer aided automatic fetal head detection. In this paper, we first utilize the stick method to suppress the noise and compute an adaptive threshold for fetal skull segmentation. Morphological thinning is then performed to obtain a skeleton image, which is used as an input to the Hough transform. Finally, automatic fetal skull detection is realized by Iterative Randomized Hough Transform (IRHT). The elliptic eccentricity is used in the IRHT to reduce the number of invalid accumulations in the parameter space, improving the detection accuracy. Furthermore, the target region is adaptively adjusted in the IRHT. To evaluate the performance of IRHT, we also developed a simulation user interface for comparing results produced by the conventional randomized Hough transform (RHT) and the IRHT. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is effective for automatic fetal head detection in ultrasound images.

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  13. The effects of a novel hormonal breast cancer therapy, endoxifen, on the mouse skeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gingery

    Full Text Available Endoxifen has recently been identified as the predominant active metabolite of tamoxifen and is currently being developed as a novel hormonal therapy for the treatment of endocrine sensitive breast cancer. Based on past studies in breast cancer cells and model systems, endoxifen classically functions as an anti-estrogenic compound. Since estrogen and estrogen receptors play critical roles in mediating bone homeostasis, and endoxifen is currently being implemented as a novel breast cancer therapy, we sought to comprehensively characterize the in vivo effects of endoxifen on the mouse skeleton. Two month old ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle or 50 mg/kg/day endoxifen hydrochloride via oral gavage for 45 days. Animals were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Serum from control and endoxifen treated mice was evaluated for bone resorption and bone formation markers. Gene expression changes were monitored in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and the cortical shells of long bones from endoxifen treated mice and in a human fetal osteoblast cell line. Endoxifen treatment led to significantly higher bone mineral density and bone mineral content throughout the skeleton relative to control animals. Endoxifen treatment also resulted in increased numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts per tissue area, which was corroborated by increased serum levels of bone formation and resorption markers. Finally, endoxifen induced the expression of osteoblast, osteoclast and osteocyte marker genes. These studies are the first to examine the in vivo and in vitro impacts of endoxifen on bone and our results demonstrate that endoxifen increases cancellous as well as cortical bone mass in ovariectomized mice, effects that may have implications for postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

  14. The expression of IGF-2 in tetrachlorodibenzodioxin-induced congenital skeleton malformation%IGF一2在四氯二苯并二恶英诱导的大鼠骨骼畸形中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭磊; 赵玉岩; 张世亮; 朱世博; 刘魁

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨骨骼发育畸形的大鼠软骨组织内胰岛素样生长因子(insulin-like growth factors,IGFs)家族成员IGF-2的表达规律.方法 应用环境类致畸因子二恶英中毒性最强的四氯二苯并二恶英,即2,3,7,8-四氯一二苯并-对-二恶英(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,TCDD)构建先天性大鼠骨骼发育畸形动物模型.应用光镜和透射电镜观测骨骼畸形大鼠的足部软骨组织病理学改变.免疫组织化学染色分析大鼠软骨组织IGF-2蛋白的表达.应用TCDD干预体外培养的大鼠软骨细胞,采用RT-PCR及Western印迹杂交检测软骨细胞内的IGF-2 mRNA及蛋白质的表达水平.结果 TCDD(15 μg/kg)诱导实验组33.3%的胎鼠出现单一或多种畸形,包括:内翻足、小脑畸形、腭裂、无尾畸形等,在骨骼畸形胎鼠的足部软骨发生带缩小,软骨细胞数量减少,软骨细胞核内粗面内质网扩张,核基质降解,线粒体嵴紊乱.15 μg/kg剂量的TCDD使畸形胎鼠软骨细胞内IGF-2蛋白质的表达明显降低.TCDD(1 × 10-8 mol/L)作用体外培养的大鼠软骨细胞24 h,细胞内IGF-2的基因转录和翻译水平分别减少80%和60%,P<0.05.结论 IGF 2在大鼠软骨细胞内的低表达可能与TCDD对骨骼发育的致畸作用密切相关.%Objective To investigate the gene expression of insulin-like growth factors-2(IGF2)in fetal rat with congenital skeleton malformation.Methods The fetal rat models with congenital skeleton malformation were induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD)to the pregnant Wistar rats(day 10).Histopathologic characteristics of cartilaginous tissue in fetal foot were detected with light microscope and transmission electron microscope.IGF-2 protein level in cartilaginous tissue was analyzed by immunocytochemical methods and image analysis.The IGF-2 mRNA and protein level in TCDD-treated chondrocytes in vitro were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  15. Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.

    2016-11-01

    Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n  =  4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p  approach to obtain quantitative characterization of the vascular network from 3D photoacoustic images without any exogenous contrast agent which can assess microenvironmental changes related to

  16. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  17. Dynamic constitutive model for soils considering asymmetry of skeleton curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Chen; Hua Pan; Hui Long; Xiaojun Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the asymmetric characteristic of skeleton curve obtained from dynamic tests on soils, a func-tion with double asymptotes is proposed for describing the dynamic constitutive relations of soils. The hysteresis loops observed during unloading and reloading show the same form as the skeleton curve and are constructed by taking the ultimate stress as the corresponding asymptote. The coefficient of initial unloading modulus is used to ensure that the constructed hysteresis loop fits well with the experimental data. Then, a new dynamic constitutive model considering the asymmetry of skeleton curve is elaborated. The verification tests on saturated Nanjing fine sand are performed using a hollow cylinder apparatus to verify the applicability of the UD model. It is found that the predicted curves by the UD model agree well with the test data.

  18. Immunomagenetic indirect positive sorting of neural stem cells from fetal rat brain%免疫磁珠法分选胚胎大鼠脑神经干细胞的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国一; 李莉

    2000-01-01

    目的:探索应用免疫磁珠间接阳性法分选神经上皮干细胞蛋白(nestin)阳性的神经干细胞群的实验条件.为研究神经干细胞的特性与神经干细胞的培养和移植研究创造有利条件。方法:制取胎鼠大脑组织细胞悬液,免疫磁珠法分选胎鼠脑神经干细胞,以流式细胞术检测阳性细胞纯度,以锥虫蓝染色法检测细胞活性。结果:该法分选的nestin阳性细胞纯度为93.0%~99.7%,其中活性细胞为92%~97%。结论:免疫磁珠法分离胎鼠脑神经干细胞群落简便、有效,可以为神经干细胞细胞培养和移植提供细胞来源,也为研究高纯度神经干细胞的特性提供了实验基础。%Objective:To study the sorting high-purity neural stem cells fromfetal rat brain cells.Methods:Fetal rat brain cell suspensions were incubated with monoclone antibody of nestin,and the labelled cells were separated from the suspension in the magnetic field by immunobeads coated with the second antibody.Purity of the sorted cells was determined with flow cytometry.Results:Purity of the sorted neural stem cells were determined as 93.0%-99.7%,active cells acount for 92 %-97 %.Conclusion:The magnetic cell sorting system can effectively separate neural stem cell from brain cell suspension.

  19. Tutorial for Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized Data

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2017-04-25

    Full waveform inversion of seismic data is often plagued by cycle skipping problems so that an iterative optimization method often gets stuck in a local minimum. To avoid this problem we simplify the objective function so that the iterative solution can quickly converge to a solution in the vicinity of the global minimum. The objective function is simplified by only using parsimonious and important portions of the data, which are defined as skeletonized data. We now present a mostly non-mathematical tutorial that explains the theory of skeletonized inversion. We also show its effectiveness with examples.

  20. Caterpillars use the substrate as their external skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Animals that lack rigid structures often employ pressurization to maintain body form and posture. Structural stability is then provided by incompressible fluids or tissues and the inflated morphology is called a hydrostatic skeleton. However, new ground reaction force data from the caterpillar, Manduca sexta suggest an alternate strategy for large soft animals moving in complex three dimensional structures. When crawling, Manduca can keep its body primarily in tension and transmit compressive deformation using the substrate. This effectively allows the caterpillar to minimize reliance on a hydrostatic skeleton and helps it conform to the environment. We call this alternative strategy an “environmental skeleton”. PMID:21057644

  1. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor, methoxychlor, reduces lean body mass and bone mineral density and increases cortical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Heather S; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Buckendahl, Patricia; Dunn, Michael G; Shupper, Peter; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous estrogen has beneficial effects on mature bone and negatively affects the developing skeleton, whereas the effect of environmental estrogens is not known. Methoxychlor (MXC) is a synthetic estrogen known as a persistent organochlorine and used as a pesticide. Methoxychlor and its metabolites display estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity and may therefore influence bone. Fifty-eight male fetal and neonatal rats were exposed to either: a negative control (DMSO), 0.020, 100 mg/kg MXC, or 1 mg/kg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB; positive control). Rats were treated daily for 11 days, from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day (PND) 7 or for 4 days during the postnatal period (PND 0-7). All rats were analyzed at PND-84. Total body, femur, spine, and tibia areal bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), lean body mass (LBM) and fat were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry and volumetric (v) BMD were measured using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical properties using three-point bending were assessed. Rats exposed to EB or MXC (at either the high and/or low dose), independent of exposure interval showed lower body weight, LBM, tibia and femur BMD and length, and total body BMD and BMC than DMSO control group (p ≤ 0.05). Methoxychlor and EB exposure increased cortical porosity compared to DMSO controls. Trabecular vBMD, number and separation, and cortical polar moment of inertia and cross-sectional area were lower due to EB exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). Early MXC exposure compromises cortical porosity and bone size at maturity, and could ultimately increase the risk of fracture with aging.

  2. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  3. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  4. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  5. The metabolism of radium-226 during pregnancy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kshirsagar, S.G. (Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Bombay (India))

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of radium including the transfer to the fetus through the placenta was studied during three successive pregnancies 92, 155, and 213 days after injection of 226Ra in young female rats. The cumulative fecal and urinary excretions of 226Ra in a 213-day period following injection were about 30 and 15% injected dose (%ID), respectively, most of them occurring during the first 42 days. The excretions were similar in both the pregnant and control (unmated) rats. The whole-body burden of radium (mostly in the skeleton) determined by actual analysis of the entire body was similar in the two groups and was about 53, 48, and 44 %ID at the first, second, and third pregnancy, respectively. Pregnancy alone, therefore, did not significantly affect metabolism of radium. At 20 days of gestation the mean placental content of radium was 0.005, 0.0045, and 0.0036 %ID in the first, second, and third litter, respectively; the corresponding mean fetal content was 0.01, 0.008, and 0.005 %ID. The radium burden of the full-term neonate (21-22 days) was 0.014 and 0.011 %ID for the first and second delivery, respectively. The total amount calculated of radium transferred from the mother to the 8-10 fetuses in a litter did not exceed about 0.3% of the maternal content per each pregnancy. Comparison of the ratio of radium and calcium in the fetus and maternal skeleton shows that there is a Ra-Ca discrimination during their passage from the mother to the fetus.

  6. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  7. Effect of ethanol (EtOH) and dietary histidine (His) on fetal brain histamine (Hm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.J.; Liying Jin (Rutgers-the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors have previously shown that gestational EtOH consumption decreased free His in fetal tissues, including the brain. His is the precursor of Hm, a neurotransmitter, and since central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is frequently observed in the offspring of alcoholic women, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of gestational EtOH consumption on fetal brain Hm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 35% EtOH-calorie liquid diets with three levels of His from gestation day (GD) 7 to 21. Control rats (LHC, MHC and HHC) were pair-fed with isocaloric sucrose substituted for EtOH. ON GD-21, fetal and maternal tissue were analyzed for His and H. In all tissues examined (fetal brain, plasma and liver, and maternal plasma and liver), His was increased with the increase of dietary His. Hm was also increased in fetal brain and liver in 0.8% dietary His groups. EtOH feeding decreased His in all fetal tissues but increased Hm in fetal brain and liver. The values of fetal brain Hm were: 805 {plus minus} 89 vs 574 {plus minus}47 (LHE vs LHC), 690 {plus minus} 29 vs 446 {plus minus} 32 (MHE vs MHC) and 1,335 {plus minus} 165 vs 938 {plus minus} 72 (HHE vs HHC), an increase of 40-50% by EtOH. Alteration in fetal brain Hm may contribute to the CNS dysfunction.

  8. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.

  9. Changes of Clara cell protein and interferon-γ in lungs with fetal growth retardation in fetal rats%宫内生长受限胎鼠肺组织Clara细胞蛋白与干扰素γ的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 田宝玲; 焦伊胜; 袁正伟; 刘彩霞

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究孕期营养不良造成的宫内生长受限(IUGR)胎鼠肺组织Clara细胞蛋白(CCSP)和调控其转录表达的细胞因子干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)的变化及相互联系,探讨其与肺部疾病发生的相关性.方法 采用孕期全程低蛋白饮食法建立大鼠IUGR模型,孕第20.5天(足月21.5 d)剖腹取胎鼠,分离其肺脏,肺组织切片HE染色后观察其肺组织病理变化,酶联免疫分析法检测其血清和肺组织中CCSP和IFN-γ水平.采用荧光定量反转录-聚合酶链式反应技术检测胎鼠肺脏中IFN-γ mRNA和CCSP mRNA表达.结果 低蛋白组胎鼠体质量和湿肺质量均低于对照组;IUGR胎鼠肺组织切片放射性肺泡计数降低,提示IUGR组胎鼠肺泡数量减少,肺泡平均线性截距增加.IUGR组胎鼠肺组织CCSP mRNA和蛋白水平均低于对照组(P均<0.05),其血浆CCSP蛋白水平亦明显低于对照组(P<0.05).IUGR胎鼠血循环和肺组织IFN-γ水平均明显低于对照组(P均<0.05).结论 宫内营养不良引起胎鼠肺组织结构发生改变,IFN-γ表达降低,可能抑制CCSP基因的转录和表达,从而诱发产后早期乃至后期肺部疾病.%Objective To determine the effects of intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) caused by malnutrition during pregnancy on the lung structure and expression of Clara cell protein (CCSP) and interferon (IFN)-γ in the fetal lungs,and to explore their relation ship with pulmonary disease.Methods Fetal rats from maternal protein-malnutrition dams were studied on day 20(term 21.5 day).The lung pathology was examined by means of Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) stain.Plasma was collected to determine the CCSP and IFN-γ concentration.Lungs were harvested to measure the expression of CCSP and IFN-γ mRNA by using fluorescent quantization reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and the levels of CCSP and IFN-γ protein were assessed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Malnutrition fetus body weight significantly less compared

  10. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  11. Ocean acidification and warming scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Nivia, Catalina; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Kline, David; Guldberg, Ove-Hoegh; Dove, Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and warming on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 μatm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 μatm - +2 °C; High: +610 μatm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the environmental effect of acidic seawater (i.e., Ωaragonite ocean acidification and warming will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans.

  12. Markov Skeleton Processes and Applications to Queueing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ting Hou

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the backward equations of Markov skeleton processes to queueing systems.The transient distribution of the waiting time of a GI/G/1 queueing system, the transient distribution of the length of a GI/G/N queueing system and the transient distribution of the length of queueing networks are obtained.

  13. A Practical Introduction to Skeletons for the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  14. Organic membranous skeleton of the Precambrian metazoans from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Jerzy

    1999-06-01

    Unlike the celebrated Ediacara fossils, those from the roughly coeval localities of the Kuibis Quarzite of Namibia are preserved not as imprints on the sandstone bedding plane, but three-dimensionally, within the rock matrix. The pattern of deformation and the presence of sand in lower parts of the bodies of Ernietta, the most common and typical of those organisms, indicate that their three-dimensional preservation is a result of a density-controlled sinking of sand-filled organic skeletons within hydrated mud layers. Specimens of Ernietta have preserved various stages of migration across the mud beds. Their wall material, as documented by the mode of deformation, was not only flexible, but also elastic, which makes it unlike chitin. The walls thus seem to be proteinaceous, built probably of a collagenous fabric. The Ernietta skeleton was built of series of parallel chambers, which excludes the possibility that these were external body covers. The chambers apparently represent walls of hydraulic skeleton units, resembling the basement membrane of chaetognaths or the notochord sheath of primitive chordates. Such chambers are widespread among the earliest fossil animals represented by fossils preserved in sandstone. The rise and fall of the Ediacaran faunas thus seem to be partially preservational artifacts. The range of its occurrence is a result of two successive evolutionary events: the origin of an internal hydraulic skeleton enclosed by a strong basement membrane, and the appearance of decomposers with abilities to disintegrate such collagenous sheaths.

  15. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    the worker processes. The latter are arranged in a ring topology and exchange additional channels to shortcut communication paths. The skeleton is suited for different types of algorithms, namely simple data parallel ones and standard tree search algorithms like backtracking, and using a global state...

  16. A practical introduction to skeletons for the plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  17. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  18. Expression of Estrogen Receptor mRNA and Genes Related to Regulation of Bile acid Metabolism in Fetal Rat Liver of Pregnant Rats with Intrahepatic Cholestasis%雌激素受体及胆汁酸代谢相关基因在胆汁淤积孕鼠胎鼠肝脏中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时青云; 赵晋; 林宇庚; 闫时; 周新; 林颖奇

    2011-01-01

    gene related to regulation of bile acid metabolism in fetal rat liver of pregnant rats with intrahepafic cholestasis. Methods Sixty clean SD pregnant rats were selected and divided into two groups at random. ① Since the 13th day of pregnancy after taking blood, the rats in control group were injected subcutaneously with refined vegetable oil 2. 5mL · kg -1 · d -1, study group was injected subcutaneously with the 17-a-ethynylestradiol(EE) 1.25 mg· kg -1 · d-1 till the 17th day. ② On the 21st day, all rats were killed. Then the fetus livers were collected for study. ③) The levels of serum total bile acid(TBA) were examined by ELISA. The expression of ER, CYP7A1, CYP27AI, CYP8B1 (mRNA) in fetal rat liver was examined by real-time PCR. Results ② The levels of TBA were significanfiy higher in study group mother rats(58.7 ±3.2) μmol/L than that of control group(24. 6 ± 1.3 ) μmol/L on the ITs day ( P < 0.05 ); The levels of TBA were higher in study group mother rats (66.4 ± 2.7 ) μnol/L than that of control group ( 26.5 ± 3.1 ) μmoL/L on the 21 st day ( P < O. 05 ). The levels of TBA were higher in study group fetus rats(28.4 ±2.6) μ mol/L than that of control group( 10.5 ± 3.1 ) μ moL/L on the 21st day. ③ The expression of CYP7AI mRNA( 1.25 ± 0 01 ), CYP27A1 mRNA ( 2.05 ± 0. 03 ), CYPSB1 mRNA ( 1.85 ± 0. 01 ) in study group fetus liver increased as compared to control group(0.35 ± 0.02, 0.75 ± 0.03, 0. 85 ± 0.02, respectively) ( P < O. 05 ). 3) The expression of ERα mRNA in study group ( 0.75 ± 0.02 ) was higher than that ofcontrol group ( 0.45 ± 0.01 ) ( P< 0.05 ) . Conclusion The expression of ERα,CYP7AI, CYP27A1, CYPSBI(mRNA ) increased in the fetal rat liver of pregnant rots with intrahepatic cholestasis, resulting in increased synthesis of bile acids, which may be one of the mechanisms of perinatal death of the fetal rats.

  19. The skeleton of postmetamorphic echinoderms in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Available evidence on the impact of acidification and its interaction with warming on the skeleton of postmetamorphic (juvenile and adult) echinoderms is reviewed. Data are available on sea urchins, starfish, and brittle stars in 33 studies. Skeleton growth of juveniles of all sea urchin species studied so far is affected from pH 7.8 to 7.6 in seawater, values that are expected to be reached during the 21st century. Growth in adult sea urchins (six species studied) is apparently only marginally affected at seawater pH relevant to this century. The interacting effect of temperature differed according to studies. Juvenile starfish as well as adults seem to be either not impacted or even boosted by acidification. Brittle stars show moderate effects at pH below or equal to 7.4. Dissolution of the body wall skeleton is unlikely to be a major threat to sea urchins. Spines, however, due to their exposed position, are more prone to this threat, but their regeneration abilities can probably ensure their maintenance, although this could have an energetic cost and induce changes in resource allocation. No information is available on skeleton dissolution in starfish, and the situation in brittle stars needs further assessment. Very preliminary evidence indicates that mechanical properties in sea urchins could be affected. So, although the impact of ocean acidification on the skeleton of echinoderms has been considered as a major threat from the first studies, we need a better understanding of the induced changes, in particular the functional consequences of growth modifications and dissolution related to mechanical properties. It is suggested to focus studies on these aspects.

  20. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in maternal and fetal guinea pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughaday, W H; Yanow, C E; Kapadia, M

    1986-08-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in fetal development has been the subject of much speculation. We undertook studies of maternal and fetal IGF I and II in the guinea pig because the long gestation period and greater size of the fetuses permitted blood sampling over a longer period of gestation and maturation than is possible in the rat. Acid gel filtrates of fetal and maternal serum were prepared, and the IGF I was measured by RIA; IGF II was measured by rat placental membrane radioreceptor assay. Fetal IGF I levels were lower than maternal levels from the 33rd day of estimated gestation to term. Fetal IGF II levels from the 33rd day to the 49th day of gestation were not significantly different from those of maternal serum [1597 +/- 377 (SE) ng/ml vs. 1295 +/- 224] ng/ml. Very high levels of IGF II, in excess of 5000 ng/ml, were observed in fetuses at 50, 55, and 60 days of gestation. Thereafter, fetal IGF II levels fell markedly before term. Fetal and maternal IGFs after 49, 50, 60, and 65 days of pregnancy were compared by isoelectric focusing. The guinea pig normally has two major basic peaks of IGF I, which were present both in maternal and fetal serum. Most maternal and fetal guinea pig sera contained only a single, slightly acidic peak of IGF II. No evidence of a unique fetal IGF was detected by our methods. The very high levels of IGF II reached in fetal guinea pig sera suggest that it may have a role in fetal development.

  1. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  2. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  3. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system.

  4. 被动吸烟影响仔鼠小脑皮质神经生长因子含量及牛磺酸的干预作用%Effect of passive smoking on content of nerve growth factor in cerebellar cortex of fetal rats and the interventional effect of taurine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳兰

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reported about passive smoking on development of nervous system are rare and it is lack of preventive and therapeutic measures.Previous animal experiments proved that passive smoking at pregrancy could decrease content of Nerve growth factor (NGF) in hippocampal tissue and eliminate abilities of learning of fetal rats. Cerebellar cortex contain high levels of NGF at embryonic phase. Passive smoking decrease content of NGF in cerebellar cortex. Brain of mammalis animal is full of taurine which is released by neuron and neuroglia cell to maintain normal activities in cerebral tissue. Inhibitory synthesis and ingestion of taurine can cause disfunction.Therefore, a certain level of taurine is possibly correlated with expression of NGF gene in embryoids. However, the decrease of NGF content in cerebellar cortex may be one of factors for brain injury of fetal rats.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of brain injury induced by passive smoking in fetal rats and the interventional effect of taurine.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Fenyang College of Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Twenty-one 2-month-old female Wistar rats,weighing 150-210 g, were randomly divided into 3 group with 7 rats in each group,including passive smoking group, passive smoking+taurine group and normal control group. All rats in the three groups were treated till naturalpartrition from the second day of cyesis. Rats in the passive smoking group were suffered from successively experimental smoking after intragastrical administration with 0.65 mL/ampoule saline; rats in the passive smoking+taurine group were intragastrically administrated with 500 mg/kg taurine before smoking rats in the normal contrl group did not smoke and were intragastrically administrated with 0.65 mL/ampoule saline every day.METHODS: Newborn rats were weighed and then their heads were cut off. Rapidly, brains were separated,weighed,boiled in boiling saline for 5 minuters. Then, cerebellum was

  5. Evaluating MJO Event Initiation and Decay in the Skeleton Model using an RMM-like Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    the skeleton model. 441 The decrease in the number of separate MJO events in the skeleton model while 442 maintaining a nearly equal or slightly...Climate, 26, 859 1130-1151. 860 Thual, S., and A. J. Majda (2015), A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure, 861 Climate Dynam...1 2 Evaluating MJO Event Initiation and Decay in the Skeleton Model using an RMM-like Index 3 4 5 Justin P. Stachnik*1,2, Duane E

  6. Developmental toxicity of Clarified Slurry Oil applied dermally to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Kerstetter, S.L.; Singer, E.J.; Mehlman, M.A. (Mobil Oil Corporation, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Clarified Slurry Oil (CSO), the heavy residual fraction from the fluidized catalytic cracker, was applied to the shaven backs of groups of 10 pregnant rats at doses of 0, 4, 8, 30, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day. All groups received the test material on gestation days 0-19. CSO was applied undiluted and left uncovered on the skin; collars were placed on the rats to minimize ingestion of the test material. Signs of maternal toxicity, some of which were seen at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day, included vaginal bleeding, decreased body weight gain, reduced food consumption, death, increased relative liver weights, atrophy of the thymus, and aberrant serum chemistry. The number of fetal resorptions/deaths was markedly increased and the number of viable offspring decreased by CSO at dosages of 30 mg/kg/day and above. The group receiving 250 mg/kg/day carried no viable offspring. Fetuses from pregnant females exposed to CSO at dose levels in excess of 8 mg/kg/day were smaller than those from control and 4 mg/kg/day groups, and their skeletons showed decreased ossification. Abnormal external development and visceral development were observed in living and dead fetuses exposed in utero to CSO at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day. Based on these data, 4 mg/kg/day represents the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level for both maternal and developmental toxicity.

  7. Effect of Reinforcing Kidney Replenishing qi and Promoting Blood Circulation Recipe on the Expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 in liver of the Fetal Rat with FGR%补肾益气活血方对胎儿生长受限胎鼠IGF-1、IGFBP-1及IGFBP-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 熊丽萍; 陶秀良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Bushen Yiqi Huoxue (Reinforcing Kidney Replenishing qi and Promoting Blood Circulation) Decoction on the expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP - 1 and IGFBP - 3 proteins in fetal liver of Fetal growth restriction ( FGR) rat. Methods The smoke inhalation rat model was created. Thirty two pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were randomly dividedly into four groups: control group, FGR group, group of FGR treated with Bushen Yiqi Huoxue Decoction (Chinese medicine group), group of FGR treated with arginine ( arginine group). The expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP - 1 and IGFBP - 3 proteins in fetal liver were analyzed by immunohistochemis-try. Result Compared with FGR group, the expression of IGF - 1 and IGFBP -3 in fetal liver of Chinese medicine group increased significantly (P 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of Bushen Yiqi Huoxue Decoction on preventing and treating FGR may be attributed to regulating the expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP -1 and IGFBP -3.%目的 观察补肾益气活血方对胎儿生长受限胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3表达的影响,探讨补肾益气活血方治疗FGR的作用机制.方法 采用被动吸烟法建立SD大鼠FGR模型,分为正常组、FGR组、补肾益气活血方治疗组(中药组)、精氨酸治疗组(精氨酸组).采用免疫组织化学方法检测胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3的表达.结果 与FGR组比较,中药组胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-3的表达均明显升高(P<0.05),而IGFBP-1的表达明显降低(P<0.05),并且IGF-1的表达强度高于精氨酸组(P<0.05),各项指标与正常组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 补肾益气活血方可能通过调节IGF-Ⅰ、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3的表达,从而促进胎儿在宫内的生长发育.

  8. Maternal diet during pregnancy has tissue-specific effects upon fetal fatty acid composition and alters fetal immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Caroline E; Romijn, Tessa; Enke, Uta; Hoile, Samuel; Calder, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies demonstrate that the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of plasma and/or tissue lipids is increased during pregnancy. We hypothesised that increasing the α-linolenic acid (ALA) or longer chain (n-3) PUFA content of the maternal diet during pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid composition and the fetal immune system. Pregnant rats were fed a low-fat (LF) soybean oil diet, or high-fat (HF) soybean, linseed, salmon or sunflower oil diets from conception to 20d gestation. The ALA-rich Linseed-HF diet resulted in an equivalent eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in fetal immune tissues and an equivalent DHA status in the fetal brain to that achieved with the Salmon-HF diet. An (n-3) rich maternal diet during pregnancy associated with the highest expression of CD3 (Salmon-HF) and CD8 (Linseed-HF and Salmon-HF) on fetal thymic CD3(+)CD8(+) cells. The Linseed-HF diet resulted in the highest proportion of CD161(+) cells within the fetal thymus, which correlated with the production of IL-4. These data indicate that dietary ALA supplementation may confer some of the benefits of LC (n-3) PUFA during pregnancy. This should be examined in suitably designed human studies.

  9. Patch-type Segmentation of Voxel Shapes using Simplified Surface Skeletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for decomposing a 3D voxel shape into disjoint segments using the shape’s simplified surface-skeleton. The surface skeleton of a shape consists of 2D manifolds inside its volume. Each skeleton point has a maximally inscribed ball that touches the boundary in at least two cont

  10. Hierarchical part-type segmentation using voxel-based curve skeletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present an effective framework for segmenting 3D shapes into meaningful components using the curve skeleton. Our algorithm identifies a number of critical points on the efficiently computed curve skeleton, either fully automatically as the junctions of the curve skeleton, or based on user input.

  11. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  12. Maternal protein restriction and fetal growth: lack of evidence of a role for homocysteine in fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Lilley, Christina; McMullen, Sarah

    2006-09-01

    The disease-programming effects of a maternal low-protein (MLP) diet in rat pregnancy have been suggested to be attributable of hyperhomocysteinaemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MLP feeding impacted upon maternal and day 20 fetal homocysteine concentrations, with ensuing effects upon oxidant/antioxidant status. Sixty-four pregnant rats were fed either MLP diet or control diet before termination of pregnancy at days 4, 10, 18 or 20 gestation (full-term gestation 22 d). Maternal plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in control and MLP-fed dams at all points in gestation. Fetal plasma homocysteine was similarly unaffected by MLP feeding at day 20 gestation. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were similar in livers of mothers and fetuses in the two groups. Whilst catalase activity was not influenced by diet in maternal liver, MLP exposure increased catalase activity in fetal liver at day 20. Oxidative injury (protein carbonyl concentration) was lower in the livers of MLP-fed animals at day 18 gestation (Phomocysteine concentrations prior to day 20 gestation in the rat. There was no evidence of increased oxidative injury in fetal tissue that might explain the long-term programming effects of the diet.

  13. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  14. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  15. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing

    2013-12-07

    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  16. Axon Membrane Skeleton Structure is Optimized for Coordinated Sodium Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yihao; Li, He; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-01-01

    Axons transmit action potentials with high fidelity and minimal jitter. This unique capability is likely the result of the spatiotemporal arrangement of sodium channels along the axon. Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under entropic tension. Sodium channels also exhibit a periodic distribution pattern, as they bind to ankyrin G, which associates with spectrin. Here, we elucidate the relationship between the axon membrane skeleton structure and the function of the axon. By combining cytoskeletal dynamics and continuum diffusion modeling, we show that spectrin filaments under tension minimize the thermal fluctuations of sodium channels and prevent overlap of neighboring channel trajectories. Importantly, this axon skeletal arrangement allows for a highly reproducible band-like activation of sodium channels leading to coordinated sodium propagation along the axon.

  17. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquin Didier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  18. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  19. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  20. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  1. Skeleton Reassignment of Type C Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Yang, Jing; Xu, Gang

    2017-01-27

    The previous assignment of the type C skeleton of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) was controversial and proved to be incorrect in this study. The structures of the type C PPAPs (3-6) were revised to corresponding type A structures (3a-6a) via (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis and a quantum computational chemistry method. Therefore, only types A and B PPAPs are likely present in plants of the family Clusiaceae.

  2. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from the Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (YSNP) markers, respectively. Po...

  3. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationsh...

  4. A metrical study of the laryngeal skeleton in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, M L

    1990-08-01

    Laryngeal cartilages were studied in 40 dissection room specimens of adult age groups ranging from 17 to 50 years in both the sexes. Various dimensions of the laryngeal skeleton were measured and statistical analysis of the data for male and female were evaluated separately. Conspicuous and highly significant differences of the dimensions between male and female laryngeal cartilages were observed. The incidence of the cuneiform cartilage and cartilago triticea was greater in the female than in the male.

  5. Spectrin-based skeleton as an actor in cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnicka, B; Grochowalska, R; Bogusławska, D M; Sikorski, A F; Lecomte, M C

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances in functions of spectrins in non-erythroid cells. We discuss new data concerning the commonly known role of the spectrin-based skeleton in control of membrane organization, stability and shape, and tethering protein mosaics to the cellular motors and to all major filament systems. Particular effort has been undertaken to highlight recent advances linking spectrin to cell signaling phenomena and its participation in signal transduction pathways in many cell types.

  6. Spectrin-based skeleton as an actor in cell signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Machnicka, B.; Grochowalska, R.; Bogusławska, D. M.; Sikorski, A F; Lecomte, M C

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances in functions of spectrins in non-erythroid cells. We discuss new data concerning the commonly known role of the spectrin-based skeleton in control of membrane organization, stability and shape, and tethering protein mosaics to the cellular motors and to all major filament systems. Particular effort has been undertaken to highlight recent advances linking spectrin to cell signaling phenomena and its participation in signal transduction pathways in man...

  7. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  8. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  9. Skeleton-Sectional Structural Analysis for 3D Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Peng Xu; Wei Li; Li-Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has become popular and has been widely used in various applications in recent years. More and more home users have motivation to design their own models and then fabricate them using 3D printers. However, the printed objects may have some structural or stress defects as the users may be lack of knowledge on stress analysis on 3D models. In this paper, we present an approach to help users analyze a model’s structural strength while designing its shape. We adopt sectional structural analysis instead of conventional FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis which is computationally expensive. Based on sectional structural analysis, our approach imports skeletons to assist in integrating mesh designing, strength computing and mesh correction well. Skeletons can also guide sections building and load calculation for analysis. For weak regions with high stress over a threshold value in the model from analysis result, our system corrects them by scaling the corresponding bones of skeleton so as to make these regions stiff enough. A number of experiments have demonstrated the applicability and practicability of our approach.

  10. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Skeleton Development of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lan-xia; SHI Zheng-xiang; WANG Xin-ying; GENG Ai-lian; LI Bao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty one-day-old AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (male and female for half), and put into two identical closed houses with different lighting programs. The first house was illuminated by using common incandescence light, and the second one was added with ultraviolet radiation light from the second week onwards. The birds lived in a floor with litters and free access to feed and water. Temperature, humidity and immune programs in the two houses were similar. The results showed that under ultraviolet radiation, the growth speed of skeleton increased (the shank length was significantly increased in the third week, P < 0.05; the leg muscle weight was significantly improved by 3.87%, P < 0.05); the skeleton quality improved (the density of skeleton mineralization was significantly increased by 6.11%, P < 0.01; serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity were all improved); and the growth performance was improved (feed conversion ratio was improved by 1.4% averagely; the uniformity of body weight, the shank length, the inclined body length and body height were significantly improved) in broiler chicken.

  11. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  12. Data for the Reference Man: skeleton content of chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    This study was undertaken to provide reference values of chemical element mass fractions in intact bone of Reference (European Caucasian) Man/Woman. The rib bone samples investigated were obtained from autopsies of 84 apparently healthy 15-58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a non-industrial region in the Central European part of Russia who had suffered sudden death. The mass fractions (mg/kg given on a wet mass basis) of 69 elements in these bone samples were measured by using neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived and long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry including necessary quality control measures. Using published and measured data, mass fraction values of the 79 elements for the rib bone have been derived. Based on accepted rib to skeleton mass fractions and reference values of skeleton mass for Reference Man, the elemental burdens in the skeleton were estimated. These results may provide a representative bases for establishing related reference values for the Russian Reference Man/Woman and for revising and adding current reference values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The data presented will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection, radiotherapy radiation dosimetry, and other scientific fields.

  13. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  14. 3D Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images Based on Skeleton Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-dan; LIU Zhi-Yan; SHEN Yi

    2005-01-01

    In order to eliminate displacement and elastic deformation between images of adjacent frames in course of 3D ultrasonic image reconstruction, elastic registration based on skeleton feature was adopt in this paper. A new automatically skeleton tracking extract algorithm is presented, which can extract connected skeleton to express figure feature. Feature points of connected skeleton are extracted automatically by accounting topical curvature extreme points several times. Initial registration is processed according to barycenter of skeleton. Whereafter, elastic registration based on radial basis function are processed according to feature points of skeleton. Result of example demonstrate that according to traditional rigid registration, elastic registration based on skeleton feature retain natural difference in shape for organ's different part, and eliminate slight elastic deformation between frames caused by image obtained process simultaneously. This algorithm has a high practical value for image registration in course of 3D ultrasound image reconstruction.

  15. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  16. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  17. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  18. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  19. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  20. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  1. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  2. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  3. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  4. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Minlebaev, Marat; Hübner, Christian A; Represa, Alfonso; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2006-12-15

    We report a signaling mechanism in rats between mother and fetus aimed at preparing fetal neurons for delivery. In immature neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. We found that, shortly before delivery, there is a transient reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration and an excitatory-to-inhibitory switch of GABA actions. These events were triggered by oxytocin, an essential maternal hormone for labor. In vivo administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist before delivery prevented the switch of GABA actions in fetal neurons and aggravated the severity of anoxic episodes. Thus, maternal oxytocin inhibits fetal neurons and increases their resistance to insults during delivery.

  5. Micromorphology of Skeletonized and Pedicled Internal Thoracic and Radial Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchur, Sergey; Bokhan, Nikita; Vecherskii, Yuri; Malyshenko, Egor

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the internal thoracic arteries (ITA) and radial arteries (RA) micromorphologic features by light microscopy after harvesting them using the skeletonization and pedicled methods in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The micromorphologic characteristics of ITA and RA were studied by luminous microscopy in 61 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 122 ITA and RA segments harvested during surgery, fixed in formalin, and stained with hematoxiline and eosin were evaluated. The mean intima-media thickness of ITA was 9.2 and 134.7 µm and that of RA was 9.1 and 334.2 µm, respectively. In the distal segment of ITA the media-intima relation was 1.5 times bigger than in the proximal segment. None of ITA specimens contained atherosclerotic plaques or lipid inclusions. Atherosclerotic plaques were found in 3 (5%) RA specimens. Other degenerative changes were detected in 30%-74.2% of the specimens: splitting of internal elastic lamina, reduced tortuosity of the internal elastic lamina, and thickening and detachment of the intima; their incidence was associated with the skeletonization of the vessels. In conclusion, the incidence of ITA and RA degenerative changes varies from 30%-74.2% and its increase is associated with the skeletonization of the vessels, which is statistically significant. The media of the RA is 2.5 times thicker than that of the ITA (P < 0.01). This fact shows that RA has higher spasmogenic potential than that of ITA. The distal segment of the ITA has 1.5 times bigger media-intima relation than the proximal segment. Therefore, in case of enough graft length, it is recommended to avoid the distal segment and cut it off.

  6. The integumentary skeleton of tetrapods: origin, evolution, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2009-04-01

    Although often overlooked, the integument of many tetrapods is reinforced by a morphologically and structurally diverse assemblage of skeletal elements. These elements are widely understood to be derivatives of the once all-encompassing dermal skeleton of stem-gnathostomes but most details of their evolution and development remain confused and uncertain. Herein we re-evaluate the tetrapod integumentary skeleton by integrating comparative developmental and tissue structure data. Three types of tetrapod integumentary elements are recognized: (1) osteoderms, common to representatives of most major taxonomic lineages; (2) dermal scales, unique to gymnophionans; and (3) the lamina calcarea, an enigmatic tissue found only in some anurans. As presently understood, all are derivatives of the ancestral cosmoid scale and all originate from scleroblastic neural crest cells. Osteoderms are plesiomorphic for tetrapods but demonstrate considerable lineage-specific variability in size, shape, and tissue structure and composition. While metaplastic ossification often plays a role in osteoderm development, it is not the exclusive mode of skeletogenesis. All osteoderms share a common origin within the dermis (at or adjacent to the stratum superficiale) and are composed primarily (but not exclusively) of osseous tissue. These data support the notion that all osteoderms are derivatives of a neural crest-derived osteogenic cell population (with possible matrix contributions from the overlying epidermis) and share a deep homology associated with the skeletogenic competence of the dermis. Gymnophionan dermal scales are structurally similar to the elasmoid scales of most teleosts and are not comparable with osteoderms. Whereas details of development are lacking, it is hypothesized that dermal scales are derivatives of an odontogenic neural crest cell population and that skeletogenesis is comparable with the formation of elasmoid scales. Little is known about the lamina calcarea. It is

  7. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  8. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  9. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, M; Hanwellage, K

    2011-03-01

    The fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) is a simple cost effective screening test for antenatal fetal monitoring. The aim of the study was to evaluate the FAST as a screening test for early intrapartum fetal well being. An initial non stress test (NST) followed by a FAST using corometric model 146 was carried out in 486 participants in early labour with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and > 32 weeks gestation. A repeat NST was recorded in the participants who had an initial non reactive NST. The results of the NST and FAST were compared with fetal outcome. Maternal perception of fetal movements after FAST, results of NST before and after FAST, and the babies' 5 minute APGAR scores were measured. Of the 486 participants 413 (85%) noticed fetal movements after FAST. Initial NST was non reactive in 203 (42%) but 149 (31%) became reactive after FAST. Compared to the NST, FAST had a better sensitivity (97% vs 62%, p fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone.

  10. p-Coumaric acid - a monomer in the sporopollenin skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, K; Niester, C; Boon, J J; Willemse, M T; Wiermann, R

    1989-10-01

    Sporopollenin obtained from wings of Pinus mugo (Turra) pollen was analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. In the spectrum, mass peaks which are characteristic for p-coumaric acid were dominant. p-Coumaric acid was the main degradation compound when the wing material was treated by a gentle method using AII3, and also when the remaining residue of the treated sporopollenin material was saponified. It is therefore assumed that p-coumaric acid is a genuine structural unit in the sporopollenin skeleton. In addition, the effects of AII3 treatment indicate that the p-coumaric acid might be bound by ether linkages.

  11. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  12. [Princess Anna Vasa--her fascinating life story and skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Ebba

    2005-01-01

    The Princess Anna Vasa was born in Sweden in 1568 and spent her first 19 years there. She was the daughter of the Swedish king Johan III and his wife, the Polish Royal Princess Katarina Jagellonica. She was brought up as a Catholic but converted to be a Protestant already in 1583 and remained a fervent Protestant to the end of her life. She was an exceptionally intelligent and extensively educated woman. When her brother became king, Sigismund III of Poland, she accompanied him there. She exerted great influence on Sigismund who was brought up to be a Catholic. She was persistent in her religion, yet working for religious liberty. "The Swedish Princess" was also named "the Queen of Polish Botany". She was never married and she died 57 years old in 1625. For religious reasons her body had to wait 11 years for a funeral of royal standing. The funeral took place in 1636 in St Mary's Church in Torun, Poland. During restoration work at the church in April 1994, Anna Vasa's skeleton was removed from the tomb, and an antropological investigation in order to establish her identity was carried by Dr Andrzej Florkowski at the Dept of Anthrop, Nicholas Copernicus University of Torun. I was invited to Torun to examine her remains in May 1995. The skeleton was in a rather good state of preservation. However, her grave had been plundered at least twice. Her skeleton lacked the right forearm and hand, probably as the result of the pillage of her rings and bracelets. Some other bones and teeth were also missing. At our ocular examination the skeleton revealed a number of anatomical deformations and pathological changes. A conventional radiography and CT of Anna Vasa's skeletal remains was later carried out in 1995 by M. Grzegorzewski, Z. Boron and W. Lasek at the Dept of Radiology, Med. Acad. of Bydgoszcz, Polen. A DNA-analysis was carried out by Dr Anders Götherström at the Archaeol. Res. Lab., Stockholm Univ. An odontological and radiological study was performed by Dr Sigrid I

  13. Co-ordinated regulation of neurogenin-3 expression in the maternal and fetal pancreas during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søstrup, Birgitte; Gaarn, Louise W; Nalla, Amarnadh;

    2014-01-01

    -3. Messenger RNA levels of neurogenin-3 and the transcription factor musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B in fetal rat pancreas cells, cultured with serum from pregnant women, were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number...... of neurogenin-3-positive cells present in pregnant mice was increased compared with nonpregnant mice. Neurogenin-3 and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B mRNA was detected in fetal rat pancreas exposed to serum from pregnant women. RESULTS: In pregnant mice we found a 3.6-fold increase...... in beta cell volume at day 18 compared with nonpregnant mice and a 3.5-fold increase in neurogenin-3 volume at day 14, mainly located in the acinar compartment where it was eightfold higher than in nonpregnant mice. In fetal rat pancreatic cells exposed to serum from pregnant women we found a marked...

  14. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  15. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  16. Experimental modal analysis on damage of skeleton in brake of airplane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relation between damage and modal parameters of skeleton has been discussed and analysed.Some significant results for detecting damage have been obtained by using experimental data of ωdi and ζi· Then, the modal experiments of four type of skeleton have been performed, the modal bifurcation phenomenon is discovered. It follows that this method for studying skeleton damage is a very promising method through theoretical and experimental analysis.

  17. The membrane skeleton of a unicellular organism consists of bridged, articulating strips

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we show that a membrane skeleton associated with the plasma membrane of the unicellular organism Euglena consists of approximately 40 individual S-shaped strips that overlap along their lateral margins. The region of strip overlap is occupied by a set of microtubule-associated bridges and microtubule-independent bridges. Both cell form and plasma membrane organization are dependent on the integrity of this membrane skeleton. Removal of the membrane skeleton with a low-molar base...

  18. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfeldt, D.; Rubin, C

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel – the local resorption and formation of...

  19. 维生素E对手机辐射致孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织损伤的干预作用%Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娴; 罗芮; 马斌; 王慧; 刘天; 张静; 廉志顺; 崔晞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interference of vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats.Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control,negative control,low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups).The low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5,15 and 30mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy.And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E.All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time,three times per day for 21 days.After accouchement,the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope.The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested.Results Compared with the negative control group,the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling,mild edema was found around the capillary,chromatin was concentrated and collected,and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group,whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups.We can see uniform chromatin,abundant mitochondrion,rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group.The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections.In the antioxidase activity analysis,compared with the negative control group,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P < 0.05).In fetal rats,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased in the brain tissues of all three different vitamin E dosages groups when compared with the

  20. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  1. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  2. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified.

  3. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan J E; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2013-10-24

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  4. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  5. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  6. Solving k-Set Agreement with Stable Skeleton Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Biely, Martin; Schmid, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the k-set agreement problem in distributed message-passing systems using a round-based approach: Both synchrony of communication and failures are captured just by means of the messages that arrive within a round, resulting in round-by-round communication graphs that can be characterized by simple communication predicates. We introduce the weak communication predicate PSources(k) and show that it is tight for k-set agreement, in the following sense: We (i) prove that there is no algorithm for solving (k-1)-set agreement in systems characterized by PSources(k), and (ii) present a novel distributed algorithm that achieves k-set agreement in runs where PSources(k) holds. Our algorithm uses local approximations of the stable skeleton graph, which reflects the underlying perpetual synchrony of a run. We prove that this approximation is correct in all runs, regardless of the communication predicate, and show that graph-theoretic properties of the stable skeleton graph can be used to solve k...

  7. Circadian rhythms of fetal liver transcription persist in the absence of canonical circadian clock gene expression rhythms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Li

    Full Text Available The cellular circadian clock and systemic cues drive rhythmicity in the transcriptome of adult peripheral tissues. However, the oscillating status of the circadian clocks in fetal tissues, and their response to maternal cues, are less clear. Most clock genes do not cycle in fetal livers from mice and rats, although tissue level rhythms rapidly emerge when fetal mouse liver explants are cultured in vitro. Thus, in the fetal mouse liver, the circadian clock does not oscillate at the cellular level (but is induced to oscillate in culture. To gain a comprehensive overview of the clock status in the fetal liver during late gestation, we performed microarray analyses on fetal liver tissues. In the fetal liver we did not observe circadian rhythms of clock gene expression or many other transcripts known to be rhythmically expressed in the adult liver. Nevertheless, JTK_CYCLE analysis identified some transcripts in the fetal liver that were rhythmically expressed, albeit at low amplitudes. Upon data filtering by coefficient of variation, the expression levels for transcripts related to pancreatic exocrine enzymes and zymogen secretion were found to undergo synchronized daily fluctuations at high amplitudes. These results suggest that maternal cues influence the fetal liver, despite the fact that we did not detect circadian rhythms of canonical clock gene expression in the fetal liver. These results raise important questions on the role of the circadian clock, or lack thereof, during ontogeny.

  8. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  9. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  10. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R D; Shearman, R M; Stewart, G W

    2000-05-19

    The set of viable design elements available for animals to use in building skeletons has been fully exploited. Analysis of animal skeletons in relation to the multivariate, theoretical "Skeleton Space" has shown that a large proportion of these options are used in each phylum. Here, we show that structural elements deployed in the skeletons of Burgess Shale animals (Middle Cambrian) incorporate 146 of 182 character pairs defined in this morphospace. Within 15 million years of the appearance of crown groups of phyla with substantial hard parts, at least 80 percent of skeletal design elements recognized among living and extinct marine metazoans were exploited.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS:TIME-FREQUENCY FILTERING AND SKELETON CURVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 张景绘

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior varying with the instantaneous response was analyzed through the joint time-frequency analysis method for a class of S. D. O . F nonlinear system.A masking operator on definite regions is defined and two theorems are presented. Based on these, the nonlinear system is modeled with a special time-varying linear one, called the generalized skeleton linear system ( GSLS ). The frequency skeleton curve and the damping skeleton curve are defined to describe the main feature of the non-linearity as well. More over, an identification method is proposed through the skeleton curves and the time frequency filtering technique.

  13. Structural development of human brain white matter from mid-fetal to perinatal stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Yu, Qiaowen; Mishra, Virendra; Chalak, Lina; Jeon, Tina; Sivarajan, Muraleedharan; Jackson, Greg; Rollins, Nancy; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    The structures of developing human brain white matter (WM) tracts can be effectively quantified by DTI-derived metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD and RD). However, dynamics of WM microstructure during very early developmental period from mid-fetal to perinatal stage is unknown. It is difficult to accurately measure microstructural properties of these WM tracts due to severe contamination from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this study, high resolution DTI of fetal brains at mid-fetal stage (20 weeks of gestation or 20wg), 19 brains in the middle of 3rd trimester (35wg) and 17 brains around term (40wg) were acquired. We established first population-averaged DTI templates at these three time points and extracted WM skeleton. 16 major WM tracts in limbic, projection, commissural and association tract groups were traced with DTI tractography in native space. The WM skeleton in the template space was inversely transformed back to the native space for measuring core WM microstructures of each individual tract. Continuous microstructural enhancement and volumetric increase of WM tracts were found from 20wg to 40wg. The microstructural enhancement from FA measurement is decelerated in late 3rd trimester compared to mid-fetal to middle 3rd trimester, while volumetric increase of prefrontal WM tracts is accelerated. The microstructural enhancement from 35wg to 40wg is heterogeneous among different tract groups with microstructures of association tracts undergoing most dramatic change. Besides decreases of RD indicating active myelination, the decrease of AD for most WM tracts during late 3rd trimester suggests axonal packing process.

  14. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  15. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  16. Sequencing of mRNA identifies re-expression of fetal splice variants in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, E G; Lawson, M J; Mackey, A J; Holmes, J W

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy has been well-characterized at the level of transcription. During cardiac hypertrophy, genes normally expressed primarily during fetal heart development are re-expressed, and this fetal gene program is believed to be a critical component of the hypertrophic process. Recently, alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts has been shown to be temporally regulated during heart development, leading us to consider whether fetal patterns of splicing also reappear during hypertrophy. We hypothesized that patterns of alternative splicing occurring during heart development are recapitulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Here we present a study of isoform expression during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy induced by 10 days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rats and in developing fetal rat hearts compared to sham-operated adult rat hearts, using high-throughput sequencing of poly(A) tail mRNA. We find a striking degree of overlap between the isoforms expressed differentially in fetal and pressure-overloaded hearts compared to control: forty-four percent of the isoforms with significantly altered expression in TAC hearts are also expressed at significantly different levels in fetal hearts compared to control (Phypertrophy and fetal heart development are significantly enriched for genes involved in cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, developmental processes, and metabolic enzymes. Our data strongly support the concept that mRNA splicing patterns normally associated with heart development recur as part of the hypertrophic response to pressure overload. These findings suggest that cardiac hypertrophy shares post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional regulatory mechanisms with fetal heart development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  18. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  19. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  20. Spine and axial skeleton injuries in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Nathan A; Buchowski, Jacob; Zebala, Lukas; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    The majority of previous literature focusing on spinal injuries in American football players is centered around catastrophic injuries; however, this may underestimate the true number of these injuries in this athletic cohort. The goals of this study were to (1) report the incidence of spinal and axial skeleton injuries, both minor and severe, in the National Football League (NFL) over an 11-year period; (2) determine the incidence of spinal injury by injury type, anatomic location, player position, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure (practice vs game); and (3) determine the average number of practices and days missed because of injury for each injury type. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; pelvis; ribs; and spinal cord were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL's injury surveillance database over a period of 11 seasons from 2000 through 2010. The data were analyzed by the number of injuries per athlete-exposure, the anatomic location and type of injury, player position, mechanism of injury, and number of days missed per injury. A total of 2208 injuries occurred to the spine or axial skeleton over an 11-season interval in the NFL, with a mean loss of 25.7 days per injury. This represented 7% of the total injuries during this time period. Of these 2208 injuries, 987 (44.7%) occurred in the cervical spine. Time missed from play was greatest for thoracic disc herniations (189 days/injury). Other injuries that had a mean time missed greater than 30 days included (in descending order) cervical fracture (120 days/injury), cervical disc degeneration/herniation (85 days/injury), spinal cord injury (77 days/injury), lumbar disc degeneration/herniation (52 days/injury), thoracic fracture (34 days/injury), and thoracic nerve injury (30 days/injury). Offensive linemen were the most likely to suffer a spinal injury, followed by defensive backs, defensive linemen, and linebackers. Blocking and tackling

  1. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  2. Composition and structure of nucleolar skeleton (nucleolar matrix)——Actin and fibrillarin are two main protein components of nucleolar skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 沈延; 焦仁杰; 翟中和

    1999-01-01

    Purified nucleoli of HeLa cells were treated sequentially with nonionic detergent, nucleic acid enzyme, low salt and high salt. The residual nucleolar structure termed nucleolar skeleton (nucleolar matrix) was shown as a fine network under electron microscope with DGD embedding-unembedding technique. Such structures of BHK-21 cell and mouse liver cell are similar to that of HeLa cell. The protein composition of the nucleolar skeleton of HeLa cells was analyzed. The protein composition of such nucleolar residual shows obvious difference from the compositions of nuclear matrix and chromosome scaffold. The major protein composition of the nucleolar skeleton of HeLa cells contains 6-7 polypeptides. Their molecular weights are about 48, 43, 36 and 33 ku. Further studies show that actin and fib-rillarin are two major protein components of nucleolar skeleton of HeLa cells.

  3. Novel nonsecosteroidal VDR ligands with phenyl-pyrrolyl pentane skeleton for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhixin; Hao, Meixi; Xu, Meng; Su, Zhigui; Kang, Zisheng; Xue, Lingjing; Zhang, Can

    2016-01-01

    A series of nonsecosteroidal vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) ligands with phenyl-pyrrolyl pentane skeleton were synthesized for cancer therapy. In contrast to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Calcitriol), these VDR ligands exhibited anti-proliferative activity without inducing hypercalcemia. These compounds were evaluated for vitamin D3-agonistic ability and anti-proliferative activity in vitro. Among them, compounds 5k and 5i exhibited equivalent vitamin D3-agonistic activity compared with Calcitriol. Meanwhile, compound 5k displayed promising inhibiting profile against MCF-7, HepG-2 and Caco-2 with IC50 values of 0.00586 μM, 0.176 μM, and 1.01 μM (Calcitriol: 5.58 μM, 80.83 μM and 4.46 μM) respectively. Compound 5i inhibited proliferation of PC-3 with IC50 value of 0.00798 μM (Calcitriol: 17.25 μM). Additionally, neither of these compounds significantly elevated serum calcium in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Paternal Low Protein Diet Programs Preimplantation Embryo Gene Expression, Fetal Growth and Skeletal Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam J; Sirovica, Slobodan; Stokes, Ben; Isaacs, Mark; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A

    2017-02-08

    Defining the mechanisms underlying the programming of early life growth is fundamental for improving adult health and wellbeing. While the association between maternal diet, offspring growth and adult disease risk is well-established, the effect of father's diet on offspring development are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed male mice an imbalanced low protein diet (LPD) to determine the impact on post-fertilisation development and fetal growth. We observed that in preimplantation embryos derived from LPD fed males, expression of multiple genes within the central metabolic AMPK pathway was reduced. In late gestation, paternal LPD programmed increased fetal weight, however, placental weight was reduced, resulting in an elevated fetal:placental weight ratio. Analysis of gene expression patterns revealed increased levels of transporters for calcium, amino acids and glucose within LPD placentas. Furthermore, placental expression of the epigenetic regulators Dnmt1 and Dnmt3L were increased also, coinciding with altered patterns of maternal and paternal imprinted genes. More strikingly, we observed fetal skeletal development was perturbed in response to paternal LPD. Here, while offspring of LPD fed males possessed larger skeletons, their bones comprised lower volumes of high mineral density in combination with reduced maturity of bone apatite. These data offer new insight in the underlying programming mechanisms linking poor paternal diet at the time of conception with the development and growth of his offspring.

  5. A Short-term In vivo Screen using Fetal Testosterone Production, a Key Event in the Phthalate Adverse Outcome Pathway, to Predict Disruption of Sexual Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to develop and validate a short-term in vivo protocol termed the Fetal Phthalate Screen (FPS) to detect phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals that disrupt fetal testosterone synthesis and testis gene expression in rats. We propose that the FPS can be ...

  6. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Trace elements and the European skeleton through 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrčka, V; Jambor, J

    2000-01-01

    For our research, one thousand forty-four samples were taken from the femurs of 522 skeletons from 25 sites in Europe from the Neolithic Age (4000-5000 B.C), from La Téne Period, the Roman Era (500 B.C-400 A.D.), the Middle Ages and from contemporary cadavers. We found the following distribution of elements in the longitudional axis of long bones (the femurs and the tibias). The elements Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co and Sn cumulated in the epiphysis. On the other hand, we found that Ca, Sr, Na and K prevailed in the central part of the diaphysis. In the central parts of the cross-section the highest concentration of the metal element Pb was in the external layer from the historical femurs. It was the same with cadavers of the recent population. A specific shift from Neolithic farming to agricultural intensification in the Roman Era was also apparent in the skeletons. Special sources of the above mentioned elements were found both in Celtic and Germanic tribes. Meat is the main source of zinc. Zinc is also important for the growth of the skeleton. When we investigated the development of the human skeleton during the last 5000 years we found the highest concetrations of Zn in communities with a good supply of animal food, whereas the lowest concentrations were paralleled with well-developed agriculturists. We assume the Neolithic gracilization, which is in the background for the increase of agricultural populations, is directly linked with the concentration of Zn and other elements essential for growth (Cu, Fe and others). The individuals most vulnerable to zinc deficiency include infants, adolescents during rapid growth phases and women during pregnancy and lactation. Trace elements in the bones of the La Téne period designate two areas of Celtic diet patterns--a "French one" (Roulier, Mont Trote and Acy Romance) and a "Czech one" (Karlov, Radovesice and Jenisův Ujezd). At Czech sites levels of zinc increased westward towards the Germanic region. Over the Germanic

  8. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  9. Regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton: osteocalcin and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Mathieu; Lacombe, Julie

    2014-11-01

    The skeleton has recently emerged as an endocrine organ implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. This function of bone is mediated, at least in part, by osteocalcin, an osteoblast-derived protein acting as a hormone stimulating insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and energy expenditure. Osteocalcin secretion and bioactivity is in turn regulated by several hormonal cues including insulin, leptin, the sympathetic nervous system and glucocorticoids. Recent findings support the notion that osteocalcin functions and regulations are conserved between mice and humans. Moreover, studies in mice suggest that osteocalcin could represent a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on osteocalcin functions, its various modes of action and the mechanisms implicated in the control of this hormone.

  10. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  11. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  12. Synthesis of pennogenin utilizing the intact skeleton of diosgenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Weisheng; XU; Qihai; CHEN; Ling; ZHAO; Chunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The first synthesis of pennogenin, an aglycone of bioactive components of Chinese traditional medicine named "Chonglou"(Paris), starting from diosgenin, has been reported, which displays a new strategy of utilizing the resource compounds. According to this new strategy, the full and rational utilization of the intact skeleton and functional groups of starting material has been realized in the conversion of diosgenin to pennogenin. The key step for synthesis of pennogenin is the regioselective transformation of cholest-5-en-16,22-dion-3,26-diol to cholest5,16-dien-22-on-3,26-diol, which can be used to synthesize other bioactive steroids such as cephalostatin and OSW-1.

  13. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  14. The carbon-skeleton rearrangement in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandala, Gregory M; Smith, David M; Radom, Leo

    2008-08-13

    High-level quantum chemistry calculations have been performed to examine the carbon-skeleton rearrangement of the tropane alkaloid littorine to hyoscyamine. Two pathways involving radical and carbocation intermediates have been investigated in this regard, namely, stepwise (or fragmentation-recombination) and concerted. The fragmentation products are calculated to be of high energy for both the radical- and carbocation-based mechanisms (136.3 and 170.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively). Similarly, the rearrangement barrier for the radical-based concerted pathway is calculated to be quite high (135.6 kJ mol(-1)). In contrast, the carbocation-based concerted pathway is found to be associated with a relatively low barrier (47.4 kJ mol(-1)). The ionization energy of the substrate-derived radical 3a is calculated to be 7.01 eV, suggesting that its oxidation to generate the substrate-derived carbocation 3b ought to be facile. In an attempt to investigate how an enzyme might modulate the rearrangement barriers, the separate and combined influences of partially protonating the migrating group and partially deprotonating the spectator OH group of the substrate were investigated. Such interactions can lead to significant reductions in the rearrangement barrier for both the radical- and carbocation-based concerted pathways, although the carbocation pathway continues to have significantly lower energy requirements. Also, the relatively high (gas-phase) acidity of the OH group of the product-related carbocation 4b indicates that the direct formation of hyoscyamine aldehyde (6) is a highly exothermic process. Although we would not wish to rule out alternative possibilities, our calculations suggest that a concerted rearrangement mechanism involving carbocations constitutes a viable low-energy pathway for the carbon-skeleton rearrangement in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis.