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Sample records for rat corpus striatum

  1. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  2. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  3. Effects of compound rehmannia formula on dopamine transporter content in the corpus striatum of Parkinson's disease rats treated with levodopa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijng Luo; Jiancheng He

    2011-01-01

    Long-term application of levodopa (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-DOPA) for Parkinson's disease can lead to adverse effects and reduce the amount of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the corpus striatum. The present study attempted to verify whether increasing the amount of DAT can reduce the adverse effects of L-DOPA. The specific radioactive uptake value of DAT in the corpus striatum of the lesioned hemisphere was significantly decreased, but was significantly increased following administration of compound rehmannia formula [Radix rehmanniae preparata (prepared rehmannia root), Concha margaritifera usta (nacre), Radix paeoniae alba (white peony alba), Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen root), Scorpio (scorpion), green tea] for 4 weeks. The changes in DAT 125I-beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-iodophenyl) tropane autoradiography were consistent with those in radioactivity. The results revealed that the compound rehmannia formula can reduce the adverse effects of L-DOPA in treating Parkinson′s disease, possibly by increasing the amount of DAT.

  4. Effect of borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii on expression levels of four amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study collected cerebrospinal fluid samples from the corpus striatum in rats treated with borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii using brain microdialysis technology. Levels of excitatory neurotransmitters aspartic acid and glutamate, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid, were measured in samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, phosphate gradient elution, and fluorescence detection. Results showed that concentrations of all four amino acid neurotransmitters significantly increased in the corpus striatum following treatment with borneol or moschus, but effects due to borneol were more significant than moschus. Acorus tatarinowii treatment increased ?-aminobutyric acid expression, but decreased glutamate concentrations. Storax increased aspartic acid concentrations and decreased glycine expression. Results demonstrated that borneol and moschus exhibited significant effects on con amino acid neurotransmitter expression; storax exhibited excitatory effects, and acorus tatarinowii resulted in inhibitory effects.

  5. Effect of single-use versus combined-use moschus and diazepam on expression of amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed expressional changes of excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum after single-use and combined-use diazepam and Chinese herb moschus. The influence of moschus on the central nervous system was analyzed, in particular whether moschus increased penetration of other drugs into the brain. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which included pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde detection, showed varied increased levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, including aspartate and glutamate, and inhibitory neurotransmitters, including glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid, in the corpus striatum after treatment with moschus alone, diazepam alone, or a combination of both. Compared with the diazepam group, aspartate levels significantly decreased at 30 and 60-105 minutes after combined treatment with moschus, while glutamate significantly increased at 45 and 75-105 minutes, glycine levels significantly increased at 105 minutes, and γ-aminobutyric acid increased at 30 and 75-105 minutes. These findings suggested that moschus increased the inhibition effects of diazepam on the brain.

  6. Effects of human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the bilateral corpus striatum in a rat model of Tourette's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Liu; Yuwei Wang; Mingji Yi

    2010-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome is treated by behavioral or pharmacological therapy.However,patients with malignant Tourette's syndrome also exhibit life-threatening symptoms,which are unresponsive to conservative treatments or neurosurgical procedures,such as deep brain stimulation.In recent years,mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)have shown therapeutic potential in many neurological diseases.Therefore,the present study proposed to use MSC transplantation as a novel therapy for Tourette's syndrome.Stereotypic behaviors in Tourette's syndrome rats decreased significantly at21 days after human MSCs transplantation into the striatum.Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed survival of transplanted human MSCs and differentiation into neurons and astrocytes in the rat brain.Results suggest that intrastriatal transplantation of human MSCs could provide therapeutic potential for Tourette's syndrome.

  7. Changes in /sup 3/H-substance P receptor binding in the rat brain after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum

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    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentration in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.

  8. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 TFs and others Neural Corpus Striatum SRX14835...4,SRX148355,SRX148352,SRX148353 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P < 0.01) of baseline and was blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Pulse durations of 2.0 ms or greater were required to increase DA release. Unlike ACh release, DA release showed no frequency dependence above 5 Hz. The maximal evoked releases of ACh and DA were 556 +/- 94% (P < 0.01) and 254 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) of baseline, respectively. Peripheral administration of choline (Ch) chloride (30-120 mg/kg) to anesthetized animals caused dose-related (r = 0.994, P < 0.01) increases in ACh release; basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P < 0.05) and electrically evoked ACh release rose from 386 +/- 38% to 600 +/- 34% (P < 0.01) in rats given 120 mg/kg. However, Ch failed to affect basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P < 0.05). In awake animals, Ch (120 mg/kg) also elevated both basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Effect of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill on TH and DAT Protein and Gene Expression in Prefrontal Cortex and Corpus Striatum of SHR Rats%孔圣枕中丹对SHR大鼠前额叶皮质及纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐谦; 陈晓刚; 谭丽丽; 许双虹; 罗荣敬; 关莉; 蒋红兰; 李宜瑞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill on TH and DAT protein and gene expression in prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD).Methods Thirty SHR rats were randomly divided into three groups. The three groups were given gastric garage with Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill, methylphenidate hydrochloride, normal saline, respectively. The treatment lasted 28 days. Immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and fluorescence quantitative PCR were used to detect TH and DAT protein and gene expression in prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of rats.Results TH protein and gene expression in the rat prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill group was higher than that in methylphenidate hydrochloride group, and TH expression in methylphenidate hydrochloride group was higher than that in the saline control group. DAT protein and gene expression in Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill group was lower than that in methylphenidate hydrochloride group,while methylphenidate hydrochloride group had lower DAT protein and gene expression than that in the saline control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The therapeutic mechanism of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill for ADHD is probably related with affecting the central regulation of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia loop of the DA nerve signal transduction.%目的 探讨孔圣枕中丹对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)动物模型SHR大鼠前额叶皮质、纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因表达的影响.方法 90只SHR雄性大鼠分为3批,每批大鼠随机分为3组,分别用孔圣枕中丹、盐酸哌甲酯和生理盐水灌胃28 d,采用免疫组化法、WESTERN BLOT、原位杂交法和荧光定量PCR检测其前额叶皮质、纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因的表达.结果 SHR大鼠前额叶皮质及纹状体TH蛋白和基因的表达,孔圣枕中丹组高于盐酸哌甲酯组,盐酸哌甲酯组又高于生理盐水对照

  12. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  13. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  14. Effects of propofol combined with electroconvulsive therapy on glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum in mentally depressed rats%异丙酚联合电休克对抑郁大鼠海马和纹状体谷氨酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 闵苏; 魏珂; 曹俊; 黎平; 汪涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effects of propofol combined with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum in mentally depressed rats. Methods Sixty adult SD rats weighing 180-300 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=12 each):group Ⅰcontrol (C);group Ⅱmental depression (D); group Ⅲpropofol (P); group Ⅳ electric shock (E) and group Ⅴprepofol + electric shock (M). In group D, P, E and M (group Ⅱ-Ⅴ) mental depression was induced by exposing the animals to different kinds of stresses every day for 21 days. After successful induction of mental depression, the animals received intraperitoncol propofol 100 mg/kg (in group P) or electric shock (in group E) or propofol 100 mg/kg + electric shock (in group M) every other day for 2 weeks. The establishment of mental depression was asscssed by behavior using open-field test and glucose water consumption test (glucose water consumption/total fluid consumption). The two tests were performed one day before induction of mental depression, on the 2nd day after mental depression had been induced and on the 2nd day after treatment.The learning and memory functions were evaluated using Morris water maze on the 2nd day after treatment. The glutamate content in the hippocampus and corpus striatum was measured with chromatometry. Results The behavior scores and glucose water consumption were significantly decreased on the 2nd day after the establishment of mental depression and treatment in group D, P, E and M as compared with group C. The learning ability and memory of the animals in group D, P, and E were significantly decreased in group D, P and E as compared with group C and M. The glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum was significantly higher in group D and P and significantly lower in group E and M than in group C. Conclusion Propofol combined with electorconvulsive therapy can improve the learning ability and memory of mentally depressed rats through recovery of glutamate

  15. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriqueta Dias Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA. The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1 or two (F2 generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. Lipid peroxidation (LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD and catalase (CAT enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28% and F2 (~50% groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p<0.01 in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p<0.01 and decrease in the CAT activity (p<0.001 were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p<0.05 was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition.

  16. 电针对脑缺血再灌注模型大鼠纹状体NMDA受体NR2亚基蛋白表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on protein expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR2 in corpus striatum of rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈梅红; 刘晓华; 项晓人; 沈洁; 张莹; 舒兆瑞; 李忠仁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture( EA) on the protein expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B in corpus striatum of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI/R) , and explore the rivalry effect of EA on excitatory amino acids and molecular biology mechanism of the effect of EA. Methods 15 healthy male SD rats were randomized into sham,model and EA group ( n = 5). CI/R mode) was established by right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. EA (3 Hz, 1~3 mA) was applied to"Dazhui" (GV 14) and"Baihui" (GV 20) for 30 minutes. The expressions of NR2A and NR2B protein were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with sham group, the expression of NR2A was decreased and the expression of the NR2B was increased in corpus striatum of rats in model group. Compared with model group, the number of NR2A positive neurons in EA group was increased markedly (P <0. 01) , the average grey scale of NR2A positive neurons in EA group was lower ( P <0. 05 ) , and the average optical density in EA group were higher (P <0. 05). The number and the average optical density of NR2B positive neurons in EA group was decreased markedly (P <0.05) , and the average grey scale of NR2B positive neurons in EA group was higher (P <0. 05). Conclusions EA treatment could increase the protein expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, and decrease the protein expression of subunit NR2B, which indicates that EA treatment may be against toxic effect of excitatory amino acids, relieve neural injury.%目的 观察脑缺血再灌注模型大鼠受损侧纹状体组织中NMDA受体调节亚单位NR2A和NR2B蛋白表达及其电针干预后的变化,探讨电针对缺血再灌注兴奋性氨基酸毒性的拮抗作用,进一步阐明电针治疗缺血性脑血管疾病的机制.方法 用数字随机表将15只SD大鼠随机分成3组:假手术组、模型组、电针组,每组各5只.采用改良Longa线栓法制作大脑中动脉

  17. Effects of rhynchophylline on monoamine transmitters of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYuan-Fu; XIEXiao-Long; WUQin; WENGuo-Rong; YANGSu-Fen; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of rhynchophylline ( Rhy on monoamine transmitters and its metabolites in striatum and hippocampus of cerebral ischemic rats. METItODS The cerebral ischemic injury of rat was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The extracellular fluid of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats was collected by using

  18. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

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    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  19. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

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    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  20. Pituitary regulation of corpus luteum progesterone secretion in cyclic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E; López, F; Aguilar, E

    1986-09-01

    Pituitary LH and PRL secretion during the early postovulatory period of the rat estrous cycle seem to affect the corpus luteum (CL) autonomy to secrete progesterone. Thus, while PRL would act luteotropically, LH would be luteolytic. To further investigate these facts, 4-day cyclic rats, treated with either 1 mg bromocriptine (CB) or 0.25 ml 70% ethanol (ETOH) at 1600 h on estrus, were injected with 0.5 ml of either an anti-LH serum (LHAS) or normal horse serum (NHS) at 0800 h on metestrus. Rats treated at 0800 h on metestrus with both, CB and LHAS, were also used. To verify through a different procedure the effect of LH and/or PRL deprivation in estrous cycle CL progesterone secretion, hypophysectomy (HYPOX) and sham HYPOX (SHAM) were done at 0800 h on metestrus in either CB- or ETOH-injected rats at 1600 h on estrus. Hypophysectomized rats at 1600 h on estrus were also used. Progesterone secretion was prolonged up to 0800 h on diestrus in those rats deprived of LH from 0800 h on metestrus (ETOH/LHAS, -/CB + LHAS, ETOH/HYPOX) compared with controls (ETOH/NHS, ETOH/SHAM). This luteotropic effect was absent in those rats lacking estrous afternoon PRL (CB/LHAS, CB/HYPOX, HYPOX/-). No effect on CL progesterone secretion was detected in those rats exclusively deprived of PRL on the afternoon of estrus (CB/NHS, CB/SHAM). These results suggest that in the absence of the protective effects of PRL secretion on the afternoon of estrus, rat CL become extremely sensitive to the luteolytic effects of early diestrous LH levels, and this results in 4-day estrous cycles.

  1. GABA-ERGIC NEURONS IN THE RAT STRIATUM UNDER NORMAL AND ISCHEMIC INJURY

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    E.S. Petrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-67 is a marker of GABA-ergic neurons. The purpose of this study is to examine the distribution of GAD-67-immunopositive neurons in the striatum of rats under experimental conditions, reproducing brief focal cerebral ischemia. Endovascular occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery in rats was performed. Duration of circulatory disorders was 30 min, the time of reperfusion was 48 hours. With counting GAD-67-immunopositive neurons in the striatum was found that the number of GABA-ergic neurons in the striatum ipsilateral hemisphere is reduced by 40%. In the contralateral hemisphere, the distribution and structure of the neurons is not different from controls. It is shown that GABA-ergic neurons are less susceptible to damage, as compared to other neurons phenotypes.

  2. Membrane properties and synaptic connectivity of fast-spiking interneurons in rat ventral striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverna, S.; Canciani, B.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro patch-clamp recordings were made to study the membrane properties and synaptic connectivity of fast-spiking interneurons in rat ventral striatum. Using a whole-cell configuration in acutely prepared slices, fast-spiking interneurons were recognized based on their firing properties and their

  3. Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Increases Extracellular Dopamine Levels in the Rat Striatum

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    Tomoko eTanaka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation is a non-invasive procedure that achieves polarity-dependent modulation of neuronal membrane potentials. It has recently been used as a functional intervention technique for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases; however, its neuronal mechanisms have not been fully investigated in vivo. Objective/Hypothesis: To investigate whether the application of cathodal or anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation affects extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the rat striatum. Methods: Stimulation and in vivo microdialysis were carried out under urethane anesthesia, and microdialysis probes were slowly inserted into the striatum. After the collection of baseline fractions in the rat striatum, cathodal or anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation was applied continuously for 10 min with a current intensity of 800 µA from an electrode placed on the skin of the scalp. Dialysis samples were collected every 10 min until at least 400 min after the onset of stimulation.Results: Following the application of cathodal, but not anodal, transcranial direct-current stimulation for 10 min, extracellular dopamine levels increased for more than 400 min in the striatum. There were no significant changes in extracellular serotonin levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that transcranial direct-current stimulation has a direct and/or indirect effect on the dopaminergic system in the rat basal ganglia.

  4. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

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    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatumMethods:The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze.Results:In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups.Discussion:Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  5. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II.

  6. Long-term survival of encapsulated GDNF secreting cells implanted within the striatum of parkinsonized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandoso, Laura; Ponce, Sara; Manuel, Ivan; Arrúe, Aurora; Ruiz-Ortega, Jose A; Ulibarri, Isabel; Orive, Gorka; Hernández, Rosa M; Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Ugedo, Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Several findings suggest that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may be a useful tool to treat parkinsonism by acting as a neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurotransmission systems. In the present study, we implanted alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules containing immobilized Fischer rat 3T3 fibroblasts transfected to produce GDNF in vitro into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells were stable for at least 3 weeks in vitro. Intrastriatal implantation of microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells into 6-OHDA lesioned rats resulted in a decrease in apomorphine-induced rotations by 84%, 64%, 84%, 60% and 52% (2, 5, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, respectively) with respect to the value before implantation and with respect to the value obtained from the empty microcapsule implanted-group at each time point. Six months after transplantation, immunohistochemical detection of GDNF revealed strong immunoreactivity in the striatal tissue surrounding the microcapsules in the absence of tissue damage due to microcapsule implantation. No changes in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites or of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were detected in the striatum. In summary, the implantation of microencapsulated GDNF secreting cells allows the delivery of this molecule into the rat striatum for at least 6 months and results in substantial behavioral improvement.

  7. Effect of permethrin plus antioxidants on locomotor activity and striatum in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, Cinzia; Falcioni, Maria Letizia; Nwankwo, Innocent Ejike; Cantalamessa, Franco; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2008-09-29

    Pyrethroids are important insecticides used largely because of their high activity as an insecticide and their low mammalian toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that these products show neurotoxic effects on the mammalian central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin to induce oxidative stress in adolescent rats and its possible attenuation by Vitamin E alone or+Coenzyme Q(10). Data indicated that adolescent rats exposed to permethrin exhibited alteration in the locomotor activity and plasma membrane fluidity of striatum. Vitamin E+Q(10) and Vitamin E alone supplementation reversed the negative effect on central nervous system. Permethrin alteration of striatum plasma membrane fluidity was restored by Vitamin E+Q(10). Data obtained from red blood cells showed that permethrin did not induce any modification of plasma membrane fluidity in adolescent rats, whereas antioxidants supplementation induced pro-oxidant effect. In summary some differences between antioxidant treatments were observed at striatum level: Coenzyme Q(10)+Vitamin E maintains plasma membrane fluidity, while Vitamin E is more effective to preserve GSH level.

  8. Glycine intracerebroventricular administration disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis in cerebral cortex and striatum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Grings, Mateus; Dos Santos Parmeggiani, Belisa; Marcowich, Gustavo Flora; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Zanatta, Angela; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2013-11-01

    High tissue levels of glycine (GLY) are the biochemical hallmark of nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), an inherited metabolic disease clinically characterized by severe neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease are not fully established, the present work investigated the in vivo effects of intracerebroventricular administration of GLY on important parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and striatum from young rats. Our results show that GLY reduced CO₂ production using glucose as substrate and inhibited the activities of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in striatum, whereas no alterations of these parameters were verified in cerebral cortex 30 min after GLY injection. We also observed that GLY diminished the activities of complex IV in cerebral cortex and complex I-III in striatum at 30 min and inhibited complex I-III activity in striatum at 24 h after its injection. Furthermore, GLY reduced the activity of total and mitochondrial creatine kinase in both brain structures 30 min and 24 h after its administration. In contrast, the activity of Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase was not altered by GLY. Finally, the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and creatine, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated or fully prevented the inhibitory effects of GLY on creatine kinase and respiratory complexes in cerebral cortex and striatum. Our data indicate that crucial pathways for energy production and intracellular energy transfer are severely compromised by GLY. It is proposed that bioenergetic impairment induced by GLY in vivo may contribute to the neurological dysfunction found in patients affected by NKH.

  9. Concentrations of MDPV in rat striatum correlate with the psychostimulant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellas, Judith; López-Arnau, Raúl; Carbó, Marcel Li; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-11-01

    3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone or MDPV is a synthetic cathinone with psychostimulant properties more potent than cocaine. We quantified this drug in the striatum after subcutaneous administration to rats. MDPV reached the brain around 5 min after its administration and peaked at 20-25 min later. The elimination half-life in the striatum (61 min) correlates with the decrease in the psychostimulant effect after 60 min. Around 11% of the administered dose reached the striatum and, considering a homogeneous brain distribution, we determined that around 86% of the plasma MDPV is distributed to the brain. MDPV induced a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity, rearing behaviour and stereotypies, all prevented by haloperidol. A plot of locomotor activity or stereotypies versus MDPV striatal concentrations over time showed a direct relationship between factors. No free MDPV metabolites were detected in plasma, at any time, but hydrolysis with glucuronidase allowed us to identify mainly three metabolites, one of them for the first time in rat plasma. The present results contribute to evidence that MDPV induces hyperlocomotion mainly through a dopamine-dependent mechanism. Good correlation between behavioural effects and striatal levels of MDPV leads us to conclude that its psychostimulant effect is mainly due to a striatal distribution of the substance. The present research provides useful information on the pharmacokinetics of MDPV, and can help design new experiments with kinetics data as well as provide a better understanding of the effects of MDPV in humans and its potential interactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Sexual activity increases dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Damsma, G; Wenkstern, D; Fibiger, H C

    1995-09-25

    In vivo microdialysis was used to monitor extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA), and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of sexually active female rats during tests of locomotor activity, exposure to a novel chamber, exposure to sex odors, the presentation of a sexually active male rat, and copulation. DA increased slightly but significantly in the nucleus accumbens when a sexually active male was placed behind a wire-mesh screen, and further during copulation. DA also increased significantly in the dorsal striatum during copulation; however, the magnitude of this effect was significantly lower than that observed in the nucleus accumbens. The metabolites DOPAC and HVA generally followed DA with a delay, and increased significantly during copulation in both regions. In contrast, forced locomotion on a rotating drum, exposure to a novel testing chamber, and exposure to sex odors did not increase DA significantly in either region, although forced locomotion increased DOPAC significantly in both regions, and HVA significantly in the nucleus accumbens. The magnitude of DA release in the nucleus accumbens was significantly greater during copulation than running, whereas no significant difference was detected for striatal DA release between these two behavioral conditions. These results indicate that novelty or locomotor activity alone do not account for the increase in DA observed in the nucleus accumbens of female rats during copulation, and suggest that DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens is associated with anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual activity, as it is in male rats. In the dorsal striatum, however, DA release during copulation may reflect an increase in locomotor activity associated with active pacing of the male.

  11. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  12. Haloperidol-induced changes in neuronal activity in the striatum of the freely moving rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin eYael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the main input structure of the basal ganglia, integrating input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, which is modulated by midbrain dopaminergic input. Dopamine modulators, including agonists and antagonists, are widely used to relieve motor and psychiatric symptoms in a variety of pathological conditions. Haloperidol, a dopamine D2 antagonist, is commonly used in multiple psychiatric conditions and motor abnormalities. This article reports the effects of haloperidol on the activity of three major striatal subpopulations: medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs, fast spiking interneurons (FSIs and tonically active neurons (TANs. We implanted multi-wire electrode arrays in the rat dorsal striatum and recorded the activity of multiple single units in freely moving animals before and after systemic haloperidol injection. Haloperidol decreased the firing rate of FSIs and MSNs while increasing their tendency to fire in an oscillatory manner in the high voltage spindle (HVS frequency range of 7-9 Hz. Haloperidol led to an increased firing rate of TANs but did not affect their non-oscillatory firing pattern and their typical correlated firing activity. Our results suggest that dopamine plays a key role in tuning both single unit activity and the interactions within and between different subpopulations in the striatum in a differential manner. These findings highlight the heterogeneous striatal effects of tonic dopamine regulation via D2 receptors which potentially enable the treatment of diverse pathological states associated with basal ganglia dysfunction.

  13. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging neurovascular function and functional recovery after stroke in the rat striatum using forepaw stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Huang, Shiliang; Chen, You-Yin; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Kao, Yu-Chieh Jill; Du, Fang; Hui, Edward S; Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-01-01

    Negative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response in the striatum has been observed in several studies during peripheral sensory stimulation, but its relationship between local field potential (LFP) remains to be elucidated. We performed cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI and LFP recordings in normal rats during graded noxious forepaw stimulation at nine stimulus pulse widths. Albeit high LFP–CBV correlation was found in the ipsilateral and contralateral sensory cortices (r=0.89 and 0.95, respectively), the striatal CBV responses were neither positively, nor negatively correlated with LFP (r=0.04), demonstrating that the negative striatal CBV response is not originated from net regional inhibition. To further identify whether this negative CBV response can serve as a marker for striatal functional recovery, two groups of rats (n=5 each) underwent 20- and 45-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were studied. No CBV response was found in the ipsilateral striatum in both groups immediately after stroke. Improved striatal CBV response was observed on day 28 in the 20-minute MCAO group compared with the 45-minute MCAO group (PfMRI signals could differ significantly from LFP and that the observed negative CBV response has potential to serve as a marker for striatal functional integrity in rats. PMID:24917039

  15. Effects of systemic carbidopa on dopamine synthesis in rat hypothalamus and striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakkola, S.; Tuomainen, P.; Wurtman, R. J.; Mannisto, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Significant concentrations of carbidopa (CD) were found in rat hypothalamus, striatum, and in striatal microdialysis efflux after intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Efflux levels peaked one hour after administration of 100 mg/kg at 0.37 micrograms/ml, or about 2% of serum levels. Concurrent CD levels in hypothalamus and striatum were about 2.5% and 1.5%, respectively, of corresponding serum levels. Levels of dopamine and its principal metabolites in striatal efflux were unaffected. The removal of the brain blood by saline perfusion decreased the striatal and hypothalamic CD concentrations only by 33% and 16%, respectively. In other rats receiving both CD and levodopa (LD), brain L-dopa, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels after one hour tended to be proportionate to LD dose. When the LD dose remained constant, increasing the CD dose dose-dependently enhanced L-dopa levels in the hypothalamus and striatum. However dopamine levels did not increase but, in contrast, decreased dose-dependently (although significantly only in the hypothalamus). CD also caused dose-dependent decrease in striatal 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and in striatal and hypothalamic homovanillic acid (HVA), when the LD dose was 50 mg/kg. We conclude that, at doses exceeding 50 mg/kg, sufficient quantities of CD enter the brain to inhibit dopamine formation, especially in the hypothalamus. Moreover, high doses of LD/CD, both of which are themselves catechols, can inhibit the O-methylation of brain catecholamines formed from the LD.

  16. Calcium-mediated paired pulse depression in juvenile rat dorsal striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Xie; Michael F. Jackson; John F. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    As the major division of the basal ganglia, neostriatum forms mutual connections with multiple brain areas and is critically involved in motor control and learning/memory. Long-term synaptic plasticity has been widely studied in different species recently. However, there are rare reports about the short-term synaptic plasticity in neostratium. In the present study, using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recording, we reported one form of short-term synaptic plasticity that is paired pulse de-pression in juvenile rat dorsal striatum slices induced by stimuli of the white matter. The field exci-tatory postsynaptic potentials could be abolished by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylizoxazole-4- propionic acid receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, but not by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist bicuculline or dopamine D1 receptor antago-nist SKF-81297. The paired pulse depression in the corticostratial pathway was different from paired pulse facilitation in the hippocampal CA1 synapse. In addition, the paired pulse depression was not affected by bath application of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist or dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. However, low calcium and high magnesium could attenuate the paired pulse depression. These findings suggest a more complicated plasticity form in the dorsal striatum of juvenile rats that is different from that in the hippocampus, which is related with extracellular calcium.

  17. Posthoc phosphorylation of proteins derived from ischemic rat hippocampus, striatum and neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, B; Pulsinelli, W A

    1990-03-12

    Disruption of the brain's protein phosphorylation system by ischemia may cause irreversible metabolic and structural alterations leading eventually to cell death. To examine the effect of ischemia on the phosphorylation state of brain proteins, tissue homogenates derived from the hippocampus, striatum and neocortex of normal rats and rats subjected to severe forebrain ischemia were phosphorylated with [gamma-32P]ATP. The phosphorylated proteins were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and changes were assessed by autoradiography. Cerebral ischemia caused marked alterations of the phosphorylation state of many brain proteins; phosphorylation of some proteins was increased while phosphorylation of others was decreased. Despite differences in the sensitivity of the hippocampus, striatum and neocortex to ischemic injury the direction and approximate magnitude of protein phosphorylation changes caused by ischemia were similar in all three regions. Since the pattern of protein phosphorylation in the ischemia-vulnerable hippocampus was identical to that in the ischemia-resistant paramedian neocortex we conclude that abnormalities of protein phosphorylation may be necessary for ischemic injury to neurons but none are sufficient to explain the selective vulnerability of certain brain regions to ischemic damage.

  18. Protein expression profile in the striatum of rats with methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazaki, Takeshi; McGregor, Iain S; Matsumoto, Izuru

    2007-04-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (MAP) results in an increased behavioral response to the drug during subsequent exposure. This phenomenon is called behavioral sensitization. Sensitization is an enduring phenomenon, and suggests chronic alterations in neuronal plasticity. MAP-induced sensitization has been proposed and widely investigated as an animal model of MAP psychosis and schizophrenia. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying MAP-induced sensitization. 2-DE-based proteomics allows us to examine global changes in protein expression in complex biological systems and to propose hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying various pathological conditions. In the present study, we examined protein expression profiles in the striatum of MAP-sensitized rats using 2-DE-based proteomics. Repeated administration of MAP (4.0 mg/kg, once a day, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 10 days significantly augmented the locomotor response to an MAP challenge injection (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 11. This enhanced activity was maintained even after a week of drug abstinence. 2-DE analysis revealed 42 protein spots were differentially regulated in the striatum of MAP-sensitized rats compared to control. Thirty-one protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF, including synapsin II, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP2). These proteins can be related to underlying mechanisms of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization, indicating cytoskeletal modification, and altered synaptic function.

  19. Toxic effects of methoxychlor in rat striatum: modifications in several neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Gutiérrez, A; Esquifino, A I

    2007-06-01

    Neurotoxic effects of methoxychlor (MTX) are poorly understood at present. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of MTX in norepinephrine, dopamine and amino acid contents and serotonin turnover in rat striatum. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 25 mg/kg/day of MTX in sesame oil or vehicle only for 30 days. The neurotransmitters of interest were measured in the striatum by HPLC. MTX decreased norepinephrine and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) content and serotonin turnover (measured as 5-HIAA/serotonin ratio), and increased glutamate and GABA concentrations. However, the content of serotonin, aspartate, glutamine and taurine was not modified by MTX exposure. These data suggest that MTX exposure inhibits norepinephrine synthesis and serotonin metabolism. The inhibitory effect on norepinephrine could be explained, at least in part, by the increase of both GABA and glutamate contents. Further studies are needed to understand the effects of MTX on serotonin. Also a disruptive effect of MTX on the metabolisms of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and GABA emerges.

  20. Infant rats can learn time intervals before the maturation of the striatum: evidence from odor fear conditioning

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    Julie eBoulanger Bertolus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval timing refers to the ability to perceive, estimate and discriminate durations in the range of seconds to minutes. Very little is currently known about the ontogeny of interval timing throughout development. On the other hand, even though the neural circuit sustaining interval timing is a matter of debate, the striatum has been suggested to be an important component of the system and its maturation occurs around the third post-natal week in rats. The global aim of the present study was to investigate interval timing abilities at an age for which striatum is not yet mature. We used odor fear conditioning, as it can be applied to very young animals. In odor fear conditioning, an odor is presented to the animal and a mild footshock is delivered after a fixed interval. Adult rats have been shown to learn the temporal relationships between the odor and the shock after a few associations. The first aim of the present study was to assess the activity of the striatum during odor fear conditioning using 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography during development in rats. The data showed that although fear learning was displayed at all tested ages, activation of the striatum was observed in adults but not in juvenile animals. Next, we assessed the presence of evidence of interval timing in ages before and after the inclusion of the striatum into the fear conditioning circuit. We used an experimental setup allowing the simultaneous recording of freezing and respiration that have been demonstrated to be sensitive to interval timing in adult rats. This enabled the detection of duration-related temporal patterns for freezing and/or respiration curves in infants as young as 12 days post-natal during odor-fear conditioning. This suggests that infants are able to encode time durations as well as and as quickly as adults while their striatum is not yet functional. Alternative networks possibly sustaining interval timing in infant rats are discussed.

  1. [Expressions of CSE and CBS in the corpus cavernosum of spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiu-Bo; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) in the corpus cavernosum of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and their relationship with erectile dysfunction. This study included 10 male SHRs and 10 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as controls, all aged 12 weeks. We applied a series of electric stimuli to the major pelvic ganglions of the rats, observed changes in the ratio of intracavernosal to mean arterial blood pressure (ICP/MAP), measured the levels of serum testosterone (T) and endogenous H2S, and determined the expressions of CSE and CBS in the corpus cavernosum by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. No obvious difference was found in the serum T level between the two groups. Compared with the WKY rats, the SHRs showed significant reduction in the ICP/MAP ratio, the contents of plasma H2S ([21.92 +/- 2.75] micromol/L vs [10.49 +/- 1.35] micromol/L, P CBS and CSE (P CBS were distributed mainly in the smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells of the corpus cavernosum. The ICP/MAP ratio was highly positively correlated with the expressions of CSE (r = 0.977, P CBS (r = 0.955, P CBS in the corpus cavernosum, which might be related with hypertension-induced reduction of erectile function.

  2. Calcitriol promotes augmented dopamine release in the lesioned striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Wayne A.; Peters, Laura E.; Fletcher, Anita M.; Yurek, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Current therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure or slow the disease process. Treatments that could halt progression of the disease or help restore function to damaged neurons would be of substantial benefit. Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to have significant effects on the brain. These effects include upregulating trophic factor levels, and reducing the severity of some central nervous system lesions. While previous studies have shown that calcitriol can be neuroprotective in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent models of PD, the present experiments were designed to examine the ability of calcitriol to promote restoration of extracellular DA levels and tissue content of DA in animals previously lesioned with 6-OHDA. Male Fischer-344 rats were given a single injection of 12 µg 6-OHDA into the right striatum. Four weeks later the animals were administered vehicle or calcitriol (0.3 or 1.0 µg/kg, s.c.) once a day for eight consecutive days. Three weeks after the calcitriol treatments in vivo microdialysis experiments were conducted to measure potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from both the left and right striata. In control animals treated with 6-OHDA and vehicle there were significant reductions in both potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA on the lesioned side of the brain compared to the contralateral side. In animals treated with 6-OHDA followed by calcitriol there was significantly greater potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from the lesioned striatum compared to that from the control animals. The calcitriol treatments also led to increases in postmortem tissue levels of DA in the striatum and substantia nigra. These results suggest that calcitriol may help promote recovery of dopaminergic functioning in injured nigrostriatal neurons. PMID:24858239

  3. Dopamine release from transplanted neural stem cells in Parkinsonian rat striatum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xinjiang; Xu, Huadong; Teng, Sasa; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Deng, Zijun; Zhou, Li; Zuo, Panli; Liu, Bing; Liu, Bin; Wu, Qihui; Wang, Li; Hu, Meiqin; Dou, Haiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Feipeng; Li, Qing; Guo, Shu; Gu, Jingli; Lei, Qian; Lü, Jing; Mu, Yu; Jin, Mu; Wang, Shirong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Kun; Wang, Changhe; Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Kang; Zhou, Zhuan

    2014-11-04

    Embryonic stem cell-based therapies exhibit great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because they can significantly rescue PD-like behaviors. However, whether the transplanted cells themselves release dopamine in vivo remains elusive. We and others have recently induced human embryonic stem cells into primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) that are self-renewable for massive/transplantable production and can efficiently differentiate into dopamine-like neurons (pNSC-DAn) in culture. Here, we showed that after the striatal transplantation of pNSC-DAn, (i) pNSC-DAn retained tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reduced PD-like asymmetric rotation; (ii) depolarization-evoked dopamine release and reuptake were significantly rescued in the striatum both in vitro (brain slices) and in vivo, as determined jointly by microdialysis-based HPLC and electrochemical carbon fiber electrodes; and (iii) the rescued dopamine was released directly from the grafted pNSC-DAn (and not from injured original cells). Thus, pNSC-DAn grafts release and reuptake dopamine in the striatum in vivo and alleviate PD symptoms in rats, providing proof-of-concept for human clinical translation.

  4. Amphetamine administration into the ventral striatum facilitates behavioral interaction with unconditioned visual signals in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Administration of psychomotor stimulants like amphetamine facilitates behavior in the presence of incentive distal stimuli, which have acquired the motivational properties of primary rewards through associative learning. This facilitation appears to be mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which may also be involved in facilitating behavior in the presence of distal stimuli that have not been previously paired with primary rewards. However, it is unclear whether psychomotor stimulants facilitate behavioral interaction with unconditioned distal stimuli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that noncontingent administration of amphetamine into subregions of the rat ventral striatum, particularly in the vicinity of the medial olfactory tubercle, facilitates lever pressing followed by visual signals that had not been paired with primary rewards. Noncontingent administration of amphetamine failed to facilitate lever pressing when it was followed by either tones or delayed presentation or absence of visual signals, suggesting that visual signals are key for enhanced behavioral interaction. Systemic administration of amphetamine markedly increased locomotor activity, but did not necessarily increase lever pressing rewarded by visual signals, suggesting that lever pressing is not a byproduct of heightened locomotor activity. Lever pressing facilitated by amphetamine was reduced by co-administration of the dopamine receptor antagonists SCH 23390 (D1 selective or sulpiride (D2 selective. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that amphetamine administration into the ventral striatum, particularly in the vicinity of the medial olfactory tubercle, activates dopaminergic mechanisms that strongly enhance behavioral interaction with unconditioned visual stimuli.

  5. Study on developmental laws of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from the different human fetal brain%不同胎龄脑纹状体神经干细胞的发育规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓娟; 杜江; 封志纯

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic effect of neural stem cells receives increasingly confirmation in retrogressive diseases of nervous system: however, the develoopmental laws of neural stem cells of different fetal age have not been fully evaluated.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the developmental laws of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from different human fetal brains for expanding clinical applications of neural sten cells in pediatrics fields.DESIGN: A prospective experimental study with non-random inter-control.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: This study was completed in the Laboratory of Pediatric Center of Military. 30 embryos from induced labor by water bags were obtained from Department of Obstetrics in a certain tertiary hospital in Goangzhou City with the consents from family members or mothers of the fetals. 30 embryos were divided into five groups according to gestational age of 24,26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks with six fetals in each group.INTERVENTIONS: Immunohistochemical technique and optical microscope were adopted in the study by the author.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Shapes and growth modes of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from different human fetal brains were assessed with immunohistochemical techniques.RESULTS: Neural stem cells existed in corpus striatum in different fetal age including round, oval and triangle cells. Theound and oval cells were more than triangle cells that merely presented in corpus striatum of fetal brains aged at 30 and 32 weeks. Every type of cells had big or small ones with up to three enations. Nuclei were in round and oval shapes having 1 to 4 nucleoli. Most of the cells had rarefaction chromatin and few cells had compact chromatin. Most of neural sten cells in five groups grew in a single growth mode. Neural stem cells at the age of 30 weeks were found in corpus striatum and of occasionally with symmetric cleavage growth mode. Neural stem cells at the age 28 weeks were found in corpus striatum and with symmetric cleavage and multi

  6. Effect of diabetes and insulin treatment on nitric oxide synthase content in rat corpus cavemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Shun XU; Qiang FU; Sheng-Tian ZHAO; Hai-Nan LIU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment on rat penile nitric oxide synthase content.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided at random into two groups: the Control ( n = 8) and the Diabetic ( n =17). Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were then ran domly divided into two subgroups: diabetic rats without insulin treatment ( n = 7) and diabetic rats with insulin treat ment ( n = 10). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the penile corpus cavemosum were assayed by immrmo histochemical staining with specific antibody to nNOS and the nNOS-positive nerve fibers were counted semiquantita tively under a high power microscope. Results: The nNOS- positive nerve fibres in diabetic rats with treatment was higher than that in diabetic rats without treatment ( P < 0.05) and lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01 ). The nNOS-positive nerve fibres in diabetic rat without treatment were also lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01). Con clusion: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the nNOS content in the penile corpus cavernosum was significantly decre~ed. Insulin treatment at the dose level employed partially restores the penile nNOS content in these rats.

  7. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rat striatum upon in vitro and in vivo diclofenac treatment1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milusheva, Elisaveta; Baranyi, Mária; Kittel, Agnes; Fekete, Adam; Zelles, Tibor; Vizi, E Sylvester; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2008-01-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which also act as a mitochondrial toxin. As it is known that selective mitochondrial complex I inhibition combined with mild oxidative stress causes striatal dopaminergic dysfunction, we tested whether DCF also compromise dopaminergic function in the striatum. [3H]Dopamine ([3H]DA) release was measured from rat striatal slices after in vitro (2 h, 10–25 μmol/L) or in vivo (3 mg/kg i.v. for 28 days) DCF treatment. In vitro treatment significantly decreased [3H]DA uptake and dopamine (DA) content of the slices. H2O2 (0.1 mmol/L)-evoked DA release was enhanced. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production was not significantly changed in the presence of DCF. After in vivo DCF treatment no apparent decrease in striatal DA content was observed and the uptake of [3H]DA into slices was increased. The intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum was highly variable, and both decrease and increase were observed in individual rats. The H2O2-evoked [3H]DA release was significantly decreased and the effluent contained a significant amount of [3H]octopamine, [3H]tyramine, and [3H]β-phenylethylamine. The ATP content and adenylate energy charge were decreased. In conclusion, whereas in vitro DCF pre-treatment resembles the effect of the mitochondrial toxin rotenone, in vivo it rather counteracts than aggravates dopaminergic dysfunction. J. Neurochem. (2008) 105, 360–368. PMID:18036194

  8. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum after exposure to morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierczynska-Krzysik, Anna; Pradeep John, Julius Paul; Silberring, Jerzy; Kotlinska, Jolanta; Dylag, Tomasz; Cabatic, Maureen; Lubec, Gert

    2006-10-01

    Although a series of proteins in the brain have been shown to be qualitatively or quantitatively dysregulated following morphine administration, a systematic proteomic study has not been carried out so far. We therefore aimed to show the effect of morphine on protein levels in the rat brain. For this purpose rats were given a morphine base in subcutaneously placed pellets and subsequently the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum were taken for proteomic studies after three days. Extracted proteins were run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, scanned and quantified by specific software. Proteins with significantly different levels were analysed by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF). Twenty-six proteins were found to be differentially expressed and were unambiguously identified. Dysregulated proteins were from several protein pathways and cascades including signaling, metabolic, protein handling, antioxidant and miscellaneous classes. These findings represent an initial approach to the generation of a 'morphinome' and may form the basis for further protein chemical studies as a valuable analytical tool. Moreover, the study reveals morphine-regulated proteins in different brain areas and indicates the pathways involved following morphine administration in the rat, the main species for pharmacological studies in the field.

  9. Sexual behavior increases dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of male rats: comparison with novelty and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsma, G; Pfaus, J G; Wenkstern, D; Phillips, A G; Fibiger, H C

    1992-02-01

    Extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were examined concurrently, using in vivo microdialysis, in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of sexually active male rats during tests of locomotor activity, exposure to a novel chamber, exposure to sex odors, the presentation of a sexually receptive female, and copulation. DA increased significantly in the nucleus accumbens when the males were presented with a sexually receptive female behind a screen and increased further during copulation. Although DA also increased significantly in the dorsal striatum during copulation, the magnitude of the effect was significantly lower than that observed in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, forced locomotion on a rotating drum, exposure to a novel chamber, and exposure to sex odors did not increase DA significantly in either region, although both DOPAC and HVA increased significantly in both regions during the locomotion test. These results indicate that novelty or locomotor activity alone cannot account for the increased extracellular DA concentrations observed in the nucleus accumbens of male rats during the presentation of a sexually receptive female behind a screen, nor can they account for the increased DA concentrations observed in both the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of male rats during copulation. The preferential increase in DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens, compared with that in the striatum, suggests that anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual activity may belong to a class of naturally occurring events with reward values that are mediated by DA release in the nucleus accumbens.

  10. Age at developmental cortical injury differentially Alters corpus callosum volume in the rat

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    Rosen Glenn D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing lesions to developing rat cortex induced between postnatal day (P one and three (P1 – 3 lead to malformations similar to human microgyria, and further correspond to reductions in brain weight and cortical volume. In contrast, comparable lesions on P5 do not produce microgyric malformations, nor the changes in brain weight seen with microgyria. However, injury occurring at all three ages does lead to rapid auditory processing deficits as measured in the juvenile period. Interestingly, these deficits persist into adulthood only in the P1 lesion case 1. Given prior evidence that early focal cortical lesions induce abnormalities in cortical morphology and connectivity 1234, we hypothesized that the differential behavioral effects of focal cortical lesions on P1, P3 or P5 may be associated with underlying neuroanatomical changes that are sensitive to timing of injury. Clinical studies indicate that humans with perinatal brain injury often show regional reductions in corpus callosum size and abnormal symmetry, which frequently correspond to learning impairments 567. Therefore, in the current study the brains of P1, 3 or 5 lesion rats, previously evaluated for brain weight, and cortical volume changes and auditory processing impairments (P21-90, were further analyzed for changes in corpus callosum volume. Results Results showed a significant main effect of Treatment on corpus callosum volume [F (1,57 = 10.2, P Conclusion Decrements in corpus callosum volume in the P1 and 3 lesion groups are consistent with the reductions in brain weight and cortical volume previously reported for microgyric rats 18. Current results suggest that disruption to the cortical plate during early postnatal development may lead to more widely dispersed neurovolumetric anomalies and subsequent behavioral impairments 1, compared with injury that occurs later in development. Further, these results suggest that in a human clinical setting decreased

  11. Effects of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Fan; YU Wei-min; XIA Yue; ZHANG Xiao-bin; YANG Si-xing; GE Ming-huan

    2010-01-01

    Background While the abnormal appearance of the concealed penis has been well recognized, the effect of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum has not been well studied. To explore this issue, we established a rat model and evaluated the effect of buried penis on cavernosum weight, contents and ultrastructure of tissue, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity.Methods Two hundred and ten rats were randomly divided into 3 equal cohorts for 2, 4 and 6 months study (groups A, B and C). Each group was randomly divided into buried group (n=40), control group (n=15), and normal group (n=15), respectively. Intra-purse-string suture of the root of the penis was used to establish the model. Macroscopic development was judged by measuring the weight of the corpus cavernosum. Masson's trichrome staining was performed for observing microstructure while a transmission electron microscope was used for observing ultrastructure. The NOS activity was detected by a NOS activity assay kit.Results Buried penis had no significant influence on the appearance and weight of the corpus cavemosum. Buried penis resulted in decreased smooth muscle content (P>0.05 in group A, and P0.05 in groups A and B, and P <0.05 in group C) compared with the normal and control groups. Ultrastructural abnormalities of corpus cavernosum were observed in the 6-month buried group. Moreover, there was decrease of NOS activity in groups B and C (P<0.05 in group B and P<0.01 in group C) when compared with the normal and control groups.Conclusion Buried penis affects the structure and function of corpus cavemosum in rats and the effect is positively correlated with the buried time, but there is no significant effect on the macroscopic development.

  12. Exposure to diphenyl ditelluride, via maternal milk, causes oxidative stress in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2009-05-15

    The present study evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride [(PhTe){sub 2}] exposure to mothers on the cerebral oxidative status of their offspring. The dams received (PhTe){sub 2} or canola oil via subcutaneous injection once daily during the first 14 days of lactational period. At post natal day 28, biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated in cerebral structures - cortex, hippocampus and striatum - of young rats. Exposure to (PhTe){sub 2} increased lipid peroxidation levels and inhibited {delta}-ALA-D, catalase and SOD activities in hippocampus and striatum of young rats. (PhTe){sub 2} induced changes in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in cortex and striatum of young rats. The exposure to (PhTe){sub 2}, via maternal milk, caused oxidative stress in cerebral structures of young rats. Thus, the possible role of disrupted prooxidant/antioxidant balance in (PhTe){sub 2} toxicity was demonstrated. These results highlighted a possible molecular mechanism involved in toxicity caused by (PhTe){sub 2}. (orig.)

  13. Selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons does not alter [3H]-ryanodine binding in rat striatum

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    Noël F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine nigrostriatal neurons are important for motor control and may contain a particularly dense population of ryanodine receptors involved in the control of dopamine release. To test this hypothesis, we used a classical model of unilateral selective lesion of these neurons in rats based on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the substantia nigra. Binding of [3H]-GBR 12935, used as a presynaptic marker since it labels specifically the dopamine uptake complex, was dramatically decreased by 83-100% in striatum homogenates after 6-OHDA lesion. On the contrary, no reduction of [3H]-ryanodine binding was observed. The present data indicate that [3H]-ryanodine binding sites present in rat striatum are not preferentially localized in dopaminergic terminals.

  14. The subcellular distribution of [3H]-CGS 21680 binding sites in the rat striatum: copurification with cholinergic nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S; Richardson, P J

    1993-08-01

    The subcellular distribution of the adenosine A2a receptor in rat striatum has been investigated using specific binding of the A2a-selective ligand [3H]-CGS 21680. After subcellular fractionation, the distribution of [3H]-CGS 21680 binding was similar to that of the cholinergic nerve terminal marker acetylcholinesterase rather than the more general membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase, with 42% of binding associated with the synaptosomal sub-fraction and 19% with a light membrane fraction. Binding of [3H]-CGS 21680 was also found to co-purify with the cholinergic nerve terminal marker choline acetyltransferase during immunoaffinity purification of striatal cholinergic nerve terminals. These results demonstrate that some adenosine A2a receptors are present on cholinergic nerve terminals in rat striatum.

  15. Liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection for studying the effects of tetrahydrobiopterin on monoamine neurotransmitters in rat striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Wen; ZHU; Wei; XU; Haihong; WAN; Fangli; GU; Jing; HA

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters.A nano-Pt/Pd modified electrode as the electrochemical detector (ED) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with microdialysis sampling, is used to explore the effect of administration of BH4 on the monoamine neurotransmitters in the rat striatum.The researches demonstrate that the contents of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) increase significantly with the administration of BH4.The pharmaceutical kinetics is carried out to research into the time course of BH4 effect on the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters in rat striatum, which provides reliable data for pathology and pharmacology research on neuroscience.

  16. Impact of Microdialysis Probes on Vasculature and Dopamine in the Rat Striatum: a Combined Fluorescence and Voltammetric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mitala, Christina. M.; Wang, Yuexiang; Borland, Laura M.; Jung, Moon; Shand, Stuart; Watkins, Simon; Weber, Stephen G.; Michael, Adrian C.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring extracellular dopamine in the brain of living animals by means of microdialysis and/or voltammetry is a route towards understanding both normal brain function and pathology. Previous reports, however, suggest that the tissue response to implantation of devices may affect the outcome of the measurements. To address the source of the tissue response and its impact on striatal dopamine systems microdialysis probes were placed in the striatum of anesthetized rats. Images obtained by dua...

  17. Effect of PD I Administration on Dopamine Receptors mRNAs Expression in the Lesioned Striatum of PD Rat Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; SUN Shenggang; CAO Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of PD I administration on dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the lesioned striatum of the PD rat model and confirm if PD I has the effect of dopamine receptor agonist. The PD rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned were administrated with PD I , L-dopa methyl/benserazide, L-dopa methyl/benserazide/ PD I , normal saline respectively for 4 weeks and their behavioral changes were observed. Then the rats were sacrificed and RT-PCR technique was used to detect changes of dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum 1 day after the last treatment. The results showed that treatment with PD I plus L-dopa resulted in a stable contralateral rotation behavior; treatment with L-dopa resulted in a progressively increased contralateral rotation behavior. Rotation behavior induced by anhydromorphine decreased with PD I or PD I plus L-dopa treatment. Treatment With L-dopa or PD I plus L-dopa, up-regulation of DR1 mRNA and down regulation of DR2 mRNA were observed in the ipsilateral striatum which were more obvious than that treated with PD I or vehicle (P<0.05). It was concluded that long-term treatment with PD I could alleviate the behavior of PD rats.PD I had no apparent effect on the dopamine receptors (DR1 , DR2) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum and the PD I has no agonist effect on dopamine receptors.

  18. Cocaine challenge enhances release of neuroprotective amino acid taurine in the striatum of chronic cocaine treated rats: a microdialysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Yablonsky-Alter, Elena; Agovic, Mervan S.; Gashi, Eleonora; Lidsky, Theodore I.; Friedman, Eitan; Banerjee, Shailesh P.

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious public health problem. There is increasing evidence on the involvement of augmented glutamatergic transmission in cocaine-induced addiction and neurotoxicity. We investigated effects of acute or chronic cocaine administration and cocaine challenge following chronic cocaine exposure on the release of excitotoxic glutamate and neuroprotective taurine in the rat striatum by microdialysis. Cocaine challenge, following withdrawal after repeated cocaine exposure markedly...

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters synaptic plasticity in the dorsolateral striatum of rat offspring via changing the reactivity of dopamine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhou

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high-level ethanol (EtOH has been reported to produce hyperlocomotion in offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated synaptic plasticity in cortical afferent to the dorsolateral (DL striatum is involved in the pathogensis of hyperlocomotion. Here, prenatal EtOH-exposed rat offspring were used to investigate whether maternal EtOH exposure affected synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum. We found high-frequency stimulation (HFS induced a weaker long-term potentiation (LTP in EtOH rats than that in control rats at postnatal day (PD 15. The same protocol of HFS induced long-term depression (LTD in control group but still LTP in EtOH group at PD 30 or PD 40. Furthermore, enhancement of basal synaptic transmission accompanied by the decrease of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF was observed in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D1-type receptors (D1R antagonist SCH23390 recovered synaptic transmission and blocked the induction of abnormal LTP in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D2-type receptors (D2R agonist quinpirole reversed EtOH-induced LTP into D1R- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent LTD. The data provide the functional evidence that prenatal ethanol exposure led to the persistent abnormal synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum via disturbing the balance between D1R and D2R.

  20. 4-Methylthioamphetamine increases dopamine in the rat striatum and has rewarding effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Quiroz, Gabriel; Araya, Katherine A; Abarca, Jorge; Ibáñez, María R; Montecinos, Alejandro; Guajardo, Carlos; Núñez, Gabriel; Fierro, Angélica; Moya, Pablo R; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Gómez-Molina, Cristóbal; Gysling, Katia; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a phenylisopropylamine derivative whose use has been associated with severe intoxications. MTA is usually regarded as a selective serotonin-releasing agent. Nevertheless, previous data have suggested that its mechanism of action probably involves a catecholaminergic component. As little is known about dopaminergic effects of this drug, in this work the actions of MTA upon the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) were studied in vitro, in vivo and in silico. Also, the possible abuse liability of MTA was behaviourally assessed. MTA exhibited an in vitro affinity for the rat DAT in the low micromolar range (6.01 μM) and induced a significant, dose-dependent increase in striatal DA. MTA significantly increased c-Fos-positive cells in striatum and nucleus accumbens, induced conditioned place preference and increased locomotor activity. Docking experiments were performed in a homology model of the DAT. In conclusion, our results show that MTA is able to increase extracellular striatal DA levels and that its administration has rewarding properties. These effects were observed at concentrations or doses that can be relevant to its use in human beings.

  1. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. was assessed on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, following administration for 7, 14 or 21 days. The effects induced by this extract (bacoside A content 82% +/- 0.5%), administered in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally, were compared with the effects induced by (-) deprenyl (2 mg/kg, p. o.) administered for the same time periods. Bacopa monniera (BM) induced a dose-related increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities, in all the brain regions investigated, after 14 and 21 days of drug administration. On the contrary, deprenyl induced an increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the frontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus, after treatment for 14 or 21 days. The results suggest that BM, like deprenyl, exhibits a significant antioxidant effect after subchronic administration which, unlike the latter, extends to the hippocampus as well. The results suggest that the increase in oxidative free radical scavenging activity by BM may explain, at least in part, the cognition- facilitating action of BM, recorded in Ayurvedic texts, and demonstrated experimentally and clinically.

  2. Differential effects of pyrethroid insecticides on extracellular dopamine in the striatum of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak Hossain, Muhammad; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sato, Norio; Sato, Itaru; Takewaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Koichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Haruo

    2006-11-15

    In order to obtain a more complete understanding of pyrethroid neurotoxicity, effects of the pyrethroid insecticides, allethrin (type I), cyhalothrin (type II) and deltamethrin (type II) on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the striatum of conscious rats were studied by in vivo microdialysis. Rats were treated i.p. with pyrethroids or vehicle. Allethrin had a dual effect on DA release. The increase in the extracellular level of striatal DA by 10 mg/kg allethrin reached a maximum of 178% of baseline but 20 and 60 mg/kg inhibited DA release to 63% and 52% of baseline with a peak effect at 60-80 min after injection. Cyhalothrin 10, 20 and 60 mg/kg inhibited DA release to 65%, 56% and 45% of basal release, respectively, with a peak time of inhibition 40-80 min past injection. Deltamethrin (10 and 20 mg/kg) increased DA release to maximum of 187% and 252% of basal release whereas 60 mg/kg first reduced the efflux for 40 min to 50% of basal release and then increased the efflux to a maximum of 344% of basal release with a peak time of 120 min. Local infusion of 1 microM tetrodotoxin, a Na(+) blocker through the dialysis probe completely prevented the effect of allethrin (10 and 60 mg/kg), cyhalothrin (60 mg/kg) and deltamethrin (20 mg/kg) on DA release but only partially blocked the effects of 60 mg/kg deltamethrin. The effect of deltamethrin (60 mg/kg) on DA release was completely prevented by local infusion of 10 microM nimodipine, an L-type Ca(++) channel blocker. All three pyrethroids did not alter the extracellular levels of DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA except that 20 and 60 mg/kg of allethrin and cyhalothrin increased 3-MT levels. Effect of the pyrethroids on synaptosomal DA uptake was also examined. The DA uptake was decreased in rats exposed to 60 mg/kg of allethrin and cyhalothrin but was increased in rats exposed to 60 mg/kg of deltamethrin. Our results demonstrate that striatal DA release and DA uptake are differentially affected by type I

  3. Long-term daily access to alcohol alters dopamine-related synthesis and signaling proteins in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Hargreaves, Garth A; McGregor, Iain S

    2012-12-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure can adversely affect neuronal morphology, synaptic architecture and associated neuroplasticity. However, the effects of moderate levels of long-term alcohol intake on the brain are a matter of debate. The current study used 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) proteomics to examine proteomic changes in the striatum of male Wistar rats after 8 months of continuous access to a standard off-the-shelf beer in their home cages. Alcohol intake under group-housed conditions during this time was around 3-4 g/kg/day, a level below that known to induce physical dependence in rats. After 8 months of access rats were euthanased and 2-DE proteomic analysis of the striatum was conducted. A total of 28 striatal proteins were significantly altered in the beer drinking rats relative to controls. Strikingly, many of these were dopamine (DA)-related proteins, including tyrosine hydroxylase (an enzyme of DA biosynthesis), pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase (a co-enzyme in DA biosynthesis), DA and cAMP regulating phosphoprotein (a regulator of DA receptors and transporters), protein phosphatase 1 (a signaling protein) and nitric oxide synthase (which modulates DA uptake). Selected protein expression changes were verified using Western blotting. We conclude that long-term moderate alcohol consumption is associated with substantial alterations in the rat striatal proteome, particularly with regard to dopaminergic signaling pathways. This provides potentially important evidence of major neuroadaptations in dopamine systems with daily alcohol consumption at relatively modest levels.

  4. Real time adenosine fluctuations detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the rat striatum and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamah-Biassi, Ekue B; Almonte, Antoine G; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Grinevich, Valentina P; Weiner, Jeff L; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2015-12-30

    Adenosine serves many functions within the CNS, including inhibitory and excitatory control of neurotransmission. The understanding of adenosine dynamics in the brain is of fundamental importance. The goal of the present study was to explore subsecond adenosine fluctuations in the rat brain in vivo. Long Evans rats were anesthetized and a carbon fiber electrode was positioned in the motor cortex or dorsal striatum. Real time electrochemical recordings were made at the carbon fiber electrodes every 100ms by applying a triangular waveform (-0.4 to +1.5V, 400V/s). Adenosine spikes were identified by the background-subtracted cyclic voltammogram. The frequency of detected adenosine spikes was relatively stable in both tested regions, and the time intervals between spikes were regular and lasted from 1 to 5s within an animal. Spike frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.5Hz in both the motor cortex and the dorsal striatum. Average spike amplitudes were 85±11 and 66±7nM for the motor cortex and the dorsal striatum, respectively. The current study established that adenosine signaling can operate on a fast time scale (within seconds) to modulate brain functions. This finding suggests that spontaneous adenosine release may play a fast, dynamic role in regulating an organism's response to external events. Therefore, adenosine transmission in the brain may have characteristics similar to those of classical neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructural effect of sildenafil citrate on corpus cavernosum and other genital organs in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kilinc; M.I.Guenduez; B.H.Guemues; S.Vatansever; F.Kaymaz

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To determine the ultrastructural effects of sildenafil on the female genital organs.Methods:Twenty female cycling Wistar albino rats weighing 250±20 g were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each.Rats of one group were gavaged with 0.5mg·kg-1·d-1 of sildenafil 3 days in a week for 4 weeks and the other served as the controls.After cessation of treatment animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under methoxyflurane anaesthesia.The clitoris,vagina,uterus and bartholin glands were taken at the estrous and were fixed with 10% formalin solution for light microscopy and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and osmic acid for electron microscopy.Results:Under the light microscope,the fibrocollageous tissue was found increased,the capillaries enlarged and the connecting tissue elements increased in the corpus cavernosum in the treated group.On electron microscopy,increased connective tissue,fibroblasts with notched nucleus,shorten immature collagen fibers without striation were seen.Abundant foldings and penetration with collagen bundles were observed in the basal membrane.Large connection complexes,especially gap junctions among the wide capillary endothelial cells were observed.Conclusion:There are evident histological changes due to sildenafil citrate in female rat corpus cavernosum.The clitoris and bartholin glands were the most effected organs.While the histopathological changes of clitoral tissue could be expected,and increase in the mass of bartholin gland was surprised.

  6. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  7. Functional relationships between the hippocampus and dorsomedial striatum in learning a visual scene-based memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.

  8. Longitudinal imaging of the availability of dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in rat striatum following mild ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Yamato, Hiroko; Iimori, Hitoshi; Sumiyoshi, Hirokazu; Morimoto, Kenji; Imamoto, Natsumi; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Abe, Kohji

    2017-02-01

    The changes in the availability of striatal dopamine transporter and dopamine D2 receptor after mild focal ischemia in rats were measured using a small animal positron emission tomography system. Mild focal ischemia was induced by 20-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion. [(11)C]PE2I binding to dopamine transporter was transiently increased on the ipsilateral side of the striatum at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. On day 7 and 14 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, [(11)C]PE2I binding levels were decreased. In contrast, [(11)C]raclopride binding to dopamine D2 receptor in the ipsilateral striatum had not changed at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. [(11)C]Raclopride binding was significantly decreased on the ischemic side of the striatum at 7 and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, on day 1 and 2 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, significant circling behavior to the contralateral direction was induced by amphetamine challenge. This behavior disappeared at 7 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. At 14 days, circling behavior to the ipsilateral direction (middle cerebral artery occlusion side) was significantly increased, and that to the contralateral direction also appeared again. The present study suggested that amphetamine-induced circling behavior indicated striatal dopaminergic alterations and that dopamine transporter and dopamine D2 receptor binding could be key markers for predicting motor dysfunction after mild focal ischemia.

  9. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of sonic hedgehog into the striatum stimulates neuroregeneration in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Dong, Weiren; Guo, Suiqun; Zhao, Shu; He, Suifen; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Yinjuan; Wang, Haihong

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the nigrostriatal pathway, consisting of dopaminergic neuronal projections from the substantia nigra to the striatum, degenerates. Viral transduction is currently the most promising in vivo strategy for delivery of therapeutic proteins into the brain for treatment of PD. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is necessary for cell proliferation, differentiation and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressed N-terminal product of SHH (SHH-N) in a PD model rat. A lentiviral vector containing SHH-N was stereotactically injected into the striatum 24 h after a striatal 6-OHDA lesion. We found that overexpressed SHH-N attenuated behavioral deficits and reduced the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and the loss of dopamine fibers in the striatum. In addition, fluoro-ruby-labeled nigrostriatal projections were also repaired. Together, our results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using the strategy of lentivirus-mediated Shh-N delivery to delay nigrostriatal pathway degeneration. This strategy holds the potential for therapeutic application in the treatment of PD.

  10. Regional differences in mu-opioid receptor-dependent modulation of basal dopamine transmission in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Jurado, Y; Martí-Prats, L; Zornoza, T; Polache, A; Granero, L; Cano-Cebrián, M J

    2017-01-18

    The nigrostriatal dopamine system is implicated in the regulation of reward and motor activity. Dopamine (DA) release in dorsal striatum (DS) is controlled by the firing rate of DA neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. However, influences at terminal level, such as those involving activation of mu opioid receptors (MORs), can play a key role in determining DA levels in striatum. Nonetheless, published data also suggest that the effect of opioid drugs on DA levels may differ depending on the DS subregion analyzed. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in rats was used to explore this regional dependence. Changes in basal DA levels induced by local retrodialysis application of DAMGO (selective MORs agonist) in three different subregions of DS along the rostro-caudal axis were studied. Our results indicate that whereas administration of 10μM DAMGO into the rostral and caudal DS significantly reduced DA levels, in medial DS an increase in DA levels was observed. These data reveal a regional-dependent MOR modulation of DA release in DS, similar to that described in the ventral striatum. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of the nigrostriatal DA system regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  12. Modulation of Corpus Striatal Neurochemistry by Astrocytes and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelkenli, İbrahim Halil; Ulupinar, Emel; Korkmaz, Orhan Tansel; Şener, Erol; Kuş, Gökhan; Filiz, Zeynep; Tunçel, Neşe

    2016-06-01

    The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes play direct, active, and critical roles in mediating neuronal survival and functions. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has neurotrophic actions and modulates a number of astrocytic activities. In this study, the effects of VIP on the striatal neurochemistry were investigated in parkinsonian rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated, unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned, and lesioned + VIP-administered (25 ng/kg i.p.) groups. VIP was first injected 1 h after the intrastriatal 6-OHDA microinjection and then every 2 days throughout 15 days. Extracellular striatal concentration of glutathione (GSH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), and lactate were measured in microdialysates by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantification of GABA and activity dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP)-expressing cells were determined by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/ADNP + glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that a 6-OHDA lesion significantly increased the density of astrocytes in the striatum and VIP treatment slightly reduced the gliosis. Extracellular concentration of GABA, GLU, and lactate levels did not change, but GSH level significantly increased in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. VIP treatment reduced GSH level comparable to sham-operated groups, but enhanced GABA and GLU levels. Our double labeling results showed that VIP primarily acts on neurons to increase ADNP and GAD expression for protection. These results suggest that, in the 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration model, astrocytes were possibly activated for forefront defensiveness by modulating striatal neurochemistry.

  13. Effect of Notoginsenoside- Rg1 on the Expression of Several Proteins in the Striatum of Rat Models with Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After establishing hemi-Parkinsonian rat models, the relationships between neuron death and the expression of several proteins, such as c-Fos, GFAP, GDNF, NF-κB and some cytokines were determined. Therapeutics experiments with notoginsenoside-Rg1 were carried out. The research results show that the expressions of GFAP, NF-κB and c-Fos will obviously increase in the lesion side of the striatum and the expression of GDNF will decrease, which implies that the signal transduction pathway may participate in the apoptosis in neurons. The levels of some cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β in the striatum of PD rat models increased compared to those of normal rats. The results of the therapeutics experiments show that notoginsenoside-Rg1 may repress the immune inflammation response and regulate the immune function through the neuro-immune molecular network. Therefore, notoginsenoside-Rg1 can be used as an effective drug for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, and can be used in the therapy of Parkinson's disease(PD).

  14. Age-related changes in the dynamics of potassium-evoked L-glutamate release in the striatum of Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, J; Pomerleau, F; Allen, J; Gerhardt, G A

    2005-01-01

    In the present studies we used a multisite ceramic-based microelectrode for rapid (800 ms) and low level measures of L-glutamate in vivo. We measured the amplitude and clearance rate of phasic changes in L-glutamate release produced by local application of potassium by a micropipette placed adjacent to the recording sites in the striatum of young (6 month), late middle aged (18 month) and aged (24 month) Fischer 344 rats. Our results showed that the amplitudes and clearance rates of potassium-evoked release of L-glutamate in the striatum were significantly decreased in aged rats as compared to the other age groups. In addition, the sensitivity of glutamate fibers to depolarization with potassium was significantly decreased in the aged rats as compared to young animals. Taken together, these data are consistent with age-related alterations in glutamate release dynamics, which may involve a compensatory mechanism for maintaining static glutamate concentrations within the striatum.

  15. Diphenyl diselenide modulates gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of female hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseni Mundstock Dias, Glaecir; Medeiros Golombieski, Ronaldo; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Pires do Amaral, Guilherme; Antunes Soares, Félix; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Wayne Nogueira, Cristina; Vargas Barbosa, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Cellular antioxidant signaling can be altered either by thyroid disturbances or by selenium status. To investigate whether or not dietary diphenyl diselenide can modify the expression of genes of antioxidant enzymes and endpoint markers of oxidative stress under hypothyroid conditions. Female rats were rendered hypothyroid by continuous exposure to methimazole (MTZ; 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water) for 3 months. Concomitantly, MTZ-treated rats were either fed or not with a diet containing diphenyl diselenide (5 ppm). mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant/oxidant status were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Hypothyroidism caused a marked upregulation in mRNA expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1, SOD-3), glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1, GPx-4) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR-1) in brain structures. SOD-2 was increased in the cortex and striatum, while TrxR-2 increased in the cerebral cortex. The increase in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was positively correlated with the Nrf-2 transcription in the cortex and hippocampus. Hypothyroidism caused oxidative stress, namely an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the hippocampus and striatum, and a decrease in nonprotein thiols in the cerebral cortex. Diphenyl diselenide was effective in reducing brain oxidative stress and normalizing most of the changes observed in gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The present work corroborates and extends that hypothyroidism disrupts antioxidant enzyme gene expression and causes oxidative stress in the brain. Furthermore, diphenyl diselenide may be considered a promising molecule to counteract these effects in a hypothyroidism state. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv 7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: KCNQ-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv 7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv 7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal and spontaneou......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: KCNQ-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv 7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv 7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal...... and spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure-prone (SHHF) rats - a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of KCNQ isoforms in penile tissue. Isometric tension was measured in intracavernous arterial rings...... and corpus cavernosum. The Kv 7.2-7.5 activators, ML213 and BMS204352, relaxed pre-contracted penile arteries and corpus cavernosum independently of nitric oxide synthase or endothelium-derived hyperpolarization. Relaxations to sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an nitric oxide...

  17. Light-controlled relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum using NOBL-1, a novel nitric oxide releaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hotta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum could be controlled with NOBL-1, a novel, lightcontrollable nitric oxide (NO releaser. Materials and Methods: Fifteen-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were used. The penile corpus cavernosum was prepared and used in an isometric tension study. After noradrenaline (10−5 M achieved precontraction, the penile corpus cavernosum was irradiated by light (470–500 nm with and without NOBL-1 (10−6 M. In addition, we noted rats’ responses to light with vardenafil (10−6 M, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitor. Next, responses to light in the presence of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10−5 M, were measured. All measurements were performed in pretreated L-NAME (10−4 M conditions to inhibit endogenous NO production. Results: Corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, was unchanged by light irradiation in the absence of NOBL-1. However, in the presence of NOBL-1, corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, relaxed in response to light irradiation. After blue light irradiation ceased, tension returned. In addition, the light response was obviously enhanced in the presence of a PDE-5 inhibitor. Conclusions: This study showed that rat corpus cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation can be light-controlled using NOBL-1, a novel, light sensitive NO releaser. Though further in vivo studies are needed to investigate possible usefulness, NOBL-1 may be prove to be a useful tool for erectile dysfunction therapy, specifically in the field of penile rehabilitation.

  18. [Expressions of CSE and CBS in the penile corpus cavernosum of hyperglycemia rats and their implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ming; Xia, Ji-Yi; Jiang, Rui

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia on the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling pathway in rat penile tissue and its relationship with erectile function. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into groups A (4-week healthy control), B (4-week diabetes mellitus model), C (6-week healthy control) and D (6-week diabetes mellitus model). The rats in groups B and D were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg to induce diabetes mellitus, while those in groups A and C with the same volume of normal saline. The animals were killed at 4 (groups A and B) and 6 weeks (groups C and D) after treatment for measurement of the maximal intracavernous pressure/mean arterial blood pressure (ICP(max)/MAP) by electrostimulation, determination of the H2S concentration in the plasma and penile tissue, and detection of the expressions of cystathionine-beta-synthetase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) in the penile corpus cavernosum by immunohisto- chemistry and Western blot. With electrostimulation of the pelvic ganglia at 5V and 7 V, ICP(max)/MAP was significantly reduced in groups B (0.19 +/- 0.03 and 0.29 +/- 0.04) and D (0.14 +/- 0.04 and 0.25 +/- 0.04) as compared with A (0.46 +/- 0.07 and 0.68 +/- 0.09) and C (0.43 +/- 0.07 and 0.65 +/- 0.16) (P 0.05) or between C and D ([470.44 +/- 209.28] ng/dl vs [297.01 +/- 96.58] ng/dl, P > 0.05). Groups B and D showed remarkable reduction in the H2S concentration (P CBS and CSE (P CBS and CSE expressions were even more significantly decreased in D than in B (P CBS and CSE in the penile corpus cavernosum of the diabetic rats suggested that the H2S signaling pathway might be involved in hyperglycemia-induced erectile dysfunction.

  19. Effects of 2,3-benzodiazepine AMPA receptor antagonists on dopamine turnover in the striatum of rats with experimental parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Sziray, Nora; Gacsalyi, Istvan; Juranyi, Zsolt; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2007-03-15

    Although levodopa is the current "gold standard" for treatment of Parkinson's disease, there has been disputation on whether AMPA receptor antagonists can be used as adjuvant therapy to improve the effects of levodopa. Systemic administration of levodopa, the precursor of dopamine, increases brain dopamine turnover rate and this elevated turnover is believed to be essential for successful treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, long-term treatment of patients with levodopa often leads to development of dyskinesia. Therefore, drugs that feature potentiation of dopamine turnover rate and are able to reduce daily levodopa dosages might be used as adjuvant in the treatment of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. To investigate such combined treatment, we have examined the effects of two non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonists, GYKI-52466 and GYKI-53405, alone or in combination with levodopa on dopamine turnover rate in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned striatum of the rat. We found here that repeated administration of levodopa, added with the peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, increased dopamine turnover rate after lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Moreover, combination of levodopa with GYKI-52466 or GYKI-53405 further increased dopamine turnover enhanced by levodopa administration while the AMPA receptor antagonists by themselves failed to influence striatal dopamine turnover. We concluded from the present data that potentiation observed between levodopa and AMPA receptor antagonists may reflect levodopa-sparing effects in clinical treatment indicating the therapeutic potential of such combination in the management of Parkinson's disease.

  20. EFFECT OF PRECURSOR LOADING ON THE SYNTHESIS RATE AND RELEASE OF DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN IN THE STRIATUM - A MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN CONSCIOUS RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; DEVRIES, JB

    1991-01-01

    The effects of systemic administration of tyrosine and phenylalanine on the extracellular levels of tyrosine and dopamine were determined by microdialysis in the striatum of awake rats. In addition, the effects of these precursors on in vivo 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) formation were determine

  1. In vivo study on the monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites change in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats by liquid chromatography with an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Yang, Jie; Lin, Ruipo; Yu, Li; Gao, Hongchang; Yang, Shulin; Li, Xiaokun

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in an experimental Parkinsonian animal model established by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine administration was studied. For the purpose of detecting monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites more sensitively, an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode was fabricated and used as the working electrode for an electrochemical detector in HPLC. The results indicated that the modified electrode exhibited efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation for monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites with relatively high sensitivity, long life, and stability. The linear ranges spanned four orders of magnitude (r>0.998) and the detectability was on the level of 0.1 nmolL(-1). The percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for each compound at all concentration levels was lower than 2.57% and 1.94% for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. The mean recovery values were between 98.75% and 105.25%, and the %RSD was found to be less than 1.02%. Coupled with in vivo microdialysis sampling, the validated method was successfully applied to measure monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in both sides of the striatum of conscious and freely moving Parkinsonian rats, and the extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the lesioned-side striatum of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats were lower than that in the intact side striatum or in the striatum of control rats.

  2. Prior experience of morphine application alters the c-fos response to MDMA ('ecstasy') and cocaine in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdtmann-Vourliotis, M; Mayer, P; Riechert, U; Höllt, V

    2000-04-14

    Repeated morphine application usually leads to the development of tolerance but under certain circumstances sensitization may arise simultaneously. This phenomenon becomes obvious in behavioral tests as increasing locomotor activity and increasing drug self-administration during a course of chronic morphine application. It was suggested recently that sensitization could contribute to addiction. The molecular mechanisms of sensitization may include the long lasting increase in neuronal responsiveness to morphine which was observed in defined brain areas after repeated morphine injections. In this work, we studied whether morphine-sensitized Wistar rats also display an enhanced neuronal activity in response to other drugs of abuse (so called co-sensitization). The substances to be tested were injected as single doses 4 weeks after completion of a 10-day morphine pretreatment. MDMA (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 6 mg/kg) as a single test dose yielded a c-fos response in a wide range of brain areas. In the caudate putamen, the expression pattern of c-fos was clearly altered if the rats had received repeated morphine application previously. In this case, the MDMA-induced c-fos expression was markedly confined to the centromedial, mesolimbic aspect of the striatum whereas it had a diffuse appearance in rats not exposed to the opiate earlier. Cocaine application (50 mg/kg) elicited an intense c-fos expression in the medial striatum if the animals were morphine-pretreated; it was virtually absent in drug-naive rats after the same cocaine dose. Ten mg/kg cocaine had a similar but weaker effect. No difference in the c-fos expression pattern between morphine and saline pretreated animals was observed in the case of a THC (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, 25 mg/kg) or an LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide, 1 mg/kg) test application. These findings imply that morphine sensitizes the brain towards other addicting drugs. In consequence, morphine sensitization obviously does not

  3. Differential induction of c-Jun and Fos-like proteins in rat hippocampus and dorsal striatum after training in two water maze tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, Lisa A; Packard, Mark G; Smith, Diane E; Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge G; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2005-09-01

    Research examining the neuroanatomical bases of memory in mammals suggests that the hippocampus and dorsal striatum are parts of independent memory systems that mediate "cognitive" and stimulus-response "habit" memory, respectively. At the molecular level, increasing evidence indicates a role for immediate early gene (IEG) expression in memory formation. The present experiment examined whether acquisition of cognitive and habit memory result in differential patterns of IEG protein product expression in these two brain structures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in either a hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze task, or a dorsal striatal-dependent cued water maze task. Ninety minutes after task acquisition, brains were removed and processed for immunocytochemical procedures, and the number of cells expressing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-like-IR) and c-Jun-IR in sections from the dorsal hippocampus and the dorsal striatum were counted. In the dorsal hippocampus of rats trained in the spatial task, there were significantly more c-Jun-IR pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions, relative to rats that had acquired the cued task, yoked controls (free-swim), or naïve (home cage) rats. Relative to rats receiving cued task training and control conditions, increases in Fos-like IR were also observed in the CA1 region of rats trained in the spatial task. In rats that had acquired the cued task, patches of c-Jun-IR were observed in the posteroventral striatum; no such patches were evident in rats trained in the spatial task, yoked-control rats, or naïve rats. The results demonstrate that IEG protein product expression is up-regulated in a task-dependent and brain structure-specific manner shortly after acquisition of cognitive and habit memory tasks.

  4. Different locomotor sensitization responses to repeated cocaine injections are associated with differential phosphorylation of GluA1 in the dorsomedial striatum of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myonghwan; Kim, Wonju; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-11-15

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants reflects neural adaptation, which might share a common mechanism with drug addiction. Outbred male rats show different locomotor sensitization responses to cocaine, and cocaine also produces varied addictive progress in humans. We investigated whether differences in the induction of sensitization would affect the long-term persistence of sensitized locomotor activity, and we sought to determine the molecular basis for the variability in sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that showed sensitized locomotor responses over 5 consecutive daily cocaine injections (SENS) had significantly lower initial locomotor responses to the 1st cocaine exposure than did rats that did not show locomotor sensitization (NONS). Furthermore, rats that underwent 1 month of cocaine withdrawal after 5 repeated cocaine injections also exhibited sensitized or non-sensitized locomotor responses to a challenge injection of cocaine (SENS-C or NONS-C, respectively). This variability was also related to the initial responsiveness to cocaine. We examined the level of phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioniate receptor (AMPAR) in the dorsal striatum and found that there were significant differences between the sensitized rats and the non-sensitized rats. pGluA1-Ser831 was increased in the SENS rats during the induction of locomotor sensitization, and pGluA1-Ser845 was increased in the SENS-C rats during the expression of locomotor sensitization. These phosphorylation changes were observed in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of adult rats but not in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of adults. Our findings suggest that differential phosphorylation of AMPAR might be an important mechanism that contributes to the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adult rats.

  5. Dehydration-Induced Anorexia Reduces Astrocyte Density in the Rat Corpus Callosum

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    Daniel Reyes-Haro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder associated with severe weight loss as a consequence of voluntary food intake avoidance. Animal models such as dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA mimic core features of the disorder, including voluntary reduction in food intake, which compromises the supply of energy to the brain. Glial cells, the major population of nerve cells in the central nervous system, play a crucial role in supplying energy to the neurons. The corpus callosum (CC is the largest white matter tract in mammals, and more than 99% of the cell somata correspond to glial cells in rodents. Whether glial cell density is altered in anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density in the three main regions of the CC (genu, body, and splenium in a murine model of DIA. The astrocyte density was significantly reduced (~34% for the DIA group in the body of the CC, whereas in the genu and the splenium no significant changes were observed. DIA and forced food restriction (FFR also reduced the ratio of astrocytes to glial cells by 57.5% and 22%, respectively, in the body of CC. Thus, we conclude that DIA reduces astrocyte density only in the body of the rat CC.

  6. Dehydration-Induced Anorexia Reduces Astrocyte Density in the Rat Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Haro, Daniel; Labrada-Moncada, Francisco Emmanuel; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder associated with severe weight loss as a consequence of voluntary food intake avoidance. Animal models such as dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) mimic core features of the disorder, including voluntary reduction in food intake, which compromises the supply of energy to the brain. Glial cells, the major population of nerve cells in the central nervous system, play a crucial role in supplying energy to the neurons. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter tract in mammals, and more than 99% of the cell somata correspond to glial cells in rodents. Whether glial cell density is altered in anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density in the three main regions of the CC (genu, body, and splenium) in a murine model of DIA. The astrocyte density was significantly reduced (~34%) for the DIA group in the body of the CC, whereas in the genu and the splenium no significant changes were observed. DIA and forced food restriction (FFR) also reduced the ratio of astrocytes to glial cells by 57.5% and 22%, respectively, in the body of CC. Thus, we conclude that DIA reduces astrocyte density only in the body of the rat CC. PMID:26090235

  7. Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain

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    Parakalan Rangarajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC. The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Results To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC. Conclusions The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states.

  8. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P=0.001. The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression.

  9. Postnatal Administration of Allopregnanolone Modifies Glutamate Release but Not BDNF Content in Striatum Samples of Rats Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

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    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption during pregnancy may induce profound changes in fetal CNS development. We postulate that some of the effects of ethanol on striatal glutamatergic transmission and neurotrophin expression could be modulated by allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid modulator of GABAA receptor activity. We describe the acute pharmacological effect of allopregnanolone (65 μg/kg, s.c. administered to juvenile male rats (day 21 of age on the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway, in both control and prenatally ethanol-exposed rats (two ip injections of 2.9 g/kg in 24% v/v saline solution on gestational day 8. Prenatal ethanol administration decreased the K+-induced release of glutamate regarding the control group. Interestingly, this effect was reverted by allopregnanolone. Regarding BDNF, allopregnanolone decreases the content of this neurotrophic factor in the striatum of control groups. However, both ethanol alone and ethanol plus allopregnanolone treated animals did not show any change regarding control values. We suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure may produce an alteration of GABAA receptors which blocks the GABA agonist-like effect of allopregnanolone on rapid glutamate release, thus disturbing normal neural transmission. Furthermore, the reciprocal interactions found between GABAergic neurosteroids and BDNF could underlie mechanisms operating during the neuronal plasticity of fetal development.

  10. Effects of septal nucleus lesion on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Shuande Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the septal nucleus is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on autopsies of schizophrenia patients, studies have shown a reduced number of septal nucleus neurons and gila. In addition, experimental rat models of schizophrenia have shown increased dopamine receptor D2 binding sites in the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, and substantia nigra. Previous studies have demonstrated that the septal nucleus modulates dopamine metabolic disorder and dopamine D2 receptor balance.OBJECTIVE: Dopamine D2 receptor expression in a rat model of schizophrenia, combined with antipsychotic drugs, was analyzed in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem. In situ hybridization was used to observe the effects of stereotactic septal nucleus lesions on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the brains of methylamphetamine-treated rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Laboratory of General Institute of Psychosurgery, Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from November 2005 to June 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were included. Methylamphetamine (Sigma, USA) and an in situ hybridization detection kit for dopamine D2 receptor (Boster, China) were also used for this study. METHODS: All rats were randomly allocated to the following 4 groups, with 30 rats in each group: normal control, simple administration, septal nucleus lesion, and sham-operated groups. In the normal control group, rats were not administered or lesioned. In the remaining 3 groups, rats were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg methylamphetamine, once per day, for 15 successive days to establish a schizophrenia model. Following successful model establishment, rats from the septal nucleus lesion group were subjected to stereotactic septal nucleus lesions. The cranial bone was exposed in rats from the sham-operated group, and the septal nucleus was not

  11. The role of the striatum in compulsive behavior in intact and orbitofrontal-cortex-lesioned rats: possible involvement of the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilman, Eduardo A; Klavir, Oded; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Joel, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 'compulsive' behavior is induced by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food. We have recently found that lesions to the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) led to an increase in compulsive lever-pressing that was prevented by systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, and paralleled by an increase in the density of the striatal serotonin transporter. This study further explored the interaction between the OFC, the striatum, and the serotonergic system in the production of compulsive lever-pressing. Experiment 1 revealed that OFC lesions decrease the content of serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA in the striatum. Experiment 2 showed that intrastriatal administration of paroxetine blocked OFC lesion-induced increased compulsivity, but did not affect compulsive responding in intact rats. Experiments 3 and 4 found that pre-training striatal lesions had no effect on compulsive lever-pressing, whereas post-training striatal inactivation exerted an anticompulsive effect. These results strongly implicate the striatum in the expression of compulsive lever-pressing in both intact and OFC-lesioned rats. Furthermore, the results support the possibility that in a subpopulation of OCD patients a primary pathology of the OFC leads to a dysregulation of the striatal serotonergic system, which is manifested in compulsive behavior, and that antiobsessional/anticompulsive drugs exerts their effects, in these patients, by normalizing the dysfunctional striatal serotonergic system.

  12. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  13. Anatomical organization of MCH connections with the pallidum and dorsal striatum in the rat

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    Sandrine eChometton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons producing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH are distributed in the posterior hypothalamus, but project massively throughout the forebrain. Many aspects regarding the anatomical organization of these projections are still obscure. The present study has two goals: first to characterize the topographical organization of neurons projecting into the cholinergic basal forebrain (globus pallidus, medial septal complex, and second to verify if MCH neurons may indirectly influence the dorsal striatum (caudoputamen by innervating afferent sources to this structure. In the first series of experiments, the retrograde tracer fluorogold was injected into multiple sites in the pallidal and medial septal regions and the distribution of retrogradely labeled neurons were analyzed in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. In the second series of experiments, fluorogold was injected to the caudoputamen and the innervation by MCH axons of retrogradely labeled cells was analyzed. Our results revealed that the MCH system is able to interact with the basal nuclei in several different ways. First, MCH neurons provide topographic inputs to the globus pallidus, medial septal complex and substantia innominata. Second, striatal projecting neurons in the cortex, thalamus and substantia nigra presumably receive only sparse inputs from MCH neurons. Third, the subthalamic nucleus is heavily innervated by MCH projections, thus, presumably serves as one important intermediate station to mediate MCH influence on other parts of the basal nuclei.

  14. Methamphetamine induces dopamine D1 receptor-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecular events in the rat striatum.

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    Subramaniam Jayanthi

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an illicit toxic psychostimulant which is widely abused. Its toxic effects depend on the release of excessive levels of dopamine (DA that activates striatal DA receptors. Inhibition of DA-mediated neurotransmission by the DA D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, protects against METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. The initial purpose of the present study was to investigate, using microarray analyses, the influence of SCH23390 on transcriptional responses in the rat striatum caused by a single METH injection at 2 and 4 hours after drug administration. We identified 545 out of a total of 22,227 genes as METH-responsive. These include genes which are involved in apoptotic pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and in transcription regulation, among others. Of these, a total of 172 genes showed SCH23390-induced inhibition of METH-mediated changes. Among these SCH23390-responsive genes were several genes that are regulated during ER stress, namely ATF3, HSP27, Hmox1, HSP40, and CHOP/Gadd153. The secondary goal of the study was to investigate the role of DA D1 receptor stimulation on the expression of genes that participate in ER stress-mediated molecular events. We thus used quantitative PCR to confirm changes in the METH-responsive ER genes identified by the microarray analyses. We also measured the expression of these genes and of ATF4, ATF6, BiP/GRP78, and of GADD34 over a more extended time course. SCH23390 attenuated or blocked METH-induced increases in the expression of the majority of these genes. Western blot analysis revealed METH-induced increases in the expression of the antioxidant protein, Hmox1, which lasted for about 24 hours after the METH injection. Additionally, METH caused DA D1 receptor-dependent transit of the Hmox1 regulator protein, Nrf2, from cytosolic into nuclear fractions where the protein exerts its regulatory functions. When taken together, these findings indicate that SCH23390 can provide

  15. Baseline-dependent effects of cocaine pre-exposure on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the rat striatum: possible relevance to the attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Hong, Young T; Sawiak, Stephen J; Ferrari, Valentina; Williamson, David J; Jupp, Bianca; Adrian Carpenter, T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W; Fryer, Tim D; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-01

    We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats predicts the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking and taking, and is coupled to decreased D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. As withdrawal from cocaine normalises high impulsivity in rats, we investigated, using positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of response-contingent cocaine administration on D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on the five-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D2/3 ligand [(18)F]fallypride, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 15 days under a long-access schedule. As a follow-up, rats were assessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [(18)F]fallypride PET scan. At baseline, we found that D2/3 receptor availability was significantly lower in the left, but not right, ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats compared with low-impulsive rats. While the number of self-administered cocaine infusions was not different between the two impulsivity groups, impulsivity selectively decreased in high-impulsive rats withdrawn from cocaine. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in D2/3 receptor availability in the left, but not right, ventral striatum. We further report that D2/3 receptor availability was inversely related to baseline D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats, as well as to the left and right dorsal striatum of both low-impulsive and high-impulsive rats. These findings indicate that the reduction in impulsivity in high-impulsive rats by prior cocaine exposure may be mediated by a selective correction of deficient D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. A similar baseline-dependent mechanism may account for the therapeutic effects of stimulant drugs in clinical disorders such as ADHD.

  16. In vitro autoradiography of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampus and striatum of aged Long-Evans rats: relationship to spatial learning

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    Gallagher, M. [Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bizon, J.L. [Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nicolle, M.M. [Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-08-02

    Using in vitro autoradiography, we investigated [{sup 3}H]{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate, [{sup 3}H]kainate and [{sup 3}H]N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in two forebrain regions, the hippocampus and striatum, of young (four months of age) and aged (24-25 months of age) Long-Evans rats that had previously been tested for spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze. Although there was substantial preservation of binding in the aged rats, reductions in binding were present in the aged rats that were specific to ligand and anatomical region. In the hippocampus of aged rats, [{sup 3}H]{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate binding in CA1 and [{sup 3}H]kainate binding in CA3 were reduced. In contrast, N-methyl-d-aspartate binding was not significantly different between age groups. There was evidence of sprouting in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of aged rats, indicated by changes in the topography of [{sup 3}H]kainate binding. Binding density was analysed with respect to patch/matrix compartmentalization in the striatum. The most striking result was a large decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in aged rats that was not limited to any dorsal/ventral or patch/matrix area of the striatum. Additionally, [{sup 3}H]kainate binding in striatal matrix was modestly reduced in aged rats. Of these age effects, only N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in the striatum and [{sup 3}H]kainate binding in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were correlated with spatial learning, with lower binding in the aged rats associated with better spatial learning ability.Age-related alterations in ionotropic glutamate receptors differ with respect to the receptor subtype and anatomical region examined. The age effects were not neccessarily indicative of cognitive decline, as only two age-related binding changes were correlated with spatial learning. Interestingly, in these instances, lower binding in the aged rats was associated with preserved spatial

  17. Microglial and macrophage reactions mark progressive changes and define the penumbra in the rat neocortex and striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Christensen, Thomas; Zimmer, J

    1997-01-01

    Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats leads to infarction of the lateral part of the striatum and adjacent neocortex, with selective neuronal necrosis in the bordering penumbral zones. Administration of glutamate, cytokine, and leukocyte antagonists have rescued mainly neocortical...... major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression. We interpret the present results as delineating two differentially progressing penumbral zones, which are likely to reflect differences in the underlying degenerative processes. Differences in the microglial/macrophage activation...

  18. Role of Dopaminergic D2 Receptors in the Regulation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Messenger RNA in the Striatum of the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboche, Jocelyne; Vernier, Philippe; Rogard, Monique; Julien, Jean-François; Mallet, Jacques; Besson, Marie-Jo

    1992-01-01

    Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and preproenkephalin (PPE) were measured by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses in the striatum of the rat, after chronic injections of two neuroleptics, sulpiride and haloperidol. The Northern blot analysis showed that the chronic injection of sulpiride at high doses (80 mg/kg, twice a day, 14 days) increased striatal GAD and PPE mRNA levels by 120% and 78% respectively, when compared to vehicle-injected rats. Haloperidol injections at relatively low doses (1 mg/kg, once a day, 14 days) produced parallel increases in GAD (40%) and PPE (52%) mRNA levels. After in situ hybridization densitometric measurements were performed on autoradiograms from rats treated with sulpiride, haloperidol or vehicle. The distribution of GAD and PPE mRNA signals in control rats was homogeneous along the rostrocaudal extension of the striatum. A similar increase was found along this axis after sulpiride (20%) and haloperidol (30%) treatments. The cellular observation of hybridization signals showed that grain density for GAD mRNA was increased in a majority of striatal cells after both treatments. By contrast, the PPE mRNA hybridization signal only increased in a subpopulation of neurons. The effects of such treatments were also analysed by measuring GAD activity in the striatum and in its output structures, the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. After the administration of sulpiride, GAD activity was not modified in the striatum but increased in the globus pallidus (by 17%). After haloperidol treatment, GAD activity was increased in the globus pallidus (20%) and the substantia nigra (17%). It is concluded that the interruption of dopaminergic transmission, more precisely the D2 receptor blockade, promotes in striatopallidal neurons an increase in GAD mRNA accompanied by an increase in GAD activity and PPE mRNA. A possible regulation of GAD mRNA and GAD activity in striatonigral neurons is also

  19. Visual recognition memory is related to basic expression level of NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B subtype in hippocampus and striatum of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jun XU; Zhong CHEN; Li-jun ZHU; Hai-qing SHEN; Jian-hong LUO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the basic expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits in six brain regions of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with different visual recognition memory. Methods: Rats were tested by a novelobject-recognition model and grouped into the high and the low visual recognition memory groups. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B subunits in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, diencephalon, and olfactory bulb were measured by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Results: The NR1 and NR2B subunit protein levels in the hippocampus of the high visual recognition memory group were 35.9% (P<0.01) and 53.4% (P<0.05) higher respectively than those in the low group. In addition, the NR2B level in the striatum in the high visual recognition memory group was 25.0% (P<0.05) higher than that in the low one. However, no significant difference was found in the levels of the subunits between the two groups in other brain regions. Conclusion: The visual recognition memory in rats is related to the basic expression level of NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B subtype in the hippocampus and striatum.

  20. Impact of microdialysis probes on vasculature and dopamine in the rat striatum: a combined fluorescence and voltammetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitala, Christina M; Wang, Yuexiang; Borland, Laura M; Jung, Moon; Shand, Stuart; Watkins, Simon; Weber, Stephen G; Michael, Adrian C

    2008-09-30

    Measuring extracellular dopamine in the brain of living animals by means of microdialysis and/or voltammetry is a route towards understanding both normal brain function and pathology. Previous reports, however, suggest that the tissue response to implantation of devices may affect the outcome of the measurements. To address the source of the tissue response and its impact on striatal dopamine systems microdialysis probes were placed in the striatum of anesthetized rats. Images obtained by dual-label fluorescence microscopy show signs of ischemia and opening of the blood-brain barrier near the probe tracks. Opening of the blood-brain barrier was further examined by determining dialysate concentrations of carbi-DOPA, a drug that normally does not penetrate the brain. Although carbi-DOPA was recovered in brain dialysate, it did not alter dialysate dopamine levels or evoked dopamine release as measured by voltammetry near the probes. Microdialysis probes also significantly diminished the effect of intrastriatal infusion of kynurenate on extracellular dopamine levels as measured by voltammetry near the probes.

  1. Effect of nitrogen narcosis on extracellular levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the rat striatum, using intracerebral microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy-Requin, M; Semelin, P; Risso, J J

    1994-12-19

    In man, nitrogen narcosis is characterized by euphoria, impaired cognitive function, neuromuscular incoordination and, ultimately, loss of consciousness. Because of the motor movement disorders, we chose to study the nigrostriatal system, whose major function is to regulate the extrapyramidal nervous system. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum of conscious rats, using intracerebral microdialysis. Results show a 40% decrease in extracellular DA concentration, a 59% increase in extracellular DOPAC and an increase in HVA starting with exposure to the nitrogen mixture. Thirty minutes after the beginning of the exposure, a compensation phase took place. HVA returns to its initial basal value, and levels of DOPAC and DA returned towards normal but never reached their initial values. These results contrast with those observed during the High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS, 5.1 MPa of helium pressure) in which there is a significant increase in extracellular DA. Therefore, some of the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis may be linked with the decrease in the extracellular DA levels.

  2. Measurement of Hydroxyl-Radical Formation in the Rat Striatum by In Vivo Microdialysis and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V; Bonds, D V; Prokai, L

    2008-10-01

    A GC-MS method was developed for measuring hydroxyl-radical capture products of salicylic acid, a common trapping agent for this reactive oxygen species, in samples obtained by in vivo cerebral microdialysis experiments. The assay employed liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid added as an internal standard. Due to their simple electron ionization mass spectra featuring [M - 57](+) ions through the loss of tertiary alkyl group from the corresponding molecular ions, tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives afforded straightforward method development based on selected-ion monitoring. In addition, tandem mass spectrometry probing collision-induced dissociation of [M - 57](+) ions obtained from the isomeric tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives revealed characteristic differences in the resultant product-ion spectra. Our work has demonstrated the applicability of GC-MS for the assay of microdialysates for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid by confirming that local administration of the excitotoxic glutamate into the rat striatum significantly increased in vivo hydroxyl-radical production in this brain region and that subsequent systemic administration of α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone reversed glutamate-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Conductor compounds of phenylpentane in Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii mycelium enhance the release of dopamine from rat brain striatum slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Sawasaki, Emi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-04-01

    Monoterpene compound is a major component of essential oils in various aromatic species. Previous reports about the monoterpene compound linalool and its effect on the brain neurotransmitters glutamic acid, GABA and acetylcholine, but not catecholamines, have been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of linalool or conductor compounds of phenylpentane, including 1-phenyl-3-pentanol and 1-phenyl-3-pentanone, on dopamine release using rat striatal slices. The edible mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii belongs to the Climacodontaceae family, and its cultivate medium or mycelium contains derivatives of the fragrant conductor compound, phenylpentane. Compared to basal levels, 2.5 microg linalool increased dopamine from striatal slices 3-fold. A 4-fold increase in dopamine release resulted from 2.5 microg 1-phenyl-3-pentanol administration, while a half dose of this compound induced a 2.5-fold increase. A greater than 2-fold increase resulted with 2.5 microg 1-phenyl-3-pentanone. These data indicate that striatum has sensitivity for these fragrant compounds and different releasing effects result with differ structures. These actions may affect other neurotransmitters and influence brain function.

  4. Effects of oral exposure to mining waste on in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Several single components of mining waste (arsenic, manganese, lead, cadmium) to which humans are exposed at the mining area of Villa de la Paz, Mexico, are known to provoke alterations of striatal dopaminergic parameters. In this study we used an animal model to examine neurochemical changes resulting from exposure to a metal mixture. We used microdialysis to compare in vivo dopamine release from adult rats subchronically exposed to a mining waste by oral route with those from a control grou...

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7) Downregulates Diabetes-Induced cGMP Phosphodiesterase Activation in Rat Corpus Cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benter, Ibrahim F.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-(1-7), Ang-(1-7), in diabetes-related complications, including erectile dysfunction, remain unclear. We examined the effect of diabetes and/or Ang-(1-7) treatment on vascular reactivity and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) in corpus cavernosum. Male Wistar rats were grouped as (1) control, (2) diabetic (streptozotocin, STZ, treated), (3) control + Ang-(1-7), and (4) diabetic + Ang-(1-7). Following 3 weeks of Ang-(1-7) treatment subsequent to induction of diabetes, rats were sacrificed. Penile cavernosal tissue was isolated to measure vascular reactivity, PDE gene expression and activity, and levels of p38MAP kinase, nitrites, and cGMP. Carbachol-induced vasorelaxant response after preincubation of corpus cavernosum with PE was significantly attenuated in diabetic rats, and Ang-(1-7) markedly corrected the diabetes-induced impairment. Gene expression and activity of PDE and p38MAP kinase were significantly increased in cavernosal tissue of diabetic rats, and Ang-(1-7) markedly attenuated STZ-induced effects. Ang-(1-7) significantly increased the levels of nitrite and cGMP in cavernosal tissue of control and diabetic rats. Cavernosal tissue of diabetic rats had significantly reduced cGMP levels and Ang-(1-7) markedly prevented the STZ-induced cGMP depletion. This study demonstrates that attenuation of diabetes-induced PDE activity might be one of the key mechanisms in the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7).

  6. The effect of mirodenafil on the penile erection and corpus cavernosum in the rat model of cavernosal nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Sohn, D W; Kim, S D; Hong, S-H; Suh, H J; Lee, C B; Kim, S W

    2010-01-01

    Impotence is one of the common complications after the radical prostatectomy. One of the main reasons of this complication is due to the dysfunction of the veins in corpus cavernosum. Recent studies have shown that the erectile function is improved after the long-term therapy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor among patients with post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mirodenafil on the penile erection and corpus cavernosum tissues in the rat model of cavernosal nerve injury. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) control group, (2) bilateral cavernosal nerve injury group, (3) mirodenafil 10 mg therapy group after the nerve injury and (4) mirodenafil 20 mg therapy group after the nerve injury. After we identified the nerve from the pelvic nerve complex on the lateral side of the prostate, the rats in the control group were sutured without causing any nerve injury and in other groups we damaged the nerve by compressing it with a vessel clamp. Then, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 of mirodenafil were orally administered to two experimental groups. After 8 weeks, the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) was recorded. The immunohistochemical staining and western blot were performed, and the effect of mirodenafil on the expression of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ICP of nerve-injured group was decreased compared with the control group; however, the ICP of the mirodenafil-administered groups was improved compared with the nerve-injured group. The Masson's trichrome staining confirmed that the smooth muscle (SM) component was increased in the mirodenafil-administered groups. The nitric oxide synthase expression and cGMP of mirodenafil-administered groups was increased compared with the nerve-injured group. Long-term therapy of mirodenafil may improve the erectile function after the radical prostatectomy by preserving the SM content and inhibiting the fibrosis of the

  7. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F.; Govoni, S.; Rius, R.A.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  8. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  9. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilia B. Lepsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study cocaine’s toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2 and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  10. Effects of oral exposure to mining waste on in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, V M; Dufour, L; Carrizales, L; Díaz-Barriga, F; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E

    1998-01-01

    Several single components of mining waste (arsenic, manganese, lead, cadmium) to which humans are exposed at the mining area of Villa de la Paz, Mexico, are known to provoke alterations of striatal dopaminergic parameters. In this study we used an animal model to examine neurochemical changes resulting from exposure to a metal mixture. We used microdialysis to compare in vivo dopamine release from adult rats subchronically exposed to a mining waste by oral route with those from a control group and from a sodium arsenite group (25 mg/kg/day). We found that arsenic and manganese do accumulate in rat brain after 2 weeks of oral exposure. The mining waste group showed significantly decreased basal levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; 66.7 +/- 7.53 pg/ microl) when compared to a control group (113.7 +/- 14.3 pg/ microl). Although basal dopamine release rates were comparable among groups, when the system was challenged with a long-standing depolarization through high-potassium perfusion, animals exposed to mining waste were not able to sustain an increased dopamine release in response to depolarization (mining waste group 5.5 +/- 0.5 pg/ microl versus control group 21.7 +/- 5.8 pg/ microl). Also, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were significantly lower in exposed animals than in controls during stimulation with high potassium. The arsenite group showed a similar tendency to that from the mining waste group. In vivo microdialysis provides relevant data about the effects of a chemical mixture. Our results indicate that this mining waste may represent a health risk for the exposed population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681976

  11. Serotonin 2A receptor mRNA levels in the neonatal dopamine-depleted rat striatum remain upregulated following suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-08-05

    Sixty days after bilateral dopamine (DA) depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in neonatal rats, serotonin (5-HT) content doubled and 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression rose 54% within the rostral striatum. To determine if striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA upregulation is dependent on increased 5-HT levels following DA depletion, neonatal rats received dual injections of 6-OHDA and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) which suppressed 5-HT content by approximately 90%. In these 6-OHDA/5,7-DHT-treated rats, striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression was still elevated (87% above vehicle controls). Comparative analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression yielded no significant changes in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor biosynthesis in the DA-depleted rat is not dependent on subsequent 5-HT hyperinnervation.

  12. Acute iboga alkaloid effects on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels in nucleus accumbens and striatum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, D; Maisonneuve, I M; Kuehne, M E; Glick, S D

    1998-08-03

    The iboga alkaloid, ibogaine, its metabolite, noribogaine, and the congener, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) have all been claimed to have anti-addictive properties in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. Ibogaine and noribogaine were shown to have affinity for the serotonin transporter, and inhibition of serotonin reuptake has been proposed to be involved in their anti-addictive actions. It is not known yet if 18-MC also has this property. In vivo microdialysis and HPLC (microbore) were used to determine acute changes in extracellular serotonin levels in nucleus accumbens (NAC) and striatum (STR) after both i.p. (40 mg/kg for all drugs) and i.v. (1-10 mg/kg for ibogaine and noribogaine) drug administration in awake freely moving female Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g). After i.p. administration, ibogaine, noribogaine and 18-MC had very different effects on extracellular serotonin levels in both NAC and STR: ibogaine elicited large increases (up to 25-fold in NAC and 10- fold in STR), noribogaine produced moderate increases (up to 8-fold in NAC and 5-fold in STR), and 18-MC had no effect in either brain region. These and other data suggest that (1) the serotonergic system may not be an essential factor in the anti-addictive actions of these drugs; (2) ibogaine (or an unidentified metabolite) may release serotonin as well as inhibit its reuptake; (3) stimulation of the ascending serotonergic system may mediate ibogaine's hallucinogenic effect; and (4) 18-MC probably has no affinity for the serotonin transporter, and is unlikely to be a hallucinogen.

  13. Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Spiers, Jereme G; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mild stress has been shown to cause hippocampal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) overexpression and the resultant nitric oxide (NO) production has been implicated in the etiology of depression. However, the extent of nitrosative changes including NOS enzymatic activity and the overall output of NO production in regions of the brain like the hippocampus and striatum following acute stress has not been characterized. In this study, outbred male Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks were randomly allocated into 0 (control), 60, 120, or 240 min stress groups and neural regions were cryodissected for measurement of constitutive and inducible NOS enzymatic activity, nitrosative status, and relative gene expression of neuronal and inducible NOS. Hippocampal constitutive NOS activity increased initially but was superseded by the inducible isoform as stress duration was prolonged. Interestingly, hippocampal neuronal NOS and interleukin-1β mRNA expression was downregulated, while the inducible NOS isoform was upregulated in conjunction with other inflammatory markers. This pro-inflammatory phenotype within the hippocampus was further confirmed with an increase in the glucocorticoid-antagonizing macrophage migration inhibitory factor, Mif, and the glial surveillance marker, Ciita. This indicates that despite high levels of glucocorticoids, acute stress sensitizes a neuroinflammatory response within the hippocampus involving both pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible NOS while concurrently modulating the immunophenotype of glia. Furthermore, there was a delayed increase in striatal inducible NOS expression while no change was found in other pro-inflammatory mediators. This suggests that short term stress induces a generalized increase in inducible NOS signaling that coincides with regionally specific increased markers of adaptive immunity and inflammation within the brain.

  14. Hyperbaric He but not N2 augments Ca2+-dependent dopamine release from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M L; Philp, R B

    1989-07-01

    Endogenous dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in perfusate from continuously superfused rat brain striatal slices, and the effects of various pressures of He and N2 were determined. He at 24 and 100 atmospheres absolute (ATA) significantly (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05) increased the release of DA evoked by a 6-min exposure to 35 mM K+, whereas He at 48 ATA did not. Experiments conducted in a Ca2+-free medium showed that only the extracellular Ca2+-dependent component of release was affected by pressure. Similar increases in DA release were observed when DA reuptake and metabolism were blocked with cocaine and pargyline, although statistical significance was not achieved. N2 did not significantly affect DA release at 12, 24, 48, or 100 ATA. The results indicate that He (= hydrostatic pressure) augments Ca2+-dependent DA release and that substitution of N2 negates this effect. The relevance of these observations to the phenomena of high pressure neurologic syndrome in divers and the anesthetic reversal of pressure effects is discussed.

  15. Functional proteomics of adenosine triphosphatase system in the rat striatum during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Federico Villa; Federica Ferrari; Antonella Gorini

    2012-01-01

    The maximum rates of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) systems related to energy consumption were systematically evaluated in synaptic plasma membranes isolated from the striata of male Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, because of their key role in presynaptic nerve ending homeostasis. The following enzyme activities were evaluated: sodium-potassium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+, Mg2+-ATPase); ouabain-insensitive magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+-ATPase); sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase); direct magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+-ATPase); calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase); and acetylcholinesterase. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase decreased at 18 and 24 months, Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase decreased from 6 months, while Mg2+-ATPase was unmodified. Therefore, ATPases vary independently during aging, suggesting that the ATPase enzyme systems are of neuropathological and pharmacological importance. This could be considered as an experimental model to study regeneration processes, because of the age-dependent modifications of specific synaptic plasma membranes. ATPases cause selective changes in some cerebral functions, especially bioenergetic systems. This could be of physiopathological significance, particularly in many central nervous system diseases, where, during regenerative processes, energy availability is essential.

  16. Terminal effects of optogenetic stimulation on dopamine dynamics in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Kulikova, Alexandra D; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the first in-depth analysis of optically induced dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry on striatal slices from rat brain was performed. An adeno-associated virus that expresses Channelrhodopsin-2 was injected in the substantia nigra. Tissue was collected and sectioned into 400μm-thick coronal slices 4 weeks later. Blue laser light (473nm) was delivered through a fiber optic inserted into slice tissue. Experiments revealed some difference between maximal amplitudes measured from optically and electrically evoked dopamine effluxes. Specifically, there was an increase in the amplitude of dopamine release induced by electrical stimulation in comparison with light stimulations. However, we found that dopamine release is more sensitive to changes in the pulse width in the case of optical stimulation. Light-stimulated dopamine was increased as the stimulation pulse widened. There was no difference with repeated stimulations at five minute intervals between stimulation sources and dopamine signal was stable during recording sessions, while one minute intervals resulted in a decline in the amplitude from both sources. Optical stimulation can also produce an artifact that is distinguishable from dopamine by the cyclic voltammogram. These results confirm that optical stimulation of dopamine is a sound approach for future pharmacological studies in slices.

  17. Low and high gamma oscillations in rat ventral striatum have distinct relationships to behavior, reward, and spiking activity on a learned spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Local field potential (LFP oscillations in the brain reflect organization thought to be important for perception, attention, movement, and memory. In the basal ganglia, including dorsal striatum, dysfunctional LFP states are associated with Parkinson’s disease, while in healthy subjects, dorsal striatal LFPs have been linked to decision-making processes. However, LFPs in ventral striatum have been less studied. We report that in rats running a spatial decision task, prominent gamma-50 (45-55 Hz and gamma-80 (70-85 Hz oscillations in ventral striatum had distinct relationships to behavior, task events, and spiking activity. Gamma-50 power increased sharply following reward delivery and before movement initiation, while in contrast, gamma-80 power ramped up gradually to reward locations. Gamma-50 power was low and contained little structure during early learning, but rapidly developed a stable pattern, while gamma-80 power was initially high before returning to a stable level within a similar timeframe. Putative fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs showed phase, firing rate, and coherence relationships with gamma-50 and gamma-80, indicating that the observed LFP patterns are locally relevant. Furthermore, in a number of FSIs such relationships were specific to gamma-50 or gamma-80, suggesting that partially distinct FSI populations mediate the effects of gamma-50 and gamma-80.

  18. Reproducibility of quantitative measures of binding potential in rat striatum: A test re-test study using DTBZ dynamic PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendaño-Estrada, A., E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com; Lara-Camacho, V. M., E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com; Ávila-García, M. C., E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com; Ávila- Rodríguez, M. A., E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    There is great interest in the study of dopamine (DA) pathways due to the increasing number of patients with illnesses related to the dopaminergic system and molecular imaging based in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been proven helpful for this task. Among the different radiopharmaceuticals available to study DA interaction, [{sup 11}C]Dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has a high affinity for the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) and its binding potential (BP) is a marker of DA terminal integrity. This paper reports on the intersubject reproducibility of BP measurements in rat striatum with [11C]DTBZ using the Logańs method.

  19. Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Heimfarth, Luana; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Gomes, Henrique Mautone; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Delgado, Jeferson; Roncato, Sabrina; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-03-27

    During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a group according to their treatment (saline, CGE, or caffeine). Solutions were administered daily by oral gavage for 6 months. Open field and novel object recognition tasks were performed before and after treatment. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and striatum. Our open field data showed an increase in exploratory activity and a decrease in anxiety-like behavior with caffeine but not with the CGE treatment. In the CGE-treated group, catalase activity decreased in the hippocampus and increased in the striatum. Analyses of the hippocampus and striatum indicate that CGE and/or caffeine altered some of the analyzed parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Our data suggest that CGE intake does not improve cognitive development, but modifies the oxidative stress machinery and neurodegenerative-signaling pathway, inhibiting pro-survival pathway molecules in the hippocampus and striatum. This may contribute to the development of unfavorable microenvironments in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Pharmacological blockade of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) alters neural proliferation, apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum in a negative energy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Bindila, Laura; Pastor, Antoni; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids participate in the control of neurogenesis, neural cell death and gliosis. The pharmacological effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which limits the endocannabinoid degradation, was investigated in the present study. Cell proliferation (phospho-H3(+) or BrdU(+) cells) of the main adult neurogenic zones as well as apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3(+)), astroglia (GFAP(+)), and microglia (Iba1(+) cells) were analyzed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum of rats intraperitoneally treated with URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day) at one dose/4-days resting or 5 doses (1 dose/day). Repeated URB597 treatment increased the plasma levels of the N-acylethanolamines oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and arachidonoylethanolamine, reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and induced a transitory body weight decrease. The hippocampi of repeated URB597-treated rats showed a reduced number of phospho-H3(+) and BrdU(+) subgranular cells as well as GFAP(+), Iba1(+) and cleaved caspase-3(+) cells, which was accompanied with decreased hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene Cnr1 and Faah. In the hypothalami of these rats, the number of phospho-H3(+), GFAP(+) and 3-weeks-old BrdU(+) cells was specifically decreased. The reduced striatal expression of CB1 receptor in repeated URB597-treated rats was only associated with a reduced apoptosis. In contrast, the striatum of acute URB597-treated rats showed an increased number of subventricular proliferative, astroglial and apoptotic cells, which was accompanied with increased Faah expression. Main results indicated that FAAH inhibitor URB597 decreased neural proliferation, glia and apoptosis in a brain region-dependent manner, which were coupled to local changes in Faah and/or Cnr1 expression and a negative energy context.

  1. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, activates tyrosine hydroxylase through extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyun Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Hong Geun; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2011-11-01

    Alteration in dopamine neurotransmission has been reported to be involved in the mania of bipolar disorder. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that is crucial for dopamine biosynthesis, and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple N-terminal serine residues. Previously, we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain, a selective Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, induces hyperactivity in rats that mimics manic symptoms related to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays crucial roles in the modulation of TH phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ICV injection of ouabain on TH phosphorylation in rat striatum and the involvement of ERK1/2 in ouabain-induced TH activation. ICV ouabain induced an acute dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity and in TH phosphorylation in rat striatum. TH phosphorylation at Ser19 was significantly increased with 100, 500, and 1000μM ouabain, and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 was significantly increased with 500 and 1000μM. We also found that ICV pretreatment with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, attenuated the 1000μM ouabain-induced increase in TH phosphorylation at Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40, as well as the hyperactivity of rats. Moreover, the increased phosphorylation of TH (Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40) was maintained until 8h after single administration ouabain was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) and p90RSK (Thr359/Ser363). These findings imply that TH activation of the ERK1/2 signal pathway could play an important role in ouabain-induced hyperactivity of rats, a mania model.

  2. Iptkalim inhibits cocaine challenge—induced enhancement of dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens and striatum of rats by up—regulating Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEHai-Rong; DINGJian-Hua; GUBing; WANGHai; HUGang; LIUYun

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect and mechanism of novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener (KCO) iptkalim (IPT) on acute and cocaine challenge-induced alterations in the levels of dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) from nucleus accumbens (NAc), striatum, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats. METHODS: The levels of DA and Glu were assayed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with amperometric and fluorescent detection, respectively. The mRNA levels of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 were measured by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: IPT did not affect acute cocaine (30mg/kg,ip)-induced elevations in either DA levels from NAc and striatum or Glu levels from NAc and PFC. An acute cocaine challenge (30mg/kg,ip) on d 21 after withdrawal caused an elevation in DA levels in NAc and striatum. Moreover, the same treatment also increased Gluo levels in PFC and NAc of cocaine-pretreated rats. Repeated IPT injections reversed cocaine challenge-induced DA increase in NAc and striatum. Cocaine challenge increased Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA expression in striatum and NAc and only elevate Kir6.2 expression in PFC in both cocainepretreated rats and rats pretreated with IPT plus cocaine. Moreover, expression of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA was augmented in rats pretreated with IPT plus cocaine compared to rats pretreated with cocaine alone. No significant change was found in the SUR1 and SUR2 expression of all four groups. CONCLUSION:IPT inhibited cocaine challenge-induced enhancement of DA levels in NAc and striatum by up-regulating Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA expression.

  3. Histamine H3 receptor activation prevents dopamine D1 receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine release in the rat striatum: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Alonso-Spilsbury, María; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2013-09-27

    Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) co-localize with dopamine (DA) D1 receptors (D1Rs) on striatal medium spiny neurons and functionally antagonize D1R-mediated responses. The intra-striatal administration of D1R agonists reduces DA release whereas D1R antagonists have the opposite effect. In this work, a microdialysis method was used to study the effect of co-activating D1 and H3 receptors on the release of DA from the rat dorsal striatum. Infusion of the D1R agonist SKF-38393 (0.5 and 1 μM) significantly reduced DA release (26-58%), and this effect was prevented by co-administration of the H3R agonist immepip (10 μM). In turn, the effect of immepip was blocked by the H3R antagonist thioperamide (10 μM). Our results indicate that co-stimulation of post-synaptic D1 and H3 receptors may indirectly regulate basal DA release in the rat striatum and provide in vivo evidence for a functional interaction between D1 and H3 receptors in the basal ganglia.

  4. [Inhibitory effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Feng; Fu, Hui-Ying; Yang, Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Gang; Lü, Bo-Dong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) in rats. Rat CCSMCs were cultured in vitro by the enzyme digestion method and identified by immunofluorescent staining of anti-alpha-SMA and anti-Desmin. The non-toxic dose of salidroside was determined by MTT assay. Low-oxygen mixed gas (1% O2, 5% CO2, and 94% N2) was piped into a modular incubator chamber to induce hypoxia. The CCSMCs were divided into a normal, a hypoxia, and a 32 microg/mL salidroside intervention group. The apoptosis of the CCSMCs was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of the caspase-3 protein determined by Western blot. The majority of the CCSMCs were positive for alpha-SMA and Desmin at immunofluorescent staining. Salidroside at salidroside significantly reduced hypoxia-induced early apoptosis of CCSMCs ([13.46% +/- 1.87]%, P Salidroside can reduce the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and inhibit hypoxia-induced apoptosis of CCSMCs in rats.

  5. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit.

  6. Early increase in dopamine release in the ipsilateral striatum after unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces spontaneous contralateral rotations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, J; Lenda, T; Czarnecka, A

    2016-06-02

    Since the discovery of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, UPS inhibitors, such as lactacystin have been used to investigate the relationship between UPS impairment and degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, mostly long-term neurotoxic effects of lactacystin have been studied in animal models. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate behavioral and biochemical changes related to the DA system during the first week following unilateral intranigral injection of lactacystin to rats. We found that lactacystin produced early spontaneous contralateral rotations which were inhibited by combined administration of DA D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Simultaneously, an increase in the extracellular level of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) was found in the ipsilateral striatum. In contrast, one week after lesion, when turning behavior was no longer visible, a decrease in the extracellular level of DA, DOPAC and HVA was demonstrated. It was accompanied by a substantial reduction in the tissue levels of DA and its metabolites in the lesioned substantia nigra and striatum. We concluded that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces an early increase in DA neurotransmission which precedes a decrease in the striatal and nigral tissue DA content. It is manifested by the appearance of spontaneous contralateral rotations and an elevation of the extracellular DA level in the ipsilateral striatum. Since similar behavior was previously observed after intranigral administration of rotenone and MPP(+) but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), it may indicate a common mechanism of action shared by these neurotoxins.

  7. Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT(2C)Rs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT(2C)R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT(2C)Rs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum.

  8. Role of glutamate receptors and nitric oxide on the effects of glufosinate ammonium, an organophosphate pesticide, on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Lilian R F; Ferreira Nunes, Brenda V; Alfonso, Miguel; Ferreira, Vania M; Durán, Rafael

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the possible role of glutamatergic receptors and nitric oxide (NO) production on effects of glufosinate ammonium (GLA), an organophosphate pesticide structurally related to glutamate, on in vivo striatal dopamine release in awake and freely moving rats. For this, we used antagonists of NMDA (MK-801 and AP5) or AMPA/kainate (CNQX) receptors, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (l-NAME and 7-NI), to study the effects of GLA on release of dopamine from rat striatum. So, intrastriatal infusion of 10mM GLA significantly increased dopamine levels (1035±140%, compared with basal levels) and administration of GLA to MK-801 (250μM) or AP5 (650μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼40% and ∼90% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with MK-801 or AP5. Administration of GLA to CNQX (500μM) pretreated animals produced an effect that was not significantly different from the one produced in animals not pretreated with CNQX. On the other hand, administration of GLA to l-NAME (100μM) or 7-NI (100μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼80% and ∼75% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with these inhibitors. In summary, GLA appears to act, at least in part, through an overstimulation of NMDA (and not AMPA/kainate) receptors with possible NO production to induce in vivo dopamine release. Administration of NMDA receptor antagonists and NOS inhibitors partially blocks the release of dopamine from rat striatum.

  9. Circulating Concentrations of Adipocytokines and Their Receptors in the Isolated Corpus Cavernosum and Femoral Artery from Trained Rats on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Amanda C S; Silva, Fábio H; Araujo, Hygor N; Valgas da Silva, Carmem P; de Moraes, Camila; Antunes, Edson; Zanesco, Angelina; Delbin, Maria A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different signaling pathways by which exercise training would interfere in endothelial function in obesity. Therefore, we examined adipocytokine levels and their receptors in the corpus cavernosum and femoral artery from trained rats on a high-fat diet. Functional experiments were performed in control sedentary and trained rats, and sedentary (h-SD) and trained male Wistar rats on a high-fat diet (h-TR). Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated in vascular tissue. Circulating adipocytokines and their receptors were analyzed. In the h-SD group, the maximal responses to acetylcholine (ACh) were reduced in the femoral artery and corpus cavernosum as well as the electrical field stimulation, accompanied by an increase in circulating insulin, leptin, TNF-α, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Downregulation of ObR protein expression in the femoral artery was observed without alterations in AdipoR1 and TNFR1 in both preparations. A positive effect was observed in the h-TR group regarding the relaxation response to ACh and circulating adipocytokines, resulting in increased NO production and reduced ROS generation. Exercise restored the ObR protein expression only in the femoral artery. Aerobic exercise training ameliorated the inflammatory adipocytokines and restored the relaxation responses in the corpus cavernosum and femoral artery in rats on a high-fat diet. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Acute and Chronic Administration of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Amines on the In Vivo Dopamine Release: A Microdialysis Study in the Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsik, Agnieszka; Romańska, Irena; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna

    2016-11-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) may involve endogenous and exogenous factors. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ), which was shown to be neurotoxic for dopaminergic neurons, is one of such factors, thus it can be used to construct an animal model of PD. In contrast, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ) produce neuroprotective effects acting as monoamino oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and free radical scavengers that reduce oxidative stress in the mammalian brain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of neuroprotective compounds, TIQ and 1MeTIQ, on the dopamine release in vivo in an animal model of PD induced by chronic administration of 1BnTIQ (25 mg/kg i.p.). Using an in vivo microdialysis methodology, we measured the impact of both acute and chronic treatment with TIQ and 1MeTIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) on 1BnTIQ-induced changes in dopamine release in the rat striatum. Additionally, the behavioral test was carried out to check the influence of repeated administrations of the investigated compounds on the locomotor activity of rats. The behavioral studies showed that the chronic administration of 1BnTIQ produced a significant elevation of exploratory locomotor activity, and both the investigated amines, TIQ and 1MeTIQ, administered together with 1BnTIQ completely prevented 1BnTIQ-produced hyperactivity. The in vivo microdialysis studies demonstrated that the chronic treatment with 1BnTIQ caused a significant and long-lasting increase in the dopamine release (approximately 300 %) to the extracellular space in the rat striatum, which was demonstrated in the basal samples 24 h after 1BnTIQ injection. The combined chronic administration of 1BnTIQ and the investigated compounds, TIQ or 1MeTIQ, completely antagonized the 1BnTIQ-induced essential disturbances of the dopamine releasing to the extracellular space in the striatum. In conclusion, we suggest that higher concentrations of 1BnTIQ in

  11. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm(2), SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  12. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  13. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  14. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePalm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.

  15. Evidence for the coupling of Gq protein to D1-like dopamine sites in rat striatum: possible role in dopamine-mediated inositol phosphate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Undie, A S; Friedman, E

    1995-12-01

    The role of G proteins in mediating the coupling of D1 dopamine receptors to inositol phosphate formation was investigated in rat brain striatum. Pertussis toxin-activated ADP-ribosylation ( > or = 95%) did not affect the ability of the D1 agonist SKF38393 to stimulate the generation of inositol phosphates in striatal slices. Stimulation of striatal membranes with dopamine in the presence of [35S]GTP gamma S or [alpha-32P]GTP increased guanine nucleotide binding to G alpha s, G alpha i, and G alpha q in a concentration-dependent fashion. The activation of G alpha s and G alpha q was mimicked by the D1 agonist SKF38393 and blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH23390. In contrast, the D2/3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole stimulated guanine nucleotide binding to G alpha i, and dopamine-stimulated activation of G alpha i was attenuated by the D2 antagonist I-sulpiride. Furthermore, antisera directed against G alpha s or G alpha q but not G alpha i, G alpha o, or G alpha z precipitated specific D1-like binding sites labeled with [3H]SCH23390. The D1-like receptors that coprecipitated with G alpha s-but not with G alpha q can be recognized by a specific D1 dopamine receptor antibody. The data provide evidence to suggest that in addition to coupling to Gs/adenylyl cyclase, D1-like dopamine sites that couple to Gq may mediate dopamine-stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in the rat striatum.

  16. Spatiotemporal expression of osteopontin in the striatum of rats subjected to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid correlates with microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riew, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Hong Lim; Jin, Xuyan; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to elucidate whether osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the onset of mineralisation and progression of extracellular calcification in striatal lesions due to mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid exposure. OPN expression had two different patterns when observed using light microscopy. It was either localised to the Golgi complex in brain macrophages or had a small granular pattern scattered in the affected striatum. OPN labelling tended to increase in number and size over a 2-week period following the lesion. Ultrastructural investigations revealed that OPN is initially localised to degenerating mitochondria within distal dendrites, which were then progressively surrounded by profuse OPN on days 7–14. Electron probe microanalysis of OPN-positive and calcium-fixated neurites indicated that OPN accumulates selectively on the surfaces of degenerating calcifying dendrites, possibly via interactions between OPN and calcium. In addition, 3-dimensional reconstruction of OPN-positive neurites revealed that they are in direct contact with larger OPN-negative degenerating dendrites rather than with fragmented cell debris. Our overall results indicate that OPN expression is likely to correlate with the spatiotemporal progression of calcification in the affected striatum, and raise the possibility that OPN may play an important role in the initiation and progression of microcalcification in response to brain insults. PMID:28345671

  17. 微透析取样和微柱液相色谱电化学检测法测定大鼠脑纹状体中的5-羟色胺%Microdialysis sampling and microbore liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for determination of serotonin in rat brain striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢福明; 黄铁华; 彼得·基辛格

    1995-01-01

    AIM: To develop a sensitive method for determination of serotonin in biological samples.METHODS: A combination of microdialysis sampling and microbore liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC)was established. RESULTS: Changes of serotonin in fg or pg in microdialysates from brain striatum of the free moving rat were easily determined. CONCLUSION: This developed method was useful for living animal research. Serotonin level in corpus striatumhealthy rats was quite stable.%目的:建立一个测定生物样本中5-羟色胺的灵敏方法.方法:将微透析取样和微柱液相色谱电化学检测(LCEC)有机结合,建立灵敏的分析方法.结果:很容易地测定了自由活动大鼠脑纹状体透析液中fg-pg的5-羟色胺变化.结论:本法对生物活体研究很有用.健康大鼠脑纹状体内5-羟色胺水平是相当稳定的.

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCES A NEURONAL HETEROTOPIA IN THE CORPUS CALLOSUM OF THE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that severe hypothyroidism leads to profound alterations in brain development and mental retardation. In this study we examined the effect of subtle decreases in maternal thyroid hormones (TH) on brain development in the rat. To induce TH insufficiency pr...

  19. Taurine attenuates hippocampal and corpus callosum damage, and enhances neurological recovery after closed head injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Zhao, Y; Qian, K; Sun, M

    2015-04-16

    The protective effects of taurine against closed head injury (CHI) have been reported. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine reduced white matter damage and hippocampal neuronal death through suppressing calpain activation after CHI in rats. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min and 4 h again after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened the corpus callosum damage, attenuated the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields and improved the neurological functions 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it suppressed the over-activation of calpain, enhanced the levels of calpastatin, and reduced the degradation of neurofilament heavy protein, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. These data confirm the protective effects of taurine against gray and white matter damage due to CHI, and suggest that down-regulating calpain activation could be one of the protective mechanisms of taurine against CHI. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human amniotic epithelial cells express specific markers of nerve cells and migrate along the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Wu; Guozhen Hui; Yi Lu; Tianjin Liu; Qin Huang; Lihe Guo

    2012-01-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from a piece of fresh amnion. Using immunocytochemical methods, we investigated the expression of neuronal phenotypes (microtubule-associated protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin) in human amniotic epithelial cells. The conditioned medium of human amniotic epithelial cells promoted the growth and proliferation of rat glial cells cultured in vitro, and this effect was dose-dependent. Human amniotic epithelial cells were further transplanted into the corpus striatum of healthy adult rats and the grafted cells could integrate with the host and migrate 1-2 mm along the nerve fibers in corpus callosum. Our experimental findings indicate that human amniotic epithelial cells may be a new kind of seed cells for use in neurograft.

  1. 龙牡桂枝汤对ADHD模型大鼠左右额叶-纹状体NET mRNA表达的影响%Effect of Longmu Guizhi Decoction on the NET mRNA Expression in the Left and Right Frontal-Striatum of ADHD Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐蓓; 唐彦; 尹蔚萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察龙牡桂枝汤对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)模型动物-幼年自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)左右额叶-纹状体去甲肾上腺素转运体(NET)mRNA表达的影响,探讨该药治疗ADHD的作用机制.方法:幼年雄性SHR大鼠随机分为龙牡桂枝汤高、中剂量组、盐酸哌甲酯对照组和生理盐水对照组,连续灌胃给药14天,采用Real-time PCR法检测各组大鼠左右脑前额叶皮质、纹状体NET mRNA表达水平.结果:在右前额叶皮质,龙牡桂枝汤高剂量组NET mRNA表达较其他实验组明显增加,而在左前额叶皮质各组差异不明显.在双侧纹状体,与生理盐水组相比,各用药组NET mRNA的表达显著增加,且龙牡桂枝汤高剂量组>中剂量组>盐酸哌甲酯组,差异具有统计学意义.结论:龙牡桂枝汤治疗ADHD的可能机制之一与其上调右脑前额叶皮质及双侧纹状体NET mRNA表达有关.%Objective:To study the effect of Longmu Guizhi decoction ( LD) on the NET mRNA expression in the left and right brain of juvenile SHR ( spontaneously hypertensive rats ,rat models with attention deficit hyperac-tivity disorder(ADHD),and to investigate the mechanism of LD for ADHD .Methods:Male SHRs were ran-domly divided into a high -dose LD group ,a middle-dose LD group ,a methylphenidate control group and a saline control group .All the SHRs were lavaged for 14 days.The NET mRNA expressions in the left and right prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum were detected by the method of Real -time PCR.Results:In the right prefrontal cortex , NET mRNA expression was significantly increased in the high -dose LD group compared with the saline control group ,but there was no obvious difference in the left prefrontal cortex among all groups . In the bilateral corpus striatum, compared with the saline control group ,NET mRNA expression was signifi-cantly increased in the methylphenidate control group and two LD groups ,and the NET mRNA expressions of high-dose LD group were

  2. Effect of an hyperbaric nitrogen narcotic ambience on arginine and citrulline levels, the precursor and co-product of nitric oxide, in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Nicolas; Rissoe, Jean-Jacques; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2011-07-05

    Previous studies performed in the laboratory have shown that nitrogen narcosis induces a decrease in striatal glutamate and dopamine levels. Although we stimulated the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important glutamate receptor required for motor and locomotor activity managed by the striatum, and demonstrated that the receptor was effective when exposed to nitrogen at 3MPa, it was not possible to return the striatal glutamate level to its base values. We conclude that it was the striatopetal neurons of the glutamatergic pathways that were mainly affected in this hyperbaric syndrome, without understanding the principal reasons. Hence we sought to establish what happens in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, downstream the NMDA-Receptor, and we used the hypothesis that there could be neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) disturbances. A microdialysis study was performed in rat striatum in order to analyse levels of citrulline, the NO co-product, and arginine, the NO precursor. Those both NO metabolites were detectable with an HPLC coupled to a fluorimetric detector. Exposure to pressurized nitrogen induced a reduction in citrulline (-18.9%) and arginine (-10.4%) levels. Under the control normobaric conditions, the striatal NMDA infusion enhanced the citrulline level (+85.6%), whereas under 3 MPa of nitrogen, the same NMDA infusion did not change the citrulline level which remains equivalent to that of the baseline. The level of arginine increased (+45.7%) under normobaric conditions but a decrease occurred in pressurized nitrogen (-51.6%). Retrodialysis with Saclofen and KCl in the prefrontal cortex under normobaric conditions led to an increase in striatal levels of citrulline (+30.5%) and a decrease in arginine levels (-67.4%). There was no significant difference when nitrogen at 3MPa was added. To conclude, the synthesis of citrulline/NO is reduced in nitrogen narcosis while it seems possible to activate it artificially by infusion. We have suggested

  3. Effect of an hyperbaric nitrogen narcotic ambience on arginine and citrulline levels, the precursor and co-product of nitric oxide, in rat striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallée Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies performed in the laboratory have shown that nitrogen narcosis induces a decrease in striatal glutamate and dopamine levels. Although we stimulated the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, an important glutamate receptor required for motor and locomotor activity managed by the striatum, and demonstrated that the receptor was effective when exposed to nitrogen at 3MPa, it was not possible to return the striatal glutamate level to its base values. We conclude that it was the striatopetal neurons of the glutamatergic pathways that were mainly affected in this hyperbaric syndrome, without understanding the principal reasons. Hence we sought to establish what happens in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, downstream the NMDA-Receptor, and we used the hypothesis that there could be neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS disturbances. A microdialysis study was performed in rat striatum in order to analyse levels of citrulline, the NO co-product, and arginine, the NO precursor. Those both NO metabolites were detectable with an HPLC coupled to a fluorimetric detector. Exposure to pressurized nitrogen induced a reduction in citrulline (-18.9% and arginine (-10.4% levels. Under the control normobaric conditions, the striatal NMDA infusion enhanced the citrulline level (+85.6%, whereas under 3 MPa of nitrogen, the same NMDA infusion did not change the citrulline level which remains equivalent to that of the baseline. The level of arginine increased (+45.7% under normobaric conditions but a decrease occurred in pressurized nitrogen (-51.6%. Retrodialysis with Saclofen and KCl in the prefrontal cortex under normobaric conditions led to an increase in striatal levels of citrulline (+30.5% and a decrease in arginine levels (-67.4%. There was no significant difference when nitrogen at 3MPa was added. To conclude, the synthesis of citrulline/NO is reduced in nitrogen narcosis while it seems possible to activate it artificially by infusion

  4. The role of BDNF/TrkB signaling in acute amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and opioid peptide gene expression in the rat dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F McGinty

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to psychostimulants increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Because BDNF is co-localized with dopamine and glutamate in afferents to the striatum of rats, it may be co-released with those neurotransmitters upon stimulation. Further, there may be an interaction between the intracellular signaling cascades activated by dopamine, glutamate, and TrkB receptors in medium spiny striatal neurons. In the present study, the effect of acute amphetamine administration on TrkB phosphorylation (p-TrkB, as an indirect indicator of activation, and striatal gene expression, was evaluated. In Experiment 1, 15 minutes or 2 hours after a single saline or amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p. injection, the caudate-putamen (CPu, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC were extracted and processed for phospho (p-TrkB immunoreactivity. Immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that neither the tyrosine phosphorylation (p-Tyr or autophosphorylation sites of TrkB (706 were changed in NAc, CPu, or dmPFC 15 min after amphetamine administration. In contrast, p-Tyr and the PLCγ phosphorylation site of TrkB (816 were increased in the NAc and CPu 2 hrs after amphetamine. In Experiment 2, intra-striatal infusion of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, K252a, increased amphetamine-induced vertical activity but not total distance traveled. In addition, K252a inhibited amphetamine -induced preprodynorphin, but not preproenkephalin, mRNA expression in the striatum. These data indicate that acute amphetamine administration induces p-TrkB activation and signaling in a time- and brain region-dependent manner and that TrkB/BDNF signaling plays an important role in amphetamine-induced behavior and striatal gene expression.

  5. High frequency electro-acupuncture enhances striatum DAT and D1 receptor expression, but decreases D2 receptor level in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Gao; Guangjian, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jie, Feng; Yanchao, Cui; Xi, Jia; Fen, Li

    2013-01-15

    The direct effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients remain elusive. In the present study, 0, 2 or 100Hz EA was applied to acupoints Sanyinjiao (SP6), Yanglingquan (GB34) and Zusanli (ST36) in a rat model unilaterally lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine. Rotational behavior tests were performed and the animals were then decapitated. Levels of striatal dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and D1- and D2-like DA receptors were subsequently evaluated. EA at 100 Hz was shown to significantly enhance survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (52.10 ± 11.41% of the level on the non-lesioned rats vs. 21.22 ± 5.52% in the non-EA group, P0.05 vs. the non-EA group). There was a 253.78% increase in dopamine transporter protein expression in the striatum in the 100 Hz EA group (P0.05 vs. the sham operation group). These findings suggest that high-frequency EA might work by acting on presynaptic dopamine transporter and postsynaptic dopamine receptors simultaneously to achieve a therapeutic effect in PD patients and models. This might shed some light on the mechanism by which EA affects the DA neurotransmitter system.

  6. Effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hong Zhang; Chang-Bai Yao; He-Quan Li

    2001-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia (EFRRS) on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion in rats.``METHODS The rats were subject to hemorrhagic shock and followed by reperfusion, and were divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 received saline, and group 2received EFRRS intravenously. The index of gastric mucosal lesions (IGML) was expressed as the percentage of lesional area in the corpus or antrum. The degree of gastric mucosal lesions (DGML) was catalogued grade 0,1. 2 and 3. The concentrations of prostaglandins (lags)were measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of MDA was measured according to the procedures of Asakawa. The activity of SOD was measured by the biochemical way. The growth rates or inhibitory rates of above-mentioned parametes were calculated.``RESULTS As compared with IGML (%), grade 3 damage (%) and MDA content (nmol/g tissue) of gastric antrum which were respectively 7.96 ± 0.59, 34.86± 4.96 and 156.98± 16.12. those of gastric corpus which were respectively 23.18 ± 6.82, 58.44 ± 9.07 and 230.56 ± 19.37increased markedly (P<0.01), whereas the grade 0damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE2 and PGI2(pg/ mg tissue), the ratio of PGI2/ TXA2 and the activity of SOD (U/ g tissue) of corpus which were respectively 3.01 _- 1.01, 8.35 + 1.95, 540.48 _+ 182.78,714.38 ± 123.74, 17.38 ± 5.93 and 134.29 ± 13.35 were markedly lower than those of antrum which were respectively 13.92 ± 2.25, 26.78 ± 6.06, 2218.56 ± 433.12,2531.76 ± 492.35, 43.46 ± 8.51 and 187.45 ± 17.67( P<0.01 ) after hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. After intravenous EFRRS, the growth rates (%) of grade 0damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE2 and PGI2, the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 and the activity of SOD of corpus which were respectively 632.56, 308.62, 40.75,74.75, 92.29 and 122.25 were higher than those in antrum which were respectively 104,89, 58.40, 11.12, 56.58,30.65 and

  7. Long-term suppression of methamphetamine-induced c-Fos expression in rat striatum by the injection of c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotides absorbed in water-absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Jun'ichi; Wakuta, Maki; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2004-10-01

    The use of water-absorbent polymer (WAP) as a hydrogel carrier for the slow delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in the brain, was recently developed. In this experiment, 15-mer phosphorothioate ODN, complementary to c-fos gene absorbed in WAP, was injected in the rat striatum. The expression of c-Fos-immunoreactivity induced by methamphetamine (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) around the injection site was suppressed until 5 days after injection. Using this method, it was observed that unilateral injection with c-fos antisense ODN into the rat striatum caused robust ipsilateral rotations after methamphetamine challenge 4 days post injection. This method is simple, and the biological and behavioral effects of antisense ODN in WAP can be maintained for several days even after a single injection into the brain.

  8. Losartan Preserves Erectile Function by Suppression of Apoptosis and Fibrosis of Corpus Cavernosum and Corporal Veno-Occlusive Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 plays important roles in penile corporal fibrosis and veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD. Angiotensin II (Ang II is critically involved in erectile dysfunction, and blocking of Ang II is more important than inhibition of TGF-β in non-penile tissue fibrosis. However, the role of Ang II in corporal fbrosis and CVOD in a diabetic condition has not been investigated. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with sildenafil or losartan (an Ang II antagonist alone or in combination. Intracavernosal pressure, dynamic infusion cavernosometry, and histological and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum were examined. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited decreases in erectile response, severe CVOD, apoptosis, fibrosis, and activation of the TGF-β1 pathway. Treatment with sildenafil had a modest effect on erectile response and an insignificant suppressive effect on CVOD, apoptosis, fibrosis, and the TGF-β1 pathway. Although losartan greatly improved the histological and molecular changes and CVOD as compared with sildenafil, its effect on erectile response was low. The combination of sildenafil and losartan had superior effects on these parameters than did either compound alone. Conclusion: Ang II activation may be involved in apoptosis and fibrosis of the corpus cavernosum through Smad and non-Smad pathways, resulting in CVOD and ED. The low efficacy of sildenafil in a diabetic ED rat model was at least partly due to its inadequate effects on apoptosis, fibrosis, and CVOD.

  9. Effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: Role of nitric oxide pathway and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehpour A.R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relaxation of the corpus cavernosum plays a major role in penile erection. Nitric oxide (NO is known to be the most important factor mediating relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mainly derived from nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum as well as the possible relevant roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems.Methods: Corporal strips from sham-operated and biliary cirrhotic rats were mounted under tension in a standard oxygenated organ bath with guanethidine sulfate (5 µM and atropine (1 µM to induce adrenergic and cholinergic blockade. The strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 µM and electrical field stimulation was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, 15 Hz to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation. In separate precontracted strips of the sham and cirrhotic groups, the concentration-dependent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1mM, as an NO donor, were assessed.  Results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly enhanced in cirrhotic animals (P<0.01. Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups (P<0.05. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (10 µM and the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10 µM each significantly prevented the enhanced relaxations in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01. The CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 had no effect on relaxations in the cirrhotic group. In a concentration-dependent manner, L-NAME (30-1000 nM inhibited relaxations in both the sham and cirrhotic groups, although cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The degree of relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1 mM was similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis enhances the neurogenic relaxation in rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and

  10. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  11. Neuroleptics up-regulate adenosine A2a receptors in rat striatum: implications for the mechanism and the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B; Togasaki, D M; Kassir, S; Przedborski, S

    1995-11-01

    Neuroleptics, which are potent dopamine receptor antagonists, are used to treat psychosis. In the striatum, dopamine subtype-2 (D2) receptors interact with high-affinity adenosine subtype-2 (A2a) receptors. To examine the effect of various neuroleptics on the major subtypes of striatal dopamine and adenosine receptors, rats received 28 daily intraperitoneal injections of these drugs. Haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) increased the density of striatal D2 receptors by 24% without changing their affinity for [3H]sulpiride. Haloperidol increased the density of striatal A2a receptors by 33% (control, 522.4 +/- 20.7 fmol/mg of protein; haloperidol, 694.6 +/- 23.6 fmol/mg of protein; p sulpiride (100 mg/kg/day) and clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) did not (control, 290.3 +/- 8.7 fmol/mg of protein; haloperidol, 358.1 +/- 6.9 fmol/mg of protein; fluphenazine, 381.3 +/- 13.6 fmol/mg of protein; sulpiride, 319.8 +/- 18.9 fmol/mg of protein; clozapine, 309.2 +/- 13.7 fmol/mg of protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jamie M; Tassin, David H; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2014-07-15

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin alters brain dopaminergic signaling in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Srivastava, Pranay; Shukla, Rajendra K; Gupta, Richa; Singh, Dhirendra; Parmar, Devendra; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2017-07-01

    The present study is focused to decipher the molecular mechanisms associated with dopaminergic alterations in corpus striatum of developing rats exposed prenatally to lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), a new generation type II synthetic pyrethroid. There was no significant change in the mRNA and protein expression of DA-D1 receptors at any of the doses of LCT (0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg body weight) in corpus striatum of developing rats exposed prenatally to LCT on PD22 and PD45. Prenatal exposure to LCT (1 and 3mg/kg body weight) resulted to decrease the levels of mRNA and protein of DA-D2 receptors in corpus stratum of developing rats on PD22 as compared to controls. Decrease in the binding of 3H-Spiperone in corpus striatum, known to label DA-D2 receptors was also distinct in developing rats on PD22. These rats also exhibited decrease in the expression of proteins - TH, DAT and VMAT2 involved in pre-dopaminergic signaling. Further, decrease in the expression of DARPP-32 and pCREB associated with increased expression of PP1α was evident in developing rats on PD22 as compared to controls. Interestingly, a trend of recovery in the expression of these proteins was observed in developing rats exposed to LCT at moderate dose (1.0mg/kg body weight) while alteration in the expression of these proteins continued to persist in those exposed at high dose (3.0mg/kg body weight) on PD45 as compared to respective controls. No significant change in the expression of any of these proteins was observed in corpus striatum of developing rats prenatally exposed to LCT at low dose (0.5mg/kg body weight) on PD22 and PD45 as compared to respective controls. The results provide interesting evidence that alterations in dopaminergic signaling on LCT exposure are due to selective changes in DA-D2 receptors in corpus striatum of developing rats. Further, these changes could be attributed to impairment in spontaneous motor activity on LCT exposure in developing rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Diffusion and clearance of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles infused into the rat striatum studied by MRI and histochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F H; Yoshitake, T; Kehr, J [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, D K [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, S M; Muhammed, M [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjelke, B, E-mail: Jan.Kehr@ki.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by MRI and histochemical techniques, the diffusion and clearance abilities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with dextran (Dextran-SPION) and gold (Au-SPION) following their local infusions into the rat brain. In separate groups of anesthetized rats, the Dextran-SPION and Au-SPION were infused at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 {mu}g Fe/0.5 {mu}l and at the flow rate of 0.5 {mu}l min{sup -1} into the left and right striata, respectively. Repetitive T2-weighted spin-echo MRI scans were performed at time intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and one, two and eight weeks after inoculation. Following infusion of Dextran-SPION (0.1 {mu}g and 1 {mu}g Fe), the maximal distribution volume was observed at about 12-24 h after inoculation and two weeks later the Fe signals were undetectable for the lower dose. On the other hand, Au-SPION remained tightly localized in the closest vicinity of the infusion site as revealed by unchanged MRI signal intensities and strong histochemical staining of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the corresponding brain slices. Immunohistochemical staining of astrocytic and microglial reactions revealed that there were no marked differences in GFAP, VIM or OX-42 labeling observed between the nanoparticle types, however the astrocytic reaction was more pronounced in rats receiving nanoparticles compared to the control (aCSF-infused) rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that the viral-sized Dextran-SPION were able to diffuse freely through the interstitial space of the brain being progressively cleared out from the infusion site within two weeks. Thus, Dextran-SPION could be beneficially used in MRI-guided diagnostic applications such as in experimental oncology or as labels and carriers for targeted drug delivery, whereas Au-SPION could be used for labeling and tracking the transplanted stem cells in experimental MRI.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of vitamin A supplementation on adult rat substantia nigra and striatum redox and bioenergetic states: mitochondrial impairment, increased 3-nitrotyrosine and alpha-synuclein, but decreased D2 receptor contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Oliveira, Max William Soares; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Hoff, Mariana Leivas Muller; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2009-03-17

    Vitamin A at moderate to high doses is applied in the treatment of some life threatening pathological conditions, for instance cancers. Additionally, vitamin A at low concentrations is a known antioxidant molecule. However, by increasing vitamin A (or its derivatives) concentrations, there is an increase in the levels of oxidative stress markers in several experimental models. Furthermore, it was reported that vitamin A therapy at high doses might induce cognitive decline among the patients, which may become anxious or depressive, for example, depending on vitamin A levels intake. We have previously reported increased levels of oxidative stress markers in rat substantia nigra and striatum. However, the mechanism by which this vitamin altered the redox environment in such rat brain regions remains to be elucidated. In the herein presented work, we have investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation at clinical doses (1000-9000 IU/kg day(-1)) for 28 days on rat substantia nigra and striatum mitochondrial electron transfer chain (METC) activity, which may produce superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-*)) when impaired. Additionally, the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses were evaluated, as well as 3-nitrotyrosine, alpha- and beta-synucleins and TNF-alpha levels through ELISA assay. We observed impaired METC in both rat brain regions. Moreover, we found increased O(2)(-*) production and nitrotyrosine content in the nigrostriatal axis of vitamin A-treated rats, suggesting that the use of vitamin A at therapeutic doses may be rethought due to this toxic effects found here.

  16. 增龄对大鼠运动功能和纹状体多巴胺转运体的影响%Influence of aging on motor function and striatum dopamine transporter of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程言博; 胡伟东; 钱进军; 刘康永; 刘春风

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of aging on motor function,binding activity and protein expression level of striatum dopamine transporter(DAT)of rats. Methods Rolling-bar test was performed to assess motor function.Western blot and 131I-FP-β-CIT up-take ratio were used to evaluate DAT protein 1evel and striatum DAT binding activity respectively. Results There were an age-related decline of rolling-bar latency and striatum 131I-FP-β-CIT up-take ratio in rats older than6 months.There was a significant difference between 6-month-old rats and older rats(12-month-old rats,16-month-old rats,20-month-old rats),and rolling-bar latency was correlated with striatum 131I-FP-β-CIT up-take ratio(r=0.656,P<0.01).There was no change in DAT protein 1evel during aging process. Conclusions The age-related decline of motor function of rats was correlated with the decreasing of striatum DAT binding activity.The synaptic membrane expression of striatum DAT may decrease in aged rats.%目的 观察增龄对大鼠运动功能、纹状体多巴胺转运体(DAT)功能和蛋白表达的影响.方法 旋转棒潜伏期测定各增龄组大鼠运动功能;131 I-FP-β-CIT(N-(3'-氟丙基)-2β羰甲氧基-3β(4'-碘苯基)托烷摄取率测定纹状体DAT结合活性;Western-blot检测DAT蛋白表达水平.结果 大鼠旋转棒潜伏期和纹状体131 I-FP-β-CIT摄取率在6月龄后均呈随龄性降低,12、16月龄和20月龄与6月龄组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),且二者有相关性(r=0.656,P<0.01);纹状体DAT蛋白表达水平未见随龄性改变.结论 大鼠运动功能的随龄性衰退与纹状体DAT131 I-FP-β-CIT结合活性下降有关;老龄大鼠纹状体DAT可能存在突触膜表达减少.

  17. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  18. Effect of pressure on the release of endogenous dopamine from rat striatum and the role of sodium-calcium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M L; Philp, R B

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pressures in excess of 20 atm abs can precipitate a hyperexcitability state known as high pressure neurologic syndrome (HPNS). Little is known about the underlying neurochemical basis of this syndrome. An in vitro model of the synthesis and release of endogenous dopamine (DA) from rat striatal slices has been used to examine the mechanism underlying the effects of high pressures of He. He at 100 atm abs produced changes in DA release which were strikingly similar to those of the cardiac glycoside, ouabain. Neither pressure nor ouabain (1-10 microM) had any significant effects on the spontaneous (nonevoked) release of DA or its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, but both pressure and ouabain significantly enhanced the stimulated release of DA which was evoked by a 6-min exposure to 35 mM KCl (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.001). In both cases, this effect was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Augmentation of evoked DA release by both ouabain and He pressure was reversed (P less than 0.05) by 3,4-dichlorobenzamil, a selective antagonist of the membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism. The results suggest that pressure exerts its effects on DA release by increasing intracellular-free Ca2+ exchange after pressure-inhibition of the activity of the membrane Na,K-ATPase.

  19. Glutamine inhibits ammonia-induced accumulation of cGMP in rat striatum limiting arginine supply for NO synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgier, Wojciech; Freśko, Inez; Klemenska, Emilia; Beresewicz, Andrzej; Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo; Albrecht, Jan; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2009-07-01

    Brain L-glutamine (Gln) accumulation and increased activity of the NO/cGMP pathway are immediate consequences of acute exposure to ammonia. This study tested whether excess Gln may influence NO and/or cGMP synthesis. Intrastriatal administration of the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine or the system A-specific Gln uptake inhibitor methylaminoisobutyrate increased microdialysate Gln concentration and reduced basal and ammonia-induced NO and cGMP accumulation. Gln applied in vivo (via microdialysis) or in vitro (to rat brain cortical slices) reduced NO and cGMP accumulation in the presence and/or absence of ammonia, but not cGMP synthesis induced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Attenuation of cGMP synthesis by Gln was prevented by administration of L-arginine (Arg). The L-arginine co-substrates of y(+)LAT2 transport system, L-leucine and cyclo-leucine, mimicked the effect of exogenous Gln, suggesting that Gln limits Arg supply for NO synthesis by interfering with y+LAT2-mediated Arg uptake across the cell membrane.

  20. Dopamine transporter binding in rat striatum: a comparison of [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, Karmen K.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Mock, Bruce H.; Fei, Xiangshu; Winkle, Wendy L. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Gitter, Bruce D.; Territo, Paul R. [Lilly Center for Anatomical and Molecular Imaging, Integrative Biology Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN 46140 (United States); Zheng Qihuang [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography scanning with radiolabeled phenyltropane cocaine analogs is important for quantifying the in vivo density of monoamine transporters, including the dopamine transporter (DAT). [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is useful for studying DAT as a marker of dopaminergic innervation in animal models of psychiatric and neurological disorders. [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is commonly labeled at the N-methyl position. However, labeling of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT at the O-methyl position is a simpler procedure and results in a shorter synthesis time [desirable in small-animal studies, where specific activity (SA) is crucial]. In this study, we sought to validate that the O-methylated form of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT provides equivalent quantitative results to that of the more commonly reported N-methyl form. Methods: Four female Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned twice on the IndyPET II small-animal scanner, once with [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and once with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT. DAT binding potentials (BP{identical_to}B'{sub avail}/K{sub d}) were estimated for right and left striata with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm, using a reference region (cerebellum) as the input function. Results: [N-Methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were synthesized with 40-50% radiochemical yields (HPLC purification). Radiochemical purity was >99%. SA at end of bombardment was 258{+-}30 GBq/{mu}mol. Average BP values for right and left striata with [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were 1.16{+-}0.08 and 1.23{+-}0.14, respectively. BP values for [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were 1.18{+-}0.08 (right) and 1.22{+-}0.16 (left). Paired t tests demonstrated that labeling position did not affect striatal DAT BP. Conclusions: These results suggest that [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is quantitatively equivalent to [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT in the rat striatum.

  1. Old Persian corpus [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavant, M.

    2011-01-01

    XML Old Persian corpus. The corpus is based on publicly available data on the Web. Those data can be traced back to the grammar of Old Persian by Kent (1950). The corpus contains those data and is arranged in a way suitable for corpus searches.

  2. [Reinforcement learning by striatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2009-04-01

    Recently, computational models of reinforcement learning have been applied for the analysis of neuroimaging data. It has been clarified that the striatum plays a key role in decision making. We review the reinforcement learning theory and the biological structures such as the brain and signals such as neuromodulators associated with reinforcement learning. We also investigated the function of the striatum and the neurotransmitter serotonin in reward prediction. We first studied the brain mechanisms for reward prediction at different time scales. Our experiment on the striatum showed that the ventroanterior regions are involved in predicting immediate rewards and the dorsoposterior regions are involved in predicting future rewards. Further, we investigated whether serotonin regulates both the reward selection and the striatum function are specialized reward prediction at different time scales. To this end, we regulated the dietary intake of tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin. Our experiment showed that the activity of the ventral part of the striatum was correlated with reward prediction at shorter time scales, and this activity was stronger at low serotonin levels. By contrast, the activity of the dorsal part of the striatum was correlated with reward prediction at longer time scales, and this activity was stronger at high serotonin levels. Further, a higher proportion of small reward choices, together with a higher rate of discounting of delayed rewards is observed in the low-serotonin condition than in the control and high-serotonin conditions. Further examinations are required in future to assess the relation between the disturbance of reward prediction caused by low serotonin and mental disorders related to serotonin such as depression.

  3. 短暂脑缺血诱导成年大鼠纹状体内CRMP-4的表达%Induction of CRMP-4 in striatum of adult rat after transient brain ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏翀; 杨增进; 邱梅红; 张玲妹; 孙凤艳

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of collapsing response mediated protein-4 (CRMP-4) and nestin in the ischemic adult rat brain following transient brain ischemia. METHODS: Brain ischemia was induced by transient left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min in adult rats. The expression of CRMP-4, nestin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was analyzed by immunohistochemical method. The co-localization of CRMP-4 and nestin or BrdU was analyzed by double staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: CRMP-4, a marker of immature neuron, could be expressed in the ipsilateral striatum and cerebral cortex at 1st and 2nd week after the ischemia-reperfusion; nestin, a marker of neural stem cell, occurred in above regions from several hours to 2 weeks. CRMP-4 costained with nestin and with BrdU incorporation. CONCLUSION: Neural stem cells may present in the striatum and cerebral cortex of adult rat and can be triggered to differentiate into newborn neuron there by ischemic brain trauma.

  4. In vivo manganese exposure modulates Erk, Akt and Darpp-32 in the striatum of developing rats, and impairs their motor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M Cordova

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential metal for development and metabolism. However, exposures to high Mn levels may be toxic, especially to the central nervous system (CNS. Neurotoxicity is commonly due to occupational or environmental exposures leading to Mn accumulation in the basal ganglia and a Parkinsonian-like disorder. Younger individuals are more susceptible to Mn toxicity. Moreover, early exposure may represent a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate the developmental neurotoxicity in an in vivo model of immature rats exposed to Mn (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg; i.p. from postnatal day 8 (PN8 to PN12. Neurochemical analysis was carried out on PN14. We focused on striatal alterations in intracellular signaling pathways, oxidative stress and cell death. Moreover, motor alterations as a result of early Mn exposure (PN8-12 were evaluated later in life at 3-, 4- and 5-weeks-of-age. Mn altered in a dose-dependent manner the activity of key cell signaling elements. Specifically, Mn increased the phosphorylation of DARPP-32-Thr-34, ERK1/2 and AKT. Additionally, Mn increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and caspase activity, and altered mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II activities. Mn (10 and 20 mg/kg also impaired motor coordination in the 3(rd, 4(th and 5(th week of life. Trolox™, an antioxidant, reversed several of the Mn altered parameters, including the increased ROS production and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, Trolox™ failed to reverse the Mn (20 mg/kg-induced increase in AKT phosphorylation and motor deficits. Additionally, Mn (20 mg/kg decreased the distance, speed and grooming frequency in an open field test; Trolox™ blocked only the decrease of grooming frequency. Taken together, these results establish that short-term exposure to Mn during a specific developmental window (PN8-12 induces metabolic and neurochemical alterations in

  5. Changes of Adenylate Cyclase and Guanylate Cyclase in the Frontal Cortex, Lenticula, Corpus Amygdaloideum, and Hippocampus in Morphine-dependent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the changes of adenylate cyclase (AC and guanylate cyclase (GC in the four cerebral regions that are concerned with psychogenic dependence of morphine in rats, including the frontal cortex, lenticula, corpus amygdaloideum, and hippocampus. To discuss the relation between the expressions of AC and GC with the psychogenic dependence on morphine. Different periods of morphine-dependent rat models were established, and enzyme histochemistry was used to detect the variations of AC and GC in four cerebral regions. Compared with the control group, AC and GC in all the morphine-dependent groups increased. The data indicated that the amounts of AC and GC were significantly different between the morphine-dependent groups and the control group when tested at periods of 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks (P ˂ 0.05 or P ˂ 0.01. There were significant differences when comparing the 1-week group with the 2-week, 4-week, and 8-week groups (P ˂ 0.05 or P ˂ 0.01. There were significant differences when comparing the 2-week dependent group with the 4-week dependent group or the 8-week dependent group (P ˂ 0.05 or P ˂ 0.01. The activities of AC and GC increased in four cerebral regions of morphine-dependent rats. The psychogenic dependence on morphine appears to be closely linked to the upgrade of AC and GC.

  6. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  7. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that agonist ligands for dopamine D(2/3) receptors recognize a privileged subset of the receptors in living striatum, those which are functionally coupled to intracellular G-proteins. In support of this claim, the D(2/3) agonist [(3)H]-N-propylnorapomorphine ([(3)H]NPA) proved ...... from endogenous dopamine, as seen in the lesioned side of 6-OHDA induced hemi-parkinsonism....

  8. Effect of an hyperbaric nitrogen narcotic ambience on arginine and citrulline levels, the precursor and co-product of nitric oxide, in rat striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée Nicolas; Rissoe Jean-Jacques; Blatteau Jean-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies performed in the laboratory have shown that nitrogen narcosis induces a decrease in striatal glutamate and dopamine levels. Although we stimulated the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important glutamate receptor required for motor and locomotor activity managed by the striatum, and demonstrated that the receptor was effective when exposed to nitrogen at 3MPa, it was not possible to return the striatal glutamate level to its base values. We conclude that it w...

  9. STUDIES ON BEHAVIORAL, BIOCHEMICAL, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND QUANTIFICATION OF DOPAMINE AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE STRIATUM OF 6-HYDROXY DOPAMINE INDUCED PARKINSONISM IN RATS - ATTENUATION BY BACOSIDEA, A MAJOR PHYTOCONSTITUENT OF BACOPA MONNIERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar Shobana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacoside-A, a major constituent isolated from Bacopa monniera is held in high repute as a potent nerve tonic. Rats were pretreated with Bacoside - A (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg body weight for 21 days. A Parkinsonian model in rats was developed by giving 6-hydroxy dopamine (12μg/2μl in 0.1% ascorbic acid- saline in the right striatum on 22nd day. A significant protection on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed in the striatum of lesioned group animals pretreated with 10 mg/kg body weight of Bacoside-A for 21 days as compared to lesion group animals. We tested the behavioral response at different time points after injection of 6-hydroxy dopamine to evaluate the onset and progression of behavioral abnormalities. Also quantification of dopamine and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA was done using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detector. The results showed a reduction in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites, increase in the locomotor activity, increase in "depression"-like behavior and a marked change in the social behavior in the 6 - hydroxy dopamine induced group whereas learning and memory abilities were not affected. Finally, all of these results were exhibited by an increase in the density of TH-IR fibers in the ipsilateral substantia nigra of the lesioned group following treatment with Bacoside- A. This study indicates that Bacoside-A, an active compound from Bacopa monniera, is helpful in attenuating the changes caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine induced lesions and has therapeutic potential in fighting against Parkinson's disease

  10. Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Glucose and Dopamine Demonstrate the Coupling of Glucose Availability with Increased Metabolic Demand in the Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha K; Lee, Christie A; Dausch, Matthew E; Horman, Brian M; Patisaul, Heather B; McCarty, Gregory S; Sombers, Leslie A

    2017-02-15

    Cerebral blood flow ensures delivery of nutrients, such as glucose, to brain sites with increased metabolic demand. However, little is known about rapid glucose dynamics at discrete locations during neuronal activation in vivo. Acute exposure to many substances of abuse elicits dopamine release and neuronal activation in the striatum; however, the concomitant changes in striatal glucose remain largely unknown. Recent developments have combined fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with glucose oxidase enzyme modified carbon-fiber microelectrodes to enable the measurement of glucose dynamics with subsecond temporal resolution in the mammalian brain. This work evaluates several waveforms to enable the first simultaneous detection of endogenous glucose and dopamine at single recording sites. These molecules, one electroactive and one nonelectroactive, were found to fluctuate in the dorsal striatum in response to electrical stimulation of the midbrain and systemic infusion of cocaine/raclopride. The data reveal the second-by-second dynamics of these species in a striatal microenvironment, and directly demonstrate the coupling of glucose availability with increased metabolic demand. This work provides a foundation that will enable detailed investigation of local mechanisms that regulate the coupling of cerebral blood flow with metabolic demand under normal conditions, and in animal studies of drug abuse and addiction.

  11. Quantitation of hydrogen peroxide fluctuations and their modulation of dopamine dynamics in the rat dorsal striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Marina; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Letchworth, Jeremy M; Sanford, Audrey L; Toups, J Vincent; Sombers, Leslie A

    2013-05-15

    The dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum become dysfunctional and slowly degenerate in Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder that afflicts more than one million Americans. There is no specific known cause for idiopathic Parkinson's disease; however, multiple lines of evidence implicate oxidative stress as an underlying factor in both the initiation and progression of the disease. This involves the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whose role in complex biological processes is not well understood. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at bare carbon-fiber microelectrodes, we have simultaneously monitored and quantified H2O2 and DA fluctuations in intact striatal tissue under basal conditions and in response to the initiation of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of acute increases in local H2O2 concentration on both electrically evoked DA release and basal DA levels. Increases in endogenous H2O2 in the dorsal striatum attenuated electrically evoked DA release, and also decreased basal DA levels in this brain region. These novel results will help to disambiguate the chemical mechanisms underlying the progression of neurodegenerative disease states, such as Parkinson's disease, that involve oxidative stress.

  12. Quantitation of Hydrogen Peroxide Fluctuations and Their Modulation of Dopamine Dynamics in the Rat Dorsal Striatum Using Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum become dysfunctional and slowly degenerate in Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder that afflicts more than one million Americans. There is no specific known cause for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease; however, multiple lines of evidence implicate oxidative stress as an underlying factor in both the initiation and progression of the disease. This involves the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whose role in complex biological processes is not well understood. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at bare carbon-fiber microelectrodes, we have simultaneously monitored and quantified H2O2 and DA fluctuations in intact striatal tissue under basal conditions and in response to the initiation of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of acute increases in local H2O2 concentration on both electrically evoked DA release and basal DA levels. Increases in endogenous H2O2 in the dorsal striatum attenuated electrically evoked DA release, and also decreased basal DA levels in this brain region. These novel results will help to disambiguate the chemical mechanisms underlying the progression of neurodegenerative disease states, such as Parkinson’s disease, that involve oxidative stress. PMID:23556461

  13. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and its regulation by interferon-gamma in rat corpus luteum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is the key regulatory protein of steroidogenesis. De novo synthesis of StAR protein is required for intramitochondrial translocation of cholesterol to the cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme which is located on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This is the rate-limiting step of steroid biosynthesis. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we studied StAR expression in various stages of the corpora luteal and its regulation by interferon-gamma (IFNγ) in the adult pseudopregnant rat. The results indicated that expression of StAR in the corpora luteal was correlated with progesteron production and IFNγ was capable of inhibiting its expression.

  14. Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum during Place and Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pych, Jason C.; Chang, Qing; Colon-Rivera, Cynthia; Haag, Renee; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments examined the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and striatum when rats were trained, within single sessions, on place or response versions of food-rewarded mazes. Microdialysis samples of extra-cellular fluid were collected from the hippocampus and striatum at 5-min increments before, during, and after training. These…

  15. Myelin in the frontal region of corpus callosum in old rats%老年大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维与髓鞘改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑲; 兰欢; 卢伟; 唐勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨老年大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维、髓鞘的结构变化和髓鞘碱性蛋白(Myelin basic protein,MBP)的表达变化,以及二者间的关系.方法:运用透射电子显微镜和新的体视学方法分别对年轻组和老年组雌性Long-Evans大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维和髓鞘进行定量研究,运用Western blot对年轻组和老年组大鼠胼胝体额区MBP表达进行定量研究.结果:与年轻组相比,老年组胼胝体额区体积存在显著性降低,有髓神经纤维总体积显著性下降,21.5 kD MBP表达量显著性降低.21.5 kD MBP的表达降低与有髓神经纤维总体积、髓鞘总体积的降低之间呈正相关.结论:胼胝体存在显著性老年萎缩,胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维和MBP的老年改变可能与老年大脑额叶功能下降有关.%Objective : To explore the age-related changes of the mvelinated fihers ,myelin sheath and the expression of myelin basic protein in the frontal region of the corpus callosum in old rats , and their relationship. Methods : The myelinated fibers and sheathes in the frontal region of corpus callosum of young and old-aged female Long-Evans rats were quantitatively studied using electron microscope and unhiased stereological techniques.Myelin basic proteins in the frontal region of corpus callosum of young and old-aged female rats were quantitatively studied using Western hlot. Results : When compared with young female rats, the total volume of the frontal region of the corpus callosum and the total volume of the myelinated fibers in the frontal region of old corpus callosum were significantly degraded. The expression of 21.5 kD MBP was significantly decreased in old rats. The reduction of the expression of 21.5 kD MBP,the reduction of the total volume of the myelinated fihers and the total volume of the myelin sheathes were positively correlated. Conclusion : There is age-related atrophy of the frontal region of corpus callosum. The age

  16. CALBC silver standard corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2010-02-01

    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents.

  17. Expression and regulation of metalloproteinases-2, -9 and tissue inhibitors of metallo- proteinases in rat corpus luteum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The expression and regulation of metalloproteinases-2, -9 (MMP-2, -9) and their tissue inhibitors TIMP-1, -2, -3 mRNA were studied in this experiment. In the PMSG- hCG primed pseudopregnant rat, MMP-2, -9 mRNA levels were the highest at Day 1, decreased from Day 4, and reached the minimal level at Day 8, then increased at Day 14; no significant changes were observed in TIMP-2 mRNA expression from Day 1 to Day 14; TIMP-3 mRNA expression was the lowest at Day 1, increased from Day 4, reached the maximal level at Day 8, and persisted to Day 14. TNF-αcould significantly increase the expression of MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in the in vitro perfused pseudopregnant CL, and decrease the expression of TIMP-3 mRNA, but had no effect on TIMP-2 mRNA expression. The results indicate that MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-1, -2, -3 might be involved in the regulation of CL function and maintenance of CL structure via their coordinated gene expression. TNF-α could inhibit luteal regression via increasing MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in the in vitro perfused pseudopregnant ovary.

  18. 安神定志灵对ADHD模型大鼠纹状体多巴胺转运体表达的影响%Effects of Anshen Dingzhi Ling on Expression of Dopamine Transporter of ADHD Rats' Striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成全; 韩新民; 徐建亚; 桑锋; 尹东奇; 倪新强; 李亚群

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Anshen Dingzhi Ling(ADL) on expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats' striatum and the mechanism of this medicine to treat with ADHD. Method: Thirty SHR rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including model group, ritalin group, ADL high dose group, ADL medium dose group and ADL low dose group, 6 rats each group, meantime, 6 Wistar-Kyoto rats constitute normal control group. The dosages of the 3 groups of ADL were 34. 1 , 17. 1 , 8. 5 g·kg-1 , ig respectively and the dosage of ritalin group is 2. 1 mg·kg-1 , ig, as for the model group or normal control, rats were given physiological saline as per 10 mL·kg-1 , ig. After 2-week, the rats in experiments were killed and separate the brain tissues, then examine the expression of striatum DAT protein or mRNA of each group with RT-PCR as well as laser scanning confocal microscope. Result: Statistic difference of DAT protein expression was observed among different groups(P < 0. 05 ) . Comparing with the normal control group, the DAT protein expression of striatum of SHR model group was higher obviously (P <0. 01 ) ; the DRT protein expression of ADL medium or high group was lower than model group(P <0. 01) , meanwhile, the protein expression of ritalin group was lower than model group also(P < 0. 05 ) , but no statistic difference was observed between groups of low-dose ADL group and model in expression of DAT protein expression. The protein expression levels from the lower to the higher were ADL low dose group, ritalin group, ADL medium group as well as ADL high dose group. Conclusion; ADL has the potent to depress the expression of DAT mRNA as well as protein in SHR rat striatum, to block the reuptaking DA process performed by presynaptic neuron, and then to increase the DA concentration in synaptic clefts, to improve the conduction function of nerve signals of centrum DA, to play a role to treat with ADHD after all.%目的:研究安神定

  19. Effect of hydrogen sulphide-donating sildenafil (ACS6) on erectile function and oxidative stress in rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nilima; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Hotston, Matthew; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Tazzari, Valerio; Persad, Raj; Angelini, Gianni D; Jeremy, Jamie Y

    2009-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the H(2)S-donating derivative of sildenafil (ACS6) compared to sildenafil citrate and sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on relaxation, superoxide formation and NADPH oxidase and type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) expression in isolated rabbit cavernosal tissue and smooth muscle cells (CSMCs), and in vivo on indices of oxidative stress induced with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Relaxation was studied in an organ bath in response to carbachol and after incubation with interleukin-1beta for 12 h. CSMCs were incubated with tumour-necrosis factor-alpha or the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) analogue, U46619, with or with no sildenafil citrate, ACS6 or NaHS for 16 h. Superoxide formation and the expression of p47(phox) (an active subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex) and PDE5 protein was then assessed using Western blotting. Rats were also treated with BSO (with or with no sildenafil citrate or ACS6) for 7 days; cavernosal cGMP, cAMP, glutathionine and plasma TXA(2) and 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS ACS6 and sildenafil citrate relaxed cavernosal smooth muscle equipotently; NaHS alone had little effect at up to 100 microm. The formation of superoxide and expression of p47(phox) and PDE5 was reduced by ACS6, sildenafil citrate and NaHS (order of potency: ACS6 > sildenafil citrate > NaHS). The effects of ACS6 were blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and PKG. In rats treated with BSO, both ASC6 and sildenafil citrate reduced the increased plasma levels of TXA(2) and 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) but increased cGMP, cAMP and glutathionine levels in corpus cavernosum. CONCLUSIONS By virtue of a dual action on PKA and PKG activation, ACS6 not only promotes erection, acutely, but might also have a long-term beneficial effect through inhibition of oxidative stress and downregulation of PDE5.

  20. Hhcy大鼠阴茎海绵体内cAMP,cGMP含量及研究%The Study about cAMP and cGMP in the Penile Corpus Cavernous of Hyper Homocysteine Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵平; 李明; 张万峰; 王洪杰; 丁晓晖; 刘会恩

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To detect the levels of camp,cgmp in the penile corpus cavernous of adult male Wistar rats with high homocysteine and to explore the relationship of camp and cgmp with erectile dysfunction.Methods:Forty wistar rats were divided into a control and an Hhcy group.The control group were fed on normal diet and Hhcy group were fed diet with 3% methionine respectively.Four weeks later,the Wistar rats were detected by injecting apomorphine,the levels of camp and cgmp in the penile corpus cavenous were detect and that of serum homocysteine by the cycle enzyme method.Results:Compared with the control group,the levels of camp and cgmp in the penile corpus cavernous of the Hhcy group were significantly lower,while homocysteine was significantly higher.Conclusion:The levels of camp and cgmp in the penile corpus cavernous in Wistar rats with high homocysteine is lower.Hhcy is an significantly risk factor of erectile dysfunction.%目的:探讨高同型半胱氨酸血症大鼠阴茎海绵体组织内cAMP,cGMP含量的变化并研究其对阴茎勃起功能影响.方法:取40只成年雄性大鼠,随机分成两组,分为正常对照组和Hhcy组.Hhcy组给予3%高蛋氨酸饲料喂养,正常组给予普通饲料喂养,饲养四周后后分别注射阿扑吗啡进行大鼠阴茎勃起功能实验,抽取血清检测Hhcy含量,麻醉后取阴茎海绵体测量cAMP,cGMP含量.结果:Hhcy组血清中同型半胱氨酸含量显著高于正常组,大鼠阴茎组织中cAMP,cGMP含量显著低于正常组.结论:高同型半胱氨酸血症大鼠阴茎海绵体中cAMP,cGMP含量降低.高同型半胱氨酸血症是阴茎勃起功能障碍的危险因素.

  1. IUS-LEX-CORPUS: CORPUS MYSTICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sfruttando gli ingenti materiali a disposizione degli studiosi dal 1964 negli archivi, nelle banche dati, nei dizionari e nei lessici d'autore dell'ILIESI-CNR, il contributo considera una serie di momenti nella storia del pensiero, dalla politeía antica al cosmopolitismo moderno, che mettono in risalto le implicazioni filosofiche presenti nella polisemia del trinomio lex-ius-corpus.

  2. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) stimulates PTGS2 expression and PGF2α synthesis through NFKB activation via reactive oxygen species in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Ken; Matsuoka, Aki; Kizuka, Fumie; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sugino, Norihiro

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate how prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) increases PGF(2α) synthesis and PTGS2 expression in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats. We further investigated the molecular mechanism by which PGF(2α) stimulates PTGS2 expression. PGF(2α) (3 mg/kg) or phosphate buffer as a control was injected s.c. on day 7 of pseudopregnancy. Ptgs2 mRNA expression and PGF(2α) concentrations in the corpus luteum were measured at 2, 6, and 24 h after PGF(2α) injection. PGF(2α) significantly increased Ptgs2 mRNA expression at 2 h and luteal PGF(2α) concentrations at 24 h. PGF(2α) significantly decreased serum progesterone levels at all of the times studied. Simultaneous administration of a selective PTGS2 inhibitor (NS-398, 10 mg/kg) completely abolished the increase in luteal PGF(2α) concentrations induced by PGF(2α). PGF(2α) increased NFKB p65 protein expression in the nucleus of luteal cells 30 min after PGF(2α) injection, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that PGF(2α) increased binding activities of NFKB to the NFKB consensus sequence of the Ptgs2 gene promoter. Simultaneous administration of both superoxide dismutase and catalase to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibited the increases of nuclear NFKB p65 protein expression, lipid peroxide levels, and Ptgs2 mRNA expression induced by PGF(2α). In conclusion, PGF(2α) stimulates Ptgs2 mRNA expression and PGF(2α) synthesis through NFKB activation via ROS in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats.

  3. 大鼠纹状体I组代谢型谷氨酸受体激动引起动物向对侧旋转%Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat striatum induces contralateral rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 王忠诚; 徐立新; 王天佑; 张亚卓

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To study the subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) which induce contralateral rotations of rats after mGluRs activation. METHODS:Turning movement was measured at 6 h after agonist or antagonist of mGluRs was microinjected into rat striatum. RESULTS:tACPD, an agonist of mGluRs, at 500 nmol and 1 000 nmol induced contralateral rotations of rats. L-AP3, MCPG and dantrolene attenuated the turning effect of tACPD. DHPG, a selective agonist of group I mGluRs, mimicked the effect of tACPD. The effect of DHPG was blocked by MCPG, LY367385 (antagonist of mGluR1) and MPEP (antagonist of mGluR5), and abolished by pretreatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg). CONCLUSION:These results indicated the activation of group I mGluRs in rat striatum induced turning effect, which may be associated with the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores and dependant on the existence of dopamine.%目的:研究代谢型谷氨酸受体(mGluRs)激动剂引起大鼠向对侧旋转时介导的受体亚型。方法:大鼠纹状体内微量注射mGluRs激动剂或拮抗剂,观察大鼠的意识、行为变化,并于给药后6 h测定旋转活动。结果:mGluRs非亚型特异的激动剂tACPD (500、1 000 nmol)纹状体内注射引起大鼠向对侧旋转,mGluRs的非竞争性拮抗剂L-AP3、竞争性拮抗剂MCPG及抑制细胞内钙释放的胆罗啉均可减轻tACPD引起的旋转。I组mGluRs的特异性激动剂DHPG (500 nmol)纹状体内注射也引起大鼠向对侧旋转,MCPG及mGluR1的拮抗剂LY367385 及mGluR5的拮抗剂MPEP均可拮抗DHPG引起的旋转。预先腹腔注射利血平(5 mg/kg)可阻断DHPG的作用。结论:I组mGluRs激动引起大鼠向对侧旋转,此作用可能与细胞内钙释放有关及依赖于多巴胺的存在。

  4. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  5. Corpus Design for Malay Corpus-based Speech Synthesis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Swee Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech corpus is one of the major components in corpus-based synthesis. The quality and coverage in speech corpus will affect the quality of synthesis speech sound. Approach: This study proposes a corpus design for Malay corpus-based speech synthesis system. This includes the study of design criteria in corpus-based speech synthesis, Malay corpus based database design and the concatenation engine in Malay corpus-based synthesis system. A set of 10 millions digital text corpuses for Malay language has been collected from Malay internet news. This text corpus had been analyzed using word frequency count to find out all high frequency words to be used for designing the sentences for speech corpus. Results: Altogether 381 sentences for speech corpus had been designed using 70% of high frequency words from 10 million text corpus. It consists of 16826 phoneme units and the total storage size is 37.6Mb. All the phone units are phonetically transcribed to preserve the phonetic context of its origin that will be used for phonetic context unit. This speech corpus had been labeled at phoneme level and used for variable length continuous phoneme based concatenation. Speech corpus is one of the major components in corpus-based synthesis. The quality and coverage in speech corpus will affect the quality of synthesized speech sound. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study has proposed a platform for designing speech corpus especially for Malay Text to Speech which can be further enhanced to support more coverage and higher naturalness of synthetic speech.

  6. Effects of a combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymeth amphetamine and caffeine on real time stimulated dopamine release in the rat striatum: Studies using fast cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J J; O'Boyle, K M; Lowry, J P

    2017-08-24

    It is well documented that caffeine exacerbates the hyperthermia associated with acute exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats. Previous reports have also indicated that MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release is exacerbated in the presence of caffeine. In the present study we have examined whether the effects of MDMA on real-time stimulated dopamine release, in the absence of uptake inhibition, are accentuated in the presence of caffeine. Isolated striatal slices from adult male Wistar rats were treated acutely with MDMA, caffeine, or a combination, and their effects on single and 5pulse stimulated dopamine release monitored using the technique of fast cyclic voltammetry. Caffeine at 10 or 100μM had no significant effect on single pulse stimulated dopamine release. However 100μM caffeine caused a significant peak increase in 5pulse stimulated dopamine release. Both 1 and 30μM MDMA gave rise to a significant increase in both single and 5-pulse dopamine release and reuptake. A combination of 100μM caffeine and 1 or 30μM MDMA did not significantly enhance the effects of MDMA on single or 5pulse dopamine release and reuptake when compared to that applied alone. Utilizing single action potential dependent dopamine release, these results do not demonstrate a caffeine-enhanced MDMA-induced dopamine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in a toxic model produced by 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratos, Iris N; Castellanos, Pilar; Pastor, Nina; Millán-Pacheco, César; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Rembao, Daniel; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; Cabrera, Nallely; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Gómez, Isabel; Rangel-López, Edgar; Santamaria, Abel

    2016-04-05

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is commonly involved in different neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. The cellular signaling associated to RAGE activation may occur upon binding to different ligands. In this study we investigated whether the toxic model produced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats comprises early noxious responses related to RAGE-mediated signaling cascades. In order to explore a possible interaction between 6-OHDA and RAGE, affinity parameters of RAGE with 6-OHDA were estimated by different means. The possible binding sites of 6-OHDA with the VC1 homodimer for both rat and human RAGE were also modeled. Our results show that the striatal infusion of 6-OHDA recruits RAGE upregulation, as evidenced by an early expression of the receptor. 6-OHDA was also found to bind the VC1 homodimer, although its affinity was moderate when compared to other ligands. This work contributes to the understanding of the role of RAGE activation for 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. 高岭土诱导大鼠脑积水模型的建立和监测%Kaolin- induced hydrocephalus in the rat: temporal sequence of changes in weight, intracranial pressure, ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫永旭; 王伟军; 宋菡姝; 靳世辉; 高瑞庭; 初明; 蔺友志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop models of kaolin - induced hydrocephalus in adult Wistar rats and to measure changes of body weight,intracranial pressure,ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness.Methods 60 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental group and control group.In the former group,40 rats were randomly separated into 5 subgroups:group A,B,C,D and E,then were used to construct animal models of hydrocephalus by injecting 0.1 ml volume of 25% kaolin sterile solution into the cisterna Magana with the aid of a surgical microscope.Controls were trcatcd in the same way with injection of saline.Body weighing,MRI and ICP were performed at the tine point of 3 days,1,2,4 and 8 weeks after kaolin injection,respectively.Corpus callosum thickness was measured at the level of the optic chiasm.Results Hydrocephalus was induced in 23 rats whose ventricular system expauded as times went on.In hydrocephalus rats,body weight was significantly lower than in age - matched saline - injected sham controls,ICP increased rapidly on day 3 post intracisternal kaolin injection,reached a maximum on day 7,remained markedly elevated through 8 week, and had reduced corpus callosum thickness as ventricle enlargment.Conclusions Kaolin injection through cistern magna can effectively eatablish a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus.Aherations in ICP,ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness occurs sequentially,and the time - course of each manifestation of hydrocephalus differs.%目的 高岭土诱导Wistar大鼠脑积水后系统监测大鼠体质量、颅内压、脑室面积和胼胝体厚度的改变.方法 雄性Wistar大鼠60只,按随机数字表顺序分为实验组(n=40)和对照组(n=20).实验组40只大鼠再随机分为A、B、C、D、E五个亚组,向枕大池内注入25%无菌高岭土混悬液0.1 ml;对照组注入等量无菌生理盐水,注入后3d、1周、2周、4周和8周后行体质量、MRI检查及颅内压监测,经视交叉切

  9. Differential light microscopic autoradiographic localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat using (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, H.I.; Deshmukh, P.; Roeske, W.R. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA). Health Sciences Center); Wamsley, J.K. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City (USA). Medical Center)

    1983-07-15

    Recently, the authors demonstrated that radiolabelled pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) bound to a high affinity population of muscarinic binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and corpus striatum. However, in the heart, cerebellum and ileum they found little or no (/sup 3/H)PZ binding. These data suggest that (/sup 3/H)PZ labels a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors. The present study examines the light microscopic autoradiographic localization of 3-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, (-)(/sup 3/H)QNB, an antagonist which labels muscarinic receptors with equal affinity and compares its localization to (/sup 3/H)PZ in the rat brainstem and spinal cord.

  10. Further studies on the nature of postsynaptic dopamine uptake and metabolism in rat striatum: sodium dependency and investigation of a possible role for carrier-mediated uptake into serotonin neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepp, D.D.; Azzaro, A.J.

    1985-06-01

    The nature of postsynaptic sites involved in the uptake and metabolism of striatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine, DA) was investigated. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)DA (10(-7) M) into slices of rat striatum was found to be greatly dependent on the presence of sodium ion in the incubation medium. However, the formation of the (/sup 3/H)dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and (/sup 3/H)homovanillic acid (HVA) was only partially reduced in the absence of sodium. Inhibition of carrier-mediated DA neuronal uptake with nomifensine significantly decreased DA accumulation (18% of control) and (/sup 3/H)DOPAC formation (62% of control), but enhanced (/sup 3/H)HVA production (143% of control). Inhibition of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) neuronal uptake system with fluoxetine (10(-6) M) or selective 5-HT neuronal lesions with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) had no effect on (/sup 3/H)DOPAC or (/sup 3/H)HVA formed from (/sup 3/H)DA in the presence or absence of nomifensine. These results demonstrate that the uptake and subsequent metabolism of striatal DA to DOPAC and HVA is only partially dependent on carrier-mediated uptake mechanism(s) requiring sodium ion. These data support our previous findings suggesting a significant role for synaptic glial cell deamination and O-methylation of striatal DA. Further, experiments with fluoxetine or 5,7-DHT suggest that 5-HT neurons do not significantly contribute in the synaptic uptake and metabolism of striatal DA.

  11. Corpus Annotation for Parser Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    CARROLL, JOHN; Minnen, Guido; Briscoe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    We describe a recently developed corpus annotation scheme for evaluating parsers that avoids shortcomings of current methods. The scheme encodes grammatical relations between heads and dependents, and has been used to mark up a new public-domain corpus of naturally occurring English text. We show how the corpus can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a robust parser, and relate the corpus to extant resources.

  12. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  13. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  14. Tagging the Teleman Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T; Brants, Thorsten; Samuelsson, Christer

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out comparing the Swedish Teleman and the English Susanne corpora using an HMM-based and a novel reductionistic statistical part-of-speech tagger. They indicate that tagging the Teleman corpus is the more difficult task, and that the performance of the two different taggers is comparable.

  15. Tracking of Neural Stem Cells in Rats with Intracerebral Hemorrhage by the Use of 3T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Park, Jong Seong [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To access the feasibility of clinically available 3T MRI to detect the migration of labeled neural stem cells (NSCs) in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rat model. The ethics committee of our institution approved this study. ICH was induced by the injection of collagenase type IV into the right striatum of ten Sprague-Dawley rats. Human NSCs conjugated with Feridex (superparamagnetic iron oxide: SPIO) were transplanted into the left striatum one week after ICH induction. MRI was performed on a 3T scanner during the first, second, third, fourth, and sixth weeks post-transplantation. MRI was obtained using coronal T2- and T2{sup *}-weighted sequences. Two rats were sacrificed every week after in vivo MRI in order to analyze the histological findings. ICH in the right striatum was detected by MRI one and two weeks after transplantation without migration of the NSCs. There was no migration of the NSCs as seen on the histological findings one week after transplantation. The histological findings two weeks after transplantation showed a small number of NSCs along the corpus callosum. On MRI three weeks after transplantation, there was a hypointense line along the corpus callosum and decreased signal intensity in the right periventricular region. Histological findings three weeks after transplantation confirmed the presence of the hypointense line representing SPIO-labeled NSCs. MRI four and six weeks after transplantation showed a hypointense spot in the right periventricular region. The histological findings four and six weeks after transplantation showed the presence of prominent NSCs in the right periventricular region. 3T MRI can detect the migration of NSCs in rats with ICH along the corpus callosum. Therefore, 3T MRI could be feasible for detecting the migration of NSCs in the clinical setting of stem cell therapy

  16. Discovery and study on the structure and function of a new area in the mammalian striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In our previous study, we found a new subdivision, which is mainly composed of fusiform neurons, in the rat striatum. This new subdivision is located at the caudal border of the striatum surrounding the rostral edge of the globus pallidus. This area was named “marginal division” based on its location. The somatodendritic morphology in the marginal division revealed by Nissl staining and PHA-L label exhibits ovoid to fusiform somata with their long axes dorsoventrally parallel to the border between the striatum and the globus pallidus. The fusiform neurons have two spiny primary dendrites emerging from the two poles of the cell bodies.

  17. Learning and motivation in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohamy, Daphna

    2011-06-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic change in our understanding of the role of the striatum in behavior. Early perspectives emphasized a role for the striatum in habitual learning of stimulus-response associations and sequences of actions. Recent advances from human neuroimaging research suggest a broader role for the striatum in motivated learning. New findings demonstrate that the striatum represents multiple learning signals and highlight the contribution of the striatum across many cognitive domains and contexts. Recent findings also emphasize interactions between the striatum and other specialized brain systems for learning. Together, these findings suggest that the striatum contributes to a distributed network that learns to select actions based on their predicted value in order to optimize behavior.

  18. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  19. Effects of Acupuncture on Sleeping Time and Striatum 5-HT and DA Content in Rats with ;Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury%针刺对应激性胃黏膜损伤大鼠睡眠时间及纹状体中五羟色胺、多巴胺含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 黄迎华; 刘曜纶; 杨萍; 闫亚南; 马惠芳

    2015-01-01

    efficacy. The mechanism may be related to adjusting contents of 5-HT and DA in corpus striatum.%目的:从脑-肠轴角度探讨针刺不同穴位对大鼠应激性胃黏膜损伤的愈合及睡眠情况的影响。方法将雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为空白组、模型组、治胃组、安神组、联合组,每组8只。采用无水乙醇灌胃方法造成应激性胃黏膜损伤大鼠模型,治胃组穴选双侧“足三里”“中脘”,安神组穴选双侧“申脉”“照海”,联合组穴选双侧“足三里”“中脘”“申脉”“照海”,用0.22 mm×13 mm不锈钢毫针刺入5~10 mm,留针20 min。针刺干预5 d后检测热痛阈的变化。按40 mg/kg大鼠体质量腹腔注射2%戊巴比妥钠,记录注射后大鼠的睡眠持续时间。肉眼观察大鼠的胃黏膜形态,Guth法计算黏膜损伤指数(UI),高效液相色谱-电化学检测法测纹状体中5-羟色胺(5-HT)、多巴胺(DA)的含量。结果与空白组比较,模型组热痛阈和睡眠持续时间显著下降(P<0.01),UI 及5-HT、DA 含量显著升高(P<0.05,P<0.01);与模型组比较,各治疗组热痛阈和睡眠持续时间增加(P<0.05,P<0.01),UI均显著降低(P<0.01),治胃组和联合组中5-HT含量明显降低、治胃组DA含量显著降低(P<0.01);各治疗组间比较,联合组热痛阈及睡眠持续时间显著增加(P<0.01),UI显著降低(P<0.05)。结论针刺足三里、中脘、照海、申脉可促进大鼠胃黏膜损伤的愈合,同时延长睡眠持续时间,其中四穴联合应用效果更佳,其机制可能是通过调节纹状体中5-HT及DA含量发挥作用。

  20. Ações neuroprotetoras da vitamina C no corpo estriado de ratos após convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina Neuroprotective actions of vitamin C in rat striatum after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    especially in limbic structures. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of vitamin C in the histopathological changes observed in rat striatum after seizures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Healthy Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group was treated with 0.9% saline (control group and the second one with pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, P400 group. Third and fourth groups were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, 30 minutes before receiving P400 (P400 + VIT C group or 0.9% saline (VIT C group, respectively. After the treatments, all groups were observed for 24 hours, sacrificed and dissected out to remove their brains for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The group P400 presented seizures that progressed to status epilepticus in 75% of the animals. Pretreatment with vitamin C produced a 35% reduction in this index. P400 and P400 + VIT C groups revealed 80% and 20% of animals with brain injury, respectively. In P400 group, lesion severity of the striatum was 50%. In turn, in striatal region of animals treated with P400 + VIT C group, we detected a reduction of 40% in the severity degree. DISCUSSION: Pilocarpine-induced seizures are installed by the cholinergic system and propagated by free radicals and by glutamatergic system, leading to brain damage. The antioxidant drugs may have therapeutic potential for epileptic patients to protect against brain injure through removing free radicals produced, suggesting that vitamin C may influence epileptogenesis and promote neuroprotective actions during seizures.

  1. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here, we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can impact neural selectivity in DS. Methods To address this issue we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. Results We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but rats regain function after several days. Conclusion These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. PMID:23790313

  2. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2014-01-15

    The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can affect neural selectivity in DS. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals, we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show that VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but that rats regain function after several days. These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Du corpus au dictionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose an automatic process to build multi-lingual lexico-semantic resources. The goal of these resources is to browse semantically textual information contained in texts of different languages. This method uses a mathematical model called Atlas s\\'emantiques in order to represent the different senses of each word. It uses the linguistic relations between words to create graphs that are projected into a semantic space. These projections constitute semantic maps that denote the sense trends of each given word. This model is fed with syntactic relations between words extracted from a corpus. Therefore, the lexico-semantic resource produced describes all the words and all their meanings observed in the corpus. The sense trends are expressed by syntactic contexts, typical for a given meaning. The link between each sense trend and the utterances used to build the sense trend are also stored in an index. Thus all the instances of a word in a particular sense are linked and can be browsed easily...

  4. Towards an integrated corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the use of corpora in stylistic analysis has grown in popularity. However, questions still remain over the remit of corpus stylistics, its distinction from corpus linguistics generally and its capacity to explain complex stylistic effects. This article argues in favour of an integrated corpus stylistics; that is, an approach to corpus stylistics that integrates it with other stylistic methods and analytical frameworks. I suggest that this approach is needed for two main reasons: (i it is analytically necessary in order to fully explain stylistic effects in texts, and (ii integrating corpus methods with other stylistic tools is what will distinguish corpus stylistics from corpus linguistics. My argument is supported by reference to examples from Mark Haddon’s no vel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time and the HBO TV series Deadwood. Both these examples rely for their explanation on a combination of corpus stylistic analytical techniques and other stylistic methods of analysis.

  5. 黑质致密部和内侧前脑束注射6-OHDA 制备的帕金森病大鼠模型纹状体中 DA 含量比较%Effects of 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson’s disease rat model in substantia nigra compacta and medial forebrain bundle on DA level in the striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲娜; 常永丽; 郭晓姝; 张翠英

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of substantia nigra compacta (SNc)lesioned and medial forebrain bundle (MFB)lesion Parkinson’s disease(PD)rat models by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)on the dopamine (DA)level in the striatum.Methods:Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (n = 12),SNc-lesioned(n = 1 5 )and MFB-lesioned (n =14)groups.Changes of the DA level in the striatum were observed by the high performance liquid chromatography with elec-trochemical detection in 3 groups rats.Results:Compared to sham-operated rats,the DA levels of the SNc-lesioned and MFB-lesioned rats decreased significantly.And compared to the SNc-lesioned rats,the degree of DA levels in the MFB-lesioned rats docreased more serious (P =0.005).Conclusion:The lesioned range of DA neurons of MFB-lesioned PD rat model is wider than that of SNc-lesion,which provides a theory basis for the choice of modeling methods in different researches.%目的::比较黑质致密部(SNc)损毁和内侧前脑束(MFB)损毁2种方法制备的帕金森病(PD)大鼠模型对纹状体中多巴胺(DA)递质含量的影响。方法:将大鼠随机分为假手术组(n=12)、SNc 损毁组(n=15)和 MFB 损毁组(n=14)。采用高效液相色谱-电化学检测法,观察3组大鼠损毁侧纹状体中 DA的含量。结果:与假手术组相比较,SNc 损毁组(P <0.001)和 MFB 损毁组(P <0.001)大鼠纹状体中 DA含量均显著降低,与 SNc 损毁组相比较,MFB 损毁组大鼠纹状体中 DA 含量下降更为显著(P =0.005)。结论:MFB 损毁制备的 PD 大鼠模型对 DA 能神经元的损伤范围较 SNc 损毁有所扩大,为不同研究选择制备模型的方法提供一定的理论依据。

  6. Regional GABA concentration and (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding in rat brain following repeated electroconvulsive shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowdler, J.M.; Green, A.R.; Minchin, M.C.W.; Nutt, D.J. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (UK))

    1983-01-01

    It has been confirmed that 24 hours following a series of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) given once daily for 10 days (ECS x 10) to rats there is an increase in GABA concentration in the corpus striatum. A similar change was seen after the ECS had been given to rats anaesthetised with halothane, or when 5 ECS were given spread out over 10 days, the rats being anaesthetised during the ECS. A daily convulsion for 10 days elicited by flurothyl exposure resulted in an increased striatal GABA concentration, but also increased the GABA concentration in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was present 24 hours after ECS daily for 5 days or 3 days after ECS daily for 10 days. No change in (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding was seen in hippocampus, cortex or corpus striatum 24 hours after the last of 10 once daily ECS. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was therefore seen at all times when enhanced monoaminemediated behaviours have been demonstrated following seizures.

  7. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of

  8. 预运动训练对局灶缺血大鼠纹状体单胺类神经递质及其代谢产物变化的影响%Effects of exercise preconditioning on the changing of monoamine neur otransmitters and their metabolites in the striatum of ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雄辉; 吴秋芬; 严杰星; 谢松林; 王大磊

    2013-01-01

    In order to probe into the mechanism of exercise preconditioning improving cerebral ischemic injury by basing the target nucleus on the striatum, the authors divided male Wistar rats randomly into a calm control mi-crodialysis group (CM), a calm control staining group (CS), an exercise preconditioning microdialysis group (EM) and an exercise preconditioning staining group (ES) (each of which consists of 10 rats), implanted a microdialysis probe guide cannula into the striatum of the rats in groups CM and EM, then let the rats in groups EM and ES un-dergo 4-week aerobic training after surgery recovery, performed middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery on all the rats after training was completed, applied the microdialysis-HPLC-electrochemistry combined technology to observe the changing of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and their respective metabolites, dihy-droxy phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methyl 4-hydroxy benzene ethylene gly-col (MHPG) in the extracellular fluid of the striatum of the rats in the process of ischemia and in reperfusion, and took out the brains of the rats in groups CS and ES for TTC staining after the rats had gone through 24 hours of recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery. From staining results the authors found that the damaged area of the striatum of the rats in group ES decreased significantly (P<0.05) as compared with that of the rats in group CS. From microdialysis research results the authors revealed the following findings:in the process of ischemia, the extracellular DA level of the striatum of the rats in groups CM and EM showed a trend of rapid increasing, the increasing magnitude of the rats in group EM was smaller than that of the rats in group CM (P<0.05), then the DA level of the rats in the two groups decreased gradually, and stabilized ba-sically at a level below the baseline in the process of reperfusion. The trend of changing of DA

  9. The influence of electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on elemental composition of dopamine related brain structures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Wrobel, Pawel; Bukowczan, Mateusz; Zizak, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies of Parkinson's disease indicate that dorsal motor nucleus of nerve vagus is one of the earliest brain areas affected by alpha-synuclein and Lewy bodies pathology. The influence of electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on elemental composition of dopamine related brain structures in rats is investigated. Synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence was applied to the elemental micro-imaging and quantification in thin tissue sections. It was found that elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Rb are present in motor cortex, corpus striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, ventral tectal area, and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. The topographic analysis shows that macro-elements like P, S, Cl and K are highly concentrated within the fiber bundles of corpus striatum. In contrast the levels of trace elements like Fe and Zn are the lowest in these structures. It was found that statistically significant differences between the animals with electrical stimulation of vagus nerve and the control are observed in the left side of corpus striatum for P (p = 0.04), S (p = 0.02), Cl (p = 0.05), K (p = 0.02), Fe (p = 0.04) and Zn (p = 0.02). The mass fractions of these elements are increased in the group for which the electrical stimulation of vagus nerve was performed. Moreover, the contents of Ca (p = 0.02), Zn (p = 0.07) and Rb (p = 0.04) in substantia nigra of right hemisphere are found to be significantly lower in the group with stimulation of vagus nerve than in the control rats.

  10. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  11. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  12. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Daniel W.; Burton, Amanda C.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Barnett, Brian R.; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS) in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO). On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP). Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons (MSNs) tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. PMID:22973206

  13. Vigabatrina aumenta atividade da superóxido dismutase no corpo estriado de ratos após crises convulsivas induzidas pela pilocarpina Vigabratine increases superoxide dismutase activity in striatum of rat after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    ES: Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que durante as crises convulsivas ocorrem alterações comportamentais, entretanto, não foram verificadas mudanças na atividade da SOD durante a fase aguda dessas crises. Esses dados sugerem que os efeitos anticonvulsivantes da vigabatrina podem ser decorrentes da neuromodulação da SOD. No entanto, serão realizados novos estudos neurofarmacológicos para o esclarecimento do mecanismo de ação da vigabatrina no modelo de epilepsia induzido pela pilocarpina.BACKGROUND: Pilocarpine-induced seizures have been suggested to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. Current studies have suggested that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the pharmacological actions of vigabatrin on behavioral changes and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in striatum of adult rats. METHODS: Adult rats (2 months old were used in the experiments and divided into four groups. The first was treated with 0.9% saline (control group. The second group was treated with pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group. The third group received vigabatrin alone (500 mg/kg, i.p., VGB group and the fourth group was treated with vigabatrin (500 mg/kg, i.p. and 30 minutes later received pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., VGB + P400 group. The animals which had seizures and status epilepticus (SE and did not die within 24 hours of observation were sacrificed to perform the neurochemical studies. RESULTS: Behavioral studies showed that the administration of pilocarpine produces peripheral cholinergic signs, tremors and stereotyped movements in all animals. An amount of 75% of those rats developed to seizures and SE. In turn, the pre-treatment with vigabatrin produced a 50% reduction in the rate of seizures and SE. Regarding the neurochemical studies, there were no changes in the striatal SOD activity in P400 group as compared to the control group. However, in the VGB + P

  14. Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin; Salvatore, Michael F; Pomerleau, Francois; Apparsundaram, Subbu; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2007-11-01

    Extracellular L-glutamate poses a severe excitotoxic threat to neurons and glia when unregulated, therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. A recent study from our laboratory showed a reduced glutamate uptake rate in the striatum of the aged Fischer 344 (F344) rat, yet the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. The current study utilized in vivo electrochemical recordings, immunoblotting and biotinylation in young (6 months), late-middle aged (18 months) and aged (24 months) F344 rats to elucidate the potential role that glutamate transporters (GLT-1, GLAST, and EAAC1) may play in this mechanism. Here we show that the time necessary to clear glutamate from the late-middle aged and aged striatum is significantly prolonged in comparison to the young striatum. In addition, an analysis of various sub-regions of the striatum revealed a marked dorsoventral gradient in terms of glutamate clearance times in the aged striatum, a phenomenon which was not present in the striatum of the animals of the remaining age groups. We also found that the decreased glutamate clearance time observed in the late-middle aged and aged rats is not due to a decrease in the production of total transporter protein among these three transporters. Rather, a significant reduction in the amount of GLAST expressed on the plasma membrane surface in the aged animals (approximately 55% when compared to young rats) may contribute to this phenomenon. These age-related alterations in extracellular l-glutamate regulation may be key contributors to the increased susceptibility of the aged brain to excitotoxic insults such as stroke and hypoxia.

  15. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL, which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP, in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL, is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD, involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD, involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14. Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP

  16. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  17. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  18. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  19. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the ventral tegmental area regulate dopamine release in the ventral striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, M; Westerink, BHC; Moghaddam, B

    1996-01-01

    The role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in tonic and phasic regulation of dopamine release in the ventral striatum was investigated. Microdialysis in conscious rats was used to assess dopamine release primarily from the nucleus accumbens shell re

  20. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, B.E.

    1983-08-01

    The embryology of the corpus callosum is briefly reviewed in relation to dysgenesis and associated malformations. The morphology, etiology, clinical and radiological features of such malformations are discussed and illustrated.

  1. Synchronous Pharmacokinetics Study on Effects of Shouwu Fang on Levodopa in Blood and in Extracellular Fluids of Striatum in Rats with Parkinson' s Disease%首乌方对帕金森病模型大鼠血液和纹状体细胞外液左旋多巴药代动力学影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓芳; 王丹巧; 吴兆恩; 李鹏; 牛建昭; 王继峰; 王巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To synchronously investigate the effects of Shouwu Fang on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa (L-DOPA) in blood and in extracellular fluids of striatum in rat with Parkinson' s disease (PD) , by simultaneous blood-brain microdialysis in freely moving rats. Method: SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, model group ,L-DOPA group ( ip L-DOPA 24 mg· kg - 1 and benserazide 6 mg· kg - 1 ), SWF + L-DOPA group (ip L-DOPA pretreated with ig SWF). The rat model of Parkinson' s disease was induced by injecting 6-hydrodopamine (6-OHDA) into striatum of rats, blood-brain microdialysis technique was used for simultaneously sampling. High performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED) were used to detect the concentration of L-DOPA in blood and striatum. The data were analyzed with DAS program. Result: Compared with L-DOPA group, the blood L-DOPA concentration of SWF + L-DOPA group was increased significantly at 6 time points,the concentration in striatum was decreased at 15 min after drug administration. The blood pharmacokinetic parameters of L-DOPA group and SWF +L-DOPA group were as follows: AUC ( 1 627.7 ± 420. 57 ) mg· L - 1 · min - 1, ( 2 626.44 ± 980. 6 ) mg· L- 1. min - 1,Tmax :30 min, (37. 5 ± 8.22) min, MRT(0-t); ( 71.98 ± 3. 19 ) min, ( 83.44 ± 9. 53 ) min, striatum pharmacokinetic parameters: Tmax: (50 ± 15.49 ) min, ( 81 ± 27.25 ) min, MRT(0-t); (68.65 ± 15.39 ) min, ( 107.91 ± 26. 66 ) min.Compared with L-DOPA group,SWF ± L-DOPA group blood AUC was increased (P < 0. 05 ), Tmaxand MRT(0-t) were delayed ( P < O. 05 ); striatum Tmaxand MRT(0-t) were delayed too ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion: Shouwu Fang delayed L-DOPA elimination,increased its absorption in blood,and reduced fluctuation of concentration in striatum.%目的:采用清醒自由活动大鼠血-脑双位点微透析采样的方法,同步探讨首乌方对左旋

  2. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-01-01

    Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus an...

  3. Orfismo en el Corpus Philostrateum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Lizcano Rejano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We search through the Corpus Philostrateum for the presence of connections between this literary production and Orphismus – its system of beliefs, its peculiar interpretation of the traditional Greek mythology, its proposal for a particular way of life. Also, we try to determine the relation, that we can find in this corpus between the ideology and customs that the Pythagoreans and Orphics supported.

  4. 谷氨酸和MK-801对正常和帕金森模型大鼠纹状体内多巴胺代谢的影响%Effects of glutamate and MK-801 on the metabolism of dopamine in the striatum of normal and parkinsonian rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段春礼; 孙晓红; 姬曼; 杨慧

    2005-01-01

    The direct effects of glutamate and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801, non-competitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist) on the metabolism of dopamine were investigated in the striatum of normal and parkinsonian rats. L-dopa, L-glutamic acid and MK-801 were administered in the striatum locally by microdialysis. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were simultaneously sampled by microdialysis. The concentrations of DOPAC and HVA were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). L-dopa increased the concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in the striatum of normal and parkinsonian rats. L-glutamic acid decreased the concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in striatum of normal rats but not parkinsonian rats. MK-801 increased the concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in the striatum of normal rats but not parkinsonian rats. MK-801 prevented the L-glutamic acid-induced decrease of DOPAC and HVA in the striatum of normal rats. Our results indicate that glutamate modulates the metabolism of dopamine (DA) through NMDA receptors and that the improvement of PD by MK-801 is not through improving the metabolism of DA.%采用微透析和高效液相色谱-电化学(HPLC-ECD)技术研究了谷氨酸和MK-801对正常和帕金森模型大鼠纹状体内多巴胺代谢的影响.用微透析技术在大鼠纹状体内分别定位给以左旋多巴、L-谷氨酸和/或MK-801,同时收集透析液,用HPLC-ECD方法测定透析液中多巴胺代谢产物的浓度.微透析和HPLC-ECD分析结果表明:纹状体内定位给以左旋多巴,正常大鼠和帕金森模型大鼠纹状体内多巴胺代谢产物的浓度均升高;纹状体内定位给以L-谷氨酸,可使正常大鼠纹状体内多巴胺代谢产物的浓度降低,但对帕金森大鼠模型纹状体内多巴胺代谢产物浓度的降低不显著;纹状体内定位给以MK-801,正常大鼠纹状体内多巴胺代谢产物的浓度升高;但对帕金森

  5. The Bulgarian National Corpus: Theory and Practice in Corpus Design

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    Svetla Koeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses several key concepts related to the development of corpora and reconsiders them in light of recent developments in NLP. On the basis of an overview of present-day corpora, we conclude that the dominant practices of corpus design do not utilise adequately the technologies and, as a result, fail to meet the demands of corpus linguistics, computational lexicology and computational linguistics alike.We proceed to lay out a data-driven approach to corpus design, which integrates the best practices of traditional corpus linguistics with the potential of the latest technologies allowing fast collection, automatic metadata description and annotation of large amounts of data. Thus, the gist of the approach we propose is that corpus design should be centred on amassing large amounts of mono- and multilingual texts and on providing them with a detailed metadata description and high-quality multi-level annotation.We go on to illustrate this concept with a description of the compilation, structuring, documentation, and annotation of the Bulgarian National Corpus (BulNC. At present it consists of a Bulgarian part of 979.6 million words, constituting the corpus kernel, and 33 Bulgarian-X language corpora, totalling 972.3 million words, 1.95 billion words altogether. The BulNC is supplied with a comprehensive metadata description, which allows us to organise the texts according to different principles. The Bulgarian part of the BulNC is automatically processed (tokenised and sentence split and  annotated at several levels: morphosyntactic tagging, lemmatisation, word-sense annotation, annotation of noun phrases and named entities. Some levels of annotation are also applied to the Bulgarian-English parallel corpus with the prospect of expanding multilingual annotation both in terms of linguistic levels and the number of languages for which it is available. We conclude with a brief evaluation of the quality of the corpus and an outline of

  6. 穴位电针刺激帕金森病大鼠纹状体谷氨酸含量的变化%Changes of content of glutamic acid in striatum of rats with Parkinson disease after electroacupuncture stimulation at acupoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦春; 马骏; 王华

    2006-01-01

    content of glutamic acid in striatum in the treatment of Parkinson disease so as to recover the balance of the two neurotransmitters is needed further investigation.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of content of excitatory amino acid (glutamic acid) in striatum of rat with Parkinson disease and the effects of electroacupuncture intervention on these changes.DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Teaching and Research Section of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed in Laboratory for Important Subject (Acupuncture and Moxibustion) of Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from February to August 2002. A total of 40 healthy SD rats were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups, namely, normal group, model group, sham operation group and electroacupuncutre group with 10 in each group.METHODS: Model group: Rotation model of rat with Parkinson disease was established by method of chemical damage on right substantia nigra.Sham operation group: Method of sham operation was the same as model group, and 3.4 μL physiological saline was injected. Electroacupuncture group: Electroacupuncture treatment was given after model establishment;took Atlas of Experimental Animal Acupoints as reference, selected the acupoints of Taichong and Fengfu, pierced with needles which were connected with G6805 electroacupuncture therapeutic apparatus under the condition of continuous waves and frequency of 2 Hz for 30 minutes, once a day for consecutive 7 days, then detected the content of glutamic acid.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Content of glutamic acid in bilateral striatum of rat in normal group, sham operation group, model group and electroacupuncture group, which was detected by automatic amino acid analyzer.RESULTS: The content of glutamic acid in right striatum of rat in model group was significantly higher than that in contralateral striatum, normal group and sham operation group [the contents of

  7. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in the dorsal striatum: glutamate dynamics and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vinay; Naughton, Sean X; Shi, Xiangdang; Kelley, Leslie K; Yegla, Brittney; Tallarida, Christopher S; Rawls, Scott M; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that diminished ability to control cocaine seeking arises from perturbations in glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens. However, the neurochemical substrates underlying cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in the dorsal striatum and how these mechanisms link to behavioral plasticity is not clear. We employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and amperometry to study the impact of repeated cocaine administration on glutamate dynamics in the dorsolateral striatum of awake freely-moving rats. Depolarization-evoked glutamate release was robustly increased in cocaine-pretreated rats challenged with cocaine. Moreover, the clearance of glutamate signals elicited either by terminal depolarization or blockade of non-neuronal glutamate transporters slowed down dramatically in cocaine-sensitized rats. Repeated cocaine exposure also reduced the neuronal tone of striatal glutamate. Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic that activates the astrocytic glutamate transporter, attenuated the effects of repeated cocaine exposure on synaptic glutamate release and glutamate clearance kinetics. Finally, the antagonism of AMPA glutamate receptors in the dorsolateral striatum blocked the development of behavioral sensitization to repeated cocaine administration. Collectively, these data suggest that repeated cocaine exposure disrupts presynaptic glutamate transmission and transporter-mediated clearance mechanisms in the dorsal striatum. Moreover, such alterations produce an over activation of AMPA receptors in this brain region leading to the sensitized behavioral response to repeated cocaine.

  8. Opposite effects of glutamate antagonists and antiparkinsonian drugs on the activities of DOPA decarboxylase and 5-HTP decarboxylase in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Starr, M S

    2000-06-23

    This study measured the activities of L-DOPA and 5-HTP decarboxylase (DDC and 5-HTPDC) in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of reserpine-treated rats. Acute injection of the NMDA receptor antagonists CGP 40116 (5 mg/kg) and HA 966 (5 mg/kg), and to a lesser extent eliprodil (10 mg/kg), greatly elevated DDC in both structures, whilst having no effect on (nigra) or inhibiting (striatum) 5-HTPDC. L-DOPA (25 mg/kg) on its own inhibited both enzymes in either brain region. The weak NMDA receptor-channel blockers (and antiparkinsonian drugs) budipine (10 mg/kg), memantine (40 mg/kg) and amantadine (40 mg/kg) strongly increased DDC, whilst not affecting or decreasing 5-HTPDC activity in nigra and striatum. The L-DOPA-induced suppression of DDC was mostly reversed by all three antiparkinsonian drugs, whilst L-DOPA-induced inhibition of 5-HTPDC was only reversed by CGP 40116 (striatum only). It is concluded that glutamate exerts a differential physiological influence on the biosynthesis of dopamine and 5-HT in the brain, by tonically suppressing DDC and tonically stimulating 5-HTPDC. The L-DOPA-induced reduction in DDC may help to explain the eventual loss of efficacy of L-DOPA therapy in parkinsonian patients. It is suggested, however, that it may be possible to extend the lifetime of L-DOPA therapy with drugs which potentiate the activity of DDC, such as budipine and the 1-aminoadamantanes.

  9. Changes of dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptor in striatum from conditioned place preference of rats administrated of morphine%吗啡条件性位置偏爱大鼠纹状体多巴胺递质和多巴胺D2受体表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培润; 钱刚; 罗素元; 杨明理; 白威峰; 吴明松

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察吗啡条件性位置偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)大鼠纹状体中多巴胺(DA)递质和多巴胺D2受体的同步变化,从神经递质和受体分子水平探讨通过纹状体多巴胺能系统的阿片类精神依赖机制.方法 吗啡剂量递增注射10d,建立大鼠吗啡CPP模型,生理盐水对照组和吗啡模型组各取10只断头处死取脑纹状体,采用高效液相色谱法测定其多巴胺含量;另各取6只采用免疫组化检测纹状体中D2受体的表达.结果 与生理盐水对照组比较[DA:(5.23±1.01);D2受体:(0.08±0.02)],模型组大鼠纹状体多巴胺递质含量增加(7.63±0.98);多巴胺D2受体平均吸光度值下调(0.06±0.02),均差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 纹状体多巴胺递质含量上升和D2受体表达水平下调的同步变化在一定程度上参与了吗啡精神依赖的形成.%Objective To observe the level of dopamine and its receptor in striatum from conditioned place preference (CPP) of rats administrated of morphine.And explore the mechanism of opioid-psychic dependence involving the levels of neurotransmitter and receptor.Methods CPP model was validated in morphine-dependence rats for 10 days.Striatum samples were harvested from two separate groups involving the saline group and morphine treated group (n =10 per experiment).The DA contents in striatum were detected in rats with colorimetry.Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the differential expression levels of dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2)in samples.Results Compared with the saline group,higher content of neurotransmitter dopamine was observed in the morphine dependent rats (7.63 ±0.98 vs 5.23 ± 1.01,P<0.01),while the expression level of DRD2 was down regulated (0.06 ± 0.02 vs 0.08 ± 0.02,P < 0.01).Conclusion The increased expression of neurotransmitter dopamine and the decreased of DRD2 may be contributed to morphine-induced psychological dependence in morphine dependent rats.

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increase dopamine synthesis in the injured striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Huang; Cheng Chang; Jiewen Zhang; Xiaoqun Gao

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that tyrosine hydroxylase or neurturin gene-modified cells transplanted into rats with Parkinson's disease significantly improved behavior and increased striatal dopamine content. In the present study, we transplanted tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the damaged striatum of Parkinson's disease model rats. Several weeks after cell transplantation, in addition to an improvement of motor function, tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin proteins were up-regulated in the injured striatum, and importantly, levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid increased significantly. Furthermore, the density of the D2 dopamine receptor in the postsynaptic membranes of dopaminergic neurons was decreased. These results indicate that transplantation of tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increases dopamine synthesis and significantly improves the behavior of rats with Parkinson's disease.

  11. Neural correlates of stimulus-response and response-outcome associations in dorsolateral versus dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Stalnaker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that there is functional heterogeneity in the control of behavior by the dorsal striatum. Dorsomedial striatum may support goal-directed behavior by representing associations between responses and outcomes (R-O associations. The dorsolateral striatum, in contrast, may support motor habits by encoding associations between stimuli and responses (S-R associations. To test whether neural correlates in striatum in fact conform to this pattern, we recorded single-units in dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum of rats performing a task in which R-O contingencies were manipulated independently of S-R contingencies. Among response-selective neurons in both regions, activity was significantly modulated by the initial stimulus, providing evidence of S-R encoding. Similarly, response selectivity was significantly modulated by the associated outcome in both regions, providing evidence of R-O encoding. In both regions, this outcome-modulation did not seem to reflect the relative value of the expected outcome, but rather its specific identity. Finally, in both regions we found correlates of the available action-outcome contingencies reflected in the baseline activity of many neurons. These results suggest that differences in information content in these two regions may not determine the differential roles they play in controlling behavior, demonstrated in previous studies.

  12. Re-thinking the role of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response strategy

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    Fanny BOTREAU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rats trained in a dual-solution cross-maze task, which can be solved by place and response strategies, predominantly used a response strategy after extensive training. This paper examines the involvement of the medial and lateral dorsal striatum (mDS and lDS in the choice of these strategies after partial and extensive training. Our results show that rats with lDS and mDS lesions used mainly a response strategy from the early phase of training. We replicated these unexpected data in rats with lDS lesions and confirmed their tendency to use the response strategy in a modified cross-maze task. When trained in a dual-solution water maze task, however, control and lesioned rats consistently used a place strategy, demonstrating that lDS and mDS lesioned rats can use a place strategy and that the shift towards a response strategy did not systematically result from extensive training. The present data did not show any clear dissociation between the mDS and lDS in dual solution tasks. They further indicate that the dorsal striatum seems to determine the strategies adopted in a particular context but cannot be considered as a neural support for the response memory system. Accordingly, the role of the lateral and medial part of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response memory should be reconsidered.

  13. Re-thinking the role of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, Fanny; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Rats trained in a dual-solution cross-maze task, which can be solved by place and response strategies, predominantly used a response strategy after extensive training. This paper examines the involvement of the medial and lateral dorsal striatum (mDS and lDS) in the choice of these strategies after partial and extensive training. Our results show that rats with lDS and mDS lesions used mainly a response strategy from the early phase of training. We replicated these unexpected data in rats with lDS lesions and confirmed their tendency to use the response strategy in a modified cross-maze task. When trained in a dual-solution water-maze task, however, control and lesioned rats consistently used a place strategy, demonstrating that lDS and mDS lesioned rats can use a place strategy and that the shift towards a response strategy did not systematically result from extensive training. The present data did not show any clear dissociation between the mDS and lDS in dual solution tasks. They further indicate that the dorsal striatum seems to determine the strategies adopted in a particular context but cannot be considered as a neural support for the response memory system. Accordingly, the role of the lateral and medial part of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response memory should be reconsidered.

  14. DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR CORPUS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mason

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.

  15. Electrophysiological characteristics of medium spiny neurons in neocortex-striatum-substantia nigra brain slices of rats%大鼠皮质-纹状体-黑质脑片中等多棘神经元的电生理特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嵩; 孔岩; 董万利; 张正春; 曹碧茵

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过制备大鼠皮质-纹状体-黑质脑片,在可视条件下观察纹状体中等多棘神经元(MSN)的电活动,探讨其电生理特性.方法 选用出牛7~10 d的健康SD大鼠,制备皮质-纹状体-黑质旁矢状位脑片,通过红外微分干涉相差(IR-DIC)显微镜直视下定位纹状体MSN,并采用膜片钳放大器全细胞记录,电流钳模式下记录MSN的自发性电活动,采用步阶电流注入,观察膜电位变化.结果 成功记录的92个MSN表现为三种状态:14个细胞为持续的极化状态,无动作电位发放;61个细胞表现为持续的极化状态间隔短阵的去极化至阈电位水平伴发动作电位;17个细胞为持续的极化状态间隔突然出现的去极化状态.三种表现形式细胞的静息电位、阈电位均数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).注入电流时,膜电位变化表现为一定程度的延迟,电位变化随注入电流增强有减少趋势.结论 旁矢状位脑片中的纹状体MSN保留了在体的电生理特性,为深入研究黑质-纹状体通路电信号的发生和传递在帕金森病发病机制中的作用奠定了基础.%Objective To establish the neocortex-striatum-substantia nigra brain slices of rats and observe the medium spiny neurons of striatum under a visible condition so as to explore their electrophysiological characteristics. Methods The brain slices containing the neocortex-striatum-substantia nigra were prepared from SD rats of postnatal 7 - 10 days. With infrared differential interference contrast (IR-DIC) microscope and patch clamp amplifier whole-cell recording technique, the medium spiny neurons were located in striatum and their spontaneous electrical activity was recorded in the current clamp mode. By infusing the step current, we observed the variation of membrane potentials. Results There were three types of conditions in the 92 medium spiny neurons successfully recorded. Among them, 14 were in persistent down state without action potential

  16. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  17. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  18. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  19. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Khanna, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Cognitive changes have been known in encephalitis but in Japanese encephalitis (JE) such studies are limited. This study aims at evaluating the spatial memory and learning and correlate with markers of cholinergic activity in the brain.12day old Wistar rats were inoculated with dose of 3×10(6)pfu/ml of JE virus. On 10, 33 and 48days post-inoculation (dpi), spatial memory and learning was assessed by Y maze. Brain biopsies from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were taken. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory showed significant decline in rats inoculated with JEV on 10 and 33dpi (47.5%, pJE Virus.

  20. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  1. Rhes, the Ras homolog enriched in striatum, is reduced under conditions of dopamine supersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L M; LaHoste, G J

    2006-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors become supersensitive when dopaminergic input is removed through either surgical denervation or pharmacological depletion. Although alterations such as increased D2 receptor binding and increased receptor-G protein coupling have been described in supersensitive striatal tissue, their roles in the mechanism of supersensitivity remain uncertain. The Ras Homolog Enriched in Striatum (Rhes) is expressed in brain areas that receive dopaminergic input, and here we test whether alterations in its expression accompany treatments that promote dopamine receptor supersensitivity in rats. Removal of dopamine input to the striatum by surgical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in a decrease in rhes mRNA expression throughout striatum, as measured with quantitative in situ hybridization. The decrease was detected as early as two weeks and as late as seven months after surgery. Furthermore, a decrease in rhes mRNA was evident after repeated or acute reserpine treatment. Chronic daily injection of rats with the D2 antagonist eticlopride, which is known to up-regulate D2 receptors without inducing profound receptor supersensitivity, did not alter the expression of rhes mRNA in striatum. Thus, changes in rhes mRNA expression are strictly correlated with receptor supersensitivity, perhaps as a result of continuous removal of dopaminergic input. These findings suggest that rhes mRNA expression is maintained by dopamine and may play a role in determining normal dopamine receptor sensitivity.

  2. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. 165.808 Section 165.808 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. (a) The following areas...

  3. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  4. Single body parts are processed by individual neurons in the mouse dorsolateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Kevin R; Nader, Miles; West, Mark O

    2016-04-01

    Interest in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has generated numerous scientific studies of its neuropathologies, as well as its roles in normal sensorimotor integration and learning. Studies are informed by knowledge of DLS functional organization, the guiding principle being its somatotopic afferent projections from primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices. The potential to connect behaviorally relevant function to detailed structure is elevated by mouse models, which have access to extensive genetic neuroscience tool kits. Remaining to be demonstrated, however, is whether the correspondence between S1/M1 corticostriatal terminal distributions and the physiological properties of DLS neurons demonstrated in rats and non-human primates exists in mice. Given that the terminal distribution of S1/M1 projections to the DLS in mice is similar to that in rats, we studied whether firing rates (FRs) of DLS neurons in awake, behaving mice are related to activity of individual body parts. MSNs exhibited robust, selective increases in FR during movement or somatosensory stimulation of single body parts. Properties of MSNs, including baseline FRs, locations, responsiveness to stimulation, and proportions of responsive neurons were similar to properties observed in rats. Future studies can be informed by the present demonstration that the mouse lateral striatum functions as a somatic sensorimotor sector of the striatum and appears to be a homolog of the primate putamen, as demonstrated in rats (Carelli and West, 1991).

  5. 烟碱上调大鼠脑纹状体多巴胺D1受体mRNA表达诱导其行为改变%Chronic nicotine induces the changes of locomotor activities in rats by increasing the mRNA levels of dopamine D1 receptor in striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 郭纪锋; 唐北沙; 廖小平; 文国强; 严新翔; 江泓; 张玉虎; 龙志刚; 欧阳锋

    2006-01-01

    反转录聚合酶链反应和设定的引物,得到多巴胺Di,D2受体及actin的扩增产物分别为350 bp,399 bp,218 bp,与预计值一致.③在大鼠纹状体内,烟碱组多巴胺D1受体mRNA表达比对照组上升23%(分别为98.63±1.13,65.29±1.45,P<0.01),两组多巴胺D2受体mRNA的表达差异无显著性意义(P>0.01).结论:烟碱可能通过上调大鼠纹状体多巴胺D1受体mRNA的表达而诱导大鼠行为改变.%BACKGROUND: Nicotine, which is a known central nervous system stimulant, appears to be the neuroprotective factor of Parkinson disease(PD). It has been reported that PD patients' symptoms such as trembling,rigor, hypokinesia are ameliorated during smoking, but its mechanism still keeps unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of nicotine on gene expression levels of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (D1R,D2R)in striatum of rats and analyze the possible mechanism of behavioral changes of rats induced by nicotine.DESIGN:Randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING:Institute of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.MATERIALS :Twenty-four SD rats aged at 10 weeks were chosen,weighing 180-200 g. Nicotine (Sigma),revert AidTM M-Mulv reverse transcriptase (MBI Fermentas,USA), polymerase chain reaction (RCR,Beckman),densitometric scanning imaging system (Stratagene Eagle Eye Ⅱ ,USA).METHODS :This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Institute of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital,Central South University from July 2001 to July 2002. These rats were divided into two groups: control group (n=12)and nicotine group(n=12). The level of D1 and D2 receptors on striatum of rats was estimated at the timepoint of thirty-minute after chronic nicotine administration (4 mg/kg per day s.c.), and the behavioral activities were also recorded at the same timepoint for thirty minutes. The functional behavioral activities recorded included: rearing up repeatedly, moving about, provoking, climbing, grooming, yawning, rotating, smelling

  6. Spatial information processing consequences of DAMGO injections into the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Nichol, Jeremy; Madularu, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the dorsal striatum, and more specifically, the patch region of the dorsal striatum, in mediating spatial learning and memory. To this end, male, Long Evans rats were bilaterally implanted with cannula aimed at the dorsal striatum. Rats were injected with different doses (0, 0.05, 0.5 or 5 microg/0.5 microl) of [3H]-[D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) into the dorsal striatum daily (Exp. 1) before training on a hidden platform version of the water maze task or during a reversal water maze spatial task (Exp. 2). In both experiments, probe retention tests were given drug free. Results from Exp. 1 showed that intra-striatal injection of the low DAMGO dose (0.05) resulted in enhanced spatial acquisition while the high dose (5.0) produced impairments compared to controls. During the probe test, the low dose group showed better retention of the platform location than controls as well as an enhanced ability to alter their search strategy. In Exp. 2, pretraining alleviated the high dose impairment found in Exp. 1 suggesting a motoric impairment in this group. The low dose group continued to show an enhanced ability to alter their search strategy during the probe test compared to all other groups. The data suggest that the low dose of DAMGO, when injected into the dorsal striatum, eliminates competition with the hippocampus thereby leading to enhanced spatial processing. Alternatively, inhibition of patch-striatal neurons may attenuate a memory decay process. Both alternatives are discussed.

  7. Sept approches à un corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La linguistique moderne permet d'analyser la langue parlée dans sa spécificité discursive et situationnelle, syntaxique et lexicale, lui accordant ainsi un statut égal à celui de l'écrit. Le choix de présenter sept approches différentes à un même corpus de base donne lieu d'un côté à une analyse...

  8. Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology By James E. Horton Committee Chair: Helen J. Crawford, Ph.D. Department of Psychology (Abstract) In general, highly hypnotizable individuals ("highs") have exhibited greater abilities to focus attention and inhibit pain than low hypnotizable individuals ("lows"). Furthermore, highs appear to have faster neural processing than lows. The present study investigated differences between lows and highs in morphological volume of s...

  9. Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats causes a selective reduction in the expression of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Isabella; Iacovelli, Luisa; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Nardecchia, Francesca; Mauro, Gianluca; Janiri, Delfina; De Blasi, Antonio; Sani, Gabriele; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Orlando, Rosamaria

    2017-03-01

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats is considered as an experimental animal model of mania endowed with face, construct, and pharmacological validity. We induced paradoxical sleep deprivation by placing rats onto a small platform surrounded by water. This procedure caused the animal to fall in the water at the onset of REM phase of sleep. Control rats were either placed onto a larger platform (which allowed them to sleep) or maintained in their home cage. Sleep deprived rats showed a substantial reduction in type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex or corpus striatum, as compared to both groups of control rats. No changes in the expression of mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels or mGlu1α and mGlu5 receptor protein levels were found with exception of an increase in mGlu1α receptor levels in the striatum of SD rats. Moving from these findings we treated SD and control rats with the selective mGlu2 receptor enhancer, BINA (30mg/kg, i.p.). SD rats were also treated with sodium valproate (300mg/kg, i.p.) as an active comparator. Both BINA and sodium valproate were effective in reversing the manic-like phenotype evaluated in an open field arena in SD rats. BINA treatment had no effect on motor activity in control rats, suggesting that our findings were not biased by a non-specific motor-lowering activity of BINA. These findings suggest that changes in the expression of mGlu2 receptors may be associated with the enhanced motor activity observed with mania.

  10. Effects of Anshen Dingzhi Ling on Expression of Dopamine Receptor-1 and 2 in Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum in Rats with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder%安神定志灵对ADHD模型鼠前额叶皮质和纹状体多巴胺D1,D2受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成全; 韩新民; 徐建亚; 桑锋; 尹东奇; 倪新强; 李亚群

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of Anshen Dingzhi Ling (ADL) on the expression of dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) and dopamine receptor-2 (DRD2) in prefrontal cortex and striatum of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to investigate the mechanisim of ADL treatment for ADHD. Method: Thirty SHR rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: untreated model group, ritalin group (2.1 mg·kg- 1 by gavage) , high dose of ADL group, middle dose of ADL group and low dose of ADL group (ig ADL with the crude drug dosage 34.1, 17.1 and 8.5 g·kg-1 respectively). The normal control group includes 5 Wistar rats (given normal saline 10 mL·kg-1 by gavage). The rats were killed after 14 days of treatment, then the expression of DRD1, DRD2 mRNA and protein in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of rat brain were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Result: Compared with normal group, the levels of DRD1,DRD2 mRNA and protein in model rats reduced significantly (P <0.01 ); the levels of DRD1, DRD2 mRNA and protein of ritalin group was significantly higher than that in the model group ( P < 0.01 ); the levels of DRD1,DRD2 mRNA and protein of the middle dose group was significantly higher than that in the model group (P <0.01 ) ;the levels of DRD1, DRD2 mRNA and protein of ADL low dose group and high dose group were higher than that in the model group, but there is no significant difference. Conclusion: ADL can up-regulate the expression of DRD1, DRD2 mRNA and protein in the prefrontal cortex and striatum in SHR, may be related with the influence to the activity of adenylyl cyclase. It shows that ADL plays an important role on regulation to the prefrontal-striatal pathway, and DRD1, DRD2 involved in the adjustment process, the ADL eventually has therapeutic effect for the treatment of ADHD.%目的:研究安神定志灵对注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)动物模

  11. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-LiHu; Li-QuanHu; jianSong; Shi-WenLi; Xin-MinZheng; BeiCheng; Bing-ChunTian

    2004-01-01

    t Aim: To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods: Ten adult male SD rats (neurectomy group) were subject to a bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) resection aseptically under an operating microscope, with 6 sham-operated rats as the control. Fifteen weeks after the operation, the penile specimens were collected and prepared for quantitative-analyzing of ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum with confocal microscopy, and for detecting the expression of TGF-β1 by RT-PCR and westernblot.Results: Smooth muscle cells that show red color after fluorescent-labeling with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanatephalloidin and collagen fibers that produce green autofluorescence after paraformaldehyde fixation were clearly identified under the confocal microscope. Quantification of fluorescent intensity showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum in neurectomy group was 0.265± 0.125, which was significantly lower than that in sham-operated group (0.760±0.196, P<0.01). RT-PCR and western-blot analyses revealed a significantlyhigher expression of TGF-β1 in the penile tissues of the neurectomy animals than that in sham-operated group.Conclusion: Bilateral ablation of CN can lead to fibrosis of corpus cavernosum, which may be related to an increased expression of TGF-β1 induced by hypoxia in cavernous tissue after denervation.

  12. Study on the alteration of nNOS, eNOS expression in corpus cavernosum of prostate hyperplasia model in rats%大鼠前列腺增生模型阴茎海绵体内nNOS、eNOS表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金重睿; 俞建军; 徐月敏; 冯超; 叶绪晓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alteration of Nnos, Enos expression in corpus cavernosum of rats with BPH, and explore possible relationship between BPH and erectile dysfunction. Methods Twenty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experiment prostate hyperplasia model group and normal control group. The other 10 old rats were as the old control group. After 4 weeks, wet weight of prostate, the index of prostate, morphological and pathological changes were detected respectively. The expressions of Nnos and Enos in the corpus cavernosum were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with those of the normal control group, the wet weight and the index of the prostate were- significantly increased in the experiment group. Remarkable prostate hyperplasia were observed by microscopy in the experiment group. The rat model of prostate hyperplasia was established successfully. The expressions of Nnos and Enos in corpus cavernosum were significantly decreased in the experiment group and theold control group. There were differences in the expressions of Nnos andeNOS between the experiment group, old control group and the normal control group; Whereas no differences in the expressions of Nnos, Enos were found between the experiment group and the old control group. Conclusion Penile erection is regulated by NO which is synthesized by Nnos andeNOS in rat penile tissues. Downregulation of Nnos and Enos in corpus cavernosum of rat with benign prostate hyperplasia might be a reason for erectile dysfunction.%目的 分析引起阴茎勃起的主要神经递质NO合成的限速酶nNOS和eNOS在BPH模型大鼠阴茎海绵体中的表达.试探讨BPH引起ED的可能因素.方法 20只雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组和BPH模型组.通过去势后丙酸睾酮注射建立BPH模型,10只老年大鼠为老年对照组.4周后处死大鼠,分析不同组前列腺湿质量与前列腺指数,并在光镜下观察前列腺组织病理学改变.应用免疫组

  13. MUSAN: A Music, Speech, and Noise Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, David; Chen, Guoguo; Povey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a new corpus of music, speech, and noise. This dataset is suitable for training models for voice activity detection (VAD) and music/speech discrimination. Our corpus is released under a flexible Creative Commons license. The dataset consists of music from several genres, speech from twelve languages, and a wide assortment of technical and non-technical noises. We demonstrate use of this corpus for music/speech discrimination on Broadcast news and VAD for speaker identif...

  14. 快速眼动睡眠剥夺对抑郁模型大鼠纹状体5-HTDA及腺苷的影响%Effects of REM sleep deprivation on 5-HT,DA and adenosine in striatum of depression-model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞; 许崇涛; 徐国建; 吴东辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对抑郁模型大鼠的快速眼动睡眠剥夺,观察大鼠强迫游泳不动时间及大鼠纹状体5-羟色胺、多巴胺和腺苷水平的变化,了解睡眠剥夺快速改善抑郁情绪的可能机制。方法将30只成年健康雄性大鼠分为正常对照组(A组)、抑郁模型组(B组)、抑郁模型+睡眠剥夺组(C组),在建立慢性轻度不可预见性应激的抑郁模型后,采用小平台水环境法对大鼠进行72 h快速眼动睡眠剥夺,以强迫游泳实验检测大鼠的不动时间,采用高效液相色谱-荧光检测法测定3组大鼠纹状体5-羟色胺、多巴胺水平,采用高效液相色谱-紫外检测法测定3组大鼠纹状体腺苷水平。结果21 d慢性轻度不可预见性应激后,大鼠的强迫游泳不动时间显著延长( P<0.05),快眼动睡眠剥夺后大鼠强迫游泳不动时间显著缩短(P<0.01)。A组、C组大鼠纹状体5-羟色胺及腺苷水平均显著高于B组( P<0.05或0.01),C组大鼠纹状体多巴胺水平显著高于A组、B组(P<0.01)。结论快速眼动睡眠剥夺可以逆转大鼠的抑郁样行为,并提高大鼠纹状体5-羟色胺、多巴胺水平,腺苷可能参与了睡眠剥夺的抗抑郁过程。%Objective To observe rats’ motionless time during forced swimming and changes of 5-HT ,DA and adenosine in striatum via depriving REM sleep of depression-model rats and to find out possible mecha-nism of REM sleep deprivation improving emotional emotion .Methods Thirty healthy male adult rats were divided into normal control group (group A) ,depression-model (group B) and depression-model with sleep deprivation (group C) ,72-hour REM sleep deprivations were carried out using “flower pot” tech-nique after establishing chronic mild unpredictable stress depression-model ,motionless times detected u-sing forced swimming ,striatum 5-HT and DA levels measured with high efficiency liquid

  15. 力竭运动及恢复期大鼠纹状体5-HT、DA及其代谢物浓度的动态变化研究%Dynamic changes of 5-HT、DA and their metabolin in rat striatum during exhaustive exercise and recoverv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东升; 刘晓莉; 乔德才

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic characteristics of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and their metabolin changes in brain during the development of exercise-induced central fatigue. Methods: Coupling of microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection method were used to continuously monitored the changes of DA, tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), 5-HT and 5-hydroxyin-doleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in striatum extracellular fluid during the exhaustive exercise and recovery time. Results: The concentrations of Trp, 5-HT, 5-HIAA in striatum extracellular fluid had no remarkable changes in the early time of exercise( P < 0.05), while they significantly increased during the later time of exercise and whole recovery time (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The concentrations of DA and Tyr significantly increased over basal level in the later exercise time, exhaust and recovery time (P<0.05, P<0.01). DA/5-HT significantly increased in the initial time of exercise (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), while decreased during the later exercise time, the nadir occurred at 15 minutes before rats exhausted. DA/5-HT slightly recovered back to basal level during the recovery time, and there was no significant difference during later exercise, exhausted and recovery time compared with basal level(P < 0.05). Conclusion: The changes of DA and 5-HT in striatum have phase characteristics. Both of them significantly increase during the development of exercise-induced fatigue. However, the 5-HT plays the dominant role in the dynamic changes of them.%目的:观察一次性力竭运动过程及恢复期大鼠纹状体细胞外液中多巴胺(DA)和5-羟色胺(5-HT)及其代谢物浓度的动态变化规律.方法:采用活体微透析结合毛细管电泳-激光诱导技术,连续观察清醒大鼠在一次性力竭运动过程及恢复期纹状体细胞外液中酪氨酸(Tyr)、5-HT、5-羟吲哚乙酸(5-HIAA)、色氨酸(Trp)和DA浓度的动态变化.结果:大

  16. Effects of different doses of four antagonists on their dopamine D2 receptor occ upancy in rat striatum in vivo%四種多巴胺D2受體拮抗劑的劑量對其大鼠紋狀體體内受體占據率的影響

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹國祥; 譚天秩

    2001-01-01

    Objective This study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Haloperidol, Spiperone, (s) -IBZM and (s) -Sulpiride on their dopamine D2 recept or occupancy in rat striatum in vivo. Methods One hundred rats were divided int o four groups, which were subdivided into five subgroups. Using different doses of the four antagonists respectively performed in vivo competitive inhibition e xperiment of 125I-IBZM, and the receptor occupancy was estimated. Results The sp ecific binding of 125I-IBZM can be inhibited competitively by dopamine D2 recept or antagonist respectively. The OC50 values of Haloperidol, Spiperone, (s) -1BZM and (s) -Sulpiride are 21. 0, 9. 4, 22.0 and 1605 nmol/rat respectively. For th e four antagonists, a dose-dependent relationship with their striatum D2 recepto r occupancy has been demonstrated in some range. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that radio iodinated IBZM can be used for SPECT imaging of dopam ine D2 receptors in human brain. For the four antagonists, the dose-dependent o ccupation of striatal D2 binding sites can be benefit for optimizing the therape utic dose of typical neuroleptic agents.%目的本文旨在評價haloperidol、spiperone、(s)-IBZM和(s)-sulpiride的劑量對其大鼠紋狀體體内多巴胺D2受體占據率的影響。方法大鼠100只,分成4個大組,每大組又分成5小組,分别進行四種拮抗劑不同劑量的對125I-IBZM體内結合的競争性抑制實驗,并求得各拮抗劑不同劑量的受體占據率。結果四種多巴胺D2受體拮抗劑可分别競争性抑制125Ⅰ-IB ZM的特异性結合。Haloperidol、spiperone、(s)-IBZM和(s)-sulpiride的OC50分别爲21.0 、9.4、22.0和1605 nmol/大鼠。拮抗劑受體占據率和其静脉注射劑量之間的依賴性關系, 在一定的劑量範圍内被證實。結論本研究結果提示放射性碘化IBZM可用于進行人腦SPECT多巴胺D2受體顯像。在拮抗劑受體占據率和其劑量之間的依賴性關系可能對

  17. Effects of Treadmill Training on Learning and Memory and BDNF Expression within Striatum after Cerebral Ischemia Rats%跑台运动对脑缺血大鼠学习记忆能力及纹状体BDNF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 王霆

    2016-01-01

    跑台运动可以改善脑卒中大鼠的学习记忆能力,然而机制尚不清楚。因此,通过观察4周强迫跑台运动对短暂大脑中动脉(MCAO,middle cerebral artery occlusion)栓塞大鼠空间学习记忆能力、血浆皮质酮(Cort)及纹状体氨基酸水平和脑源性神经营养因子 BDNF(brain-derived neurotrophic factor)表达的影响,研究跑台运动改善 MCAO大鼠学习记忆功能的可能机制。方法:45只 SD 大鼠随机分为假手术组、脑缺血模型组及脑缺血运动组,脑缺血模型组及运动组大鼠制备 MCAO短暂缺血模型,随后脑缺血运动组大鼠进行4周跑台运动。跑台运动结束后通过水迷宫实验测试所有大鼠学习记忆能力的变化,随后放射免疫法测试大鼠血浆Cort含量,采用高效液相-电化学方法检测纹状体 Glu、GABA的含量,用免疫组织化学结合图像半定量方法对纹状体BDNF神经元的数量及面积进行测量和分析。结论:大脑中动脉(MCAO)短暂缺血大鼠的学习记忆能力可以通过进行长期跑台运动得到改善,其原理极有可能与长期跑台运动上调纹状体BDNF的表达,拮抗 HPA轴功能亢进及兴奋性氨基酸的毒性,抑制神经元的坏死及凋亡,促进脑缺血后损伤神经元的修复有关。%Treadmill exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats.How-ever,the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known.Therefore,the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 4-week forced treadmill exercise on the learning and memory, the blood plasma cort content,amino acid levels and BDNF expression within striatum of brain after MCAO(transient middle cerebral artery occlusion)rats,inquiring into the possible mechanism of tread-mill exercise improving learning and memory of MCAO rats.Methods:45 male SD rats were randomly al-located to 3 groups,sham operation group(SO),cerebral ischemia model group(CM)and cerebral ische

  18. Targeting neuronal populations of the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre F Durieux

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is critically involved in motor and motivational functions. The dorsal striatum, caudate-putamen, is primarily implicated in motor control and the learning of habits and skills, whereas the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens (NAc, is essential for motivation and drug reinforcement. The GABA medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, about 95% of striatal neurons, which are targets of the cerebral cortex and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, form two pathways. The dopamine D1 receptor–positive (D1R striatonigral MSNs project to the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata (direct pathway and co-express D1R and substance P, whereas dopamine D2 receptor–positive (D2R striatopallidal MSNs project to the lateral globus pallidus (indirect pathway and co-express D2R, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR and enkephalin (Enk. The specific role of the two efferent pathways in motor and motivational control remained poorly understood until recently. Indeed, D1R striatonigral and D2R striatopallidal neurons, are intermingled and morphologically indistinguishable, and, hence, cannot be functionally dissociated with techniques such as chemical lesions or surgery.In view of the still debated respective functions of projection D2R-striatopallidal and D1R-striatonigral neurons and striatal interneurons, both in motor control and learning but also in more cognitive processes such as motivation, the present review sum up the development of new models and techniques (BAC transgenesis, optogenetic, viral transgenesis allowing the selective targeting of these striatal neuronal populations in adult animal brain to understand their specific roles.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses differ in meninges and associated vasculature, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic amphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Saini, Upasana T; Patterson, Tucker A; Hanig, Joseph P; Bowyer, John F

    2010-08-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, but it can produce neurotoxicity and adverse vascular effects at high doses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) entails the unfolded protein response, which helps to avoid or minimize ER dysfunction. ERSR is often associated with toxicities resulting from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and has been associated with methamphetamine toxicity in the striatum. The present study evaluates the effect of AMPH on several ERSR elements in meninges and associated vasculature (MAV), parietal cortex, and striatum. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to saline, environmentally induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four consecutive doses of AMPH that produce hyperthermia. Expression changes (mRNA and protein levels) of key ERSR-related genes in MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex at 3 h or 1 day postdosing were monitored. AMPH increased the expression of some ERSR-related genes in all tissues. Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4, an indicator of Perk pathway activation), Hspa5/Grp78 (Glucose regulated protein 78, master regulator of ERSR), Pdia4 (protein disulfide isomerase, protein-folding enzyme), and Nfkb1 (nuclear factor of kappa b, ERSR sensor) mRNA increased significantly in MAV and parietal cortex 3 h after AMPH. In striatum, Atf4 and Hspa5/Grp78 mRNA significantly increased 3 h after AMPH, but Pdia4 and Nfkb11 did not. Thus, AMPH caused a robust activation of the Perk pathway in all tissues, but significant Ire1 pathway activation occurred only after AMPH treatment in the parietal cortex and striatum. Ddit3/Chop, a downstream effector of the ERSR pathway related to the neurotoxicity, was only increased in striatum and parietal cortex. Conversely, Pdia4, an enzyme protective in the ERSR, was only increased in MAV. The overall ERSR manifestation varied significantly between MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic exposure to AMPH.

  20. Brain monoamine metabolism is altered in rats following spontaneous, long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, M; Svensson, T H; Thorén, P

    1987-06-01

    Brain monoamine metabolism in rats was studied during spontaneous, long-term running in a microprocessor-controlled wheel cage. Immediately after heavy spontaneous exercise, DOPA accumulation was decreased in dopamine-rich brain regions such as the limbic forebrain and corpus striatum, indicating a decreased rate of synthesis of dopamine in brain. In contrast, DOPA accumulation was increased in the noradrenaline-predominated region of the brain stem, indicating an increased synthesis of noradrenaline in this region. Alterations in brain monoamine metabolism were normalized in exercising animals analysed 24 h after the last running period. Changes in brain monoamine metabolism may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the clinically observed psychological effects of physical exercise.

  1. Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 in the Dorsomedial Striatum Is a Novel Positive Regulator of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Oren; Sadot-Sogrin, Yossi; Shaham, Ohad; Barak, Segev

    2017-09-06

    Repeated alcohol intake leads to mesostriatal neuroadaptations, resulting in drinking escalation and addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been shown to interact with the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, and has been implicated in the actions of psychostimulants in the brain, and in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we report on a positive regulatory feedback loop of alcohol and FGF2 in rodent models. Specifically, we found that acute alcohol exposure (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) increased the mRNA expression of Fgf2 in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. Longer alcohol exposure (7 d × 2.5 g/kg, i.p.) restricted these increases to the dorsal striatum, and the latter effect was blocked by the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol. Voluntary prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption in a 2-bottle choice procedure increased Fgf2 expression selectively in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of both mice and rats. Importantly, we found that systemic administration of recombinant FGF2 (rFGF2) in mice, or rFGF2 infusion into the dorsal striatum or DMS of rats, increased alcohol consumption and preference, with no similar effects on saccharin or sucrose consumption. Finally, we found that inhibition of the endogenous FGF2 function in the DMS, by an anti-FGF2 neutralizing antibody, suppressed alcohol consumption and preference. Together, our results suggest that alcohol consumption increases the expression of Fgf2 in the DMS, and that striatal FGF2 promotes alcohol consumption, suggesting that FGF2 in the DMS is a positive regulator of alcohol drinking.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Long-term alcohol intake may lead to neuroadaptations in the mesostriatal reward system, resulting in addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is crucial for the development and maintenance of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of FGF2 in alcohol-drinking behaviors. We show that alcohol

  3. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  4. The Multimedia Adult ESL Learner Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Stephen; Harris, Kathryn; Setzler, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Describes what may be the first of a new generation of corpora: the Multimedia Adult ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) Learner Corpus. The corpus is notable for containing language produced by very low level learners in language classrooms and for the fact that the transcribed language remains linked to video recordings. (Author/VWL)

  5. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  6. Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective…

  7. Corpus delicti / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis

  8. Corpus delicti / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis

  9. To Teach Spoken Grammar With Corpus Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li

    2016-01-01

    Using scripted materials in spoken language teaching has been challenged in recent years. Accordingly, many scholars have proposed to employ corpus in spoken language teaching. This article proved it is an efficient way to teach spoken grammar by combining scripted materials with authentic materials from corpus.

  10. Chronic treatment with Ang-(1-7) reverses abnormal reactivity in the corpus cavernosum and normalizes diabetes-induced changes in the protein levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and omega-hydroxylase in a rat model of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mariam H M; Makki, Batoul; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Akhtar, Saghir; Benter, Ibrahim F

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED) but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC) are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7) on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC) and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2), and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7) with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7) reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol) in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7) treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism.

  11. Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7 Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam H. M. Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7 on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2, and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7 with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7 reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7 treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7 in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism.

  12. Specific inhibition of kynurenate synthesis enhances extracellular dopamine levels in the rodent striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, L; Wu, H.-Q.; Marinozzi, M; Pellicciari, R; Guidetti, P; Schwarcz, R

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a potent α7 nicotinic and NMDA receptor antagonist, affect extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in the rat brain. Moreover, reductions in KYNA levels increase the vulnerability of striatal neurons to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic insults. We now assessed the role of a key KYNA-synthesizing enzyme, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), in these processes in the rodent striatum, using KAT II KO mice—which have reduced KYNA levels—and the selective KAT II inhibitor (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine (S-ESBA) as tools. S-ESBA (applied by reverse dialysis) raised extracellular DA levels in the striatum of KYNA-deficient mice threefold and caused a much larger, 15-fold increase in wild-type mice. In the rat striatum, S-ESBA produced a 35% reduction in extracellular KYNA, which was accompanied by a 270% increase in extracellular DA. The latter effect was abolished by co-infusion of 100 nM KYNA. Intrastriatal S-ESBA pre-treatment augmented the size of a striatal quinolinate lesion by 370%, and this potentiation was prevented by co-infusion of KYNA. In separate animals, acute inhibition of KAT II reduced the de novo synthesis of KYNA during an early excitotoxic insult without enhancing the formation of the related neurotoxic metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate. Taken together, these results provide further support for the concept that KAT II is a critical determinant of functionally relevant KYNA fluctuations in the rodent striatum. PMID:19138730

  13. Angiogenesis in the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulff Christine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The corpus luteum (CL is a site of intense angiogenesis. Within a short period, this is followed either by controlled regression of the microvascular tree in the non-fertile cycle, or maintenance and stabilisation of the new vasculature a conceptual cycle. The molecular regulation of these diverse aspects is examined. The CL provides a unique model system in which to study the cellular and molecular regulation of angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been found to have a major role in the CL. By targeting its action at specific stages of the luteal phase in vivo by antagonists, profound inhibitory effects on luteal angiogenesis and function are observed.

  14. Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of papers stems from the Fifth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2012 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Istanbul. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference......, the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the third time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on the interaction between...... corpus and lexicon. More than half of the papers presented contribute to this topic. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  15. Effect of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on change of dopamine in rat striatum by microdialysis%桔梗与氯丙嗪伍用对大鼠脑纹状体多巴胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新荣; 宦定才; 曹征; 刘萍

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究桔梗与氯丙嗪联合应用对大鼠脑纹状体单胺类神经递质多巴胺的影响,探讨中西药配伍应用后可能发生的药物相互作用与机制.方法:大鼠随机分成4组:生理盐水组、桔梗(生药15.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))单独给药组、氯丙嗪(20mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))单独给药组、氯丙嗪与桔梗(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)+15.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))合并给药组,每组6只,给药10 d后,利用微透析法在大鼠脑纹状体取样,HPLC检测透析液中多巴胺水平.结果:药后140 min(取样点80 min)时,氯丙嗪+桔梗组中多巴胺水平(1.52±0.34)μg-L~(-1)显著高于氯丙嗪组(1.25±0.22)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.05)和生理盐水组(1.06±0.24)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.01).结论:桔梗与氯丙嗪合用后大鼠脑内多巴胺水平升高,治疗时同时给予桔梗,可以减少氯丙嗪的用量,达到保持疗效,降低其不良反应的目的.%Objective:To study the effects of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on the striatal extracellular dopamine Ievel in rats and to research the interaction and the mechanism of action after combining traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine.Method:Twenty four rats were randomly assigned into four groups:the control group,Platycodon group,chlorpromazine group and chlorpromazined combined with P. grandiflorum group.The level of dopamine in CSF microdialysis samples Was detected with high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector after administration for 10 days.Result:The CSF level of DA(1.52±0.34)μg·L~(-1)was significantly higher(P<0.01)in chlorpromazine combined with P. grandiflorum group than that in the chlorpromazine group(1.25±0.22)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.05)and that in the normal control(1.06±0.24)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.01).Conclusion:The combining utilization of P. grandiflorum and chlorpromazine may increase the DA concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters,which results in under the therapeutic effect is maintained,the dosage of

  16. Differential effects of M1 muscarinic receptor blockade and nicotinic receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum on response reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavos, Arianna; Jih, Jane; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The present studies determined whether blockade of M1-like muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum affects acquisition or reversal learning of a response discrimination. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. In the acquisition phase, a rat learned to turn to the left or to the right. In the reversal learning phase, a rat learned to turn in the opposite direction as required during acquisition. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of the M1-like muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine infused into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Experiment 2 examined the effects of the nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, mecamylamine injected into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Bilateral injections of pirenzepine at 10 µg, but not 1 µg, selectively impaired reversal learning. Analysis of the errors indicated that pirenzepine treatment did not impair the initial shift, but increased reversions back to the original response choice following the initial shift. Bilateral injections of mecamylamine, 6 or 18 µg, did not affect acquisition or reversal learning. The results suggest that activation of M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, but not nicotinic cholinergic receptors, in the dorsomedial striatum is important for facilitating the flexible shifting of response patterns. PMID:15302131

  17. Cooperation between the Hippocampus and the Striatum during Episodic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Shohamy, Daphna; Levy, Dana Rubi; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum are thought to play distinct roles in learning and memory, each supporting an independent memory system. A fundamental question is whether, and how, these systems interact to jointly contribute to learning and memory. In particular, it remains unknown whether the striatum contributes selectively to implicit,…

  18. Cooperation between the Hippocampus and the Striatum during Episodic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Shohamy, Daphna; Levy, Dana Rubi; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum are thought to play distinct roles in learning and memory, each supporting an independent memory system. A fundamental question is whether, and how, these systems interact to jointly contribute to learning and memory. In particular, it remains unknown whether the striatum contributes selectively to implicit,…

  19. The roles of the nucleus accumbens core, dorsomedial striatum, and dorsolateral striatum in learning: performance and extinction of Pavlovian fear-conditioned responses and instrumental avoidance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Etieli; Gaspar, Jessica C C; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Barbiero, Janaína K; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F; Blaha, Charles D; Winn, Philip; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc-co), dorsomedial striatum (DMS) or dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of rats on the learning and extinction of Pavlovian and instrumental components of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). None of the lesions caused sensorimotor deficits that could affect locomotion. Lesions of the NAc-co, but not DMS or DLS, decreased unconditioned and conditioned freezing. The NAc-co and DLS lesioned rats learned the 2-way active avoidance task more slowly. These results suggest: (i) CARs depend on both Pavlovian and instrumental learning; (ii) learning the Pavlovian component of CARs depends on the NAc-co; learning the instrumental component of CARs depends on the DLS, NAc and DMS; (iii) although the NAc-co is also needed for learning the instrumental component, it is not clear whether it plays a role in learning the instrumental component per se or if it simply allows learning of the Pavlovian component which is a pre-condition for learning the instrumental component; (iv) we did not find evidence that the DMS and DLS play the same roles in habit and goal-directed aspects of the instrumental component of CARs as observed in appetitive motivated instrumental responding.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants potentiate methylphenidate (Ritalin)-induced gene regulation in the adolescent striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waes, Vincent; Beverley, Joel; Marinelli, Michela; Steiner, Heinz

    2010-08-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (Ritalin) is used in conjunction with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with anxiety/depression comorbidity and major depression. Co-exposure also occurs in patients on SSRIs who use psychostimulant 'cognitive enhancers'. Methylphenidate is a dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that produces altered gene expression in the forebrain; these effects partly mimic gene regulation by cocaine (dopamine/norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor). We investigated whether the addition of SSRIs (fluoxetine or citalopram; 5 mg/kg) modified gene regulation by methylphenidate (2-5 mg/kg) in the striatum and cortex of adolescent rats. Our results show that SSRIs potentiate methylphenidate-induced expression of the transcription factor genes zif268 and c-fos in the striatum, rendering these molecular changes more cocaine-like. Present throughout most of the striatum, this potentiation was most robust in its sensorimotor parts. The methylphenidate + SSRI combination also enhanced behavioral stereotypies, consistent with dysfunction in sensorimotor striatal circuits. In so far as such gene regulation is implicated in psychostimulant addiction, our findings suggest that SSRIs may enhance the addiction potential of methylphenidate.

  2. CORPUS AND FREQUENCY GRAMMAR CORPUS VOCABULARY OF THE CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE AS PART OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dobrushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current  state of  work on the Corpus of Church Slavonic within the Russian National Corpus. The Corpus is different from the collection of texts by the presence of a special markup (grammatical, structural, metatextual and  the  possibility to  search by this markup. The article considers the content, describes the main genre headings, according to which the texts included in the Corpus are distributed, describes  the principles of the metamarkup that differ from those used in other Corpuses  within the Russian National Corpus. Where necessary, the historical information,  on the basis of  which a certain decision was made, is provided. Since typing search queries on the keyboard presents certain difficulties  for Church Slavonic texts, we offer several options for simplified spelling transmission, which enable a person to enter a query with limited capabilities of a standard keyboard. Finally, the article describes the frequency grammar vocabulary created during the work on the project.

  3. A Corpus-Based Study of Idioms in Academic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…

  4. Study on the influence of beta-blockers on endogenous CO concentration and NOS activity in rat corpus ;cavernosum%β受体阻滞剂对雄性大鼠阴茎组织中内源性一氧化碳浓度及一氧化氮合酶活性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 丁连芹; 张万峰; 王贵平; 杨振涛; 王洪杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impact of beta -blockers on endogenous CO concentration and NOS activity in rat corpus cavernosum .Methods Thirty adult male rats were equally divided into three groups , the first group raised with first generation beta -blocker ( Propranolol ) , the control group raised with regular diet , the third group raised with second generation beta -blocker ( Metoprolol ) .The concentration of CO was measure by modified dual -wavelength spectrophotometry , the NOS activity was measure by improved Griess measurement .Results The concentration of CO and the NOS activity of first generation beta -blocker ( Propranolol ) group were lower than the group raised with regular diet .The concentration of CO and the NOS activity of the group raised with regular die were lower than the group raise with second generation beta -blocker (Metoprolol).The difference between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions The first generation beta-blockers can reduce the concentration of CO and the NOS activity in rat corpus cavernosum , the second generation beta -blockers can increase the concentration of CO and the NOS activity in rat corpus cavernosum .%目的:探讨β受体阻滞剂对雄性大鼠阴茎组织中内源性CO浓度及NOS活性的影响。方法健康雄性大鼠30只,分为三组,第一代β受体阻滞剂(普萘洛尔)饲养组,正常饲养组,第二代β受体阻滞剂(倍他乐克)饲养组,采用改良双波长分光光度法检测大鼠阴茎组织中CO浓度,改良Griess法检测大鼠阴茎组织中NOS活性。结果普萘洛尔饲养组大鼠阴茎组织中内源性CO浓度及NOS活性低于正常饲养组,正常饲养组大鼠阴茎组织中CO浓度及NOS活性低于倍他乐克饲养组,各组间差异具有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论第一代β受体阻滞剂可导致成年雄性大鼠阴茎海绵体内源性CO浓度及NOS活性下降,而第二代β受体阻滞剂可增加成年

  5. Clinical Correlates of Corpus Callosal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    The clinical correlates of agenesis of the corpus callosum were examined in 56 cases (37 adult, 19 pediatric) reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BNSU) and surveyed at the Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

  6. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  7. A ROUGH GUIDE TO DOING CORPUS STYLISTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tania M. G. Shepherd; Tony Berber Sardinha

    2015-01-01

    .... The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics...

  8. Notes on Compiling a Corpus- Based Dictionary*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    words and phrases in a language, a fact that is often underestimated or even disliked by ... Differences between the traditional approach and the corpus approach ... almost no attention is paid to nouns, the largest of the word classes. The latter.

  9. Effects of Xiaohuan Decoction on the locomotor activity, spatial learning and memory, and the 5-HT of striatum in schizophrenia model rat%消幻汤对分裂症模型自主活动、空间学习记忆及纹状体内五羟色胺水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥芹; 师建国; 田玉梅; 刘飞虎

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过研究消幻汤对精神分裂症模型自主活动、空间学习记忆及纹状体内五羟色胺水平的影响,探讨消幻汤治疗精神分裂症的可能机制.方法 雌性清洁级SD大鼠,随机分为:正常组,模型组,消幻汤组,利培酮组.按照0.1 mg/kg给予地卓西平马来酸盐(MK-801)连续腹腔注射两周,刻板行为、旷场实验及Morris水迷宫实验评价大鼠行为的改变.消幻汤组给予消幻汤12g/4ml/kg,利培酮组给予利培酮0.2mg/kg之后,余两组灌服等量生理盐水.4周后观察大鼠行为改变,并使用库仑阵列电化学高效液相色谱测定纹状体内神经递质含量的变化.结果 模型组的大鼠刻板行为评分[(2.54±0.52)分,(2.42±0.51)分,(2.30±0.48)分],高于正常组评分[(1.08±0.28)分],符合模型制备成功标准.经药物干预后,消幻汤组、利培酮组大鼠自主活动[(780.57±248.99)分,(819.76±267.21)分]低于模型组[(1204.15±344.25)分],差异有显著性(P<0.05);消幻汤组逃避潜伏期[(30.25±13.67)s]较模型组[(44.72±19.88)s]缩短,穿台次数[(5.67±1.44)次]多于模型组[(3.08±1.44)次],均差异有显著性(P<0.05).消幻汤组及利培酮组纹状体内五羟色胺(5TH)含量[(0.08±0.26)μg/g,(0.11±0.07)μg/g]较模型组[(0.25±0.14)μg/g]降低(P<0.05),消幻汤组五羟吲哚乙酸(5HIAA)含量[(0.28±0.36)μg/g]较模型组[(0.27±0.09)μg/g]差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 消幻汤改善了精神分裂症模型大鼠刻板行为、自主活动和学习记忆损伤,其机制可能与参与了纹状体内的五羟色胺含量的调节有关.%Objective To study the effects of Xiaohuan Decoction on the locomotor activity, spatial learning and memory, and the serotonin (5-HT) in striatum in schizophrenia model rat, and the possible mechanism of Xiaohuan Decoction on schizophrenia.Methods The rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal group,model group, Xianhuan Decoction group and risperidone group; The

  10. 消幻汤对精神分裂症大鼠模型自主活动及纹状体内多巴胺含量的影响%The effect of xiaohuan decoction on the dopamine in striatum and locomotor activity of schizophrenia model rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师建国; 田玉梅; 刘飞虎; 刘祥芹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Xiaohuan Decoction on the dopamine in striatum and locomotor activity of schizophrenia model,and to explore the possible mechanism of Xiaohuan Decoction in treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Fifty — two rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal group.model group.Xianhuan Decoction group,Risperidone group<each group contained thirteen rats. All rats were injected intrapertoneally with 0. 1 mg/kg MK801 for 14 days to establish schizophrenia model. Following that, Xianhuan Decoction group was fed with the drug 4 ml/kg Once a day continuously for 4 wks. Risperidone group was fed with 0. 2 mg ? (4ml ? kg)"1. We use the stereotyped behavior test.open field test and electrochemical coulometric array HPLC determination to detect redefined parameters. Results (l)Compared with the normal group,the effect of Xiaohuan Decoction on reduced the stereotyped behavior (P < 0. 05) in rat model of schizophrenia was a8 equal as risperidone ; (2)Total cross—grid was (243.75±86. 82) in Xianhuan Decoction group,(242. 10±S9. 56) in Risperidone group, (315.08±65. 93) in model group. There was a significant difference between the two groups and model group (P< 0. 05). (3)Compared to the model group, the levels of DA and DOPA in Xianhuan Decoction group and Risperidone group were significantly decreased (P<0. 05), The content of HVA in Xianhuan Decoction group was significant decreased compared to the model group (.P <. 0.05). hut no significant difference between Risperidone group and model group (P > 0. 05). Conclusions Xianhuan Decoction can improve cognitive impairment and improve locomotor activity. The effect is comparable to Risperidone. It regulates the content of DA and DA metabolites in the striatum to achieve the treatment effect on schizophrenia.%目的 通过研究消幻汤对精神分裂症动物模型自主活动及纹状体内多巴胺及其代谢产物含量的影响,探讨消幻汤治疗精神

  11. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B Bissonette

    Full Text Available Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  12. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Burton, Amanda C; Gentry, Ronny N; Goldstein, Brandon L; Hearn, Taylor N; Barnett, Brian R; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  13. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of proced...

  14. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system.

  15. Integrating corpus consultation in language studies

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Chambers

    2005-01-01

    peer-reviewed Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence to suggest that direct corpus consultation is coming to be seen as a complement or alternative to consultation of a dictionary, cou...

  16. The Overall Introduction of Corpus Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琳华; 李旭辉; 杨晓伟

    2011-01-01

    @@ i.Preface Corpus can be defined as "…a collection of texts assumed to be represent-ative of a given language put together so that it can be used for linguistic analy-sis" (Tognini - Bonelli 2001 : 2).It is built through collecting authentic lan-guage material.A corpus is a very important basis for language teaching and research.It is also a very important source of information for complication of dictionaries, grammar books and teaching materials.

  17. Striatum on the anxiety map: Small detours into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the most sensitive period for the development of pathological anxiety. Moreover, specific neural changes associated with the striatum might be related to adolescent vulnerability to anxiety. Up to now, the study of anxiety has primarily focused on the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), while the striatum has typically not been considered as part of the anxiety system. This review proposes the addition of the striatum, a complex, multi-component structure, to the anxiety network by underscoring two lines of research. First, the co-occurrence of the adolescent striatal development with the peak vulnerability of adolescents to anxiety disorders might potentially reflect a causal relationship. Second, the recognition of the role of the striatum in fundamental behavioral processes that do affect anxiety supports the putative importance of the striatum in anxiety. These behavioral processes include (1) attention, (2) conditioning/prediction error, and (3) motivation. This review proposes a simplistic schematic representation of the anxiety circuitry that includes the striatum, and aims to promote further work in this direction, as the role of the striatum in shaping an anxiety phenotype during adolescence could have critical implications for understanding and preventing the peak onset of anxiety disorders during this period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus The Semantics Laboratory Team of Institute of Slavic Studies of Polish Academy of Sciences is planning to begin work on the creation of a Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus. The three selected languages are representatives of the main groups of Slavic languages: Bulgarian represents the southern group of Slavic languages, Polish – the western group of Slavic languages, Russian – the eastern group of Slavic languages. Our project will be the first parallel corpus of these three languages. The planned corpus will be based on material, dating from one period (the 20th century and will have a synchronous nature. The project will not constitute the sum of the separate corpora of selected languages. One of the problems with creating multilingual parallel corpora are different proportions of translated texts between the selected languages, for example, Polish literature is often translated into Bulgarian, but not vice versa. Bulgarian, Russian and Polish differ typologically – Bulgarian is an analytic language, Polish and Russian are synthetic. The parallel corpus should have compatible annotation, while taking into account the characteristic features of the selected languages. We hope that the Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus will serve as a source of linguistic material of contrastive language studies and may prove to be a big help for linguists, translators, terminologists and students of linguistics. The results of our work will be available on the Internet.

  19. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  20. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal...

  1. Learner corpora: the case of the NOSE corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the scope of learner corpus research and describes a learner corpus by Spanish university students of English, the NOn-native Spanish corpus of English (NOSE. It presents the corpus data, its annotation and how it can be retrieved and exploited for research purposes in the areas of interlanguage studies and automatic recognition of learner-specific features. It also reviews the various research topics that have been investigated in the corpus.

  2. The striatal mosaic in primates: patterns of neuropeptide immunoreactivity differentiate the ventral striatum from the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L J; Hadfield, M G; Dellovade, T L; Price, D L

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of immunoreactivity for calcium-binding protein, tyrosine hydroxylase and four neuropeptides in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and ventromedial parts of the caudate nucleus and putamen) were compared to patterns of these markers in the dorsal striatum (the majority of the neostriatum) in rhesus monkey. The striatal mosaic was delineated by calcium-binding protein and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities. Both markers were found preferentially in the matrix of the dorsal striatum. The mosaic configurations of tyrosine hydroxylase, but not calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity, were similar in dorsal and ventral striatal regions. Substance P and leucine-enkephalin were not distributed homogeneously; distinct types and the prevalence of patches of substance P and leucine-enkephalin immunoreactivity distinguish the dorsal striatum from the ventral striatum and distinguish the caudate nucleus from the putamen. In the dorsal striatum, substance P and leucine-enkephalin patches consist of dense islands of immunoreactive neurons and puncta or clusters of immunoreactive neurons marginated by a dense rim of terminal-like puncta; the matrix was also enriched in leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons but contained less substance P-immunoreactive neurons. Patches were more prominent in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen. In the caudate, compartments low in tyrosine hydroxylase and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivities corresponded to cytologically identified cell islands and to patches enriched in substance P and leucine-enkephalin. These patches had a discrete infrastructure based on the location of substance P and leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons and terminals. In the ventral striatum, patches that showed low levels of substance P and leucine-enkephalin immunoreactivities were embedded in a matrix rich in immunoreactive cell bodies, fibers and terminals. In the accumbens, regions showing little tyrosine

  3. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  4. Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanel-Borowski Katherina

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond to angiogenic factors and vasoactive peptides. Following ovulation the neovascularization during the early stages of corpus luteum development has been compared to the rapid angiogenesis observed during tumor formation. On the other end of the spectrum, the microvascular endothelial cells are the first cells to undergo apoptosis at the onset of corpus luteum regression. Important insights on the morphology and function of luteal endothelial cells have been gained from a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells communicate with cells comprising the functional unit of the corpus luteum, i.e., other vascular cells, steroidogenic cells, and immune cells. This review is designed to provide an overview of the types of endothelial cells present in the corpus luteum and their involvement in corpus luteum development and regression. Available evidence indicates that microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum are not alike, and may differ during the process of angiogenesis and angioregression. The contributions of vasoactive peptides generated by the luteal endothelin-1 and the renin-angiotensin systems are discussed in context with the function of endothelial cells during corpus luteum formation and regression. The ability of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma, are evaluated as paracrine mediators of endothelial cell function during angioregression. Finally, chemokines are discussed as a vital endothelial cell secretory products that contribute to the recruitment of

  5. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  6. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi... from portions of the Corpus Christi Bayfront area during the HITS Triathlon on February 18th and 19th, 2012. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of HITS Triathlon...

  7. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ROSANA S LOPES; MARCELO M CARDOSO; ARTHUR O SAMPAIO; MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA Jr; CELICE C SOUZA; MICHELLE C DA SILVA; ELANE MAGNO N FERREIRA; MARCO AURELIOM FREIRE; RAFAEL RODRIGUES LIMA; WALACE GOMES-LEAL

    2016-09-01

    Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die inthe ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored theeffects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation andneuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted toendothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline(i.p.) for 7 days, being perfused after 8 or 14 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess neuronalloss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation (anti-Iba1, ED1) and migrating neuroblasts (anti-DCX) by countingNeuN, ED1 and DCX-positive cells in the ischaemic striatum or SVZ. Indomethacin treatment reducedmicroglia activation and the number of ED1^{+} cells in both 8 and 14 days post injury as compared withcontrols. There was an increase in the number of DCX^{+} cells in both SVZ and striatum at the same survivaltimes. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of NeuN^{+} cells in indomethacin-treated animals ascompared with the control group at 8 days but not after 14 days post injury. Our results suggest thatindomethacin treatment modulates microglia activation, contributing to increased neuroblast proliferation inthe SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke.

  8. Chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring of the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Anglin, J M; Paode, P R; Riggert, A G; Olive, M F; Conrad, C D

    2014-11-07

    Chronic stress is an established risk factor in the development of addiction. Addiction is characterized by a progressive transition from casual drug use to habitual and compulsive drug use. The ability of chronic stress to facilitate the transition to addiction may be mediated by increased engagement of the neurocircuitries underlying habitual behavior and addiction. In the present study, striatal morphology was evaluated after 2 weeks of chronic variable stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dendritic complexity of medium spiny neurons was visualized and quantified with Golgi staining in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, as well as in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. In separate cohorts, the effects of chronic stress on habitual behavior and the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine were also assessed. Chronic stress resulted in increased dendritic complexity in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens core, regions implicated in habitual behavior and addiction, while decreased complexity was found in the nucleus accumbens shell, a region critical for the initial rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Chronic stress did not affect dendritic complexity in the dorsomedial striatum. A parallel shift toward habitual learning strategies following chronic stress was also identified. There was an initial reduction in acute locomotor response to methamphetamine, but no lasting effect as a result of chronic stress exposure. These findings suggest that chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring in the striatum.

  9. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J;

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  10. Effects of the Aerobic Treadmill Exercise on Learning and Memory, Brain Free Radicals and c-fos Expression in Corpus Striatum of the Ovariectomized Rats%有氧跑台运动对去卵巢大鼠学习记忆能力、脑自由基代谢及纹状体c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞变华; 崔建梅; 庞立杰; 唐伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察8周有氧跑台运动对去卵巢大鼠学习记忆能力、脑自由基及纹状体c-fos表达的影响,探讨有氧跑台运动增强去卵巢大鼠学习记忆能力的可能机制.方法:30只SD雌性大鼠随机分为假手术安静组、去卵巢安静组和去卵巢运动组.安静组在笼内正常生活,不运动;去卵巢运动组大鼠采用递增负荷跑台训练,连续8周.8周后检测大鼠脑自由基代谢.利用八臂迷宫实验测试大鼠空间学习记忆能力;采用免疫组织化学结合图像半定量方法对纹状体c-fos神经元的数量、面积及灰度进行测量和分析.结果:(1)与假手术安静组比较,去卵巢安静组大鼠完成八臂迷宫时间显著延长(P<0.01),工作记忆错误、参考记忆错误次数及总记忆错误次数均显著减少(P<0.01);脑组织SOD活性显著减弱(P<0.01),MDA含量增加(P<0.01),纹状体c-fos表达显著减弱.(2)长期跑台运动可以显著改善去卵巢大鼠的学习记忆能力,提高脑组织抗氧化能力,上调纹状体c-fos表达.结论:雌激素缺失可以损害大鼠的学习记忆能力;支持长期跑台运动可能是去卵巢大鼠改善学习记忆能力下降的有效措施;机理可能与跑台运动促进去卵巢大鼠脑自由基的清除及增强纹状体c-fos表达有关.

  11. Biofilm production by multiresistant Corynebacterium striatum associated with nosocomial outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Cassius; Faria, Yuri Vieira; Sant’Anna, Lincoln de Oliveira; Viana, Vanilda Gonçalves; Seabra, Sérgio Henrique; de Souza, Mônica Cristina; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Hirata, Raphael; Moreira, Lílian de Oliveira; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism that causes nosocomial outbreaks. However, little is known about its virulence factors that may contribute to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We investigated the biofilm production on abiotic surfaces of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multidrug-susceptible (MDS) strains of C. striatum of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types I-MDR, II-MDR, III-MDS and IV-MDS isolated during a nosocomial outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results showed that C. striatum was able to adhere to hydrophilic and hydrophobic abiotic surfaces. The C. striatum 1987/I-MDR strain, predominantly isolated from patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures, showed the greatest ability to adhere to all surfaces. C. striatum bound fibrinogen to its surface, which contributed to biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed the production of mature biofilms on polyurethane catheters by all pulsotypes. In conclusion, biofilm production may contribute to the establishment of HAIs caused by C. striatum. PMID:25946249

  12. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  13. INTEGRATING CORPUS CONSULTATION IN LANGUAGE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chambers

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001, there is little evidence to suggest that direct corpus consultation is coming to be seen as a complement or alternative to consultation of a dictionary, course book, or grammar by the majority of learners. There is thus a need for research to underpin the integration of corpora and concordancing in the language-learning environment.This study begins with an account of published research relating to course design and structure in the area of corpus consultation by language learners. The focus then narrows to the initial training of learners in corpus consultation, using as an example a course involving undergraduate students on several language degree programmes. The results of the students' consultation of the corpora are examined, including choice of search word(s, analytical skills, the problems encountered, and their evaluation of the activity. The results reveal how corpus consultation can complement traditional language-learning resources, while also raising questions concerning its integration in the language-learning environment.

  14. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  15. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  16. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol....... In this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the serialized...

  17. A Corpus for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mollá Aliod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Automated text summarisers that find the best clinical evidence reported in collections of medical literature are of potential benefit for the practice of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. Research and development of text summarisers for EBM, however, is impeded by the lack of corpora to train and test such systems. Aims To produce a corpus for research in EBM summarisation. Method We sourced the “Clinical Inquiries” section of the Journal of Family Practice (JFP and obtained a sizeable sample of questions and evidence based summaries. We further processed the summaries by combining automated techniques, human annotations, and crowdsourcing techniques to identify the PubMed IDs of the references. Results The corpus has 456 questions, 1,396 answer components, 3,036 answer justifications, and 2,908 references. Conclusion The corpus is now available for the research community at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ebmsumcorpus.

  18. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kennedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a semester-long apprenticeship in corpus use which does not demand of them the high level of language proficiency, attention to detail in observation, and logical rigour that we consider necessary for rewarding work in the learner-as-researcher role. Instead, we introduce a corpus initially as an aid to the imagination in writing, and then to achieving accuracy through specific grammatical problem solving. We see this as the groundwork for subsequent development of the students’ research skills with corpus data. This paper describes the approach we have adopted to the corpus apprenticeship and reports on an evaluation of its effectiveness through case studies of three students and their use of a corpus and bilingual dictionary as reference resources when writing. Drawing on insights from the case studies, we outline a working definition of corpus-consultation literacy for our learning context and identify some refinements to be made to our apprenticeship.

  19. Using a Corpus for Teaching Turkish Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Guvenir, H A; Oflazer, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary phase of our ongoing research towards developing an intelligent tutoring environment for Turkish grammar. One of the components of this environment is a corpus search tool which, among other aspects of the language, will be used to present the learner sample sentences along with their morphological analyses. Following a brief introduction to the Turkish language and its morphology, the paper describes the morphological analysis and ambiguity resolution used to construct the corpus used in the search tool. Finally, implementation issues and details involving the user interface of the tool are discussed.

  20. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational corpus linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data and method and also off ers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented towards an acknowledgment of corpus linguistics' alignment with the digital humanities.

  1. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  2. Corpus-based lexicography for lesser-resourced languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In many cases sincere attempts at corpus designs and the compilation of ..... for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (2003: 110) give a schematic illustration .... graphic rulers and block systems could be compiled from a corpus as small as.

  3. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the sam...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... gender and callosal measures in patient and control groups. In all groups of ..... our intelligence and problem-solving ability. The prefrontal cortex plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional and .... in the corpus callosum in abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A preliminary study. J.

  5. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  6. Rheumatic diseases in the Corpus Hippocraticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Squillace

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medecine of V and IV centuries B.C. attested in the Corpus Hippocraticum ascribes all diseases to the rheuma, i.e. the flux of humours into the body. This flux produces not only the rise of cold, hoarsness, cough, reddenings, dropsy, but also arthritis, sciatica, gout.

  7. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...

  8. CORPUS-BASED TRANSLATION RESEARCH: ITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corpus-based translation research emerged in the late 1990s as a new area of re- search in ... tics goes back to the early 1960s when the “first-generation” of one-million .... and then takes an average count at the end; allowing one to compare.

  9. The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William White

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.

  10. A Massive Chinese Floral Corpus Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Through the efforts of several generations of Chinese botanists over the past 50years, a massive 80-volume corpus (in 126 books) on China's flora,Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Chinese edition), has finally been completed. This was announced at a press meeting on March 31 in Beijing.

  11. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net....263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  12. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall....

  13. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  14. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  15. The Nordic Dialect Corpus – a joint research infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.

  16. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol...... format and illustrate use cases in the KorAP project....

  17. An annotated corpus for the analysis of VP ellipsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johan; Spenader, J.

    2011-01-01

    Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) has been studied in great depth in theoretical linguistics, but empirical studies of VPE are rare. We extend the few previous corpus studies with an annotated corpus of VPE in all 25 sections of the Wall Street Journal corpus (WSJ) distributed with the Penn Treebank. We an

  18. An annotated corpus for the analysis of VP ellipsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johan; Spenader, J.

    2011-01-01

    Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) has been studied in great depth in theoretical linguistics, but empirical studies of VPE are rare. We extend the few previous corpus studies with an annotated corpus of VPE in all 25 sections of the Wall Street Journal corpus (WSJ) distributed with the Penn Treebank. We

  19. MEANTIME, the NewsReader Multilingual Event and Time Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minard, A.-L.; Speranza, M; Urizar, R.; Altuna, B.; Erp, van M.G.J.; Schoen, A.M.; Son, van C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the NewsReader MEANTIME corpus, a semantically annotated corpus of Wikinews articles. The corpus consists of 480 news articles, i.e. 120 English news articles and their translations in Spanish, Italian, and Dutch. MEANTIME contains annotations at different levels. The docum

  20. Excitotoxic lesion of the posterior part of the dorsal striatum does not affect the typically dopaminergic phenomenon of latent inhibition in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés

    2015-02-01

    The stimulation or blockade of dopaminergic activity interrupts or increases, respectively, the phenomenon of latent inhibition in different paradigms. Furthermore, the involvement of the nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition has been demonstrated in several learning paradigms, including conditioned taste aversion. However, the role of the dorsal striatum in the pre-exposure effect on the acquisition of taste aversion remains unclear. In order to determine whether this region of the striatum is a structure necessary for latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion, excitotoxic lesions were made in the posterior part of the dorsal striatum of Wistar rats. Subsequently, half of the animals was pre-exposed to the flavor, and the magnitude of the taste aversion was compared to that of sham animals pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed to the same flavor. The results showed that the excitotoxic lesion in this area of the dorsal striatum, compared to sham animals, left latent inhibition of the conditioned taste aversion intact. These data suggest that the posterior part of the dorsal striatum is not necessary for the acquisition of latent inhibition, at least in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

  1. CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: Association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eVan Waes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits mediate various aspects of goal-directed behavior and are critically important for basal ganglia-related disorders. Activity in these circuits is regulated by the endocannabinoid system via stimulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are highly expressed in projection neurons and select interneurons of the striatum, but expression levels vary considerably between different striatal regions (functional domains. We investigated CB1 receptor expression within specific corticostriatal circuits by mapping CB1 mRNA levels in striatal sectors defined by their cortical inputs in rats. We also assessed changes in CB1 expression in the striatum during development. Our results show that CB1 expression is highest in juveniles (P25 and then progressively decreases towards adolescent (P40 and adult (P70 levels. At every age, CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed in sensorimotor striatal sectors, with considerably lower expression in associative and limbic sectors. Moreover, for most corticostriatal circuits there is an inverse relationship between cortical and striatal expression levels. Thus, striatal sectors with high CB1 expression (sensorimotor sectors tend to receive inputs from cortical areas with low expression, while striatal sectors with low expression (associative/limbic sectors receive inputs from cortical regions with higher expression (medial prefrontal cortex. In so far as CB1 mRNA levels reflect receptor function, our findings suggest differential CB1 signaling between different developmental stages and between sensorimotor and associative/limbic circuits. The regional distribution of CB1 receptor expression in the striatum further suggests that, in sensorimotor sectors, CB1 receptors mostly regulate GABA inputs from local axon collaterals of projection neurons, whereas in associative/limbic sectors, CB1 regulation of GABA inputs from interneurons and glutamate inputs may be more important.

  2. The Use of Corpus for Close Synonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naci KAYAOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Using corpora is still in its infancy in foreign language classes in spite of its great benefits and potential to offer solutions to the various challenges in foreign language instruction both for teachers and learners. This partly stems from a lack of interest and practical knowledge about the pedagogic role that the corpora can play. There is a pressing need to convince teachers of the great benefits of corpora with empirical data.Purpose of Study: This research aims to explore the feasibility of using a corpus to help students differentiate between close synonyms which have similar meanings but cannot be substituted one for the other.Method: This is quasi-experimental research based on a pre and post-test (one shot design design. To this end, participants were introduced to the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and asked to refer to the corpus when deciding the appropriate close synonym in the 50 sentences given. Participants were also interviewed upon completion of the task with the COCA about their use of corpus.Findings and Results: The t-test showed that the use of corpus for deciding on close synonyms proved to be very effective as there was a statistically significant difference in participants‟ performance on the vocabulary portion of the pretest and post-test.Conclusion and Recommendations: The present paper suggests that corpora can be a very rich and effective source of empirical data both for teachers and students to make foreign language learning more meaningful and enjoyable. Providing learners more exposure to authentic examples, corpora can be utilized for pedagogic purposes from syllabus design to materials development. Yet, it needs to be integrated into language courses. Teachersshould be made fully aware of what corpora offer for language teaching.

  3. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released. Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens, our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection, the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are

  4. Septic arthritis in a native knee due to Corynebacterium striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Collada, Juan; Rico Nieto, Alicia; Díaz de Bustamante Ussia, Macarena; Balsa Criado, Alejandro

    2017-03-07

    We describe a case of septic arthritis in a native knee due to Corynebacterium striatum, gram-positive bacilli that are usually commensal organisms of skin and mucosal membranes, but are seldom implicated in native septic arthritis. An 84-year-old man with Corynebacterium striatum septic arthritis of his native left knee and no response to conventional antibiotic therapy. Thus, the patient was allowed to take dalbavancin for compassionate use, with an excellent clinical outcome. This case emphasizes de role of Corynebacterium striatum in native joint infections and highlights the importance of early detection and appropriate treatment in improving the clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi. 334.800 Section 334.800 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  6. Applying corpus methods to written academic texts: Explorations of MICUSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Römer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on explorations of the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers (MICUSP, the present paper provides an introduction to the central techniques in corpus analysis, including the creation and examination of word lists, keyword lists, concordances, and cluster lists. It also presents a MICUSP-based case study of the demonstrative pronoun this and the distribution and use of its attended and unattended forms in different disciplinary subsets of the corpus. The paper aims to demonstrate how corpus linguistics and corpus methods can contribute to writing research and provide fruitful insights into student academic writing.

  7. Striatum and globus pallidus control the electrical activity of reticular thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Nelson; Oviedo-Chávez, Aldo; Alatorre, Alberto; Ríos, Alain; Barrientos, Rafael; Delgado, Alfonso; Querejeta, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Through GABAergic fibers, globus pallidus (GP) coordinates basal ganglia global function. Electrical activity of GP neurons depends on their membrane properties and afferent fibers, including GABAergic fibers from striatum. In pathological conditions, abnormal electrical activity of GP neurons is associated with motor deficits. There is a GABAergic pathway from the GP to the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTn) whose contribution to RTn neurons electrical activity has received little attention. This fact called our attention because the RTn controls the overall information flow of thalamic nuclei to cerebral cortex. Here, we study the spontaneous electrical activity of RTn neurons recorded in vivo in anesthetized rats and under pharmacological activation or inhibition of the GP. We found that activation of GP predominantly diminishes the spontaneous RTn neurons firing rate and its inhibition increases their firing rate; however, both activation and inhibition of GP did not modified the burst index (BI) or the coefficient of variation (CV) of RTn neurons. Moreover, stimulation of striatum predominantly diminishes the spiking rate of GP cells and increases the spiking rate in RTn neurons without modifying the BI or CV in reticular neurons. Our data suggest a GP tight control over RTn spiking activity.

  8. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D; Mao, Jian-Bin; Hu, Dan; Kubota, Yasuo; Dreyer, Anna A; Stamoulis, Catherine; Brown, Emery N; Graybiel, Ann M

    2011-04-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of procedural task performance relative to the patterns found previously with midtask cueing. Remarkably, the largest increase in activity early during the T-maze runs was not associated with the instruction cues themselves, the earliest predictors of reward; instead, the highest peak of early activity was associated with the beginning of the motor period of the task. We suggest that the advance cueing, reducing midrun demands for decision making but adding a working-memory load, facilitated chunking of the maze runs as executable scripts anchored to sensorimotor aspects of the task and unencumbered by midtask decision-making demands. Our findings suggest that the acquisition of stronger task-bracketing patterns of striatal activity in the sensorimotor striatum could reflect this enhancement of behavioral chunking. Deficits in such representations of learned sequential behaviors could contribute to motor and cognitive problems in a range of neurological disorders affecting the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease.

  9. Hierarchical recruitment of phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum during the progression of cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Everitt, Barry J; Phillips, Paul E M

    2012-12-11

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder that marks the end stage of a progression beginning with recreational drug taking but culminating in habitual and compulsive drug use. This progression is considered to reflect transitions among multiple neural loci. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) is pivotal in the control of initial drug use, but emerging evidence indicates that once drug use is well established, its control is dominated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In the current work, we conducted longitudinal neurochemical recordings to ascertain the spatiotemporal profile of striatal dopamine release and to investigate how it changes during the period from initial to established drug use. Dopamine release was detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry simultaneously in the VMS and DLS of rats bearing indwelling i.v. catheters over the course of 3 wk of cocaine self-administration. We found that phasic dopamine release in DLS emerged progressively during drug taking over the course of weeks, a period during which VMS dopamine signaling declined. This emergent dopamine signaling in the DLS mediated discriminated behavior to obtain drug but did not promote escalated or compulsive drug use. We also demonstrate that this recruitment of dopamine signaling in the DLS is dependent on antecedent activity in VMS circuitry. Thus, the current findings identify a striatal hierarchy that is instantiated during the expression of established responses to obtain cocaine.

  10. Evidence for dopamine receptor pruning between adolescence and adulthood in striatum but not nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, M H; Andersen, S L; Hostetter, J C

    1995-11-21

    Postnatal development of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor families in striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats was studied at 25, 35, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days using autoradiography. These ages were selected to test the hypothesis that dopamine receptors were overproduced prior to puberty (day 40), and pruned back to adult levels thereafter. This hypothesis was confirmed in striatum but not nucleus accumbens. D1 receptor Bmax ([3H]SCH-23390) peaked at 40 days, with levels 67 +/- 21% greater than at 25 days. However, Bmax levels were at least 35% lower at 60-120 days than at 40 days. Similarly, D2 receptor numbers ([3H]YM-09151-2) increased 144 +/- 26% between 25 and 40 days, but were reduced by 34-38% between 60-120 days. In contrast, D1 and D2 receptor Bmax increase approximately 150% between 25 and 40 days in nucleus accumbens, levels fell slightly at 60 or 80 days, but were no different at 100 and 120 days then they were at 40 days. These findings suggest that these two major dopamine target regions follow different developmental strategies, and this has implications for etiological theories of schizophrenia that focus on anomalous receptor pruning.

  11. Overproduction of nitric oxide intensifies brain infarction and cerebrovascular damage through reduction of claudin-5 and ZO-1 expression in striatum of ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction has been demonstrated from different NO-synthase overexpression or hyperactivity after brain ischemia. Here, we examined the effects of inhibition of NO overproduction on brain infarction, cerebrovascular damage and expression of claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in striatum of ischemic brain. The experiment was performed in three groups of rats; sham, control ischemia and ischemic treatment. Brain ischemia was induced by 60min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h of reperfusion. Treated rats received L-NAME 30min before induction of ischemia (1mg/kg, i.p.). Infarct volume and histopathological changes of ischemic striatum were assessed by TTC and LFB staining methods, respectively. Ultimately, quantitative RT-PCR was used for assessment of claudins-5 and ZO-1 expression. MCAO in the control group induced infarction (135±25mm(3)) at large areas of striatum in accompany with neuronal damages, whereas L-NAME significantly reduced infarction (87±16mm(3)) and neuronal injuries. The mRNA of ZO-1 and claudin-5 decreased in ischemic striatum, whereas inhibition of NO overproduction by L-NAME attenuated this reduction for these genes. Our findings indicated that NO overproduction after brain ischemia plays a crucial role in neuronal damage especially at striatal regions. Hence, inhibition of excessive NO production may save striatal cerebrovascular integrity of ischemic brain.

  12. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  13. Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that

  14. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, A

    1998-01-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...

  15. DEVELOPING AN ONLINE CORPUS OF FORMOSAN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-May Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have now matured to the point of enabling researchers to create a repository of language resources, especially for those languages facing the crisis of endangerment. The development of an online platform of corpora, made possible by recent advances in data storage, character-encoding and web technology, has profound consequences for the accessibility, quantity, quality and interoperability of linguistic field data. This is of particular significance for Formosan languages in Taiwan, many of which are on the verge of extinction. As a response to the recognition of this burgeoning problem, the key objectives of the establishment of the NTU Corpus of Formosan Languages aim to document and thus preserve valuable linguistic data, as well as relevant ethnological and cultural information. This paper will introduce some of the theoretical bases behind this initiative, as well as the procedures, transcription conventions, database normalization, in-house system and three special features in the creation of this corpus.

  16. Bayesian Stratified Sampling to Assess Corpus Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, J; Thomas, T; Hall, S; Hochberg, Judith; Scovel, Clint; Thomas, Timothy; Hall, Sam

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. We exemplify the method by addressing the question, "What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?" We estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Stratified sampling is used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3100 documents to fewer than 1000. The stratification is based on observed characteristics of real documents, while the sampling procedure incorporates a Bayesian version of Neyman allocation. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  17. An Automatic Collocation Extraction from Arabic Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgabbar M. Saif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The identification of collocations is very important part in natural language processing applications that require some degree of semantic interpretation such as, machine translation, information retrieval and text summarization. Because of the complexities of Arabic, the collocations undergo some variations such as, morphological, graphical, syntactic variation that constitutes the difficulties of identifying the collocation. Approach: We used the hybrid method for extracting the collocations from Arabic corpus that is based on linguistic information and association measures. Results: This method extracted the bi-gram candidates of Arabic collocation from corpus and evaluated the association measures by using the n-best evaluation method. We reported the precision values for each association measure in each n-best list. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that the log-likelihood ratio is the best association measure that achieved highest precision.

  18. A ROUGH GUIDE TO DOING CORPUS STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. G. Shepherd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main purposes. The first is to provide a short panorama of existing trends within computer-assisted stylistics. The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics. To this end, the article starts by looking at various attempts at defining what style is and their implications to the definition of the discipline known as Stylistics. Then the paper presents recent work within the field of Corpus stylistics, as it describes the uses of computational tools as part of the stylistician tool kit. Finally, the paper provides a variety of ways with which a literary work may be approached digitally with a view to showing how computational tools can aid the stylistician in acts of interpretation.

  19. Corpus-based Studies on Nursing Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Fairus Nor Mohamad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP, there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing students and educators. This research aims to highlight the 2,000 most frequently used nursing words across the core textbooks of nursing and to profile the types of ‘low frequency’ lexis which comprise the nursing corpus in terms of the General Service List (GSL and Academic Word List (AWL lexis coverage. By knowing the frequently used nursing words would further reduce students’ reading deficiency if the students use the 2000-word list.

  20. Classifier Assignment by Corpus-based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sornlertlamvanich, V; Meknavin, S; Sornlertlamvanich, Virach; Pantachat, Wantanee; Meknavin, Surapant

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for selecting an appropriate classifier word for a noun. In Thai language, it frequently happens that there is fluctuation in the choice of classifier for a given concrete noun, both from the point of view of the whole spe ech community and individual speakers. Basically, there is no exect rule for classifier selection. As far as we can do in the rule-based approach is to give a default rule to pick up a corresponding classifier of each noun. Registration of classifier for each noun is limited to the type of unit classifier because other types are open due to the meaning of representation. We propose a corpus-based method (Biber, 1993; Nagao, 1993; Smadja, 1993) which generates Noun Classifier Associations (NCA) to overcome the problems in classifier assignment and semantic construction of noun phrase. The NCA is created statistically from a large corpus and recomposed under concept hierarchy constraints and frequency of occurrences.

  1. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in ventral and dorsal striatum differentially modulates alcohol Reinforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Hesseling, Peter; Styles, Matthew; Baars, Annemarie M; Lozeman-van 't Klooster, José G; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2017-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been widely implicated in the reinforcing properties of substances of abuse. However, the striatum is functionally heterogeneous, and previous work has mostly focused on psychostimulant drugs. Therefore, we investigated how dopamine within striatal

  2. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.;

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...

  3. USING CORPUS DATA IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Levinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpora have not yet become an everyday tool of a Russian language teacher in Russia. My goal is to demonstrate a wide range of usagebased approaches which can be applied in the teaching of L1 to children. I present the benefits of exploiting Russian National Corpus as a valuable pedagogical resource, as well as obstacles which can be caused by using data-based teaching methods.

  4. Conditional Sentences: ELT typology and corpus evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study examining the representation of the typology of conditional sentences presented in English language teaching (ELT) materials (coursebooks and grammars) in a random sample of 1,000 conditional sentences from the British National Corpus. The if-clause and main clause of the conditional sentences in the sample was annotated for the form of the main verb (particularly tense and aspect), the modal auxiliaries and other lexis expressing modality, ti...

  5. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended.

  6. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio, E. C.; Veroy, R. L.; Uyenco, F.; Cajipe, G. J. B.; Laserna, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  7. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, E C; Veroy, R L; Uyenco, F; Cajipe, G J; Laserna, E C

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  8. A metaphor corpus in business press headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honesto Herrera Soler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In linguistics a corpus typically involves a finite body of texts which are considered to be representative of a particular variety of language at a specific time (McEnery & Wilson, 2001. Those are the assumptions we have had in mind in this metaphor corpus based on business press headlines. Our body of texts is a finite number of headlines drawn from the specific field of the business sections of three newspapers: Financial Times, El País and El Mundo, published over a period running from January to July 2003. Compiling a small corpus of non-literal instantiations as different authors have done (Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Kövecses, 2002; Charteris-Black, 2003; Koller, 2004; Deignan, 2005; and others will enable us first to identify whether the contextual meaning of a word or a multiword unit of headline contrasts with its basic meaning and whether the contextual meaning can be understood by comparison with that basic meaning, and then to categorize, both in the Spanish and in the British press, the different linguistic realizations of a headline in terms of their syntactic structure, metaphor foci and source domains.

  9. Repairing the Aged Parkinsonian Striatum: Lessons from the Lab and Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Natosha M; Collier, Timothy J; Freeman, Thomas; Steece-Collier, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    The primary risk factor associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is advanced age. While there are symptomatic therapies for PD, efficacy of these eventually wane and/or side-effects develop over time. An alternative experimental therapy that has received a great deal of attention over the past several decades has been neural transplantation aimed at replacing nigral dopamine (DA) neurons that degenerate in PD. However, in PD patients and parkinsonian rats, advanced age is associated with inferior benefit following intrastriatal grafting of embryonic DA neurons. Traditionally it has been thought that decreased therapeutic benefit results from the decreased survival of grafted DA neurons and the accompanying poor reinnervation observed in the aged host. However, recent clinical and preclinical data suggest that factors inherent to the aged striatum per se limit successful brain repair. In this short communication, we focus discussion on the implications of our recent grafting study in aged parkinsonian rats, with additional emphasis on a recent clinical report of the outcome of cell therapy in an aged PD patient with long-term (24 years) survival of DA neuron grafts. To address aging as a limiting factor in successful brain repair, we use the example of cell transplantation as a means to interrogate the environment of the aged striatum and identify factors that may, or may not, respond to interventions aimed at improving the prospects for adequate repair of the aged brain. We offer discussion of how these recent reports, in the context of other historical grafting studies, might provide new insight into specific risk factors that have potential to negatively impact all DA cell or terminal replacement strategies for clinical use in PD.

  10. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  11. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated glutamate transmission in nucleus accumbens plays a more important role than that in dorsal striatum in cognitive flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuekun eDing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility is a critical ability for adapting to an ever-changing environment in humans and animals. Deficits in cognitive flexibility are observed in most schizophrenia patients. Previous studies reported that the medial prefrontal cortex-to-ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex-to-dorsal striatum circuits play important roles in extra- and intra-dimensional strategy switching, respectively. However, the precise function of striatal subregions in flexible behaviors is still unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are major glutamate receptors in the striatum that receive glutamatergic projections from the frontal cortex. The membrane insertion of Ca2+-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs depends on NMDAR activation and is required in learning and memory processes. In the present study, we measured set-shifting and reversal learning performance in operant chambers in rats and assessed the effects of blocking NMDARs and Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in striatal subregions on behavioral flexibility. The blockade of NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core by AP5 impaired set-shifting ability by causing a failure to modify prior learning. The suppression of NMDAR-mediated transmission in the NAc shell induced a deficit in set-shifting by disrupting the learning and maintenance of novel strategies. During reversal learning, infusions of AP5 into the NAc shell and core impaired the ability to learn and maintain new strategies. However, behavioral flexibility was not significantly affected by blocking NMDARs in the dorsal striatum. We also found that the blockade of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs by NASPM in any subregion of the striatum did not affect strategy switching. These findings suggest that NMDAR-mediated glutamate transmission in the NAc contributes more to cognitive execution compared with the dorsal striatum.

  12. Parallel Representation of Value-Based and Finite State-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to predict rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to predict environmental states. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit prediction of rewards or states. Here we consider another strategy, the finite state-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal state and updates the state depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite state-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite state-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS, and the ventral striatum (VS identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual states of the finite state-based strategy. The signal of internal states at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of states was found in VS. In addition, action values and state values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite state-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.

  13. Interactions between procedural learning and cocaine exposure alter spontaneous and cortically-evoked spike activity in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie eOndracek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that cocaine enhances gene regulation in the sensorimotor striatum associated with procedural learning in a running-wheel paradigm. Here we assessed whether cocaine produces enduring modifications of learning-related changes in striatal neuron activity, using single-unit recordings in anesthetized rats 1 day after the wheel training. Spontaneous and cortically-evoked spike activity was compared between groups treated with cocaine or vehicle immediately prior to the running-wheel training or placement in a locked wheel (control conditions. We found that wheel training in vehicle-treated rats increased the average firing rate of spontaneously active neurons without changing the relative proportion of active to quiescent cells. In contrast, in rats trained under the influence of cocaine, the proportion of spontaneously firing to quiescent cells was significantly greater than in vehicle-treated, trained rats. However, this effect was associated with a lower average firing rate in these spontaneously active cells, suggesting that training under the influence of cocaine recruited additional low-firing cells. Measures of cortically-evoked activity revealed a second interaction between cocaine treatment and wheel training, namely, a cocaine-induced decrease in spike onset latency in control rats (locked wheel. This facilitatory effect of cocaine was abolished when rats trained in the running wheel during cocaine action. These findings highlight important interactions between cocaine and procedural learning, which act to modify population firing activity and the responsiveness of striatal neurons to excitatory inputs. Moreover, these effects were found 24 hours after the training and last drug exposure indicating that cocaine exposure during the learning phase triggers long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity in the dorsal striatum. Such changes may contribute to the transition from recreational to habitual or compulsive drug

  14. Effect of sleep deprivation on the expression of syp in different brain area of rats%睡眠剥夺对大鼠不同脑区 syp 表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光涛; 胡西壮; 王龙飞; 李滨

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察睡眠剥夺对大鼠不同脑区神经元细胞syp表达的影响。方法20只SD大鼠随机分为对照组(10只)和模型组(10只)。模型组大鼠利用水上站立法建立睡眠剥夺大鼠模型,分别在睡眠剥夺24和72 h时随机取5只大鼠,处死,通过免疫组化方法观察大鼠不同脑区神经元细胞syp表达变化,对照组不做任何处理,其余同模型组。结果模型组大鼠海马区、前额叶皮质神经元syp表达明显低于对照组,差异显著,而两组纹状体区神经元syp表达差异不显著。结论睡眠剥夺后可导致大鼠皮层和海马神经元syp表达明显降低,对纹状体区神经元syp表达无影响。%Objective To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on the expression of SYP in different brain area of rats . Methods 20 sprague dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10) ,model group (n=10) .Sleep deprivation models were established by the modified multiple platform methods ,5 control group rats and 5 sleep deprivation model group rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 24 hours .The other rats were sacrificed at 72 hours .The expression levels of syp in different region of brain were detected by immunohistochemical .The control group rats were left intact .Results The expres‐sion of syp in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in model group were much higher than that of control group ,but there was no difference in the expression of syp in corpus striatum of the two groups .Conclusion Sleep deprivation could decrease the ex‐pression of syp in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex ,but had no effect on the expression of syp in corpus striatum .

  15. 埃他卡林通过上调Kir6.1和Kir6.2 mRNA表达抑制可卡因激发诱导的大鼠纹状体和伏隔核多巴胺水平的增加%Iptkalim inhibits cocaine challenge-induced enhancement of dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens and striatum of rats by up-regulating Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昀; 何海蓉; 丁建花; 顾兵; 汪海; 胡刚

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener (KCO) iptkalim(IPT) on acute and cocaine challenge-induced alterations in the levels of dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) fromnucleus accumbens (NAc), striatum, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats. METHODS: The levels of DA and Gluwere assayed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with amperometric and fluores-cent detection, respectively. The mRNA levels of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 were measured by semiquantitativereverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: IPT did not affect acute cocaine (30 mg/kg, ip)-induced elevations in either DA levels from NAc and striatum or Glu levels from NAc and PFC. An acutecocaine challenge (30 mg/kg, ip) on d 21 after withdrawal caused an elevation in DA levels in NAc and striatum.Moreover, the same treatment also increased Glu levels in PFC and NAc of cocaine-pretreated rats. Repeated IPTinjections reversed cocaine challenge-induced DA increase in NAc and striatum. Cocaine challenge increasedKir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA expression in striatum and NAc and only elevate Kir6.2 expression in PFC in both cocaine-pretreated rats and rats pretreated with IPT plus cocaine. Moreover, expression of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNA wasaugmented in rats pretreated with IPT plus cocaine compared to rats pretreated with cocaine alone. No significantchange was found in the SUR1 and SUR2 expression of all four groups. CONCLUSION: IPT inhibited cocainechallenge-induced enhancement of DA levels in NAc and striatum by up-regulating Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 mRNAexpression.%目的:研究钾通道开放剂埃他卡林对急慢性可卡因应用引起的伏隔核、纹状体和额叶皮层的多巴胺和谷氨酸水平变化的影响及其机制.方法:采用高效液相色谱与电化学检测、荧光检测联用的方法测定各脑区谷氨酸和多巴胺的含量;采用半定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)研究ATP

  16. A Corpus-based Approach to Philological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Boschetti, Federico

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is the application of techniques developed in the domain of corpus linguistics to a collection of ancient Greek texts, taking into account not only the canonical text established by modern editors, but also the variant readings recorded in the critical apparatus or in the repertories of conjectures. The dissertation is divided in three connected parts: construction, mapping and analysis of the corpus. The first part is devoted to corpus construction and it is focused ...

  17. The Significance of Self-built Learners’ Written English Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Researchers have reached an agreement that corpus exerts an important role in the English teaching and learning,and several learners’ corpus have been established.This paper aims to discuss the necessity and significance of establishing self-built learners’ written English corpus in the hope that teachers and learners will get to know it and use it effectively in their practice.

  18. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation....... The presented pipeline deals with i) estimation of the mid-sagittal plane, ii) localisation and registration of the corpus callosum, iii) parameterisation and representation of its contour, and iv) means of standardising the traditional reference area measurements....

  19. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Lynn K.; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with t...

  20. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, M. S.; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger’s syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, dis...

  1. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-12-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. She had a history of seizure disorder of ten years duration, which was controlled with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. Neurological examination was normal. On MRI, corpus callosum agenesis was detected. She was put on an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine to which her psychiatric symptoms responded completely.

  2. Oral Administration of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Affects Dopamine Release Differentially Between the Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum: A Microdialysis Study in the Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tohru; Kojima, Takashi; Honda, Yoshiko; Hosokawa, Takayuki; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH; trade name Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Because MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC. Although MPH is indicated to increase DA release in the rat PFC, there has been no study to examine MPH-induced DA changes in the human PFC because of technical difficulties associated with the low level of PFC DA receptors. Using the microdialysis technique, we examined the effects of oral administration of MPH on DA release in both the PFC and striatum in the monkey. We also tested the effect of MPH on cognitive task performance. As in human studies, in the striatum, both high and low doses of MPH induced consistent increases in DA release ∼30 min after their administrations. In the PFC, a consistent increase in DA release was observed 1 h after a high dose, but not low doses, of MPH. Low doses of MPH improved cognitive task performance, but a high dose of MPH made the monkey drowsy. Therefore, low-dose MPH-induced cognitive enhancement is supported by striatum DA increase.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Although human positron emission tomography studies suggest that MPH works on attention and cognition through dopamine (DA) changes in the striatum, there has been no study to examine MPH-induced DA changes in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using the microdialysis technique in monkeys, we found, for the first time, that low doses of MPH consistently increased DA release in the striatum but did not in the PFC

  3. Corpus & Its Application in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺华国; 王璇

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of vast electronic text resources, the corpus-based approach has contributed a lot to linguistic research. It can be applied to almost all areas of investigations in linguistics (Biber, Conrad and Reppen, 1998) . At the same time the role of corpora in the language classroom remains a great controversy. Some linguists believe that corpora are of great help to the language teachers whereas some others hold a negative view on its application to language teaching. As this argument is still under debate , many language teachers are applying corpora to their own teaching and this is the best way to evaluate the adoption of corpora in language classroom.

  4. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...... forms. The second study was a study of seven morphosyntactic variables based on data collected in the 1960s, 1994 and 2007-2009. This study found that the variables under investigation were either stable over time or used more frequently in the most recent data. Thus, the comparison of the two studies...... at a time when this area is undergoing vast changes....

  5. Inferring cultural models from corpus data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    developed methods of inferring cultural models from observed behavior – in particular observed verbal behavior (including both spoken and written language). While there are plenty of studies of the reflection of cultural models in artificially generated verbal behavior, not much research has been made...... of constructional discursive behavior, the present paper offers a covarying collexeme analysis of the [too ADJ to V]-construction in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The purpose is to discover the extent to which its force-dynamic constructional semantics interacts with cultural models. We focus...

  6. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

  7. Creating a Live, Public Short Message Service Corpus: The NUS SMS Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Short Message Service (SMS) messages are largely sent directly from one person to another from their mobile phones. They represent a means of personal communication that is an important communicative artifact in our current digital era. As most existing studies have used private access to SMS corpora, comparative studies using the same raw SMS data has not been possible up to now. We describe our efforts to collect a public SMS corpus to address this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy issues to address contributors’ concerns. Our live project collects new SMS message submissions, checks their quality and adds the valid messages, releasing the resultant corpus as XML and as SQL dumps, along with corpus statistics, every month. We opportunistically collect as much metadata about the messages and their sender as possible, so as to enable different types of analyses. To date, we have collected about 60,000 messages, focusing on English and...

  8. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL.

  9. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.

  10. Subregion-specific modulation of excitatory input and dopaminergic output in the striatum by tonically activated glycine and GABAA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eAdermark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia is a complex spatiotemporal pattern of increased and decreased firing. The striatum is the biggest input nucleus to the basal ganglia and the aim of this study was to assess the role of inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors in regulating synaptic activity in the dorsolateral (DLS and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc. Local field potential recordings from coronal brain slices of juvenile and adult Wistar rats showed that GABAA receptors and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are tonically activated and inhibit excitatory input to the DLS and to the nAc. Strychnine-induced disinhibition of glutamatergic transmission was insensitive to the muscarinic receptor inhibitor scopolamine (10 µM, inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 µM and blocked by GABAA receptor inhibitors, suggesting that tonically activated glycine receptors depress excitatory input to the striatum through modulation of cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. As an end-product example of striatal GABAergic output in vivo we measured dopamine release in the DLS and nAc by microdialysis in the awake and freely moving rat. Reversed dialysis of bicuculline (50 μM in perfusate only increased extrasynaptic dopamine levels in the nAc, while strychnine administered locally (200 μM in perfusate decreased dopamine output by 60% in both the DLS and nAc. Our data suggest that GABAA and glycine receptors are tonically activated and modulate striatal transmission in a partially sub-region specific manner.

  11. Effects of co-administration of ketamine and ethanol on the dopamine system via the cortex-striatum circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Xu, Tian-Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Bi; Leung, Chi-Kwan; You, Ding-Yun; Wang, Shang-Wen; Yi, Shuai; Jing, Qiang; Xie, Run-Fang; Li, Huifang-Jie; Zeng, Xiao-Feng

    2017-06-15

    Ketamine and ethanol are increasingly being used together as recreational drugs in rave parties. Their effects on the dopamine (DA) system remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming two different concentrations of ketamine with and without alcohol on the DA system. We employed the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to evaluate the rewarding effects of the combined administration of two different doses of ketamine (30mg/kg and 60mg/kg) with ethanol (0.3156g/kg). We evaluated the effects of the combined drug treatment on the transcriptional output of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) as well as protein expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. We found that rats exhibited a dose-dependent, drug-paired, place preference to ketamine and ethanol associated with an elevated DA level in the striatum but not in the PFC. Moreover, treatment involving low- or high-dose ketamine with or without ethanol caused a differential regulatory response in the mRNA levels of the four DA metabolism genes and the cellular protein abundance of BDNF via the cortex-striatum circuitry. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms that occur following the combined administration of ketamine and ethanol in the DA system, which could potentially lead to alterations in the mental status and behavior of ketamine/ethanol users. Our findings may aid the development of therapeutic strategies for substance abuse patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential entrainment and learning-related dynamics of spike and local field potential activity in the sensorimotor and associative striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Catherine A; Graybiel, Ann M

    2014-02-19

    Parallel cortico-basal ganglia loops are thought to have distinct but interacting functions in motor learning and habit formation. In rats, the striatal projection neuron populations (MSNs) in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, respectively corresponding to sensorimotor and associative regions of the striatum, exhibit contrasting dynamics as rats acquire T-maze tasks (Thorn et al., 2010). Here, we asked whether these patterns could be related to the activity of local interneuron populations in the striatum and to the local field potential activity recorded simultaneously in the corresponding regions. We found that dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatal fast-spiking interneurons exhibited task-specific and training-related dynamics consistent with those of corresponding MSN populations. Moreover, both MSNs and interneuron populations in both regions became entrained to theta-band (5-12 Hz) frequencies during task acquisition. However, the predominant entrainment frequencies were different for the sensorimotor and associative zones. Dorsolateral striatal neurons became entrained mid-task to oscillations centered ∼ 5 Hz, whereas simultaneously recorded neurons in the dorsomedial region became entrained to higher frequency (∼ 10 Hz) rhythms. These region-specific patterns of entrainment evolved dynamically with the development of region-specific patterns of interneuron and MSN activity, indicating that, with learning, these two striatal regions can develop different frequency-modulated circuit activities in parallel. We suggest that such differential entrainment of sensorimotor and associative neuronal populations, acquired through learning, could be critical for coordinating information flow throughout each trans-striatal network while simultaneously enabling nearby components of the separate networks to operate independently.

  13. The involvement of the striatum in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives.

  14. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  15. Modeling influences of dopamine on synchronization behavior of striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Yüksel

    2017-10-06

    A network model of striatum that comprises medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) is constructed following the work of Humphries et al. (2009). The dynamic behavior of striatum microcircuit is investigated using a dopamine-modulated modified Izhikevich neuron model. The influences of dopamine on the synchronization behavior of the striatal microcircuit and the dependence on receptor type are investigated with and without time delay. To investigate the role of two types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the overall activity of the striatum microcircuit, the activities of two groups are considered as disconnected and connected. When the connection exists between D1 and D2 sub-networks with zero dopamine and time delay, neuronal activity decreases because of an inhibitory effect of the connected neurons of the other sub-network. In the presence of dopamine, an increase in the activity of D1 type MSNs and quiescent behavior of D2 type MSNs are observed when the time delay is zero. However, the diversity in synchronization of D1 and D2 type MSNs is observed for different synaptic time delays and synaptic strengths in the case that dopamine is present.

  16. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-04

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies.

  17. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Karaa, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE) can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE is found in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE's nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in a text, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of a footballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize a NE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representatio...

  18. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  19. Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marcińczuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish The paper presents a typology of events built on the basis of TimeML specification adapted to Polish language. Some changes were introduced to the definition of the event categories and a motivation for event categorization was formulated. The event annotation task is presented on two levels – ontology level (language independent and text mentions (language dependant. The various types of event mentions in Polish text are discussed. A procedure for annotation of event mentions in Polish texts is presented and evaluated. In the evaluation a randomly selected set of documents from the Corpus of Wrocław University of Technology (called KPWr was annotated by two linguists and the annotator agreement was calculated. The evaluation was done in two iterations. After the first evaluation we revised and improved the annotation procedure. The second evaluation showed a significant improvement of the agreement between annotators. The current work was focused on annotation and categorisation of event mentions in text. The future work will be focused on description of event with a set of attributes, arguments and relations.

  20. Rab proteins in the brain and corpus allatum of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tomohide; Furutani, Masayuki; Watanabe, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Uno, Yuichi; Kanamaru, Kengo; Yamagata, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takeda, Makio

    2016-07-01

    In eukaryotic cells, Rab guanosine triphosphate-ases serve as key regulators of membrane-trafficking events, such as exocytosis and endocytosis. Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 control the regulatory secretory pathway of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cDNAs of Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 from B. mori were inserted into a plasmid, transformed into Escherichia coli, and then subsequently purified. We then produced antibodies against Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 of Bombyx mori in rabbits and rats for use in western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Western immunoblotting of brain tissue revealed a single band at approximately 26 kDa. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 expression was restricted to neurons in the pars intercerebralis and dorsolateral protocerebrum of the brain. Rab3 and Rab6 co-localized with bombyxin, an insect neuropeptide. However, there was no Rab that co-localized with prothoracicotropic hormone. The corpus allatum secretes neuropeptides synthesized in the brain into the hemolymph. Results showed that Rab3 and Rab6 co-localized with bombyxin in the corpus allatum. These findings suggest that Rab3 and Rab6 are involved in neurosecretion in B. mori. This study is the first to report a possible relationship between Rab and neurosecretion in the insect corpus allatum.

  1. Effects of endurance exercise on expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein in developing rats with maternal infection-induced cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-02-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common white matter lesion affecting the neonatal brain. PVL is closely associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and characterized by increase in the number of astrocytes, which can be detected by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Change in myelin basic protein (MBP) is an early sign of white matter abnormality. Maternal or placental infection can damage the neonatal brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill walking exercise on GFAP and MBP expressions in rats with maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PVL. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the detection of GFAP and MBP. The present results showed that intracervical maternal LPS injection during pregnancy increased GFAP expression in the striatum and decreased MBP expression in the corpus callosum of rats. The results also showed that treadmill walking exercise suppressed GFAP expression and enhanced MBP expression in the brains of rats with maternal LPS-induced PVL. The present study revealed that treadmill walking exercise is effective for the suppressing astrogliosis and hypomyelination associated with PVL. Here in this study, we showed that treadmill walking exercise may be effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating the detrimental effects of CP.

  2. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time monitoring of electrically evoked catecholamine signals in the songbird striatum using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda R; Garris, Paul A; Casto, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a powerful technique for monitoring rapid changes in extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the brain. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry has been used extensively in mammalian models to characterize dopamine signals in both anesthetized and awake preparations, but has yet to be applied to a non-mammalian vertebrate. The goal of this study was to establish in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a songbird, the European starling, to facilitate real-time measurements of extracellular catecholamine levels in the avian striatum. In urethane-anesthetized starlings, changes in catecholamine levels were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and measured at carbon-fiber microelectrodes positioned in the medial and lateral striata. Catecholamines were elicited by different stimulations, including trains related to phasic dopamine signaling in the rat, and were analyzed to quantify presynaptic mechanisms governing exocytotic release and neuronal uptake. Evoked extracellular catecholamine dynamics, maximal amplitude of the evoked catecholamine signal, and parameters for catecholamine release and uptake did not differ between striatal regions and were similar to those determined for dopamine in the rat dorsomedial striatum under similar conditions. Chemical identification of measured catecholamine by its voltammogram was consistent with the presence of both dopamine and norepinephrine in striatal tissue content. However, the high ratio of dopamine to norepinephrine in tissue content and the greater sensitivity of the carbon-fiber microelectrode to dopamine compared to norepinephrine favored the measurement of dopamine. Thus, converging evidence suggests that dopamine was the predominate analyte of the electrically evoked catecholamine signal measured in the striatum by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Overall, comparisons between the characteristics of these evoked signals suggested a similar presynaptic regulation of

  4. Regionally distinct phasic dopamine release patterns in the striatum during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanker, Marianne; Fellinger, Lisanne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Willuhn, Ingo; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-03-14

    Striatal dopamine (DA) plays a central role in reward-related learning and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Recent studies suggest that rather than being broadcast as a uniform signal throughout the entire region, DA release dynamics diverge between different striatal regions. In a previous study, we showed that phasic DA release patterns in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) rapidly adapt during reversal learning. However, it is unknown how DA dynamics in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) are modulated during such adaptive behavior. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic DA release in the DLS during spatial reversal learning. In the DLS, we observed minor DA release after the onset of a visual cue signaling reward availability, followed by more pronounced DA release during more proximal reward cues (e.g., lever extension) and execution of the operant response (i.e., lever press), both in rewarded and non-rewarded trials. These release dynamics (minor DA after onset of the predictive visual cue, prominent DA during the operant response) did not change significantly during or following a reversal of response-reward contingencies. Notably, the DA increase to the lever press did not reflect a general signal related to the initiation of any motivated motor response, as we did not observe DA release when rats initiated nose pokes into the food receptacle during inter-trial intervals. This suggests that DA release in the DLS occurs selectively during the initiation and execution of a learned operant response. Together with our previous results obtained in the VMS, these findings reveal distinct phasic DA release patterns during adaptation of established behavior in DLS and VMS. The VMS DA signal, which is highly sensitive to reversal of response-reward contingences, may provide a teaching signal to guide reward-related learning and facilitate behavioral adaptation, whereas DLS DA may reflect a 'response execution signal' largely

  5. Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, and Corpus Linguistics: Ideal Language Versus Real Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beaugrande, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Highlights modes of evidence in large corpus research that may be significant for Sociolinguistics. Suggests that corpus data can help Sociolinguistics engage with issues and variations in usage that are less abstract then phonetics, phonology, and grammar but more proximate to the socially vital issues of the 20th century. (Author/VWL)

  6. The Analysis of The Happy Prince Based on Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui

    2014-01-01

    As a new and rising discipline, Corpus Linguistics can be applied in the field of literary criticism to analyze literary text. Analyzing“The Happy Prince”written by the famous British writer Oscar Wilde with corpus can help reveal how the plot, por-traits of people and the rhetorical devices express the theme of the story.

  7. Corpus-based Study on English Synonym Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺倩静

    2014-01-01

    Corpus is widely used with the rapid development of corpus technology.This paper mainly introduces cor-pus-based study on English synonym discrimination which is effective in grasping English near synonyms. This cor-pus-based study may also give some implications on English learning.

  8. DutchParl: A corpus of parliamentary documents in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.; Schuth, A.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    A corpus called DutchParl is created which aims to contain all digitally available parliamentary documents written in the Dutch language. The first version of DutchParl contains documents from the parliaments of The Netherlands, Flanders and Belgium. The corpus is divided along three dimensions: per

  9. TwNC: a Multifaceted Dutch News Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland; Jong, de Franciska; Hessen, van Arjan; Hondorp, Hendri

    2007-01-01

    This contribution describes the Twente News Corpus (TwNC), a multifaceted corpus for Dutch that is being deployed in a number of NLP research projects among which tracks within the Dutch national research programme MultimediaN, the NWO programme CATCH, and the Dutch-Flemish programme STEVIN. The de

  10. Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, and Corpus Linguistics: Ideal Language Versus Real Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beaugrande, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Highlights modes of evidence in large corpus research that may be significant for Sociolinguistics. Suggests that corpus data can help Sociolinguistics engage with issues and variations in usage that are less abstract then phonetics, phonology, and grammar but more proximate to the socially vital issues of the 20th century. (Author/VWL)

  11. Designing a Corpus for Translation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Describes a million-word corpus for English-Italian translation students. Outlines the design, which makes multiple types of comparisons possible among originals and translations and illustrates how to use the corpus to teach sociocultural insights, discourse-structuring expressions, and lexical patterns. (Author/VWL)

  12. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  13. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  14. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  15. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  16. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  17. Building a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the construction of a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts for use in the development and evaluation of systems for automatically extracting clinically significant information from the textual component of patient records. The paper details the sampling of textual material from a collection of 20,000 cancer patient records, the development of a semantic annotation scheme, the annotation methodology, the distribution of annotations in the final corpus, and the use of the corpus for development of an adaptive information extraction system. The resulting corpus is the most richly semantically annotated resource for clinical text processing built to date, whose value has been demonstrated through its use in developing an effective information extraction system. The detailed presentation of our corpus construction and annotation methodology will be of value to others seeking to build high-quality semantically annotated corpora in biomedical domains.

  18. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  19. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  20. Ventral striatum encodes past and predicted value independent of motor contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brandon L; Barnett, Brian R; Vasquez, Gloria; Tobia, Steven C; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Burton, Amanda C; Bryden, Daniel W; Roesch, Matthew R

    2012-02-08

    The ventral striatum (VS) is thought to signal the predicted value of expected outcomes. However, it is still unclear whether VS can encode value independently from variables often yoked to value such as response direction and latency. Expectations of high value reward are often associated with a particular action and faster latencies. To address this issue we trained rats to perform a task in which the size of the predicted reward was signaled before the instrumental response was instructed. Instrumental directional cues were presented briefly at a variable onset to reduce accuracy and increase reaction time. Rats were more accurate and slower when a large versus small reward was at stake. We found that activity in VS was high during odors that predicted large reward even though reaction times were slower under these conditions. In addition to these effects, we found that activity before the reward predicting cue reflected past and predicted reward. These results demonstrate that VS can encode value independent of motor contingencies and that the role of VS in goal-directed behavior is not just to increase vigor of specific actions when more is at stake.

  1. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  2. Expression of calbindin D28K in substantia nigra of model rats with Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianshuai Gao; Hongmei Liu; Yanxia Ding; Hongjun Wang; Yanqiang Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous researches suggested that expression level of calbindin D28K mRNA decreased in substantia nigra (SN) of model rats with Parkinson disease (PD), and this might be related to the decrease of anti-degeneration potentials of dopaminergic neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe expression changes of calbindin D28K in SN dopaminergic neurons during their degeneration and death in midbrain of PD model rats.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: A total of 92 healthy male SD rats, with the age of 3 months, weighing 200-250 g, were selected from Experimental Animal Center of Xuzhou Medical College [certification: SCXK (su) 2003-0003].Calbindin D28K(CB), tyroxine hydroxylase (TH), ABC kit, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and Nissl dyes were provided by Sigma Company, and sheep serum was provided by Beijing Zhongshan Company.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Neurobiological Center of Xuzhou Medical College from October 2003 to October 2004. ① With lot method, rats were divided into blank control group (n=28), experimental control group (n=28) and experimental group (n=36). Rats in experimental group were injected with 6-OHDA at right corpus striatum for PD modeling; rats in experimental control group were injected with saline at the same site; rats in blank control group did not give any injections. ② On the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days, SN segments on right midbrain from every 5 rats in experimental group were fixed, embedded with paraffin and cut into successively coronary pieces. Rats in other two groups were treated with the same methods and then stained with Nissl to show neuronal form. Meanwhile, CB and TH antibodies staining with immunohistochemistry were used to show CB containing dopaminergic neurons and dopaminergic neurons,and cells were calculated and observed under optic microscope. ③ On the 14th and 28th days, every 4 rats in experimental group and every 4

  3. Consultation de corpus et styles d’apprentissage Corpus consultation and learning styles

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Boulton

    2012-01-01

    Les corpus représentent une ressource avec de multiples possibilités pour l’apprentissage des langues, mais les résultats d’expériences avec les étudiants sont moins convaincants qu’on pourrait l’espérer. Une explication serait que les résultats quantitatifs cachent la diversité des profils d’apprenants. Cette étude décrit une expérience où des étudiants en architecture consultent soit un corpus, soit un dictionnaire pour résoudre des difficultés précises d’usage en anglais, et complètent un ...

  4. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astiz, Mariana, E-mail: marianaastiz@gmail.com; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda, E-mail: ydiz@cajal.csic.es; Garcia-Segura, Luis M., E-mail: lmgs@cajal.csic.es

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5 weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4 mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity. - Highlights: • The dose of pesticide used was comparable to the levels of residues found in food. • Dimethoate administration increased cytokine expression and microglia reactivity. • Hippocampus and striatum were differentially affected by the treatment.

  5. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root 'sublux.' It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as 'subluxation:' i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation.

  6. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics Metáfora e linguística de corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I look at four different aspects of metaphor research from a corpus linguistic perspective, namely: (1 the lexicogrammar of metaphors, which refers to the patterning of linguistic metaphor revealed by corpus analysis; (2 metaphor probabilities, which is a facet of metaphor that emerges from frequency-based studies of metaphor; (3 dimensions of metaphor variation, or the search for systematic parameters of variation in metaphor use across different registers; and (4 automated metaphor retrieval, which relates to the development of software to help identify metaphors in corpora. I argue that these four aspects are interrelated, and that advances in one of them can drive changes in the others.Neste artigo discuto quarto aspectos da pesquisa sobre metáfora do ponto de vista da linguística de corpus: (1 a lexicogramática das metáforas, que se refere aos padrões da metáfora linguística revelados pela análise de corpus; (2 probabilidades metafóricas, que é uma faceta da metáfora que emerge a partir dos estudos relacionados à freqüência de metáforas; (3 dimensões da variação de metáforas, ou a busca por parâmetros sistemáticos de variação de uso de metáfora em diferentes gêneros; e (4 captura automática de metáfora, que está relacionada ao desenvolvimento de softwares que auxiliam na identificação de metáforas em corpora. I defendo que esses quatro aspectos são interrelacionados, e que progressos em um deles podem acarretar mudanças nos outros.

  7. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  8. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Language corpora are now indispensable to dictionary compilation. They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1 it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2 it shows local characteristics; and (3 it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment. The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon.

    Keywords: MULTILINGUAL, SPECIAL PURPOSE, CORPUS, LEXICON

    Opsomming: Van sakekorpus tot sakeleksikon. Taalkorpora is tans onontbeerlik virdie samestelling van woordeboeke. Hulle help om die rol van die woordeboek uit te brei vanaf diestandaardisering van die woordeskat tot die optekening van ‘n taal. Die drietalige korpus wat deurdie Hongkongse Politegniese Universiteit ontwikkel is, verskaf ‘n opgawe van die saketale wat inHongkong gebruik word. Dit verskil van ander korpora deurdat (1 dit Engels, Chinees and Japaneesinsluit; (2 dit plaaslike eienskappe vertoon; en (3 dit op 'n spesifieke gebied (finansiële dienste,insluitende bankwese, rekeningkunde, ouditering, versekering en belegging fokus. Die artikelbespreek verskillende aspekte van die totstandbrenging van 'n drietalige korpus, en hoe om vollegebruik te maak van die data om 'n drietalige leksikon te genereer.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIG, SPESIALE DOEL, KORPUS, LEKSIKON

  9. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-01

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  10. Study of Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum Carrageenans Growing in T oliara, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoamazava, A.

    1996-01-01

    The phycocolloids of two species of red algae, Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum, were studied. Eucheuma denticu/atum was found to contain mainly iota carrageenan, while kappa carrageenan was the main component in Eucheuma striatum. The carrageenan content in E. denticu/atum varied from 50 to 55'Yo; in E. striatum it varied from 42 to 51 %. Considering these yields and the abundance of these species in the Toliara area, the two Eucheuma spp. Are attractive for industrial exploitatio...

  11. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  12. Holistic corpus-based dialectology Dialetologia holística baseada em corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Szmrecsanyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sketching future directions for corpus-based dialectology. We advocate a holistic approach to the study of geographically conditioned linguistic variability, and we present a suitable methodology, 'corpusbased dialectometry', in exactly this spirit. Specifically, we argue that in order to live up to the potential of the corpus-based method, practitioners need to (i abandon their exclusive focus on individual linguistic features in favor of the study of feature aggregates, (ii draw on computationally advanced multivariate analysis techniques (such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, and (iii aid interpretation of empirical results by marshalling state-of-the-art data visualization techniques. To exemplify this line of analysis, we present a case study which explores joint frequency variability of 57 morphosyntax features in 34 dialects all over Great Britain.Este artigo debruça-se sobre o esboço propositivo de futuras direções para a dialetologia baseada em corpus. Defendemos uma abordagem holística para o estudo da variabilidade linguística geograficamente condicionada, e apresentamos uma metodologia adequada para tal - a dialetometria baseada em corpus. Mais especificamente, defendemos que para que se obtenham todos os resultados esperados da metodologia de corpus, pesquisadores devem: (i abandonar seu foco exclusivo em traços linguísticos individuais em favor do estudo dos agregados de traços, (ii amparar-se em métodos computacionais avançados de técnicas de análise multivariada (tais como escalagem multidimensional, análise de clusters, e análise de componente principal, e (iii auxiliar a interpretação de resultados empíricos através da utilização do estado da arte em técnicas de visualização. A fim de exemplificarmos essa linha de análise, apresentamos um estudo de caso que explora a variabilidade da frequência agregada de 57 tra

  13. The Protective Effect of Salidroside on Hypoxia-Induced Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside, a major active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has a long application in Chinese medical history. It has widely demonstrated effects on fatigue, psychological stress, and depression and exhibits potential antihypoxia activity. Emerging evidence shows that hypoxia is an important independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs. Our results showed that salidroside decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of collagen and content of vimentin, a corpus cavernosum smooth muscle synthetic protein, in vitro. Simultaneously, salidroside increased expression of the CCSMC contractile proteins, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and desmin. In vivo, similarly, the expressions of collagen and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were increased in bilateral cavernous neurectomy (BCN rats while they were decreased in the salidroside group. Among the phenotypic proteins, α-SMA and desmin increased and vimentin decreased after treating BCN rats with salidroside compared with the BCN alone group. Overall, our results demonstrate that salidroside has the ability to oppose hypoxia and can inhibit the CCSMC phenotypic transformation induced by hypoxia. Salidroside may provide a new treatment method for ED.

  14. The Protective Effect of Salidroside on Hypoxia-Induced Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Fan; Yan, Jun-Feng; Yang, Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Gang; Fu, Hui-Ying; Lv, Bo-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Salidroside, a major active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has a long application in Chinese medical history. It has widely demonstrated effects on fatigue, psychological stress, and depression and exhibits potential antihypoxia activity. Emerging evidence shows that hypoxia is an important independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of salidroside on hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). Our results showed that salidroside decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of collagen and content of vimentin, a corpus cavernosum smooth muscle synthetic protein, in vitro. Simultaneously, salidroside increased expression of the CCSMC contractile proteins, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. In vivo, similarly, the expressions of collagen and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were increased in bilateral cavernous neurectomy (BCN) rats while they were decreased in the salidroside group. Among the phenotypic proteins, α-SMA and desmin increased and vimentin decreased after treating BCN rats with salidroside compared with the BCN alone group. Overall, our results demonstrate that salidroside has the ability to oppose hypoxia and can inhibit the CCSMC phenotypic transformation induced by hypoxia. Salidroside may provide a new treatment method for ED.

  15. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  16. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value.

  17. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  18. Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus In this paper we present applications of a trilingual corpus in language research. Comparative and contrastive studies of Polish and Bulgarian as well as Polish and Lithuanian have been already conducted, but up to the best of our knowledge no such studies exist for Bulgarian and Lithuanian. On the one hand, it is interesting to note that two Slavic languages are compared to a Baltic language (Lithuanian. On the other hand, the three languages are marginally present in the EU because of the later ascension of the three countries to the EU. The paper shortly describes the first electronic Bulgarian–Polish–Lithuanian experimental corpus, currently under development only for research. We also focus our attention on the morphosyntactic annotation of the parallel trilingual corpus according to the Corpus Encoding Standard: we present a review of the Part-of-Speech (POS classification of the participle in the three languages – Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian in comparison to another POS, the adjective. We briefly discuss tagsets for corpus annotation from the point of view of possible unification in the future with some examples.

  19. New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvi Hurskainen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article presents various approaches used in corpus-based computational lexico-graphy. A claim is made that in order for computational lexicography to be efficient, precise and comprehensive, it should utilize the method where the corpus text is first analysed, and the results of this analysis is then processed further to meet the needs of a dictionary. This method has several advantages, including high precision and recall, as well as the possibility to automate the process much further than with more traditional computational methods. The frequency list obtained by using the lemma (the equivalent of the headword as basis helps in selecting the words to be in-cluded in the dictionary. The approach is demonstrated through various phases by applying SALAMA (the Swahili Language Manager to the process. Manual work will be needed in the phase when examples of use are selected from the corpus, and possibly modified. However, the list of examples of use, arranged alphabetically according to the corresponding headword, can also be produced automatically. Thus the alphabetical list of headwords with examples of use is the mate-rial on which the lexicographer works manually. The article deals with problems encountered in compiling traditional printed dictionaries, and it excludes electronic dictionaries and thesauri.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTA-TIONAL LINGUISTICS, AUTOMATIC COMPILATION, DICTIONARY TESTING, INFORMA-TION RETRIEVAL, MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, SEMANTIC ANALYSIS, DISAMBIGUA-TION, HEURISTICS

    Opsomming: Nuwe ontwikkelinge in korpusgebaseerde leksikografie. Hier-die artikel beskryf verskillende benaderings wat in korpusgebaseerde rekenaarleksikografie ge-bruik word. Daar word aangevoer dat vir rekenaarleksikografie om doelmatig, noukeurig en omvattend te wees, dit die metode behoort te gebruik waarby die korpusteks eers ontleed word, en die resultaat van hierdie ontleding dan verder

  20. A Corpus-based Discourse Analysis on Barack Obama’s Weekly Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯丽

    2015-01-01

    With the development and application of computational corpus, corpus linguistics has made great development. The daily life has seen the application and significance of corpus. Especialy in teaching for it can not only supply textbooks directly but also plays a large role in the outline of textbook and composition correction. Hence, corpus is widely applied.

  1. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  2. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the ... Corpora may exist in two forms, namely, nontagged/unannotated or ..... word in the construction, Ndakaapplaya where a Shona vowel -a- has been.

  3. Linguistic complexity: English vs. Polish, text vs. corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Orczyk, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rank-frequency distributions of words in selected English and Polish texts. We show that for the lemmatized (basic) word forms the scale-invariant regime breaks after about two decades, while it might be consistent for the whole range of ranks for the inflected word forms. We also find that for a corpus consisting of texts written by different authors the basic scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than in the case of comparable corpus consisting of texts written by the same author. Similarly, for a corpus consisting of texts translated into Polish from other languages the scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than for a comparable corpus of native Polish texts. Moreover, we find that if the words are tagged with their proper part of speech, only verbs show rank-frequency distribution that is almost scale-invariant.

  4. OLD RUSSIAN MANUSCRIPTS IN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with different types of the corpus representation of Old Russian manuscripts in their ability to solve linguistics problems. Collections of digital copies and e-books in PDF and DjVu formats are the simplest and widely spread type of electronic resources, containing old Russian manuscripts. Theoretically  more interesting, though much more difficult, is the representation  of digitized  editions as textual corpora and databases.  The main attention in the article is paid to the historical subcorpus within the Russian National Corpus representing the sources of the XI-XVII centuries and consisting of four parts: the Old Russian corpus, the Corpus of birchbark letters, the Middle Russian and the Church-Slavonic corpora.

  5. Architecture of the Corpus Spongiosum : An Anatomical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenhof, Sarah R; de Graaf, Petra; Soeterik, Timo F W; Neeter, Lidewij M F H; Zilverschoon, Marijn; Spinder, Matty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Heck-de Kort, Laetitia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urethral reconstruction is performed for urethral stricture or hypospadias correction. Research on urethral tissue engineering is increasing. Because the corpus spongiosum is important to support the urethra, urethral tissue engineering should ideally be combined with reconstruction of a co

  6. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger’s syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. She had a history of seizure disorder of ten years duration, which was controlled with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. Neurological examination was normal. On MRI, corpus callosum agenesis was detected. She was put on an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine to which her psychiatric symptoms responded completely. PMID:28208982

  7. Human fetal striatum-derived neural stem (NS) cells differentiate to mature neurons in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monni, Emanuela; Cusulin, Carlo; Cavallaro, Maurizio; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2014-01-01

    Clonogenic neural stem (NS) cell lines grown in adherent cultures have previously been established from embryonic stem cells and fetal and adult CNS in rodents and from human fetal brain and spinal cord. Here we describe the isolation of a new cell line from human fetal striatum (hNS cells). These cells showed properties of NS cells in vitro such as monolayer growth, high proliferation rate and expression of radial glia markers. The hNS cells expressed an early neuronal marker while being in the proliferative state. Under appropriate conditions, the hNS cells were efficiently differentiated to neurons, and after 4 weeks about 50% of the cells were βIII tubulin positive. They also expressed the mature neuronal marker NeuN and markers of neuronal subtypes, GABA, calbindin, and DARPP32. After intrastriatal implantation into newborn rats, the hNS cells survived and many of them migrated outside the transplant core into the surrounding tissue. A high percentage of cells in the grafts expressed the neuroblast marker DCX, indicating their neurogenic potential, and some of the cells differentiated to NeuN+ mature neurons. The human fetal striatum-derived NS cell line described here should be a useful tool for studies on cell replacement strategies in models of the striatal neuronal loss occurring in Huntington's disease and stroke.

  8. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  9. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne M Bettcher

    Full Text Available The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6 and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine, as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories.

  10. Heterotopic respiratory mucosa of the uterine corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala Ravindran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old, single, Chinese woman presented with pain on the 1st day of menses for more than 30 years. Her dysmenorrhea worsened over years and underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. The myometrium showed trabeculated appearance, and there were adhesions between ovaries and fallopian tubes. A pale solid brownish mass measuring 1.5 cm and times; 1 cm and times; 0.6 cm with fibrous whitish cut surfaces was present on the lateral wall of the uterus in the lower uterine segment. Histologically, adenomyosis and left ovarian endometriosis were confirmed. The lateral uterine wall nodule showed a tubular structure lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Smooth muscle bundles were found around the entire tubular structure. Lobules of salivary type glands containing both serous and mucous cells are present. The pathological diagnosis of heterotopic respiratory mucosa (HRM was made. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HRM of the uterine corpus. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(1.000: 26-28

  11. On the application of corpus in Chinese-English translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦蕾

    2013-01-01

    In translating from Chinese to English, we Chinese tend to rely on dictionaries or sometimes simply intuition to choose lexes. However, the translated texts still read not that idiomatic as the native speakers',the basic reason lying in the inappropriate collocations. For-tunately, the discovery of corpus laid the quantized basis for the study of collocational behaviors. This article aims to discuss the functions of corpus in bettering C- E translations.

  12. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, Matthew W.; Brown, Warren S.; Spezio, Michael L.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Adolphs, Ralph; Paul, Lynn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not ...

  13. Multi-annotation discursive de corpus écrit

    OpenAIRE

    Péry-Woodley, Marie-Paule

    2011-01-01

    National audience; On the basis of the experience acquired in the course of the ANNODIS project, the following questions are discussed: - what is the annotation campaign for? building an annotated " reference corpus" vs. annotation as an experiment; - defining annotation tasks. Naïve vs. expert annotation; - the annotation manual : from linguistic model to annotation protocol; - automatic pre-processing vs. manual annotation. Segmentation, tagging and mark-ups: steps in corpus preparation; - ...

  14. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  15. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aron Frederik; Baryalei, Mersa Mohammed; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Hinz, Jose; Wiese, Christoph Hermann; Raab, Björn; Kolat, Philipp; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert; Seipelt, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago. PMID:19121214

  16. Detecting Code-Switching in a Multilingual Alpine Heritage Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Clematide, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in detecting and annotating code-switching in a large multilingual diachronic corpus of Swiss Alpine texts. The texts are in English, French, German, Italian, Romansh and Swiss German. Because of the multilingual authors (mountaineers, scientists) and the assumed multilingual readers, the texts contain numerous code-switching elements. When building and annotating the corpus, we faced issues of language identification on the sentence and sub-sentential level. ...

  17. The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauranen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

  18. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  19. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  20. The Danish NOMCO Corpus Multimodal Interaction in First Acquaintance Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Danish NOMCO Corpus, an annotated multimodal collection of video-recorded first acquaintance conversations between Danish speakers. The annotation includes speech transcription including word boundaries, and formal as well as functional coding of gestural behaviours......, specifically head movements, facial expressions, and body posture. The corpus has served as the empirical basis for a number of studies of communication phenomena related to turn management, feedback exchange, information packaging and the expression of emotional attitudes. We describe the annotation scheme...

  1. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India); Raghavendra, Seetharam; Singh, Atampreet; Nair, Muraleedharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report a 15-year-old boy with autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC). The involvement of the corpus callosum was characteristic with the genu and body predominantly affected with relative sparing of the splenium. HSP-TCC is being increasingly recognized over a wider geographical area than earlier believed. We now report a case of HSP-TCC from the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  2. lexiDB:a scalable corpus database management system

    OpenAIRE

    Coole, Matt; Rayson, Paul Edward; Mariani, John Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    lexiDB is a scalable corpus database management system designed to fulfill corpus linguistics retrieval queries on multi-billion-word multiply-annotated corpora. It is based on a distributed architecture that allows the system to scale out to support ever larger text collections. This paper presents an overview of the architecture behind lexiDB as well as a demonstration of its functionality. We present lexiDB's performance metrics based on the AWS (Amazon Web Services) infrastructure with tw...

  3. Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    Brill 1991]) or the skeletally parsed corpus ([Weischedel et al 1991], [Pereira and Schabes 1992]). The POS-tagged corpus has also been used to train a...Niv 1991] Niv, Michael, 1991. Syntactic disambiguation. In The Penn Review of Linguistics 14, pages 120-126. [Pereira and Schabes 1992] Pereira...Fernando and Schabes , Yves. 1992. Inside-outside reestimation from partially bracketed corpora. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the

  4. Editing for an AMPA receptor subunit RNA in prefrontal cortex and striatum in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, S.; Smith, M. A.; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Animal studies and cell culture experiments demonstrated that posttranscriptional editing of the transcript of the GluR-2 gene, resulting in substitution of an arginine for glutamine in the second transmembrane region (TM II) of the expressed protein, is associated with a reduction in Ca2+ permeability of the receptor channel. Thus, disturbances in GluR-2 RNA editing with alteration of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis could lead to neuronal dysfunction and even neuronal degeneration. The present study determined the proportions of edited and unedited GluR-2 RNA in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, in the striatum of brains from patients with Huntington's disease, and in the same areas of brains from age-matched schizophrenics and controls, by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis and scintillation radiometry. In the prefrontal cortex of controls, 99.9% were edited; in the prefrontal cortex both of schizophrenics and of Alzheimer's patients approximately 1.0% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99% were edited. In the striatum of controls and of schizophrenics, approximately 0.5% of GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99.5% were edited; in the striatum of Huntington's patients nearly 5.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the prefrontal white matter of controls, approximately 7.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the normal human prefrontal cortex and striatum, the large majority of GluR-2 RNA molecules contains a CGG codon for arginine in the TMII coding region; this implies that the corresponding AMPA receptors have a low Ca2+ permeability, as previously demonstrated for the rat brain. The process of GluR-2 RNA editing is compromised in a region-specific manner in schizophrenia, in Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's Chorea although in each of these disorders there is still a large excess of edited GluR-2 RNA molecules. Disturbances of GluR-2 RNA

  5. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  6. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  7. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  8. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  9. Chinese EFL Teachers' Attitudes toward Corpus Use in Collocation Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Chinese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers ’attitudes to-ward corpus use in collocation instruction. Fourteen Chinese EFL teachers from seven different colleges or universities answered a questionnaire asking their perceptions about corpus use in collocation instruction. The statistical analysis revealed that significant difference (t=2.449, df.=9, p=.037<0.1) was found between males and females in their perception of the learnability of the search-ing technique in collocation corpus. Besides, the result also revealed that significant differences were found between novice and experienced teachers’perception of helpfulness of corpus in writing native-like sentences (t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1), identifying col-location errors in English (t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1), usefulness of corpus in searching for English collocations (t=2.93, df=12, p<0.1), and advocacy of corpus to colleagues(t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1). Finally, some pedagogical implications were put forward.

  10. Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H

    2008-07-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum.

  11. The Chinese-English Translational Corpus of Ecotourism in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed the history of the development of the corpus, especially the translation corpus, this paper explicated the importance of building a Chinese-English translational corpus for specific areas on the basis of the status quo of corpus and the translation need in China. Then how to build a translational corpus of ecotourism promotional materials centred on Inner Mongolia, as well as its applications, is thoroughly discussed.

  12. The Application of Corpus-based Lexical Chunks Approach in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅王星

    2015-01-01

    With the guidance of lexical chunks teaching approach, this article is to discuss the application of corpus-based lexical chunks approach in English teaching by making use of corpus concordance analysis.After comparing the language differences between native language corpus and target language corpus, it advocates that the emphasis of English lexical study should be put on corpus-based study of chunks, aiming to promote the fluency and authenticity of language output in English teaching.

  13. Persistent active avoidance correlates with activity in prelimbic cortex and ventral striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eBravo-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance is a prominent symptom of anxiety disorders and is often resistant to extinction-based therapies. Little is known about the circuitry mediating persistent avoidance. Using a recently described platform-mediated active avoidance task, we assessed activity in several structures with c-Fos immuno-labeling. In Task 1, rats were conditioned to avoid a tone-signaled shock by moving to a safe platform, and then were extinguished over two days. One day later, failure to retrieve extinction correlated with increased activity in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL, ventral striatum (VS, and basal amygdala (BA, and decreased activity in infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL, consistent with pharmacological inactivation studies. In Task 2, the platform was removed during extinction training and fear (suppression of bar pressing was extinguished to criterion over 3-5 days. The platform was then returned in a post-extinction test. Under these conditions, avoidance levels were equivalent to Experiment 1 and correlated with increased activity in PL and VS, but there was no correlation with activity in IL or BA. Thus, persistent avoidance occurs independently of deficits in fear extinction and its associated structures.

  14. Dorsal striatum D1-expressing neurons are involved with sensorimotor gating on prepulse inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Samanta; Salum, Cristiane; Ferreira, Tatiana L

    2017-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a behavioral test in which the startle reflex response to a high-intensity stimulus (pulse) is inhibited by the prior presentation of a weak stimulus (prepulse). The classic neural circuitry that mediates startle response is localized in the brainstem; however, recent studies point to the contribution of structures involved in higher cognitive functions in regulating the sensorimotor gating, particularly forebrain regions innervated by dopaminergic nuclei. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of dorsal striatum (DS) and dopaminergic transmitting mediated by D1 and D2 receptors on PPI test in rats. DS inactivation induced by muscimol injection did not affect PPI (%PPI and startle response), although it impaired the locomotor activity and caused catalepsy. Infusion of D1-like antagonist SCH23390 impaired %PPI but did not disturb the startle response and locomotor activity evaluated immediately after PPI test. D2 antagonist microinjection (sulpiride) did not affect %PPI and startle response, but impaired motor activity. These results point to an important role of DS, probably mediated by direct basal ganglia pathway, on modulation of sensorimotor gating, in accordance with clinical studies showing PPI deficits in schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, and compulsive disorders - pathologies related to basal ganglia dysfunctions.

  15. Direct activation of the ventral striatum in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jimmy; McIntosh, Anthony R; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J; Remington, Gary; Kapur, Shitij

    2003-12-18

    The brain "reward" system, centered on the limbic ventral striatum, plays a critical role in the response to pleasure and pain. The ventral striatum is activated in animal and human studies during anticipation of appetitive/pleasurable events, but its role in aversive/painful events is less clear. Here we present data from three human fMRI studies based on aversive conditioning using unpleasant cutaneous electrical stimulation and show that the ventral striatum is reliably activated. This activation is observed during anticipation and is not a consequence of relief after the aversive event. Further, the ventral striatum is activated in anticipation regardless of whether there is an opportunity to avoid the aversive stimulus or not. Our data suggest that the ventral striatum, a crucial element of the brain "reward" system, is directly activated in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

  16. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  17. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  18. The nucleus accumbens shell and the dorsolateral striatum mediate the reinforcing effects of cocaine through a serial connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, Maartje M J; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    The reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine are thought to rely on the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. The ventromedial [i.e. nucleus accumbens shell (NAcc) shell] and dorsolateral [dorsolateral striatum (DLS)] regions of the striatum are serially connected, and it is thought that

  19. Changes of learning and memory ability associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in brain tissues of rats with acute alcoholism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Chunyang Xu; Dongliang Li; Xinjuan Li; Linyu Wei; Yuan Cheng

    2006-01-01

    after alternation, pulsating electric current presented in the base of unsafe area to stimulate rat's feet to run to the safe area. The lighting lasted for 15 seconds as one test. Running from unsafe area to safe area at one time in 10 seconds was justified as successful. Such test was repeated for 10 times for each rat and the successful frequency was recorded. The qualified standard of maze test was that the rat arrived in the safe area 9 times during 10 experiments. The number of trainings for the qualified standard was used to represent the result of spatial learning. ③ Determination of the content of nNOS in brain tissue: After the Y-maze test,the rats were anaesthetized, and blood was let from the incision on right auricle, transcardially perfused via the left ventricle with about 200 mL saline, then fixed by perfusion of 40 g/L paraformaldehyde. Hippocampal CA1 region, corpus striatum and cerebellum were taken to prepare serial freezing coronal sections. The nNOS contents in the brain regions were determined with the immunohistochemical methods to reflect the changes of nitric oxide in brain tissue.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The changes of learning and memory ability and the changes of the nNOS contents in the brain tissue of rats with acute alcoholism were observed.RESULTS: One rat in the experimental group was excluded due to its slow reaction to electric stimulation in the Y-maze test, and the other 17 rats were involved in the analysis of results. ① The training times to reach qualifying standards of Y-maze in the experimental group was more than that in the control group [(34.33±13.04), (27.50±8.79) times, P < 0.05]. ② Forms and numbers of nNOS positive neurons in brain tissue: It could be observed under light microscope that in the hippocampal CA1 region, there were fewer nNOS positive neurons, which were lightly stained, and the processes were not clear enough; But the numbers of the positive neurons which were deeply stained as buffy were obviously

  20. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiz, Mariana; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity.