WorldWideScience

Sample records for rat corpus striatum

  1. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  2. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  3. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Toso Carlos A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months and aged (18–20 months rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats.

  4. In vivo [3H]spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugani, D.C.; Ackermann, R.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of receptor internalization and recycling have been well-documented for receptors for hormones, growth factors, lysosomal enzymes, and cellular substrates. Evidence also exists that these processes also occur for beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and delta-opiate receptors in frog erythrocytes or cultured nervous tissue. In this study, evidence is presented that agonist-mediated receptor internalization and recycling occurs at the dopamine receptor in rat corpus striatum. First, the in vivo binding of the dopamine antagonist [3H]spiperone was increased by both electrical stimulation and pharmacologically induced increases of dopamine release. Conversely, depletion of dopamine with reserpine decreased in vivo [3H]spiperone binding, but the same reserpine treatment did not alter its in vitro binding. Second, the rate of dissociation of [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes prepared from rat striatum following in vivo binding was fivefold slower than its dissociation following in vitro equilibrium binding. Mild detergent treatment, employed to disrupt endocytic vesicle membranes, increased the rate of dissociation of in vivo bound [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes to values not significantly different from its in vitro bound dissociation rate. Third, treatment of rats with chloroquine, a drug that prevents receptor recycling but not internalization, prior to [3H]spiperone injection resulted in a selective increase of in vivo [3H]spiperone binding in the light microsome membranes. The existence of mechanisms that rapidly alter the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses provides dynamic regulation of receptors in response to varied acute stimulation states

  5. Progressive obtundation in a young woman with bilateral corpus striatum infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangana Hero M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral ischemic infarction involving the corpus striatum is a rare event which usually results from global cerebral hypoxia, intoxications, and drug abuse. Case presentation We report a 28 year old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive obtundation and later development of severe expressive dysphasia and Parkinsonism after sustaining ischemic stroke of both corpora striata. Hemorrhagic transformation developed on day four of admission. Conclusion This is a rare case of bilateral basal ganglia infarction with hemorrhagic transformation in a young patient. Our patient's work up did not reveal any cause behind this stroke; however, advanced investigations (such as genetic testing and conventional angiography were not done. The damage resulted in motor dysphasia and Parkinsonism. Neither dystonia nor other involuntary movements developed, and cognitive function was not assessed because of the language disorder.

  6. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  7. Amphetamine-enhanced accumulation of [3H]-spiperone in mouse corpus striatum in vivo: Modification by other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorris, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Other investigators have reported that amphetamine administered to rodents results in an increase in the in vivo accumulation of either the tritiated dopamine receptor ligand, spiperone or pimozide in the dopaminergic corpus striatum, (specific binding) while not altering that in the sparsely dopaminergically innervated cerebellum (non-specific binding). Experiments were undertaken to determine if the results could be replicated and if some other drugs would modify the effect. Male mice were injected with [ 3 H]-spiperone (20 μCi/Kg, 0.0003 mg/kg) s.c. and killed 2 hrs later for determination of radioactivity in corpus striatum and cerebellum. Amphetamine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) given 15 min before [ 3 H]-spiperone, increased accumulation in striatum but not cerebellum. The increase was inhibited by α - methyltyrosine (α-MT), haloperidol, reserpine or amantadine. It is suggested that the amphetamine-induced increase in accumulation of [ 3 H]-spiperone in corpus striatum (specific binding) depends on release of large amounts of dopamine, which then must be able to interact with the dopamine receptor. The antagonism of the effect by α-MT or reserpine can be explained by dopamine depletion, that of haloperidol by antagonism for binding at the receptor site. It is suggested that amantadine acts by a dual mechanism: (1) as a low efficacy agonist, it competes for binding to the receptor and (2) it has some ability to block dopamine release

  8. Study on microstructure of corpus striatum in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-meng ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the structure of corpus striatum and the integrity of white matter fiber in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD.  Methods Twelve patients with iRBD, 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy subjects that were well matched in gender, age and education were enrolled in this study. Head MRI examination was performed to all subjects to observe the changes of corpus striatum structure (the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fiber [fractional anisotropy (FA] by combining voxel?based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus was significantly decreased (P < 0.005, and FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.005, right caudate nucleus (P < 0.001 and right putamen (P < 0.05 were all significantly reduced in iRBD patients; FA value of right putamen was significantly decreased in PD patients (P < 0.05. Compared with PD patients, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus of iRBD patients was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.01 and right caudate nucleus (P < 0.005 of iRBD patients were significantly reduced.  Conclusions There is atrophy of gray matter volume and extensive white matter fiber impairment in corpus striatum of patients with iRBD, and the white matter fiber impairment was similar to PD, which provides an anatomical evidence for iRBD being presymptom of PD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.008

  9. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  10. Contralateral Disconnection of the Rat Prelimbic Cortex and Dorsomedial Striatum Impairs Cue-Guided Behavioral Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip M.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Switches in reward outcomes or reward-predictive cues are two fundamental ways in which information is used to flexibly shift response patterns. The rat prelimbic cortex and dorsomedial striatum support behavioral flexibility based on a change in outcomes. The present experiments investigated whether these two brain regions are necessary for…

  11. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatum Methods: The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze. Results: In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups. Discussion: Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  12. Effect of quercetin and desferrioxamine on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurotoxicity in striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Siew, Cheng Jun; Ponnusamy, Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine is used to lesion dopaminergic pathways in the experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease. The present study was aimed to evaluate the combined treatment with bioflavonoid quercetin (QN) and desferrioxamine (DFO) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - induced neurotoxicity in the striatum of rats. Adult, male Sprague - Dawley rats were divided into control, sham lesion, 6-OHDA treated (300 µg, intracisternal), 6-OHDA with QN (50 mg/kg) treated, 6-OHDA with DFO (50 mg/kg) treated and 6-OHDA with QN and DFO treated groups. Striatal dopamine, protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. There was a significant increase (p protection. Combined treatment has a more significant effect (p protecting the neurons and increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the striatum. In conclusion, an antioxidant with iron chelator treatment showed a significant neuroprotective effect against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) by preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss and maintaining the striatal dopamine level.

  13. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  14. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased thyrotropin releasing hormone in the dorsal striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyskinesias associated with involuntary movements and painful muscle contractions are a common and severe complication of standard levodopa (L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pathologic neuroplasticity leading to hyper-responsive dopamine receptor signaling in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie this currently untreatable condition.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the molecular changes associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. With this technique, we determined that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH was greatly increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats that developed abnormal movements in response to L-DOPA therapy, relative to the levels measured in the contralateral non-dopamine-depleted striatum, and in the striatum of non-dyskinetic control rats. ProTRH immunostaining suggested that TRH peptide levels were almost absent in the dopamine-depleted striatum of control rats that did not develop dyskinesias, but in the dyskinetic rats, proTRH immunostaining was dramatically up-regulated in the striatum, particularly in the sensorimotor striatum. This up-regulation of TRH peptide affected striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect pathways, as well as neurons in striosomes.TRH is not known to be a key striatal neuromodulator, but intrastriatal injection of TRH in experimental animals can induce abnormal movements, apparently through increasing dopamine release. Our finding of a dramatic and selective up-regulation of TRH expression in the sensorimotor striatum of dyskinetic rat models suggests a TRH-mediated regulatory mechanism that may underlie the pathologic neuroplasticity driving dopamine hyper-responsivity in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  16. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shim, In Sop; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants

  17. Haloperidol-induced changes in neuronal activity in the striatum of the freely moving rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin eYael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the main input structure of the basal ganglia, integrating input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, which is modulated by midbrain dopaminergic input. Dopamine modulators, including agonists and antagonists, are widely used to relieve motor and psychiatric symptoms in a variety of pathological conditions. Haloperidol, a dopamine D2 antagonist, is commonly used in multiple psychiatric conditions and motor abnormalities. This article reports the effects of haloperidol on the activity of three major striatal subpopulations: medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs, fast spiking interneurons (FSIs and tonically active neurons (TANs. We implanted multi-wire electrode arrays in the rat dorsal striatum and recorded the activity of multiple single units in freely moving animals before and after systemic haloperidol injection. Haloperidol decreased the firing rate of FSIs and MSNs while increasing their tendency to fire in an oscillatory manner in the high voltage spindle (HVS frequency range of 7-9 Hz. Haloperidol led to an increased firing rate of TANs but did not affect their non-oscillatory firing pattern and their typical correlated firing activity. Our results suggest that dopamine plays a key role in tuning both single unit activity and the interactions within and between different subpopulations in the striatum in a differential manner. These findings highlight the heterogeneous striatal effects of tonic dopamine regulation via D2 receptors which potentially enable the treatment of diverse pathological states associated with basal ganglia dysfunction.

  18. Release of /sup 3/H-. cap alpha. -methyl-m-tyramine from rat striatum in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorris, R L [Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Tex. (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology

    1976-01-01

    Release of /sup 3/H-d-..cap alpha..-methyl-m-tyramine (/sup 3/H-MMTA), a false dopaminergic transmitter from rat striatum was studied in vitro. After its initial uptake, /sup 3/H-MMTA was released by high K/sup +/ and by amphetamine. The release requirements were essentially the same as those known to exist for release of dopamine in vitro. These studies indicate that /sup 3/H-MMTA might serve as a useful tool with which to study dopamine release mechanisms in vitro.

  19. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  20. Infant rats can learn time intervals before the maturation of the striatum: evidence from odor fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBoulanger Bertolus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval timing refers to the ability to perceive, estimate and discriminate durations in the range of seconds to minutes. Very little is currently known about the ontogeny of interval timing throughout development. On the other hand, even though the neural circuit sustaining interval timing is a matter of debate, the striatum has been suggested to be an important component of the system and its maturation occurs around the third post-natal week in rats. The global aim of the present study was to investigate interval timing abilities at an age for which striatum is not yet mature. We used odor fear conditioning, as it can be applied to very young animals. In odor fear conditioning, an odor is presented to the animal and a mild footshock is delivered after a fixed interval. Adult rats have been shown to learn the temporal relationships between the odor and the shock after a few associations. The first aim of the present study was to assess the activity of the striatum during odor fear conditioning using 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography during development in rats. The data showed that although fear learning was displayed at all tested ages, activation of the striatum was observed in adults but not in juvenile animals. Next, we assessed the presence of evidence of interval timing in ages before and after the inclusion of the striatum into the fear conditioning circuit. We used an experimental setup allowing the simultaneous recording of freezing and respiration that have been demonstrated to be sensitive to interval timing in adult rats. This enabled the detection of duration-related temporal patterns for freezing and/or respiration curves in infants as young as 12 days post-natal during odor-fear conditioning. This suggests that infants are able to encode time durations as well as and as quickly as adults while their striatum is not yet functional. Alternative networks possibly sustaining interval timing in infant rats are discussed.

  1. Regulation of Pleiotrophin and Fyn in the striatum of rats undergoing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gimena; Saborido, Mariano D; Bernardi, M Alejandra; Gershanik, Oscar S; Taravini, Irene R; Ferrario, Juan E

    2018-02-14

    L-DOPA is the gold standard pharmacological therapy for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, its long-term use is associated with the emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of LID is crucial for the development of newer and more effective therapeutic approaches. In previous publications, we have shown that Pleiotrophin (PTN), a developmentally regulated trophic factor, is up-regulated by L-DOPA in the striatum of dopamine denervated rats. We have also shown that both mRNA and protein levels of RPTPζ/β, a PTN receptor, were upregulated in the same experimental condition and expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. The PTN-RPTPζ/β intracellular pathway has not been fully explored and it might be implicated in the striatal plastic changes triggered by L-DOPA treatment. RPTPζ/β is part of the postsynaptic density zone and modulates Fyn, a Src tyrosine kinase that regulates the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor and has been singled out as a key molecule in the development of LID. In this study, we evaluated the changes in PTN and Fyn protein levels and Fyn phosphorylation status in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD rendered dyskinetic with L-DOPA. We found an increase in the number of PTN immunoreactive neurons, no changes in the amount of total Fyn but a significant increase in Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsolateral striatum of dyskinetic rats. Our results support the idea that both PTN and Fyn may be involved in the development of LID, further contributing to the understanding of its molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effects of three club drugs on the striatum of rats: Evaluation by quantitative autoradiography with [18F]FDOPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Hong-Wen; Wang, Wei-Hsun; Liu, Ren-Shen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we used quantitative autoradiography to study the acute effect of cocaine, methamphetamine, and ketamine on the uptake of [ 18 F]FDOPA in the striatum of rats. Drugs were treated 0.5 h before (pre-treated), and 1.5 h after (post-treated) [ 18 F]FDOPA injections, rats were then sacrificed at 2 h post [ 18 F]FDOPA injections to determine the striatum/frontal cortex binding ratios in the striatum. The ratios were lower in the post-treated groups than those of the pre-treated groups, suggesting a net effect of inhibition of trapping of the tracer. The order of uptake inhibition is: ketamine>methamphetamine>cocaine

  3. Change of striatum dopaminergic transporter and content of dopamine in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Huicheng; Zhao Zhiying; Zhu Li; Zhang Yingqiang; Chen Zhengping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The central dopamine system plays an important role in regulating movement and mood. In our routine clinical practice,we found that patients with hyperthyroidism often show tremor of their hands or legs. Meanwhile they also experienced emotional problems such as anxiety and depression. These reminded us that there might be close relationship between thyroid hormone and dopamine system. Based on our previous works, in this study we evaluated the change of striatum dopamine transporter (DAT) by using 99 Tc m -2β- [N, N'-bis (2-merecaptoethyl) ethylenediamino]methyl, 3β- (4-chlorophenyl) tropane (TRODAT-1) brain biodistribution, and the content of striatum dopamine and its metabolites 3.4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) by high performace liquid chromatograph-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism. Methods: All 24 rats were randomly divided into two groups, thyroxin group were induced by daily thyroxin infusion for 14 d to be experimental hyperthyroidism, the others were control group which received saline infusion. The blood samples were randomly taken from thyroxine group and control group, and the concentration of TT 3 and TT 4 were detected by radioimmunoassay. After 14 d,both experimental (thyroxine group) and control group were further divided into 2 sub-groups. One was for evaluation of the function of striatum DAT by 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 biodistribution study and the other was for HPIJC-ECD measurement of the concentration of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC. Results: Significantly hyperactivity and weight loss [(223.90 ± 8.40) VS (261.60 ± 14.20)g, t=6.98. P 3 and TT 4 after thyroxin infusion was significantly elevated than that of before thyroxin infusion [(2.72 ± 0.29) V8(1.46 ± 0.17) nmol/L, t=10.51, P 3 , and TT 4 after saline infusion showed no statistical significance as compared with before saline infusion [(1.71 ± 0.20) vs (1.54 ± O.09) nmol/L, t=1.68. P>0.05 and (88.38 ± 6.76) vs (98.38 ± 9

  4. In vivo treatment with diphenyl ditelluride induces neurodegeneration in striatum of young rats: Implications of MAPK and Akt pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Andrade, Cláudia; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Guma, Fátima T. Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Batista Teixeira da Rocha, João [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS Brazil (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    In the present report 15 day-old Wistar rats were injected with 0.3 μmol of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe){sub 2}/kg body weight and parameters of neurodegeneration were analyzed in slices from striatum 6 days afterwards. We found hyperphosphorylation of intermediate filament (IF) proteins from astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein—GFAP and vimentin) and from neuron (low-, medium- and high molecular weight neurofilament subunits: NF-L, NF-M and NF-H, respectively) and increased MAPK (Erk, JNK and p38MAPK) as well as PKA activities. The treatment induced reactive astrogliosis in the striatum, evidenced by increased GFAP and vimentin immunocontent as well as their mRNA overexpression. Also, (PhTe){sub 2} significantly increased the propidium iodide (PI) positive cells in NeuN positive population without altering PI incorporation into GFAP positive cells, indicating that in vivo exposure to (PhTe){sub 2} provoked neuronal damage. Immunohistochemistry showed a dramatic increase of GFAP staining characteristic of reactive astrogliosis. Moreover, increased caspase 3 in (PhTe){sub 2} treated striatal slices suggested apoptotic cell death. (PhTe){sub 2} exposure decreased Akt immunoreactivity, however phospho-GSK-3-β (Ser9) was unaltered, suggesting that this kinase is not directly implicated in the neurotoxicity of this compound. Therefore, the present results shed light into the mechanisms of (PhTe){sub 2}-induced neurodegeneration in rat striatum, evidencing a critical role for the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways and disruption of cytoskeletal homeostasis, which could be related with apoptotic neuronal death and astrogliosis. -- Highlights: ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes apoptotic neuronal death in the striatum of young rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes reactive astrogliosis in the striatum of rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride disrupts the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of the striatum. ► The actions of diphenyl ditelluride are mediated by MAPK and Akt

  5. Manganese-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum is not attenuated by dopamine depletion or iron chelation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. Sloot (W.); J. Korf (Jakob); J.F. Koster (Johan); L.E.A. de Wit (Elly); J.-B.P. Gramsbergen (J. B P)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe present studies were aimed at investigating the possible roles of dopamine (DA) and iron in production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) in rat striatum after Mn2+ intoxication. For this purpose, DA depletions were assessed concomitant with in vivo 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA)

  6. Penile erection responses of Nigella sativa seed extract on isolated rat corpus cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminyoto, M.; Ismail, S.

    2018-04-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) from Ranunculaceae family is known as black cumin in Indonesia. The seed has been used as an aphrodisiac in ethnobotanical studies and reported to have pharmacological activities such as antihypertensive through the relaxant effect of vascular smooth muscles but the direct effect to the blood vessels of the corpus cavernosum is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of NS seed extract on penile erection in vitro. NS seeds were macerated in ethanol solvent for three days in room temperature and repeated for two times. Penile erection responses was assessed using isolated rat corpus cavernosum in Krebs-Henseleit solution, temperature 37°C, pH 7.4, aerated with carbogen gas. After acclimation, corpus cavernosum was contracted with a phenylephrine solution. Ethanolic extract of NS seeds or control solution were given after reaching the plateu phase of the highest contraction. This study showed that the contraction response of the corpus cavernosum decreased after addition of NS extract and this action was increased with the addition of the extract concentration. This study concluded that NS seed ethanol extract affects the penile erection response directly through the relaxation of blood vessels in the corpus cavernosum.

  7. Effects of the neonicotinoids thiametoxam and clothianidin on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Nunes, Brenda Viviane Ferreira; Barbosa, Durán Rafael; Pallares, Alfonso Miguel; Faro, Lilian Rosana Ferreira

    2010-02-15

    Thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLO) are neonicotinoids insecticides. The main characteristic of these pesticides is their agonist action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present work it was studied and characterized the effects of TMX and CLO, in different concentrations, on dopaminergic system of rat striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis coupled to HPLC-EC. Intrastriatal administration of 1mM or 5mM TMX has not produced significant increases on dopamine (DA) levels, nonetheless the infusion of 10mM TMX increases the DA output to 841+/-132%, when compared to basal levels. Infusion of 1mM CLO has not induced a significant increase in DA levels, even so 2, 3.5 and 5mM CLO have produced an increase of 438+/-8%, 2778+/-598% and 4604+/-516%, respectively, every compared to basal levels. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nAChRs antagonist, was used to investigate the role of nAChRs on DA release induced by TMX and CLO. The increases in extracellular DA levels induced by TMX and CLO when associated to MEC are 80% and 68% lower than the effect produced by CLO and TMX isolated. These results confirm that TMX and CLO appear to induce in vivo DA increased release in striatum of rats and it seems to be concentration dependent. Moreover, these results indicate that this effect might be related to nAChRs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical high frequency stimulation in the dorsal striatum: Effects on response learning and on GABA levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Lecourtier, Lucas; Moser, Andreas; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-23

    Electrical high frequency stimulation (HFS) has been used to treat various neurological and psychiatric diseases. The striatal area contributes to response learning and procedural memory. Therefore, we investigated the effect of striatal HFS application on procedural/declarative-like memory in rats. All rats were trained in a flooded Double-H maze for three days (4 trials/day) to swim to an escape platform hidden at a constant location. The starting place was the same for all trials. After each training session, HFS of the left dorsal striatum was performed over 4h in alternating 20 min periods (during rest time, 10a.m. to 3p.m.). Nineteen hours after the last HFS and right after a probe trial assessing the rats' strategy (procedural vs. declarative-like memory-based choice), animals were sacrificed and the dorsal striatum was quickly removed. Neurotransmitter levels were measured by HPLC. Stimulated rats did not differ from sham-operated and control rats in acquisition performance, but exhibited altered behavior during the probe trial (procedural memory responses being less frequent than in controls). In stimulated rats, GABA levels were significantly increased in the dorsal striatum on both sides. We suggest that HFS of the dorsal striatum does not alter learning behavior in rats but influences the strategy by which the rats solve the task. Given that the HFS-induced increase of GABA levels was found 19 h after stimulation, it can be assumed that HFS has consequences lasting for several hours and which are functionally significant at a behavioral level, at least under our stimulation (frequency, timing, location, side and strength of stimulation) and testing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of electroacupuncture on metabolic changes in motor cortex and striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Wen-Ting; Jia, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2017-10-06

    To explore the possible underlying mechanism by investigating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on the primary motor cortex and striatum in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group (n=16), model group (n=14), and EA group (n=14). EA stimulation at Dazhui (GV 14) and Baihui (GV20) was applied to PD rats in the EA group for 4 weeks. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of EA treatment. Metabolites were detected by 7.0 T proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Following 4 weeks of EA treatment in PD model rats, the abnormal behavioral impairment induced by 6-OHDA was alleviated. In monitoring changes in metabolic activity, ratios of myoinositol/creatine (Cr) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Cr in the primary motor cortex were significantly lower at the injected side than the non-injected side in PD rats (P=0.024 and 0.020). The ratios of glutamate + glutamine (Glx)/Cr and NAA/Cr in the striatum were higher and lower, respectively, at the injected side than the non-injected side (P=0.046 and 0.008). EA treatment restored the balance of metabolic activity in the primary motor cortex and striatum. In addition, the taurine/Cr ratio and Glx/Cr ratio were elevated in the striatum of PD model rats compared to sham-lesioned rats (P=0.026 and 0.000). EA treatment alleviated the excessive glutamatergic transmission by down-regulating the striatal Glx/Cr ratio (P=0.001). The Glx/Cr ratio was negatively correlated with floor plane spontaneous locomotion in PD rats (P=0.027 and P=0.0007). EA treatment is able to normalize the metabolic balance in the primary motor cortex and striatum of PD rats, which may contribute to its therapeutic effect on motor deficits. The striatal Glx/Cr ratio may serve as a potential indicator of PD and a therapeutic target of EA treatment.

  10. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  11. The role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and striatum during sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J B; Rudick, C N; Jenkins, W J

    2001-05-01

    Dopamine in dialysate from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) increases during sexual and feeding behavior and after administration of drugs of abuse, even those that do not directly activate dopaminergic systems (e.g., morphine or nicotine). These findings and others have led to hypotheses that propose that dopamine is rewarding, predicts that reinforcement will occur, or attributes incentive salience. Examining increases in dopamine in NAcc or striatum during sexual behavior in female rats provides a unique situation to study these relations. This is because, for the female rat, sexual behavior is associated with an increase in NAcc dopamine and conditioned place preference only under certain testing conditions. This experiment was conducted to determine what factors are important for the increase in dopamine in dialysate from NAcc and striatum during sexual behavior in female rats. The factors considered were the number of contacts by the male, the timing of contacts by the male, or the ability of the female to control contacts by the male. The results indicate that increased NAcc dopamine is dependent on the timing of copulatory stimuli, independent of whether the female rat is actively engaged in regulating this timing. For the striatum, the timing of copulatory behavior influences the magnitude of the increase in dopamine in dialysate, but other factors are also involved. We conclude that increased extracellular dopamine in the NAcc and striatum conveys qualitative or interpretive information about the rewarding value of stimuli. Sexual behavior in the female rat is proposed as a model to determine the role of dopamine in motivated behavior.

  12. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Harrold, Jon B.; Alloway, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neur...

  13. Utility of a tripolar stimulating electrode for eliciting dopamine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, B P; Garris, P A

    1999-03-01

    The present study evaluated tripolar stimulating electrodes for eliciting dopamine release in the rat brain in vivo. Stimulating electrodes were placed either in the medial forebrain bundle or in the ventral mesencephalon associated with the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. The concentration of extracellular dopamine was monitored in dopamine terminal fields at 100-ms intervals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. To characterize the stimulated area, recordings were collected in several striatal regions including the caudate putamen and the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. The tripolar electrode was equally effective in stimulating dopamine release in medial and lateral regions of the striatum. In contrast, responses evoked by a bipolar electrode were typically greater in one mediolateral edge versus the other. The added size of the tripolar electrode did not appear to cause complications as signals were stable over the course of the experiment (3 h). Subsets of mesostriatal dopamine neurons could also be selectively activated using the tripolar electrode in excellent agreement with previously described topography. Taken together, these results suggested that the tripolar stimulating electrode is well suited for studying the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in vivo.

  14. Acylethanolamides and endocannabinoid signaling system in dorsal striatum of rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubiec, Mariana I; Romero, Juan I; Blanco, Eduardo; Tornatore, Tamara Logica; Suarez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Galeano, Pablo; Capani, Francisco

    2017-07-13

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and acylethanolamides (AEs) have lately received more attention due to their neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders. Here we analyze the alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia (PA) in the main metabolic enzymes and receptors of the eCBs/AEs in the dorsal striatum of rats. To induce PA, we used a model developed by Bjelke et al. (1991). Immunohistochemical techniques were carried out to determine the expression of neuronal and glial markers (NeuN and GFAP), eCBs/AEs synthesis and degradation enzymes (DAGLα, NAPE-PLD and FAAH) and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα). We found a decrease in NAPE-PLD and PPARα expression. Since NAPE-PLD and PPARα take part in the production and reception of biochemical actions of AEs, such as oleoylethanolamide, these results may suggest that PA plays a key role in the regulation of this system. These data agree with previous results obtained in the hippocampus and encourage us to develop further studies using AEs as potential neuroprotective compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  16. Functional relationships between the hippocampus and dorsomedial striatum in learning a visual scene-based memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.

  17. Altered dopaminergic regulation of the dorsal striatum is able to induce tic-like movements in juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias; Schulze, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Motor tics are sudden, repetitive, involuntary movements representing the hallmark behaviors of the neurodevelopmental disease Tourette’s syndrome (TS). The primary cause of TS remains unclear. The initial observation that dopaminergic antagonists alleviate tics led to the development of a dopaminergic theory of TS etiology which is supported by post mortem and in vivo studies indicating that non-physiological activation of the striatum could generate tics. The striatum controls movement execution through the balanced activity of dopamine receptor D1 and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect pathway, respectively. Different neurotransmitters can activate or repress striatal activity and among them, dopamine plays a major role. In this study we introduced a chronic dopaminergic alteration in juvenile rats, in order to modify the delicate balance between direct and indirect pathway. This manipulation was done in the dorsal striatum, that had been associated with tic-like movements generation in animal models. The results were movements resembling tics, which were categorized and scored according to a newly developed rating scale and were reduced by clonidine and riluzole treatment. Finally, post mortem analyses revealed altered RNA expression of dopaminergic receptors D1 and D2, suggesting an imbalanced dopaminergic regulation of medium spiny neuron activity as being causally related to the observed phenotype. PMID:29698507

  18. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of sonic hedgehog into the striatum stimulates neuroregeneration in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Dong, Weiren; Guo, Suiqun; Zhao, Shu; He, Suifen; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Yinjuan; Wang, Haihong

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the nigrostriatal pathway, consisting of dopaminergic neuronal projections from the substantia nigra to the striatum, degenerates. Viral transduction is currently the most promising in vivo strategy for delivery of therapeutic proteins into the brain for treatment of PD. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is necessary for cell proliferation, differentiation and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressed N-terminal product of SHH (SHH-N) in a PD model rat. A lentiviral vector containing SHH-N was stereotactically injected into the striatum 24 h after a striatal 6-OHDA lesion. We found that overexpressed SHH-N attenuated behavioral deficits and reduced the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and the loss of dopamine fibers in the striatum. In addition, fluoro-ruby-labeled nigrostriatal projections were also repaired. Together, our results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using the strategy of lentivirus-mediated Shh-N delivery to delay nigrostriatal pathway degeneration. This strategy holds the potential for therapeutic application in the treatment of PD.

  19. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  20. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquifino, A.I.; Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  1. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  2. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  3. Neovascularization of the corpus luteum of rats during the estrus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K; Matsushima, T; Yamanaka, N

    1996-06-01

    In order to elucidate the chronological morphological changes of the corpus luteum (CL) of rats, as a physiological angiogenesis model, the CL of rat ovaries was studied light microscopically using periodic acid methenamine silver staining (PAM) and immunostaining for type IV collagen, laminin, thrombomodulin (TM), factor VIII related antigen (factor VIII) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). The CL was also studied electron microscopically. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats were used, which have a regular 4-day estrous cycle. The histological changes of the CL were observed in 6-hour intervals from 4 h before the ovulation to 28 h post-ovulation during the estrous cycle. Once the basement membrane (BM) of the follicle disintegrated following ovulation, developing capillaries entered into the CL and formed a vascular lumen with a surrounding BM, which showed positive for PAM staining, type IV collagen and laminin. The developing capillaries in the CL showed a weakly positive reaction for TM and factor VIII, but were negative for alpha-SMA. However, the appearance of immature pericytes around the well-developed capillary was obvious with electron microscopy. The study reported here provides detailed descriptions of angiogenesis during luteinization. It is concluded that the angiogenesis of the CL begins at the time of destruction of the BM of the ovarian follicle, and that the capillary BM appears when the capillary forms its lumen. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the capillary does not develop into an arteriole during luteinization.

  4. L-Tyrosine availability affects basal and stimulated catecholamine indices in prefrontal cortex and striatum of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnik, Zachary D; Double, Manda; España, Rodrigo A; Jaskiw, George E

    2017-09-01

    We previously found that L-tyrosine (L-TYR) but not D-TYR administered by reverse dialysis elevated catecholamine synthesis in vivo in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and striatum of the rat (Brodnik et al., 2012). We now report L-TYR effects on extracellular levels of catecholamines and their metabolites. In MPFC, reverse dialysis of L-TYR elevated in vivo levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (L-TYR 250-1000 μM), homovanillic acid (HVA) (L-TYR 1000 μM) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) (L-TYR 500-1000 μM). In striatum L-TYR 250 μM elevated DOPAC. We also examined L-TYR effects on extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels during two 30 min pulses (P2 and P1) of K+ (37.5 mM) separated by t = 2.0 h. L-TYR significantly elevated the ratio P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 125 μM) and NE (L-TYR 125-250 μM) in MPFC but lowered P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 250 μM) in striatum. Finally, we measured DA levels in brain slices using ex-vivo voltammetry. Perfusion with L-TYR (12.5-50 μM) dose-dependently elevated stimulated DA levels in striatum. In all the above studies, D-TYR had no effect. We conclude that acute increases within the physiological range of L-TYR levels can increase catecholamine metabolism and efflux in MPFC and striatum. Chronically, such repeated increases in L-TYR availability could induce adaptive changes in catecholamine transmission while amplifying the metabolic cost of catecholamine synthesis and degradation. This has implications for neuropsychiatric conditions in which neurotoxicity and/or disordered L-TYR transport have been implicated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Light-controlled relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum using NOBL-1, a novel nitric oxide releaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hotta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum could be controlled with NOBL-1, a novel, lightcontrollable nitric oxide (NO releaser. Materials and Methods: Fifteen-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were used. The penile corpus cavernosum was prepared and used in an isometric tension study. After noradrenaline (10−5 M achieved precontraction, the penile corpus cavernosum was irradiated by light (470–500 nm with and without NOBL-1 (10−6 M. In addition, we noted rats’ responses to light with vardenafil (10−6 M, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitor. Next, responses to light in the presence of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10−5 M, were measured. All measurements were performed in pretreated L-NAME (10−4 M conditions to inhibit endogenous NO production. Results: Corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, was unchanged by light irradiation in the absence of NOBL-1. However, in the presence of NOBL-1, corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, relaxed in response to light irradiation. After blue light irradiation ceased, tension returned. In addition, the light response was obviously enhanced in the presence of a PDE-5 inhibitor. Conclusions: This study showed that rat corpus cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation can be light-controlled using NOBL-1, a novel, light sensitive NO releaser. Though further in vivo studies are needed to investigate possible usefulness, NOBL-1 may be prove to be a useful tool for erectile dysfunction therapy, specifically in the field of penile rehabilitation.

  6. A fundamental study on accumulation of [125I]IBZM in the rat striatum and on effect of non-labeled ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Satou, Motohiro; Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Motoji, Naomi; Shigematsu, Akiyo.

    1995-01-01

    Iodo-125-labeled iodobenzamide ([ 125 I]IBZM) is used as a specific binding radioligand to dopamine D 2 receptors with high affinity and selectivity. The radioligand was homogeneously distributed in the whole brain initially after anministration, and rapidly washed out from the dopamine receptor-poor area followed by persistent retention in the striatum. Regression curve generated from striatum/cortex PSL ratio indicated the constant washout rate from striatum and cortex respectively. In the pretreated rat by cold benzamide (2 mg/kg), the accumulation of the radioligand was significantly suppressed in the striatum (48.8%). Iodine-125-labeled iodo-benzamide has the promise for investigation of dopamine D 2 receptors in the living brain. (author)

  7. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid-like lipid metabolites in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Parsons, Loren; Pope, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Parathion and chlorpyrifos are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) are endogenous neuromodulators that regulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release in neurons throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. While substantial information is known about the eCBs, less is known about a number of endocannabinoid-like metabolites (eCBLs, e.g., N-palmitoylethanolamine, PEA; N-oleoylethanolamine, OEA). We report the comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on AChE and enzymes responsible for inactivation of the eCBs, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and changes in the eCBs AEA and 2AG and eCBLs PEA and OEA, in rat striatum. Adult, male rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), parathion (27 mg/kg) or chlorpyrifos (280 mg/kg) 6-7 days after surgical implantation of microdialysis cannulae into the right striatum, followed by microdialysis two or four days later. Additional rats were similarly treated and sacrificed for evaluation of tissue levels of eCBs and eCBLs. Dialysates and tissue extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. AChE and FAAH were extensively inhibited at both time-points (85-96%), while MAGL activity was significantly but lesser affected (37-62% inhibition) by parathion and chlorpyrifos. Signs of toxicity were noted only in parathion-treated rats. In general, chlorpyrifos increased eCB levels while parathion had no or lesser effects. Early changes in extracellular AEA, 2AG and PEA levels were significantly different between parathion and chlorpyrifos exposures. Differential changes in extracellular and/or tissue levels of eCBs and eCBLs could potentially influence a number of signaling pathways and contribute to selective neurological changes following acute OP intoxications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Viral Vector Mediated Over-Expression of Estrogen Receptor–α in Striatum Enhances the Estradiol-induced Motor Activity in Female Rats and Estradiol Modulated GABA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N.; von Esenwein, Silke A.; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G.; Young, Larry J.; Becker, Jill B.

    2009-01-01

    Classical estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ)) to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K+- evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERα located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether over-expression of ERα in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K+- evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERα cDNA (AAV.ERα) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERα in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared to controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low dose of amphetamine. ERα over-expression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K+- evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior. PMID:19211896

  9. Viral vector-mediated overexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha in striatum enhances the estradiol-induced motor activity in female rats and estradiol-modulated GABA release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N; von Esenwein, Silke A; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L; Kennedy, Robert T; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G; Young, Larry J; Becker, Jill B

    2009-02-11

    Classical estrogen receptor-signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors [estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta)] to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K(+)-evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERalpha located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether overexpression of ERalpha in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K(+)-evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERalpha cDNA (AAV.ERalpha) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERalpha in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared with controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low-dose of amphetamine. ERalpha overexpression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K(+)-evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior.

  10. The expression, localization and function of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Yarmohammadi, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Abdollahi, Ali Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), an emerging pharmacological target for a variety of medical conditions, is expressed in the most mammalian tissues with different effects. So, this study was designed to investigate the expression, localization and effect of α7-nAChR in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that α7-nAChR was expressed in rat CC and double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of α7-nAChR in corporal neurons. The rat CC segments were mounted in organ bath chambers and contracted with phenylephrine (0.1 μm -300 μm) to investigate the relaxation effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS,10 Hz) assessed in the presence of guanethidine (adrenergic blocker, 5 μm) and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic blocker, 1 μm) to obtain non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. Cumulative administration of nicotine significantly potentiated the EFS-induced NANC relaxation (-log EC50 = 7.5 ± 0.057). Whereas, the potentiated NANC relaxation of nicotine was significantly inhibited with different concentrations of methyllycaconitine citrate (α7-nAChR antagonist, P < 0.05) in preincubated strips. L-NAME (non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1 μm) completely blocked the neurogenic relaxation induced by EFS plus nicotine. To conclude α7-nAChR is expressed in rat CC and modulates the neurogenic relaxation response to nicotine. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat striatum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Wan, Hai-Tong; Yang, Jie-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Yan; Ge, Li-Jun; Bie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid transmitters in the extracellular fluid of striatum following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microdialysis cannula guide was implanted into the right striatum. After recovery, animals underwent a sham operation or middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Those that developed cerebral ischemia after MCAO were randomized to receive propylene glycol salt water and ligustrazine respectively. Striatal fluid samples were collected from all animals at 15-min intervals after treatment and were subjected to HPLC analysis of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, taurine, and γ-amino butyric acid. Upon the last sample collection, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue specimens were collected for triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and NeuN staining. Compared with the sham operation, MCAO induced significant neurological deficits and increased striatal concentrations of the four neurotransmitters assessed in a time-dependent manner (P cerebral infarction-protective agent may have potential clinical implications for I/R-related brain damage.

  12. Monitoring embryonic stem cell transplantation into rat corpus cavernosum using optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Le, Uyenchi N.; Park, Kwang Sung; Lee, Hyun Suk; Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Han, Ha Jae

    2005-01-01

    The conventional method for the analysis of stem cell transplantation depends on postmortem histology. Here, we have sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cell survival in living animals, by employing optical imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ES-E14TG2a). Mouse ES cells were cultured in the DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 3.7 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 1 % penicillin and streptomycin, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 0.1mM β-mercaptoethanol 5 ng/mL mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without a feeder layer and cultured for five days in standard medium plus LIF. ESCs were then transfected (MOI=100) overnight with Ad-CMV-Fluc. Our experimental Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7) were given with different numbers of ESCs 6) expressing Fluc into corpus cavernosum. In cell cultures, firefly luciferase activity correlated linearly with cell numbers from 10 5 to 5x10 6 (r2=0.95). In living animal imaging, imaging signal activity correlated linearly with cell numbers injected from 10 5 to 5x10 6 at each time point (r2=0.62 ∼ 0.98), In all three groups of rats, imaging signal was detected in rat genital area from the 2nd day to the 47th day after cellular injection. Adenovirus mediated transient expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in ESCs was feasible to monitor cell survival over a month after transplantation. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of the ESCs were noninvasively monitored with a bioluminescence optical imaging system

  13. Antagonism by supidimide of haloperidol-induced augmentation of [3H]-spiperone binding in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.; Hess, V.; Flohe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were treated for two weeks with haloperidol alone or with additional test drugs and the D 2 receptor density in the striatum was investigated after a drug-free period of five days. The D 2 receptor system as analysed by [ 3 H]-spinerone binding was best characterized by a model with two binding sites of different affinity. Chronic haloperidol treatment substantially augmented the total binding capacity 2-(2-Oxo-3-piperidyl)-1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-1,1-dioxide (supidimide), a functional synergist of neuroleptics in acute experiments, surprisingly antagonized the haloperidol-induced receptor augmentation, whereas other CNS depressants (diazepam and phenobarbital) were ineffective. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Antagonism by supidimide of haloperidol-induced augmentation of (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, H H; Hess, V; Flohe, L

    1984-01-01

    Rats were treated for two weeks with haloperidol alone or with additional test drugs and the D/sub 2/ receptor density in the striatum was investigated after a drug-free period of five days. The D/sub 2/ receptor system as analysed by (/sup 3/H)-spinerone binding was best characterized by a model with two binding sites of different affinity. Chronic haloperidol treatment substantially augmented the total binding capacity 2-(2-Oxo-3-piperidyl)-1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-1,1-dioxide (supidimide), a functional synergist of neuroleptics in acute experiments, surprisingly antagonized the haloperidol-induced receptor augmentation, whereas other CNS depressants (diazepam and phenobarbital) were ineffective.

  15. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  16. Exploration of D2 receptors and content of DA of striatum in hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after madopar treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1998-01-01

    125 I-IBZM autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD were used to study the relationship between D 2 receptors and the content of DA, HVA, DOPAC in striatum of hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after Madopar treatment. After Madopar treatment, the striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio of lesioned side was 7.23 +- 0.67, showed 17.22 +- 3.94% increasing as compared to the contralateral side, the increasing were significantly declined compared with the pretreatment group and control group (P 2 receptors

  17. Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakalan Rangarajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC. The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Results To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC. Conclusions The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states.

  18. Dehydration-Induced Anorexia Reduces Astrocyte Density in the Rat Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reyes-Haro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder associated with severe weight loss as a consequence of voluntary food intake avoidance. Animal models such as dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA mimic core features of the disorder, including voluntary reduction in food intake, which compromises the supply of energy to the brain. Glial cells, the major population of nerve cells in the central nervous system, play a crucial role in supplying energy to the neurons. The corpus callosum (CC is the largest white matter tract in mammals, and more than 99% of the cell somata correspond to glial cells in rodents. Whether glial cell density is altered in anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density in the three main regions of the CC (genu, body, and splenium in a murine model of DIA. The astrocyte density was significantly reduced (~34% for the DIA group in the body of the CC, whereas in the genu and the splenium no significant changes were observed. DIA and forced food restriction (FFR also reduced the ratio of astrocytes to glial cells by 57.5% and 22%, respectively, in the body of CC. Thus, we conclude that DIA reduces astrocyte density only in the body of the rat CC.

  19. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  20. Postnatal Administration of Allopregnanolone Modifies Glutamate Release but Not BDNF Content in Striatum Samples of Rats Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption during pregnancy may induce profound changes in fetal CNS development. We postulate that some of the effects of ethanol on striatal glutamatergic transmission and neurotrophin expression could be modulated by allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid modulator of GABAA receptor activity. We describe the acute pharmacological effect of allopregnanolone (65 μg/kg, s.c. administered to juvenile male rats (day 21 of age on the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway, in both control and prenatally ethanol-exposed rats (two ip injections of 2.9 g/kg in 24% v/v saline solution on gestational day 8. Prenatal ethanol administration decreased the K+-induced release of glutamate regarding the control group. Interestingly, this effect was reverted by allopregnanolone. Regarding BDNF, allopregnanolone decreases the content of this neurotrophic factor in the striatum of control groups. However, both ethanol alone and ethanol plus allopregnanolone treated animals did not show any change regarding control values. We suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure may produce an alteration of GABAA receptors which blocks the GABA agonist-like effect of allopregnanolone on rapid glutamate release, thus disturbing normal neural transmission. Furthermore, the reciprocal interactions found between GABAergic neurosteroids and BDNF could underlie mechanisms operating during the neuronal plasticity of fetal development.

  1. Subthalamic hGAD65 Gene Therapy and Striatum TH Gene Transfer in a Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Deyu; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Junpeng; Duan, Deyi; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Qunyuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect a combination method to utilize gene therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, a PD rat model is used for the in vivo gene therapy of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV2) containing a human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (rAAV2-hGAD65) gene delivered to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is combined with the ex vivo gene delivery of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by fibroblasts injected into the striatum. After the treatment, the rotation behavior was improved with the greatest efficacy in the combination group. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that hGAD65 gene delivery by AAV2 successfully led to phenotypic changes of neurons in STN. And the levels of glutamic acid and GABA in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) were obviously lower than the control groups. However, hGAD65 gene transfer did not effectively protect surviving dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and VTA. This study suggests that subthalamic hGAD65 gene therapy and combined with TH gene therapy can alleviate symptoms of the PD model rats, independent of the protection the DA neurons from death. PMID:23738148

  2. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P=0.001. The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression.

  3. Social dominance in rats: effects on cocaine self-administration, novelty reactivity and dopamine receptor binding and content in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Bianca; Murray, Jennifer E; Jordan, Emily R; Xia, Jing; Fluharty, Meg; Shrestha, Saurav; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    Studies in human and non-human primates demonstrate that social status is an important determinant of cocaine reinforcement. However, it is unclear whether social rank is associated with other traits that also predispose to addiction and whether social status similarly predicts cocaine self-administration in rats. The objective of this study is to investigate whether social ranking assessed using a resource competition task affects (i) the acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration; (ii) the dopaminergic markers in the striatum; and (iii) the expression of ancillary traits for addiction. Social ranking was determined in group-housed rats based upon drinking times during competition for a highly palatable liquid. Rats were then evaluated for cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug reinstatement or individual levels of impulsivity, anxiety and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Finally, dopamine content, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2/D3 (D2/3) receptor binding were measured postmortem in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Rats deemed socially dominant showed enhanced novelty reactivity but were neither more impulsive nor anxious compared with subordinate rats. Dominant rats additionally maintained higher rates of cocaine self-administration but showed no differences in the acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of this behaviour. D2/3 binding was elevated in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum of dominant rats when compared to subordinate rats, and was accompanied by elevated DAT and reduced dopamine content in the nucleus accumbens shell. These findings show that social hierarchy influences the rate of self-administered cocaine but not anxiety or impulsivity in rats. Similar to non-human primates, these effects may be mediated by striatal dopaminergic systems.

  4. In vitro autoradiography of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampus and striatum of aged Long-Evans rats: relationship to spatial learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, M.; Bizon, J.L.; Nicolle, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Using in vitro autoradiography, we investigated [ 3 H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate, [ 3 H]kainate and [ 3 H]N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in two forebrain regions, the hippocampus and striatum, of young (four months of age) and aged (24-25 months of age) Long-Evans rats that had previously been tested for spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze. Although there was substantial preservation of binding in the aged rats, reductions in binding were present in the aged rats that were specific to ligand and anatomical region. In the hippocampus of aged rats, [ 3 H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate binding in CA1 and [ 3 H]kainate binding in CA3 were reduced. In contrast, N-methyl-d-aspartate binding was not significantly different between age groups. There was evidence of sprouting in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of aged rats, indicated by changes in the topography of [ 3 H]kainate binding. Binding density was analysed with respect to patch/matrix compartmentalization in the striatum. The most striking result was a large decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in aged rats that was not limited to any dorsal/ventral or patch/matrix area of the striatum. Additionally, [ 3 H]kainate binding in striatal matrix was modestly reduced in aged rats. Of these age effects, only N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in the striatum and [ 3 H]kainate binding in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were correlated with spatial learning, with lower binding in the aged rats associated with better spatial learning ability.Age-related alterations in ionotropic glutamate receptors differ with respect to the receptor subtype and anatomical region examined. The age effects were not neccessarily indicative of cognitive decline, as only two age-related binding changes were correlated with spatial learning. Interestingly, in these instances, lower binding in the aged rats was associated with preserved spatial learning, suggesting a compensatory reduction

  5. Local application of SCH 39166 reversibly and dose-dependently decreases acetylcholine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-11-03

    The effect of local application by reverse dialysis of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride (SCH 39166) on acetylcholine release was studied in awake, freely moving rats implanted with concentric microdialysis probes in the dorsal striatum. In these experiments, the reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, neostigmine, was added to the perfusion solution at two different concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1 microM. SCH 39166 (1, 5 and 10 microM), in the presence of 0.01 microM neostigmine, reversibly decreased striatal acetylcholine release (1 microM SCH 39166 by 8+/-4%; 5 microM SCH 39166 by 24+/-5%; 10 microM SCH 39166 by 27+/-7%, from basal). Similarly, SCH 39166, applied in the presence of a higher neostigmine concentration (0.1 microM), decreased striatal acetylcholine release by 14+/-4% at 1 microM, by 28+/-8% at 5 microM and by 30+/-5% at 10 microM, in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the existence of a facilitatory tone of dopamine on striatal acetylcholine transmission mediated by dopamine D(1) receptors located on striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  6. Identification of the D-1 dopamine receptor subunit in rat striatum after photoaffinity labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, T; Tanaka, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-12-28

    When rat striatal membranes, photolabeled with (/sup 3/H)dopamine under assay conditions similar to those used for dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several radioactively labeled bands appeared. Labeling of these bands was reduced in the presence of non-radioactive dopamine during photolysis, but was unaffected by the presence of sulpiride. Haloperidol preferentially reduced the labeling of the main band which had a molecular weight of about 57,000 rather than the other weakly labeled bands. Labeling of this 57,000 dalton protein was not apparent when rat cerebellar membranes were used and was markedly eliminated by kainic acid-induced lesions that destroyed the intrastriatal nerve cell bodies. These results indicate that this 57,000 dalton protein is the binding subunit of the D-1 dopamine receptor.

  7. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F.; Govoni, S.; Rius, R.A.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  8. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F; Govoni, S; Rius, R A; Spano, P F; Trabucchi, M

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  9. Cerebral Oxygenation of the Cortex and Striatum following Normobaric Hyperoxia and Mild Hypoxia in Rats by EPR Oximetry using Multi-Probe Implantable Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Li, Hongbin; Dong, Ruhong; Mupparaju, Sriram; Khan, Nadeem; Swartz, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, using multi-probe implantable resonators, was used to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the brains of rats following normobaric hyperoxia and mild hypoxia. The cerebral tissue pO2 was measured simultaneously in the cerebral cortex and striatum in the same rats before, during, and after normobaric hyperoxia and mild hypoxia challenges. The baseline mean tissue pO2 values (±SE) were not significantly different between the cortex and striatum. During 30 min of 100% O2 inhalation, a statistically significant increase in tissue pO2 of all four sites was observed, however, the tissue pO2 of the striatum area was significantly higher than in the forelimb area of the cortex. Brain pO2 significantly decreased from the baseline value during 15 min of 15% O2 challenge. No differences in the recovery of the cerebral cortex and striatum pO2 were observed when the rats were allowed to breathe 30% O2. It appears that EPR oximetry using implantable resonators can provide information on pO2 under the experimental conditions needed for such a study. The levels of pO2 that occurred in these experiments are readily resolvable by multi-site EPR oximetry with multi-probe resonators. In addition, the ability to simultaneously measure the pO2 in several areas of the brain provides important information that could potentially help differentiate the pO2 changes that can occur due to global or local mechanisms. PMID:21445770

  10. Expression profiles of eNOS, iNOS and microRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to chronic alcoholism and Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joao Paulo da; Lizarte, Fermino Sanches; Novais, Paulo Cezar; Gattas, Daniela; Carvalho, Camila Albuquerque Mello de; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Molina, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Tucci, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS in addition to the miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood of healthy rats, diabetic rats, alcoholic rats and rats with both pathologies. Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D) and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expressions of eNOS and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood. Immunohistochemistry for eNOS and iNOS showed an increase in cavernosal smooth muscle cells in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups when compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA levels for eNOS were increased in cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups and miRNA-27b were decreased in CSM in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups. The major new finding of our study was an impairment of relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in alcoholic, diabetic, and alcoholic-diabetic rats that involved a decrease in the nitric oxide pathway by endothelium-dependent mechanisms accompanied by a change in the corpus cavernosum contractile sensitivity.

  11. Neurokinin B-producing projection neurons in the lateral stripe of the striatum and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2004-12-06

    Neurons producing preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of neurokinin B, constitute 5% of neurons in the dorsal striatum and project to the substantia innominata (SI) selectively. In the ventral striatum, PPTB-producing neurons are collected mainly in the lateral stripe of the striatum (LSS) and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus (Acb). In the present study, we first examined the distribution of PPTB-immunoreactive neurons in rat ventral striatum and found that a large part of the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters was continuous to the LSS, but a smaller part was not. Thus, we divided the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters into the LSS-associated and non-LSS-associated ones. We next investigated the projection targets of the PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons by combining immunofluorescence labeling and retrograde tracing. After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the basal component of the SI (SIb) and medial part of the interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure, many PPTB-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled in the LSS-associated cell clusters and LSS, respectively. When the injection site included the ventral part of the sublenticular component of the SI(SIsl), retrogradely labeled neurons showed PPTB-immunoreactivity frequently in non-LSS-associated cell clusters. Furthermore, these PPTB-immunoreactive projections were confirmed by the double-fluorescence method after anterograde tracer injection into the ventral striatum containing the cell clusters. Since the dorsalmost part of the SIsl is known to receive strong inputs from PPTB-producing dorsal striatal neurons, the present results indicate that PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons project to basal forebrain target regions in parallel with dorsal striatal neurons without significant convergence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that agonist ligands for dopamine D(2/3) receptors recognize a privileged subset of the receptors in living striatum, those which are functionally coupled to intracellular G-proteins. In support of this claim, the D(2/3) agonist [(3)H]-N-propylnorapomorphine ([(3)H]NPA) proved...... to be more vulnerable to competition from endogenous dopamine than was the antagonist ligand [(11)C]raclopride, measured ex vivo in mouse striatum, and subsequently in multi-tracer PET studies of analogous design. Based on these results, we predicted that prolonged dopamine depletion would result...... in a preferential increase in agonist binding, and a lesser competition from residual dopamine to the agonist binding. To test this hypothesis we used autoradiography to measure [(3)H]NPA and [(3)H]raclopride binding sites in hemi-parkinsonian rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, with and without amphetamine...

  13. Role of presynaptic receptors in the release and synthesis of /sup 3/H-dopamine by slices of rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, T C; Besson, M J; Giorguieff, M F; Glowinski, J [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France). Groupe de Neuropharmacologie Biochimique

    1976-01-01

    Striatal slices were continuously superfused with L-3,5-/sup 3/H-Tyrosine(50..mu..Ci/ml) and /sup 3/H-H/sub 2/O (index of /sup 3/H-dopamine (/sup 3/H-DA) synthesis) and /sup 3/H-DA estimated in 0.5 ml (2.5min) superfusate fractions. Depolarization with 50 mM k/sup +/ for 7.5 min induced a marked increase in /sup 3/H-DA release and a biphasic effect on synthesis. The decrease in the rate of /sup 3/H-H/sub 2/O formation induced by K/sup +/ was not related to modifications of the specific activity of tyrosine in tissues. The possibility that the inhibition of synthesis was due to alterations in DA concentration in the synaptic cleft was examined. On the other hand, when the powerful neuroleptic fluphenazine was added to the superfusion medium in a concentration which only weakly blocked /sup 3/H-DA uptake (10/sup -6/M) it potentiated /sup 3/H-DA release and prevented the inhibition of synthesis both in the absence or presence of benztropine. The DA inhibitory effect on synthesis was still observed in the presence of benztropine (10/sup -6/M) while the NA effect was prevented. This concentration of benztropine blocked both DA and NA uptake. The administration of fluphenazine (10/sup -6/M) significantly prevented the decrease in /sup 3/H-DA synthesis induced by exogenous DA and partially prevented the effect of NA. The present results provide direct support for the concept that activation of presynaptic DA receptors located on DA terminals in the striatum of the rat results in an inhibition of synthesis and release of the transmitter.

  14. The role of presynaptic receptors in the release and synthesis of 3H-dopamine by slices of rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, T.C.; Besson, M.J.; Giorguieff, M.F.; Glowinski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Striatal slices were continuously superfused with L-3,5- 3 H-Tyrosine(50μCi/ml) and 3 H-H 2 O [index of 3 H-dopamine ( 3 H-DA) synthesis] and 3 H-DA estimated in 0.5 ml (2.5min) superfusate fractions. Depolarization with 50 mM k + for 7.5 min induced a marked increase in 3 H-DA release and a biphasic effect on synthesis. The decrease in the rate of 3 H-H 2 O formation induced by K + was not related to modifications of the specific activity of tyrosine in tissues. The possibility that the inhibition of synthesis was due to alterations in DA concentration in the synaptic cleft was examined. On the other hand, when the powerful neuroleptic fluphenazine was added to the superfusion medium in a concentration which only weakly blocked 3 H-DA uptake (10 -6 M) it potentiated 3 H-DA release and prevented the inhibition of synthesis both in the absence or presence of benztropine. The DA inhibitory effect on synthesis was still observed in the presence of benztropine (10 -6 M) while the NA effect was prevented. This concentration of benztropine blocked both DA and NA uptake. The administration of fluphenazine (10 -6 M) significantly prevented the decrease in 3 H-DA synthesis induced by exogenous DA and partially prevented the effect of NA. The present results provide direct support for the concept that activation of presynaptic DA receptors located on DA terminals in the striatum of the rat results in an inhibition of synthesis and release of the transmitter. (orig.) [de

  15. Dopaminergic and cholinergic regulation of Fyn tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in the rat striatum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2015-12-01

    Src and Fyn are two Src family kinase (SFK) members that are expressed in mammalian brains and play important roles in the regulation of a variety of neuronal and synaptic substrates. Here we investigated the responsiveness of these SFKs to changing dopamine receptor signals in dopamine responsive regions of adult rat brains in vivo. Pharmacological activation of dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) by a systemic injection of the selective agonist SKF81297 increased phosphorylation of SFKs at a conserved and activation-associated autophosphorylation site (Y416) in the striatum, indicating activation of SFKs following SKF81297 injection. The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonist quinpirole had no effect. Blockade of D1Rs with an antagonist SCH23390 did not alter striatal Y416 phosphorylation, while the D2R antagonist eticlopride elevated it. Between Src and Fyn, SKF81297 seemed to preferentially facilitate Fyn phosphorylation. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptors (M4Rs) with a positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 suppressed SFK Y416 responses to SKF81297. Additionally, SKF81297 induced a correlated increase in phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2B subunits at a Fyn site (Y1472), which was attenuated by VU0152100. SKF81297 also enhanced synaptic recruitments of active Fyn and GluN1/GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. These data demonstrate that D1Rs regulate Fyn and downstream NMDA receptors in striatal neurons in vivo. Acetylcholine through activating M4Rs inhibits Fyn and NMDA receptors in their sensitivity to D1R signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Todd M; Harrold, Jon B; Alloway, Kevin D

    2011-05-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neurons in the DLS responded to both directions of movement. The latency and magnitude of these neuronal responses displayed very little variation with changes in the rate (2, 5, or 8 Hz) of whisker stimulation. Simultaneous recordings in SI barrel cortex and the DLS revealed important distinctions in the neuronal responses of these serially connected brain regions. In contrast to DLS neurons, SI neurons were activated by the initial deflection of the whiskers but did not respond when the whiskers moved back to their original position. As the rate of whisker stimulation increased, SI responsiveness declined, and the latencies of the responses increased. In fact, when whiskers were deflected at 5 or 8 Hz, many neurons in the DLS responded before the SI neurons. These results and earlier anatomic findings suggest that a component of the sensory-induced response in the DLS is mediated by inputs from the thalamus. Furthermore, the lack of sensory adaptation in the DLS may represent a critical part of the neural mechanism by which the DLS encodes stimulus-response associations that trigger motor habits and other stimulus-evoked behaviors that are not contingent on rewarded outcomes.

  17. Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and expression of COX-2 in the corpus luteum of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F; Ocarino, N M; Vieira, A L S; Nascimento, E F; Serakides, R

    2013-08-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction occurs frequently in humans and some animal species, the mechanisms by which hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect the corpus luteum have not been thoroughly elucidated. This study evaluated the levels of proliferative activity, angiogenesis, apoptosis and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the corpus luteum of female rats with thyroid dysfunction. These processes may be important in understanding the reproductive changes caused by thyroid dysfunction. A total of 18 adult female rats were divided into three groups (control, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid) with six animals per group. Three months after treatment to induce thyroid dysfunction, the rats were euthanized in the dioestrus phase. The ovaries were collected and immunohistochemically analysed for expression of the cell proliferation marker CDC-47, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor Flk-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Apoptosis was evaluated using the TUNEL assay. Hypothyroidism reduced the intensity and area of COX-2 expression in the corpus luteum (p hyperthyroidism did not alter COX-2 expression in the dioestrus phase. Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the expression of CDC-47 in endothelial cells and pericytes in the corpus luteum, whereas hyperthyroidism did not induce a detectable change in CDC-47 expression (p > 0.05). Hypothyroidism reduced the level of apoptosis in luteal cells (p hyperthyroidism increased the level of apoptosis in the corpus luteum (p < 0.05). In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction differentially affects the levels of proliferative activity, angiogenesis and apoptosis and COX-2 expression in the corpus luteum of female rats. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low and high gamma oscillations in rat ventral striatum have distinct relationships to behavior, reward, and spiking activity on a learned spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Local field potential (LFP oscillations in the brain reflect organization thought to be important for perception, attention, movement, and memory. In the basal ganglia, including dorsal striatum, dysfunctional LFP states are associated with Parkinson’s disease, while in healthy subjects, dorsal striatal LFPs have been linked to decision-making processes. However, LFPs in ventral striatum have been less studied. We report that in rats running a spatial decision task, prominent gamma-50 (45-55 Hz and gamma-80 (70-85 Hz oscillations in ventral striatum had distinct relationships to behavior, task events, and spiking activity. Gamma-50 power increased sharply following reward delivery and before movement initiation, while in contrast, gamma-80 power ramped up gradually to reward locations. Gamma-50 power was low and contained little structure during early learning, but rapidly developed a stable pattern, while gamma-80 power was initially high before returning to a stable level within a similar timeframe. Putative fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs showed phase, firing rate, and coherence relationships with gamma-50 and gamma-80, indicating that the observed LFP patterns are locally relevant. Furthermore, in a number of FSIs such relationships were specific to gamma-50 or gamma-80, suggesting that partially distinct FSI populations mediate the effects of gamma-50 and gamma-80.

  20. Correlation between (3H)dopamine specific uptake and (3H)GBR 12783 specific binding during the maturation of rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.J.; Costentin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the specific uptake of dopamine in the rat striatum during the early postnatal period is compared with the ontogenetic changes of the specific binding of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 to the site of uptake inhibition. During maturation, the increase in the specific binding of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 parallels the increase in the specific uptake of dopamine. ( 3 H)GBR 12783 specific binding sites increase in number from day 1 postpartum until 40 days, when they reach the adult level. In 40 day-old rats, the weight of the striatum represents 80% of adult values. The affinity of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 for the inhibition site is similar in membrane preparations obtained from 6 day-old pups and adults; this results in a same ability of the inhibitor to block the specific uptake of dopamine into synaptosomes obtained from pups or adult rats. These data support the hypothesis of the existence of a single molecular entity including both the inhibition site and the carrier itself

  1. Expression of c-fos and c-jun proteins in the marginal division of the rat striatum during learning and memory training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xin-min; SHU Si-yun; WANG Hong

    2005-01-01

    Background A new brain region, the marginal division (MrD), was discovered at the caudal margin of the neostriatum. The MrD was shown to be involved in learning and memory in the rat. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the immediate-early genes c-fos and c-jun in the MrD of the striatum during learning and memory processes in the rat, immunocytochemical and Western blot methods were used to examine Y-maze trained rats.Methods The rats were divided into three groups, namely the training, pseudotraining, and control groups. After Y-maze training, the expression of the immediate-early genes c-fos and c-jun in the MrD of the rats was investigated using immunocytochemical and Western blot methods. Results After one hour of Y-maze training, the expression of c-jun and c-fos proteins was significantly enhanced in the MrD; the c-jun protein, in particular, was more intensely expressed in this region than in other parts of the striatum. The expression of these two proteins in the training group was significantly higher than in the pseudotraining and control groups. In addition, positive expression was also found in the hippocampus, cingulum cortex, thalamus, and in other areas. Western blot disclosed two immunoreactive bands for the anti-c-fos antibody (47 kD and 54 kD) and two immunoreactive bands for the anti-c-jun antibody (39 kD and 54 kD). Conclusions These results indicate that the immediate-early genes c-fos and c-jun participate in signal transduction during the learning and memory processes associated with Y-maze training in rats.

  2. Microglial and macrophage reactions mark progressive changes and define the penumbra in the rat neocortex and striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Christensen, Thomas; Zimmer, J

    1997-01-01

    Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats leads to infarction of the lateral part of the striatum and adjacent neocortex, with selective neuronal necrosis in the bordering penumbral zones. Administration of glutamate, cytokine, and leukocyte antagonists have rescued mainly neocortical....../macrophages in the adjacent penumbra. Within the neocortex, a later onset of degeneration along the insular-parietal axis was marked by neuronal expression of heat shock protein and a progressive microglial activation with induction of the full repertoire of microglial activation markers, including a widespread microglial...

  3. Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Heimfarth, Luana; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Gomes, Henrique Mautone; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Delgado, Jeferson; Roncato, Sabrina; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-08-01

    During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a group according to their treatment (saline, CGE, or caffeine). Solutions were administered daily by oral gavage for 6 months. Open field and novel object recognition tasks were performed before and after treatment. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and striatum. Our open field data showed an increase in exploratory activity and a decrease in anxiety-like behavior with caffeine but not with the CGE treatment. In the CGE-treated group, catalase activity decreased in the hippocampus and increased in the striatum. Analyses of the hippocampus and striatum indicate that CGE and/or caffeine altered some of the analyzed parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Our data suggest that CGE intake does not improve cognitive development, but modifies the oxidative stress machinery and neurodegenerative-signaling pathway, inhibiting pro-survival pathway molecules in the hippocampus and striatum. This may contribute to the development of unfavorable microenvironments in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  5. [Research for dependablity of administration of platycodi radix in Tianwang Buxinwan decoction with change of brain inhibitive neurotransmitte in rats by microdialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xin-rong; Zhou, Wen-bin; Shen, Ran-ran; Feng, Fan

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of Tianwang Buxinwan decoction on the contents of amino acids neurotransmitters in corpus striatum of rats to implicate the mechanism of Tianwang Buxinwan promoting and Improving sleeping. Contents of two amino acids neurotransmitters in corpus striatum of rats were prepared by microdialysis technology and were determined by HPLC which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, recersed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. In the experimental separation condition, Tianwang Buxinwan seemed do not influence three kinds of contents of amino acids neurotransmiters (glutamic acid, glycin, aspartic acid), but TBW seemed increase the content of gamma-GABA in corpus striatum of rats. The effects of Tianwang Buxinwan to relieve uneasiness may relate with the inhibitory amino acids gamma-GABA. Tianwang Buxinwan may promote increasing the content of gamma-GABA. This discovery may be helpful for the deep study of related mechanism of Tianwang Buxinwan.

  6. Thalamic inputs to dorsomedial striatum are involved in inhibitory control: evidence from the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Jasjot; Dautan, Daniel; Rostron, Claire; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2017-08-01

    Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control.

  7. [Effect of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalmatine on dopamine system of hippocampus and striatum in morphine-induced conditioned place preference rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-Yang; Bai, Wei-Feng; Tu, Ping; Qiu, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Pei-Run; Luo, Su-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalma-tine (L-THP) on the levels of dopamine neurotransmitter (DA), dopamine transporter (DAT) and the second dopamine receptor (D2R) in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum, the DA, DAT and D2R were detected in conditioned place preference (CPP) rats suffered from morphine. And comparation the degree of similarity and consistency of the pharmacological effects was also studied. The rats were trained in black compartments and white ones (drug-paired compartment) with the increasing doses of morphine for 10 days (hypodermically injected from 10 mg•kg⁻¹ to 100 mg•kg⁻¹). Models of CPP were validated in those psychological dependence rats after 48 h training. The dopamine contents were detected as soon as the materials of hippocampus and striatum are harvested from rats of NS control group and model group. The DAT and D2R levels are measured by Western blot. The high, medium and low dose group of Corydalis Rhizoma are given Corydalis Rhizoma 2, 1, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹ water extraction liquid respectively (which contains L-THP were 0.274, 0.137 and 0.137 mg respectively), and the high, medium and low dose group of L-THP were given L-THP 3.76, 1.88, 0.94 mg•kg⁻¹ lavage treatment respectively, NS treatment group were lavaged normal saline for 6 days and they were killed after test of CPP, again tested DA levels and expression of DAT and D2R similar to the front of materials. The reduction effects of CPP were observed in the groups of both Corydalis Rhizoma (2, 1 g•kg⁻¹) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg•kg⁻¹) subjected to medicine for 6 days (Peffect of L-THP. The similar effects were observed on the neurotransmitter dopamine, DAT and D2R in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum of the morphine- dependent rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Expression profile of endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB) and microRNAs-155 and -199 in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to chronic alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, F Z; Lizarte Neto, F S; Novais, P C; Gattas, D; Lourenço, L G; de Carvalho, C A M; Tirapelli, D P C; Molina, C A F; Tirapelli, L F; Tucci, S

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases endothelin (ET)-1 induced sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa in corpus cavernosum of rats by a mechanism that involves increased expression of ETA and ETB receptors. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of alcohol and diabetes and their relationship to miRNA-155, miRNA-199 and endothelin receptors in the corpus cavernosum and blood of rats submitted to the experimental model of diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D), and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study the protein expression of endothelin receptors by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNAs-155 and -199 in serum and the cavernous tissue. Immunostaining for endothelin receptors was markedly higher in the A, D, and AD groups than in the C group. Moreover, a significant hypoexpression of the miRNA-199 in the corpus cavernosum tissue from the AD group was observed, compared to the C group. When analyzing the microRNA profile in blood, a significant hypoexpression of miRNA-155 in the AD group was observed compared to the C group. The miRNA-199 analysis demonstrated significant hypoexpression in D and AD groups compared to the C group. Our findings in corpus cavernosum showed downregulated miRNA-155 and miRNA-199 levels associated with upregulated protein expression and unaltered mRNA expression of ET receptors suggesting decreased ET receptor turnover, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats exposed to high alcohol levels.

  9. Expression profile of endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB and microRNAs-155 and -199 in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to chronic alcoholism and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Z. Gonçalves

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases endothelin (ET-1 induced sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa in corpus cavernosum of rats by a mechanism that involves increased expression of ETA and ETB receptors. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of alcohol and diabetes and their relationship to miRNA-155, miRNA-199 and endothelin receptors in the corpus cavernosum and blood of rats submitted to the experimental model of diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, alcoholic (A, diabetic (D, and alcoholic-diabetic (AD. Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study the protein expression of endothelin receptors by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNAs-155 and -199 in serum and the cavernous tissue. Immunostaining for endothelin receptors was markedly higher in the A, D, and AD groups than in the C group. Moreover, a significant hypoexpression of the miRNA-199 in the corpus cavernosum tissue from the AD group was observed, compared to the C group. When analyzing the microRNA profile in blood, a significant hypoexpression of miRNA-155 in the AD group was observed compared to the C group. The miRNA-199 analysis demonstrated significant hypoexpression in D and AD groups compared to the C group. Our findings in corpus cavernosum showed downregulated miRNA-155 and miRNA-199 levels associated with upregulated protein expression and unaltered mRNA expression of ET receptors suggesting decreased ET receptor turnover, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats exposed to high alcohol levels.

  10. Effect of lithium on endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: role of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-02-01

    Some studies have reported erectile dysfunction in patients receiving lithium through a mechanism that has not yet been defined. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of acute lithium administration on the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC)- and endothelium-mediated relaxation of rat isolated corpus cavernosum. The isolated rat corporeal strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 microM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, and 15 Hz) to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation or relaxed by adding cumulative doses of acetylcholine (10nM-1mM) to obtain endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence or absence of lithium (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 5mM). Also, effects of combining lithium (0.3mM) with 30 nM and 0.1 nM L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor) on NANC- and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was investigated, respectively. Moreover, effects of combining lithium (1mM) with 0.1mM and 10 microM L-arginine (a precursor of NO) on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation was assessed, respectively. Also, the effect of lithium (1mM) on relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1nM-1mM), an NO donor, was investigated. The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly (Pacetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of lithium (0.3mM) with 30 and 0.1 nM L-NAME, which separately had a minimum effect on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation, significantly (Pacetylcholine and EFS, it improved the inhibition by lithium (1mM) of relaxant responses to acetylcholine and EFS, respectively. Also, SNP produced similar concentration-dependent relaxations from both groups. Our experiments indicated that lithium likely by interfering with NO pathway in both endothelium and nitrergic nerve can result in impairment of both the endothelium- and NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum.

  11. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  12. Role of glutamate receptors and nitric oxide on the effects of glufosinate ammonium, an organophosphate pesticide, on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Lilian R F; Ferreira Nunes, Brenda V; Alfonso, Miguel; Ferreira, Vania M; Durán, Rafael

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the possible role of glutamatergic receptors and nitric oxide (NO) production on effects of glufosinate ammonium (GLA), an organophosphate pesticide structurally related to glutamate, on in vivo striatal dopamine release in awake and freely moving rats. For this, we used antagonists of NMDA (MK-801 and AP5) or AMPA/kainate (CNQX) receptors, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (l-NAME and 7-NI), to study the effects of GLA on release of dopamine from rat striatum. So, intrastriatal infusion of 10mM GLA significantly increased dopamine levels (1035±140%, compared with basal levels) and administration of GLA to MK-801 (250μM) or AP5 (650μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼40% and ∼90% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with MK-801 or AP5. Administration of GLA to CNQX (500μM) pretreated animals produced an effect that was not significantly different from the one produced in animals not pretreated with CNQX. On the other hand, administration of GLA to l-NAME (100μM) or 7-NI (100μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼80% and ∼75% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with these inhibitors. In summary, GLA appears to act, at least in part, through an overstimulation of NMDA (and not AMPA/kainate) receptors with possible NO production to induce in vivo dopamine release. Administration of NMDA receptor antagonists and NOS inhibitors partially blocks the release of dopamine from rat striatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serotonin 2A receptor mRNA levels in the neonatal dopamine-depleted rat striatum remain upregulated following suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-08-05

    Sixty days after bilateral dopamine (DA) depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in neonatal rats, serotonin (5-HT) content doubled and 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression rose 54% within the rostral striatum. To determine if striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA upregulation is dependent on increased 5-HT levels following DA depletion, neonatal rats received dual injections of 6-OHDA and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) which suppressed 5-HT content by approximately 90%. In these 6-OHDA/5,7-DHT-treated rats, striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression was still elevated (87% above vehicle controls). Comparative analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression yielded no significant changes in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor biosynthesis in the DA-depleted rat is not dependent on subsequent 5-HT hyperinnervation. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm 2 , SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCES A NEURONAL HETEROTOPIA IN THE CORPUS CALLOSUM OF THE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that severe hypothyroidism leads to profound alterations in brain development and mental retardation. In this study we examined the effect of subtle decreases in maternal thyroid hormones (TH) on brain development in the rat. To induce TH insufficiency pr...

  16. Testosterone replacement maintains smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum of orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmenschlager, Graziele; Rhoden, Ernani Luis; Motta, Gabriela Almeida; Sagrillo Fagundes, Lucas; Medeiros, Jorge Luiz; Meurer, Rosalva; Rhoden, Cláudia Ramos

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of testosterone (T) on the maintenance of corpus cavernosum (CC) structure and apoptosis. Animals were divided into three groups: sham operation group ( n  = 8) underwent sham operation; Orchiectomized (Orchiec)+ oily vehicle group ( n  = 8) underwent bilateral orchiectomy and received a single dose of oily vehicle by intramuscular injection (i.m.) 30 days after orchiectomy; and Orchiec + T group ( n  = 8) underwent bilateral orchiectomy and received a single dose of T undecanoate 100 mg/kg i.m. 30 days after the surgery. Animals were euthanized 60 days after the beginning of the experiment with an anesthetic overdose of ketamine and xylazine. Blood samples and penile tissue were collected on euthanasia. Azan's trichrome staining was used to evaluate smooth muscle, Weigert's Fucsin-Resorcin staining was used to evaluate elastic fibers and Picrosirius red staining was used to evaluate collagen. Apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL technique. T levels decreased in Orchiec + oily vehicle when compared to sham operation and Orchiec + T groups ( p  space ( p  = 0.207), elastic fibers ( p  = 0.849), collagen ( p  = 0.216) and in apoptosis ( p  = 0.095). Normal testosterone levels maintain CC smooth muscle content and do not influence elastic fibers, collagen content and apoptotic index. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the mechanisms by which androgen mediates its effects on CC structure.

  17. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  18. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePalm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.

  19. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased 3 H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous 3 H-spiperone ( 3 H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound 3 H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. 3 H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by 3 H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of 3 H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. 3 H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of 3 H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo

  20. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    , the present data indicate that, in rat striatum, the actions of quinelorane are mediated primarily by D2 receptors, and suggest that behavioural hypersensitivity to this agonist, induced by unilateral SNPC lesions, is associated with an increase in D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor-mediated G-protein activation.

  2. Effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: Role of nitric oxide pathway and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehpour A.R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relaxation of the corpus cavernosum plays a major role in penile erection. Nitric oxide (NO is known to be the most important factor mediating relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mainly derived from nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum as well as the possible relevant roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems.Methods: Corporal strips from sham-operated and biliary cirrhotic rats were mounted under tension in a standard oxygenated organ bath with guanethidine sulfate (5 µM and atropine (1 µM to induce adrenergic and cholinergic blockade. The strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 µM and electrical field stimulation was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, 15 Hz to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation. In separate precontracted strips of the sham and cirrhotic groups, the concentration-dependent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1mM, as an NO donor, were assessed.  Results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly enhanced in cirrhotic animals (P<0.01. Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups (P<0.05. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (10 µM and the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10 µM each significantly prevented the enhanced relaxations in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01. The CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 had no effect on relaxations in the cirrhotic group. In a concentration-dependent manner, L-NAME (30-1000 nM inhibited relaxations in both the sham and cirrhotic groups, although cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The degree of relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1 mM was similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis enhances the neurogenic relaxation in rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and

  3. Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Serotonin Receptor Densities in the Striatum of Hemiparkinsonian Rats following Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, T; Zilles, K; Dikow, H; Hellfritsch, A; Cremer, M; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Hawlitschka, A; Schmitt, O; Wree, A

    2018-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that causes a dopamine (DA) deficit in the caudate-putamen (CPu) accompanied by compensatory changes in other neurotransmitter systems. These changes result in severe motor and non-motor symptoms. To disclose the role of various receptor binding sites for DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection, the densities of D 1 , D 2 /D 3 , α 1 , α 2 , and 5HT 2A receptors were longitudinally visualized and measured in the CPu of hemi-PD rats by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found a moderate increase in D 1 receptor density 3 weeks post lesion that decreased during longer survival times, a significant increase of D 2 /D 3 receptor density, and 50% reduction in 5HT 2A receptor density. α 1 receptor density remained unaltered in hemi-PD and α 2 receptors demonstrated a slight right-left difference increasing with post lesion survival. In a second step, the possible role of receptors on the known reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations in hemi-PD rats by intrastriatally injected Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) was analyzed by measuring the receptor densities after BoNT-A injection. The application of this neurotoxin reduced D 2 /D 3 receptor density, whereas the other receptors mainly remained unaltered. Our results provide novel data for an understanding of the postlesional plasticity of dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic receptors in the hemi-PD rat model. The results further suggest a therapeutic effect of BoNT-A on the impaired motor behavior of hemi-PD rats by reducing the interhemispheric imbalance in D 2 /D 3 receptor density. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.

  5. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  6. Modulatory effects of L-DOPA on D2 dopamine receptors in rat striatum, measured using in vivo microdialysis and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opacka-Juffry, J.; Hume, S. P.; Ashworth, S.; Ahier, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Putative modulatory effects of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) on D2 dopamine receptor function in the striatum of anaesthetized rats were investigated using both in vivo microdialysis and positron emission tomography (PET) with carbon-11 labelled raclopride as a selective D2 receptor ligand. A single dose of L-DOPA (20 or 100 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in an increase in [ 11 C]raclopride binding potential which was also observed in the presence of the central aromatic decarboxylase inhibitor NSD 1015, confirming that the effect was independent of dopamine. This L-DOPA evoked D2 receptor sensitization was abolished by a prior, long-term administration of L-DOPA in drinking water (5 weeks, 170 mg/kg/day). In the course of acute L-DOPA treatment (20 mg/kg), extracellular GABA levels were reduced by ∼20 % in the globus pallidus. It is likely that L-DOPA sensitising effect on striatal D2 receptors, as confirmed by PET, may implicate striato-pallidal neurones, hence a reduced GABA-ergic output in the projection area. Since the L-DOPA evoked striatal D2 receptor supersensitivity habituates during long-term treatment, the effects reported here may contribute to the fluctuations observed during chronic L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  7. Cocaine modulates allosteric D2-σ1 receptor-receptor interactions on dopamine and glutamate nerve terminals from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Corbucci, Ilaria; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Marti, Matteo; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D 2 -σ 1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ 1 receptors (σ 1 Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-induced reduction of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D 2 -likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. The σ 1 R antagonist BD1063 (100nM), amplified the effects of quinpirole (10 and 100nM) on K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA, but not glutamate, release. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations significantly enhanced the quinpirole (100nM)-induced decrease of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. In the presence of BD1063 (10nM), cocaine failed to amplify the quinpirole (100nM)-induced effects. In cotransfected σ 1 R and D 2L R HEK293T cells, quinpirole had a reduced potency to inhibit the CREB signal versus D 2L R singly transfected cells. In the presence of cocaine (100nM), the potency of quinpirole to inhibit the CREB signal was restored. In D 2L singly transfected cells cocaine (100nM and 10μM) exerted no modulatory effects on the inhibitory potency of quinpirole to bring down the CREB signal. These results led us to hypothesize the existence of functional D 2 -σ 1 R complexes on the rat striatal DA and glutamate nerve terminals and functional D 2 -σ 1 R-DA transporter complexes on the striatal DA terminals. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations appear to alter the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes leading to enhancement of Gi/o mediated D 2 R signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jamie M; Tassin, David H; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2014-07-15

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, P.C.; Westmore, K.; Augood, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [ 35 S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [ 35 S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase-positive cells

  11. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emson, P C; Westmore, K; Augood, S J [MRC Molecular Neuroscience Group, The Department of Neurobiology, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-11

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [{sup 35}S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [{sup 35}S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase

  12. Motor Skills Training Enhances α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Subunit mRNA Expression in the Ipsilateral Sensorimotor Cortex and Striatum of Rats Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Tamaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the effects of acrobatic training (AT) on expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits in the sensorimotor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: ICH without AT (ICH), ICH with AT (ICH + AT), sham operation without AT (SHAM), and sham operation with AT (SHAM + AT). ICH was induced by collagenase injection into the left striatum. The ICH + AT group performed 5 acrobatic tasks daily on days 4-28 post ICH. Forelimb sensorimotor function was evaluated using the forelimb placing test. On days 14 and 29, mRNA expression levels of AMPAR subunits GluR1-4 were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Forelimb placing test scores were significantly higher in the ICH + AT group than in the ICH group. Expression levels of all AMPAR subunit mRNAs were significantly higher in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex of rats in the ICH + AT group than in that of rats in the ICH group on day 29. GluR3 and GluR4 expression levels were reduced in the ipsilateral striatum of rats in the ICH group compared with that of rats in the SHAM group on day 14. These changes may play a critical role in motor skills training-induced recovery after ICH. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Irradiation inactivation studies of the dopamine D1 receptor and dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.H.; Nielson, M.

    1987-01-01

    In frozen rat striatal tissue, exposed to 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator, the sizes of the dopamine (DA) D 1 receptor and the DA sensitive adenylate cyclase complex were determined using target size analysis. The number of D 1 receptors (labelled by [ 3 H]SCH 23390)declined monoexponentially with increasing radiation intensity, yielding a molecular weight (mol. wt.) of 80kDa. Also the activity of the catalytic unit (C) of the adenylate cyclase (as measured by forskolin stimulation), decreased monoexponentially however with a mol. wt. of 145 kDa. Both basal, DA- and flouride (F - ) stimulated activity declined in a concave downward fashion with a limiting mol. wt. of 134, 138 and 228 kDa respectively. It was estimated that the basal and DA - stimulated activity originated from an enzyme complex with a mol. wt. of 325 kDa a value close to the combined size of R G S + C. These data suggest that F - stimulation of the adenylate cyclase, which occurs by a G S activation, does not cause disassociation of G S into the α S and βγ subunits. Further, the AA-regulated adenylate cyclase apparently exists as a complex consisting of RG S and C; the mechanisms of hormonal activation is dissociation of C from this complex

  14. Distinct presynaptic regulation of dopamine release through NMDA receptors in striosome- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, M.O.; Trovero, F.; Desban, M.; Gauchy, C.; Glowinski, J.; Kemel, M.L. (College de France, Paris (France))

    1991-05-01

    Striosome- and matrix-enriched striatal zones were defined in coronal and sagittal brain sections of the rat, on the basis of {sup 3}H-naloxone binding to mu-opiate receptors (a striosome-specific marker). Then, using a new in vitro microsuperfusion device, the NMDA (50 microM)-evoked release of newly synthesized {sup 3}H-dopamine ({sup 3}H-DA) was examined in these four striatal areas under Mg(2+)-free conditions. The amplitudes of the responses were different in striosomal (171 +/- 6% and 161 +/- 5% of the spontaneous release) than in matrix areas (223 +/- 6% and 248 +/- 12%), even when glycine (1 or 100 microM) was coapplied (in the presence of 1 microM strychnine). In the four areas, the NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was blocked completely by Mg{sup 2}{sup +} (1 mM) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 1 microM) and almost totally abolished by kynurenate (100 microM). Because the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was similar in striosome- (148 +/- 5% and 152 +/- 6%) or matrix-enriched (161 +/- 5% and 156 +/- 7%) areas, the indirect (TTX-sensitive) component of NMDA-evoked responses, which involves striatal neurons and/or afferent fibers, seems more important in the matrix- than in the striosome-enriched areas. The modulation of DA release by cortical glutamate and/or aspartate-containing inputs through NMDA receptors in the matrix appears thus to be partly distinct from that observed in the striosomes, providing some functional basis for the histochemical striatal heterogeneity.

  15. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Carretta, Donatella; Bastias del Carmen Candia, Sussy; D'Addario, Claudio; Cavina, Chiara; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2014-03-03

    Cocaine induces neurochemical changes of endogenous prodynorphin-kappa opioid receptor (pDYN-KOP) and pronociceptin/orphaninFQ-nociceptin receptor (pN/OFQ-NOP) systems. Both systems play an important role in rewarding mechanisms and addictive stimulus processing by modulating drug-induced dopaminergic activation in the mesocortico-limbic brain areas. They are also involved in regulating stress mechanisms related to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of gene expression of the dynorphinergic and nociceptinergic system components in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and in medial and lateral caudate putamen (mCPu and lCPu, respectively) of rats, following chronic subcutaneous infusion of cocaine. In addition, the epigenetic histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (an activating and a repressive marker, respectively) at the promoter level of the pDYN, KOP, pN/OFQ and NOP genes were investigated. Results showed that cocaine induced pDYN gene expression up-regulation in the NA and lCPu, and its down-regulation in the mCPu, whereas KOP mRNA levels were unchanged. Moreover, cocaine exposure decreased pN/OFQ gene expression in the NA and lCPu, while NOP mRNA levels appeared significantly increased in the NA and decreased in the lCPu. Specific changes of the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels were found at pDYN, pN/OFQ, and NOP gene promoter, consistent with the observed gene expression alterations. The present findings contribute to better define the role of endogenous pDYN-KOP and pN/OFQ-NOP systems in neuroplasticity mechanisms following chronic cocaine treatment. The epigenetic histone modifications underlying the gene expression changes likely mediate the effects of cocaine on transcriptional regulation of specific gene promoters that result in long-lasting drug-induced plasticity. © 2013.

  16. Dopamine transporter binding in rat striatum: a comparison of [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, Karmen K.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Mock, Bruce H.; Fei, Xiangshu; Winkle, Wendy L. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Gitter, Bruce D.; Territo, Paul R. [Lilly Center for Anatomical and Molecular Imaging, Integrative Biology Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN 46140 (United States); Zheng Qihuang [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography scanning with radiolabeled phenyltropane cocaine analogs is important for quantifying the in vivo density of monoamine transporters, including the dopamine transporter (DAT). [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is useful for studying DAT as a marker of dopaminergic innervation in animal models of psychiatric and neurological disorders. [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is commonly labeled at the N-methyl position. However, labeling of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT at the O-methyl position is a simpler procedure and results in a shorter synthesis time [desirable in small-animal studies, where specific activity (SA) is crucial]. In this study, we sought to validate that the O-methylated form of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT provides equivalent quantitative results to that of the more commonly reported N-methyl form. Methods: Four female Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned twice on the IndyPET II small-animal scanner, once with [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and once with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT. DAT binding potentials (BP{identical_to}B'{sub avail}/K{sub d}) were estimated for right and left striata with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm, using a reference region (cerebellum) as the input function. Results: [N-Methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT and [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were synthesized with 40-50% radiochemical yields (HPLC purification). Radiochemical purity was >99%. SA at end of bombardment was 258{+-}30 GBq/{mu}mol. Average BP values for right and left striata with [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were 1.16{+-}0.08 and 1.23{+-}0.14, respectively. BP values for [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT were 1.18{+-}0.08 (right) and 1.22{+-}0.16 (left). Paired t tests demonstrated that labeling position did not affect striatal DAT BP. Conclusions: These results suggest that [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT is quantitatively equivalent to [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CFT in the rat striatum.

  17. Old Persian corpus [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavant, M.

    2011-01-01

    XML Old Persian corpus. The corpus is based on publicly available data on the Web. Those data can be traced back to the grammar of Old Persian by Kent (1950). The corpus contains those data and is arranged in a way suitable for corpus searches.

  18. c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Karagiorgis, T; Sampson, C; Icaza-Cukali, D; Kest, K; Ranaldi, R; Bodnar, R J

    2015-02-01

    Overconsumption of nutrients high in fats and sugars can lead to obesity. Previous studies indicate that sugar or fat consumption activate individual brain sites using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Sugars and fats also elicit conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) that are differentially mediated by flavor-flavor (orosensory: f/f) and flavor-nutrient (post-ingestive: f/n) processes. Dopamine (DA) signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala (AMY) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been implicated in acquisition and expression of fat- and sugar-CFP. The present study examined the effects of acute consumption of fat (corn oil: f/f and f/n), glucose (f/f and f/n), fructose, (f/f only), saccharin, xanthan gum or water upon simultaneous FLI activation of DA mesotelencephalic nuclei (ventral tegmental area (VTA)) and projections (infralimbic and prelimbic mPFC, basolateral and central-cortico-medial AMY, core and shell of NAc as well as the dorsal striatum). Consumption of corn oil solutions, isocaloric to glucose and fructose, significantly increased FLI in all sites except for the NAc shell. Glucose intake significantly increased FLI in both AMY areas, dorsal striatum and NAc core, but not in either mPFC area, VTA or Nac shell. Correspondingly, fructose intake significantly increased FLI in the both AMY areas, the infralimbic mPFC and dorsal striatum, but not the prelimbic mPFC, VTA or either NAc area. Saccharin and xanthan gum intake failed to activate FLI relative to water. When significant FLI activation occurred, highly positive relationships were observed among sites, supporting the idea of activation of a distributed brain network mediating sugar and fat intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that agonist ligands for dopamine D(2/3) receptors recognize a privileged subset of the receptors in living striatum, those which are functionally coupled to intracellular G-proteins. In support of this claim, the D(2/3) agonist [(3)H]-N-propylnorapomorphine ([(3)H]NPA) proved...... ligands should likewise be fitter than antagonists for detecting responses to denervation in positron emission tomography studies of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Agonist binding increases in vivo are likely to reflect the composite of a sensitization-like phenomenon, and relatively less competition...... from endogenous dopamine, as seen in the lesioned side of 6-OHDA induced hemi-parkinsonism....

  20. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles ameliorate glial activation and improve myelin repair in lyolecithin-induced focal demyelination model of rat corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Reza; Safarpour, Fatemeh; Hashemian, Mona; Tashakorian, Hamed; Ahmadian, Seyed Raheleh; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Curcumin has been introduced as effective anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of several inflammatory disorders. Despite the wide range pharmacological activities, clinical application of curcumin is restricted mainly due to the low water solubility of this substance. More recently, we could remarkably improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin by its encapsulation in chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS-ALG-STPP NPs). In this study, the anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of curcumin-loaded NPs were evaluated in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model. Pharmacokinetic of curcumin was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Local demyelination was induced by injection of LPC into corpus callosum of rats. Animals were pre-treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of curcumin or curcumin-loaded NPs at dose of 12.5 mg/kg, 10 days prior to LPC injection and the injections were continued for 7 or 14 days post lesion. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunostaining against activated glial cells including astrocytes and microglia were carried out for assessment of inflammation level in lesion site. Myelin specific staining was performed to evaluate the effect of curcumin-loaded NPs on myelination of LPC receiving animals. HPLC results showed the higher plasma concentration of curcumin after administration of NPs. Histological evaluation demonstrated that, the extent of demyelination areas was reduced in animals under treatment of curcumin-loaded NPs. Furthermore, treatment with curcumin-loaded NPs effectively attenuated glial activation and inflammation in LPC-induced demyelination model compared to curcumin receiving animals. Overall; these findings indicate that treatment with curcumin-loaded NPs preserve myelinated axons through amelioration of glial activation and inflammation in demyelination context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Representation of the body in the lateral striatum of the freely moving rat: Fast Spiking Interneurons respond to stimulation of individual body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Julianna M; Pawlak, Anthony P; Kalkat, Manraj; Coffey, Kevin R; West, Mark O

    2017-02-15

    Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts. In the present study, we sought to determine whether lateral striatal FSIs identified by their electrophysiological properties, i.e., short-duration spike and fast firing rate (FR), display body part sensitivity similar to that exhibited by MSNs. During video recorded somatosensorimotor exams, each individual body part was stimulated and responses of single neurons were observed and quantified. Individual FSIs displayed patterns of activity related selectively to stimulation of a discrete body part. Most patterns of activity were similar to those exhibited by typical MSNs, but some phasic decreases were observed. These results serve as evidence that some striatal FSIs process information related to discrete body parts and participate in sensorimotor processing by striatal networks that contribute to motor output. Parvalbumin positive, striatal FSIs are hypothesized to play an important role in behavior by inhibiting MSNs. We asked a fundamental question regarding information processed during behavior by FSIs: whether FSIs, which preferentially occupy the sensorimotor portion of the striatum, process activity of discrete body parts. Our finding that they do, in a selective manner similar to MSNs, begins to reveal the types of phasic signals that FSI feed forward to projection neurons during striatal processing of cortical input

  3. MDMA-evoked changes in the binding of dopamine D(2) receptor ligands in striatum of rats with unilateral serotonin depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Søren Dinesen; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2010-01-01

    We earlier reported an anomalous 50% decrease in [(11)C]N-methylspiperone ([(11)C]NMSP) binding to dopamine D(2)-like receptors in living pig striatum after challenge with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"), suggesting either (1) a species peculiarity in the vulnerability...... lesions, later verified by [(125)I]RTI-55 autoradiography. Baseline [(11)C]NMSP microPET recordings were followed by either saline or MDMA-HCl (4 mg/kg) injections (i.v.), and a second [(11)C]NMSP recording, culminating with injection of [(3)H]raclopride for autoradiography ex vivo. Neither MDMA......-challenge nor serotonin lesion had any detectable effect on [(11)C]NMSP binding. In contrast, MDMA challenge increased receptor occupancy by [(3)H]raclopride ex vivo (relative to the B(max) in vitro) from 8% to 12%, and doubled the free ligand concentration in cerebral cortex, apparently by blocking hepatic CYP...

  4. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  5. Dysregulation of gene expression in the striatum of BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and associated abnormalities on molecular and protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bonin, Michael; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Hoa Huu Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the huntingtin protein (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) has been proposed to cause neuronal dysfunction and neuronal loss through multiple mechanisms. Transcriptional changes may be a core pathogenic feature of HD. Utilizing the Affymetrix platform we performed a genome-wide RNA expression analysis in two BACHD transgenic rat lines (TG5 and TG9) at 12 months of age, both of which carry full-length human mHTT but with different expression levels. By defining the threshold of significance at p < 0.01, we found 1608 genes and 871 genes differentially expressed in both TG5 and TG9 rats when compared to the wild type littermates, respectively. We only chose the highly up-/down-regulated genes for further analysis by setting an additional threshold of 1.5 fold change. Comparing gene expression profiles of human HD brains and BACHD rats revealed a high concordance in both functional and IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) canonical pathways relevant to HD. In addition, we investigated the causes leading to gene expression changes at molecular and protein levels in BACHD rats including the involvement of polyQ-containing transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 and CBP as well as the chromatin structure. We demonstrate that the BACHD rat model recapitulates the gene expression changes of the human disease supporting its role as a preclinical research animal model. We also show for the first time that TFIID complex formation is reduced, while soluble TBP is increased in an HD model. This finding suggests that mHTT is a competitor instead of a recruiter of polyQ-containing transcription factors in the transcription process in HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of central binding sites for [3H] DAMGO in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H] DAMGO, a highly selective ligand for μ-opiate receptors, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. [ 3 H] DAMGO bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site. The receptor density (B max value) and apparent dissociation constant (K d value) of [ 3 H] DAMGO to bind to membranes of hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rats did not differ. The B max value of [ 3 H] DAMGO in membranes of hypothalamus and midbrain of SHR rats was significantly higher than in WKY rats but the K d values in the two strains did not differ. On the other hand, the B max value of [ 3 H] DAMGO in membranes of amygdala of SHR rats was lower than that of WKY rats but the K d values in the two strains were similar

  7. Characteristics of central binding sites for ( sup 3 H) DAMGO in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO, a highly selective ligand for {mu}-opiate receptors, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. ({sup 3}H) DAMGO bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site. The receptor density (B{sub max} value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO to bind to membranes of hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rats did not differ. The B{sub max} value of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO in membranes of hypothalamus and midbrain of SHR rats was significantly higher than in WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. On the other hand, the B{sub max} value of ({sup 3}H) DAMGO in membranes of amygdala of SHR rats was lower than that of WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains were similar.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Patel, Devendra K; Ansari, Reyaz W; Pant, Aditya B; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K

    2010-09-01

    Our recent studies have shown that arsenic-induced neurobehavioral toxicity is protected by curcumin by modulating oxidative stress and dopaminergic functions in rats. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin has been investigated on arsenic-induced alterations in biogenic amines, their metabolites and nitric oxide (NO), which play an important role in neurotransmission process. Decrease in the levels of dopamine (DA, 28%), norepinephrine (NE, 54%), epinephrine (EPN, 46%), serotonin (5-HT, 44%), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, 20%) and homovanillic acid (HVA, 31%) in corpus striatum; DA (51%), NE (22%), EPN (47%), 5-HT (25%), DOPAC (34%) and HVA (41%) in frontal cortex and DA (35%), NE (35%), EPN (29%), 5-HT (54%), DOPAC (37%) and HVA (46%) in hippocampus, observed in arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) treated rats exhibited a trend of recovery in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days). Increased levels of NO in corpus striatum (2.4-fold), frontal cortex (6.1-fold) and hippocampus (6.2-fold) in arsenic-treated rats were found decreased in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. It is evident that curcumin modulates levels of brain biogenic amines and NO in arsenic-exposed rats and these results further strengthen its neuroprotective efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with dopaminergic D3 binding sites in rat striatum. Evidence that [3H]dopamine can label a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leff, S.E.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with 3 H-agonist labeled D3 dopaminergic binding sites of rat striatum have been characterized by radioligand-binding techniques. When the binding of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]apomorphine to D2 dopamine receptors is blocked by the inclusion of D2 selective concentrations of unlabeled spiroperidol or domperidone, these ligands appear to label selectively the previously termed D3 binding site. Antagonist/[ 3 H]dopamine competition curves are of uniformly steep slope (nH . 1.0), suggesting the presence of a single D3 binding site. The relative potencies of antagonists to inhibit D3 specific [ 3 H]dopamine binding are significantly correlated with their potencies to block D1 dopamine receptors as measured by the inhibition of both dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase and [ 3 H]flupentixol-binding activities. The affinities of agonists to inhibit D3 specific [ 3 H]dopamine binding are also correlated with estimates of these agonists affinities for the high affinity binding component of agonist/[ 3 H]flupentixol competition curves. Both D3 specific [ 3 H] dopamine binding and the high affinity agonist-binding component of dopamine/[ 3 H]flupentixol competition curves show a similar sensitivity to guanine nucleotides. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the D3 binding site is related to a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor

  10. Functional activity of substantia nigra grafts reinnervating the striatum: neurotransmitter metabolism and (14C)2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R H; Ingvar, M; Lindvall, O; Stenevi, U; Bjoerklund, A

    1982-03-01

    Dopaminergic innervation of the caudate nucleus in adult rats can be partially restored by the grafting of embryonic substantia nigra into the overlying parietal cortex with concomitant compensation of certain behavioral abnormalities. In this study the function of such grafts was investigated neurochemically by quantification of transmitter metabolism and glucose utilization in the reinnervated target. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle received a single graft to the dorsal caudate-putamen and were screened for rotational behavior following 5 mg/kg methamphetamine. The grafts restored dopamine concentrations in the caudate-putamen from initially less than 0.5% to an average of 13.6% of normal in rats with behavioral compensation. The ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine, which is a measure of the rate of transmitter turnover, were equivalent in transplanted and normal control rats. Moreover, measurements of DOPA accumulation for a 30-min period after DOPA decarboxylase inhibition indicated similar fractional dopamine turnover rates in normal and transplant-reinnervated tissues. Correlations between rotational behavior and dopamine concentrations showed that reinnervation to only 3% of normal was sufficient to counterbalance the motor asymmetry. Measurements of glucose utilization by (14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography indicated equivalent metabolic rates for the grafted tissue and the intact substantia nigra. Overall the results indicate that behaviorally functional neuronal grafts spontaneously metabolize dopamine and utilize glucose at rates characteristic of the intact nigrostriatal system. This provides further evidence that ectopic intracortical nigral transplants can reinstate dopaminergic neurotransmission in regions of the host brain initially denervated by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

  11. Identification of D3 and sigma receptors in the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens using (+/-)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-[3H]propyl-2-aminotetralin and carbetapentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D R; Booze, R M

    1995-02-01

    Cross-reactions between dopamine D3 and sigma receptor ligands were investigated using (+/-)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-[3H]propyl-2-aminotetralin [(+/-)-7-OH-[3H]-DPAT], a putative D3-selective radioligand, in conjunction with the unlabeled sigma ligands 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG), carbetapentane, and R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane [R(-)-PPAP]. In transfected CCL1.3 mouse fibroblasts expressing the human D3 receptor, neither DTG nor carbetapentane (0.1 microM) displaced (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binding. R(-)-PPAP (0.1 microM) displaced 39.6 +/- 1.0% of total (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binding. In striatal and nucleus accumbens homogenates, (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT labeled a single site (15-20 fmol/mg of protein) with high (1 nM) affinity. Competition analysis with carbetapentane defined both high- and low-affinity sites in striatal (35 and 65%, respectively) and nucleus accumbens (59 and 41%, respectively) tissue, yet R(-)-PPAP identified two sites in equal proportion. Carbetapentane and R(-)-PPAP (0.1 microM) displaced approximately 20-50% of total (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binding in striatum, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle in autoradiographic studies, with the nucleus accumbens shell subregion exhibiting the greatest displacement. To determine directly (+)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binding to sigma receptors, saturation analysis was performed in the cerebellum while masking D3 receptors with 1 microM dopamine. Under these conditions (+)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT labeled sigma receptors with an affinity of 24 nM. These results suggest that (a) (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binds D3 receptors with high affinity in rat brain and (b) a significant proportion of (+/-)-7-OH-[3H]DPAT binding consists of sigma 1 sites and the percentages of these sites differ among the subregions of the striatum and nucleus accumbens.

  12. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrand, K.; Engel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The binding of 3 H-WB 4101, an α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3 H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3 H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  13. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  14. Further studies on the nature of postsynaptic dopamine uptake and metabolism in rat striatum: sodium dependency and investigation of a possible role for carrier-mediated uptake into serotonin neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepp, D.D.; Azzaro, A.J.

    1985-06-01

    The nature of postsynaptic sites involved in the uptake and metabolism of striatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine, DA) was investigated. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)DA (10(-7) M) into slices of rat striatum was found to be greatly dependent on the presence of sodium ion in the incubation medium. However, the formation of the (/sup 3/H)dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and (/sup 3/H)homovanillic acid (HVA) was only partially reduced in the absence of sodium. Inhibition of carrier-mediated DA neuronal uptake with nomifensine significantly decreased DA accumulation (18% of control) and (/sup 3/H)DOPAC formation (62% of control), but enhanced (/sup 3/H)HVA production (143% of control). Inhibition of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) neuronal uptake system with fluoxetine (10(-6) M) or selective 5-HT neuronal lesions with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) had no effect on (/sup 3/H)DOPAC or (/sup 3/H)HVA formed from (/sup 3/H)DA in the presence or absence of nomifensine. These results demonstrate that the uptake and subsequent metabolism of striatal DA to DOPAC and HVA is only partially dependent on carrier-mediated uptake mechanism(s) requiring sodium ion. These data support our previous findings suggesting a significant role for synaptic glial cell deamination and O-methylation of striatal DA. Further, experiments with fluoxetine or 5,7-DHT suggest that 5-HT neurons do not significantly contribute in the synaptic uptake and metabolism of striatal DA.

  15. Selective labelling of dopamine (D2) receptors in rat striatum by [3H]domperidone but not by [3H]spiperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazareno, S.; Nahorski, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding of [ 3 H]spiperone and [ 3 H]domperidone, displaceable by 1 μM d-butaclamol, was examined in rat striatal membranes. Initial saturation and displacement experiments indicated that [ 3 H]spiperone bound to more sites than [ 3 H]domperidone and that, whilst all displacing drugs were more potent against [ 3 H]domperidone, this difference in potency was greatest for dopamine agonists and specific antagonists and least for 5HT-related drugs. Sulpiride displaced [ 3 H]spiperone biphasically, and was used at a concentration of 50 μM to examine two classes of [ 3 H]spiperone binding: site 1 displaceable by sulpiride, and site 2 displaceable by butaclamol but not by sulpiride. Site 1 had twice the capacity of site 2 and ten times the affinity for [ 3 H]spiperone. Dopaminergic drugs displaced preferentially from site 1, whilst 5HT-related drugs were more potent against site 2. GTP reduced the potency of dopamine, noradrenaline and, to a lesser extent, 5HT at site 1, but had no effect at site 2. [ 3 H]Domperidone sites had the same capacity as [ 3 H]spiperone site 1, and dopamine, noradrenaline and 5HT, in the absence or presence of GTP, and sulpiride had essentially identical affinities for [ 3 H]domperidone sites and [ 3 H]spiperone site 1. It is concluded that [ 3 H]domperidone and [ 3 H]spiperone label an identical population of dopamine (D 2 ) receptors, whilst [ 3 H]spiperone also labels a substantial number of non-dopamine sites, at least some of which are 5TH-related. [ 3 H]Domperidone is the better radioligand for dopamine receptors. (Auth.)

  16. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  17. CREATING AND PROCESSING A CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihantoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe some crucial importance of corpus and text processing. Corpus is a projection of how language is used by its speakers. Technology support has improved corpus for easier maintenance, made it space-saving, and it may electronically structure its data. The latest offers much freedom for corpus users to access and exploit it for language teaching, analysis or other specified tasks. This paper will demonstrate how to use open-access corpus on internet such as Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and British National Corpus (BNC. Besides how to use a corpus, another crucial importance that this paper seeks to describe is how to build a corpus. In this paper, the writer will use UNITEX, a corpus (text-based processing software. This software will demonstrate steps of corpus building, ranging from text collection, annotation, electronic dictionary application to some natural language based operations ranging from pattern matching, concordance, to simple extraction. It will show how graph technology may outperform regular expression, a retrieval method exploited by other corpus processor, in terms of writing output.

  18. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of 3 H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. 3 H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of 3 H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B max value) and apparent dissociation constant (K d value) values of 3 H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B max value of 3 H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K d values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with 3 H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats

  19. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  20. Tracking of Neural Stem Cells in Rats with Intracerebral Hemorrhage by the Use of 3T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Park, Jong Seong

    2008-01-01

    To access the feasibility of clinically available 3T MRI to detect the migration of labeled neural stem cells (NSCs) in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rat model. The ethics committee of our institution approved this study. ICH was induced by the injection of collagenase type IV into the right striatum of ten Sprague-Dawley rats. Human NSCs conjugated with Feridex (superparamagnetic iron oxide: SPIO) were transplanted into the left striatum one week after ICH induction. MRI was performed on a 3T scanner during the first, second, third, fourth, and sixth weeks post-transplantation. MRI was obtained using coronal T2- and T2 * -weighted sequences. Two rats were sacrificed every week after in vivo MRI in order to analyze the histological findings. ICH in the right striatum was detected by MRI one and two weeks after transplantation without migration of the NSCs. There was no migration of the NSCs as seen on the histological findings one week after transplantation. The histological findings two weeks after transplantation showed a small number of NSCs along the corpus callosum. On MRI three weeks after transplantation, there was a hypointense line along the corpus callosum and decreased signal intensity in the right periventricular region. Histological findings three weeks after transplantation confirmed the presence of the hypointense line representing SPIO-labeled NSCs. MRI four and six weeks after transplantation showed a hypointense spot in the right periventricular region. The histological findings four and six weeks after transplantation showed the presence of prominent NSCs in the right periventricular region. 3T MRI can detect the migration of NSCs in rats with ICH along the corpus callosum. Therefore, 3T MRI could be feasible for detecting the migration of NSCs in the clinical setting of stem cell therapy

  1. Learning and motivation in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohamy, Daphna

    2011-06-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic change in our understanding of the role of the striatum in behavior. Early perspectives emphasized a role for the striatum in habitual learning of stimulus-response associations and sequences of actions. Recent advances from human neuroimaging research suggest a broader role for the striatum in motivated learning. New findings demonstrate that the striatum represents multiple learning signals and highlight the contribution of the striatum across many cognitive domains and contexts. Recent findings also emphasize interactions between the striatum and other specialized brain systems for learning. Together, these findings suggest that the striatum contributes to a distributed network that learns to select actions based on their predicted value in order to optimize behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The VPAC2 agonist peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) up-regulates glutamate transport in the corpus callosum of a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (hSOD1G93A) by inhibiting caspase-3 mediated inactivation of GLT-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Focant, Marylène C; Berger, Julie V; Nizet, Yannick; Maloteaux, Jean-Marie; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2011-10-01

    Degeneration of corpus callosum appears in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before clinical signs of upper motor neuron death. Considering the ALS-associated impairment of astrocytic glutamate uptake, we have characterized the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter isoforms GLT-1a and GLT-1b in the corpus callosum of transgenic rats expressing a mutated form of the human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1(G93A)). We have also studied the effect of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 2 (VPAC(2)) agonist on glutamate transporters both in vivo and in callosal astrocytes. Before the onset of motor symptoms, the expression of both transporter isoforms was correlated with a constitutive activity of caspase-3. This enzyme participates in the down-regulation of GLT-1 in ALS, and here we demonstrated its involvement in the selective degradation of GLT-1a in the white matter. A single stereotactic injection of PHI into the corpus callosum of symptomatic rats decreased caspase-3 activity and promoted GLT-1a expression and uptake activity. Together, with evidence for a reduced expression of prepro-VIP/PHI mRNA in the corpus callosum of transgenic animals, these data shed light on the modulatory role of the VIP/PHI system on the glutamatergic transmission in ALS.

  3. Regional GABA concentration and [3H]-diazepam binding in rat brain following repeated electroconvulsive shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowdler, J.M.; Green, A.R.; Minchin, M.C.W.; Nutt, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    It has been confirmed that 24 hours following a series of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) given once daily for 10 days (ECS x 10) to rats there is an increase in GABA concentration in the corpus striatum. A similar change was seen after the ECS had been given to rats anaesthetised with halothane, or when 5 ECS were given spread out over 10 days, the rats being anaesthetised during the ECS. A daily convulsion for 10 days elicited by flurothyl exposure resulted in an increased striatal GABA concentration, but also increased the GABA concentration in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was present 24 hours after ECS daily for 5 days or 3 days after ECS daily for 10 days. No change in [ 3 H]-diazepam binding was seen in hippocampus, cortex or corpus striatum 24 hours after the last of 10 once daily ECS. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was therefore seen at all times when enhanced monoaminemediated behaviours have been demonstrated following seizures. (Author)

  4. Web corpus construction

    CERN Document Server

    Schafer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web constitutes the largest existing source of texts written in a great variety of languages. A feasible and sound way of exploiting this data for linguistic research is to compile a static corpus for a given language. There are several adavantages of this approach: (i) Working with such corpora obviates the problems encountered when using Internet search engines in quantitative linguistic research (such as non-transparent ranking algorithms). (ii) Creating a corpus from web data is virtually free. (iii) The size of corpora compiled from the WWW may exceed by several orders of magnitudes the size of language resources offered elsewhere. (iv) The data is locally available to the user, and it can be linguistically post-processed and queried with the tools preferred by her/him. This book addresses the main practical tasks in the creation of web corpora up to giga-token size. Among these tasks are the sampling process (i.e., web crawling) and the usual cleanups including boilerplate removal and rem...

  5. Towards an integrated corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the use of corpora in stylistic analysis has grown in popularity. However, questions still remain over the remit of corpus stylistics, its distinction from corpus linguistics generally and its capacity to explain complex stylistic effects. This article argues in favour of an integrated corpus stylistics; that is, an approach to corpus stylistics that integrates it with other stylistic methods and analytical frameworks. I suggest that this approach is needed for two main reasons: (i it is analytically necessary in order to fully explain stylistic effects in texts, and (ii integrating corpus methods with other stylistic tools is what will distinguish corpus stylistics from corpus linguistics. My argument is supported by reference to examples from Mark Haddon’s no vel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time and the HBO TV series Deadwood. Both these examples rely for their explanation on a combination of corpus stylistic analytical techniques and other stylistic methods of analysis.

  6. Corpus Approaches to Language Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines how corpus linguistics--and more specifically the corpus-assisted discourse studies approach--can add useful dimensions to studies of language ideology. First, it is argued that the identification of words of high, low, and statistically significant frequency can help in the identification and exploration of language ideologies…

  7. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on oxidative stress-induced structural alteration of corpus cavernosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications of diabetes. Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens), a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and fertility enhancing properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. The objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on free radicals-mediated penile tissue alterations in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods.  Male albino rats were divided as group I (sham) control, group II (STZ) diabetes-induced (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight [bw] in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III (STZ + MP) diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV (STZ + SIL) diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate, group V (sham + MP) administered with 200 mg/kg bw of extract alone, and group VI (sham + SIL) administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate. The M. pruriens and sildenafil citrate were given (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. At the end of 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and subjected to analysis of reactive oxygen species levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels, levels of NOx, histological, and histomorphometrical study of penile tissue. Remedial use of M. pruriens seed extract on diabetes-induced erectile tissue damage. Significantly high levels of oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants in the penile tissue seem to contribute to the increased collagen deposition and fibrosis of erectile tissue in STZ rats. Relatively, there was increased damage in STZ + SIL group. Supplementation of M. pruriens in STZ + MP group has revealed the potency to overcome oxidative stress, and good preservation of penile histoarchitecture.  The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed significantly recovered or protected erectile tissue from the oxidative stress-induced degeneration by its antioxidant potentials. These findings propound to serve mankind by the treatment of

  8. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  9. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  10. Orfismo en el Corpus Philostrateum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Lizcano Rejano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We search through the Corpus Philostrateum for the presence of connections between this literary production and Orphismus – its system of beliefs, its peculiar interpretation of the traditional Greek mythology, its proposal for a particular way of life. Also, we try to determine the relation, that we can find in this corpus between the ideology and customs that the Pythagoreans and Orphics supported.

  11. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-01-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  12. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  13. [Alternation of proteins in brain of Parkinson's disease model rats after the transplantation of TH-NTN gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Jie-wen; Gao, Xiao-qun

    2012-09-04

    To explore the effects of tyrosine hydroxylase-neurturin (TH-NTN) gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats and the alternations of correlated proteins. The PD rat model was established by the 2-point injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into unilateral (right) striatum. Successful modeling rats were separated into PD, BMSC and TH-NTN-BMSC groups. BMSC and TH-NTN-BMSC groups were transplanted into BMSCs and TH-NTN gene modified BMSC cells separately into right striatum. After transplantation, ethology detection in all groups was made with an intraperitoneal injection of apomorphine (APO). Dopamine (DA) and Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (DOPAC) in striatum were detected by high performance liquid electrochemical analysis. TH and NTN proteins in right striatum were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Finally the density of dopamine receptors in post synaptic density of dopaminergic synapses of corpus striatum were compared between each group by post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy. After an injection of APO, rotation frequency decreased in TH-NTN-BMSC group, i.e. (5.7 ± 1.3) circles/min versus (10.8 ± 2.2), (9.9 ± 1.2) circles/min in PD and BMSC groups (P TH-NTN-BMSC group versus (923 ± 132)/µm(2) in PD and (860 ± 116)/µm(2) in BMSC groups was also found. The combined therapy of TH and NTN genes increases the synthesis of DA and also protects the dopaminergic neurons to achieve double therapeutic effects. It may provide potential innovations of PD genetic therapy.

  14. Anti-ischemic effect of curcumin in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Khanna, Vinay K; Ali, Mohd M; Khan, Mohd Y; Srimal, Rikhab C

    2008-06-01

    Turmeric has been in use since ancient times as a condiment and due to its medicinal properties. Curcumin, the yellow colouring principle in turmeric, is polyphenolic and major active constituent. Besides anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and anticarcinogenic activities, curcumin also possesses strong antioxidant property. In view of the novel combination of properties, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin was studied in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Rats were subjected to 2 h of focal ischemia followed by 72 h of reperfusion. They were pre-treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg, po) for 5 days prior to MCAO and for another 3 days after MCAO. The parameters studied were behavioural, biochemical and histological. Treatment with curcumin could significantly improve neurobehavioral performance compared to untreated ischemic rats as judged by its effect on rota-rod performance and grid walking. A significant inhibition in lipid peroxidation and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex was observed following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats as compared to MCAO group. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin. The study demonstrates the protective efficacy of curcumin in rat MCAO model.

  15. Environmental enrichment brings a beneficial effect on beam walking and enhances the migration of doublecortin-positive cells following striatal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, S; Hida, H; Masuda, T; Misumi, S; Kim, T-S; Nishino, H

    2007-02-09

    Rats raised in an enriched environment (enriched rats) have been reported to show less motor dysfunction following brain lesions, but the neuronal correlates of this improvement have not been well clarified. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of chemical brain lesions and environmental enrichment on motor function and lesion-induced neurogenesis. Three week-old, recently weaned rats were divided into two groups: one group was raised in an enriched environment and the other group was raised in a standard cage for 5 weeks. Striatal damage was induced at an age of 8 weeks by injection of the neuro-toxins 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) into the striatum, or by injection of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra (SN), which depleted nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation. Enriched rats showed better performance on beam walking compared with those raised in standard conditions, but both groups showed similar forelimb use asymmetry in a cylinder test. The number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled proliferating cells in the subventricular zone was increased by a severe striatal lesion induced by QA injection 1 week after the lesion, but decreased by injection of 6-OHDA into the SN. Following induction of lesions by striatal injection of 6-OHDA or QA, the number of cells positive for doublecortin (DCX) was strongly increased in the striatum; however, there was no change in the number of DCX-positive cells following 6-OHDA injection into the SN. Environmental enrichment enhanced the increase of DCX-positive cells with migrating morphology in the dorsal striatum. In enriched rats, DCX-positive cells traversed the striatal parenchyma far from the corpus callosum and lateral ventricle. DCX-positive cells co-expressed an immature neuronal marker, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, but were negative for a glial marker. These data suggest that environmental enrichment improves motor performance on beam walking and enhances neuronal migration toward

  16. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically the Northern Sotho language is made up of almost 30 dialects while practically it is not so, because the standard language was formed from very few of its dialects. As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora ...

  17. Re-thinking the role of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, Fanny; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Rats trained in a dual-solution cross-maze task, which can be solved by place and response strategies, predominantly used a response strategy after extensive training. This paper examines the involvement of the medial and lateral dorsal striatum (mDS and lDS) in the choice of these strategies after partial and extensive training. Our results show that rats with lDS and mDS lesions used mainly a response strategy from the early phase of training. We replicated these unexpected data in rats with lDS lesions and confirmed their tendency to use the response strategy in a modified cross-maze task. When trained in a dual-solution water-maze task, however, control and lesioned rats consistently used a place strategy, demonstrating that lDS and mDS lesioned rats can use a place strategy and that the shift towards a response strategy did not systematically result from extensive training. The present data did not show any clear dissociation between the mDS and lDS in dual solution tasks. They further indicate that the dorsal striatum seems to determine the strategies adopted in a particular context but cannot be considered as a neural support for the response memory system. Accordingly, the role of the lateral and medial part of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response memory should be reconsidered.

  18. Habit formation coincides with shifts in reinforcement representations in the sensorimotor striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating outcomes of behavior is a central function of the striatum. In circuits engaging the dorsomedial striatum, sensitivity to goal value is accentuated during learning, whereas outcome sensitivity is thought to be minimal in the dorsolateral striatum and its habit-related corticostriatal circuits. However, a distinct population of projection neurons in the dorsolateral striatum exhibits selective sensitivity to rewards. Here, we evaluated the outcome-related signaling in such neurons as rats performed an instructional T-maze task for two rewards. As the rats formed maze-running habits and then changed behavior after reward devaluation, we detected outcome-related spike activity in 116 units out of 1,479 recorded units. During initial training, nearly equal numbers of these units fired preferentially either after rewarded runs or after unrewarded runs, and the majority were responsive at only one of two reward locations. With overtraining, as habits formed, firing in nonrewarded trials almost disappeared, and reward-specific firing declined. Thus error-related signaling was lost, and reward signaling became generalized. Following reward devaluation, in an extinction test, postgoal activity was nearly undetectable, despite accurate running. Strikingly, when rewards were then returned, postgoal activity reappeared and recapitulated the original early response pattern, with nearly equal numbers responding to rewarded and unrewarded runs and to single rewards. These findings demonstrate that outcome evaluation in the dorsolateral striatum is highly plastic and tracks stages of behavioral exploration and exploitation. These signals could be a new target for understanding compulsive behaviors that involve changes to dorsal striatum function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  20. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  1. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  2. The Corpus of Czech Verse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecháč, Petr; Kolár, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 107-118 ISSN 2346-6901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech poetry * versification * corpus linguistics * theory of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  3. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... callosum, the structure that connects the two hemispheres (left and right) of the brain. In ACC the corpus callosum is partially or completely absent. It is caused by a disruption of brain cell migration during fetal development. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or ...

  4. The effect of amperozide on uptake and release of [3H]-dopamine in vitro from perfused rat striatal and limbic brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Christensson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Amperozide, a putatively antipsychotic drug, was studied for its effects on uptake and release of [ 3 H]-dopamine in rat brain in vitro. Amperozide inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-dopamine in striatal chopped tissue in vitro with an IC 50 of 18 μM. It also increased basal release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue in vitro at concentrations above 5 μM. Release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue stimulated with 5 μM amphetamine, was inhibited by 1 μM amperozide to 46%. No significant difference was found for the effect of amperozide on in vitro release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from corpus striatum compared to tissue from limbic grain regions; neither on basal release nor on amphetamine-stimulated release of dopamine. (author)

  5. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  6. Cortical cholinergic deficiency enhances amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens but not striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Olson, Lars; Svensson, Torgny H; Schilström, Björn

    2007-11-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated as a putative contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recently, we showed that cholinergic denervation of the neocortex in adult rats leads to a marked increase in the behavioral response to amphetamine. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine seen after cortical cholinergic denervation was paralleled by an increased amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and/or striatum. The corticopetal cholinergic projections were lesioned by intraparenchymal infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult rats. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens or striatum was monitored by in vivo microdialysis 2 to 3 weeks after lesioning. We found that cholinergic denervation of the rat neocortex leads to a significantly increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, the cholinergic lesion did not affect amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the striatum. The enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in the cholinergically denervated rats could be reversed by administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, but not nicotine, prior to the amphetamine challenge, suggesting that loss of muscarinic receptor stimulation is likely to have caused the observed effect. The results suggest that abnormal responsiveness of dopamine neurons can be secondary to cortical cholinergic deficiency. This, in turn, might be of relevance for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provides a possible link between cholinergic disturbances and alteration of dopamine transmission.

  7. The dorsomedial striatum mediates Pavlovian appetitive conditioning and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Stone, Andrew D; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2017-12-01

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning. Rats with DMS lesions selectively attenuated responding to a food cue but not a control cue, early in training, suggesting the DMS is involved when initial associations are formed. Similarly, initial reversal learning was attenuated in rats with DMS lesions, which suggests impaired flexibility to adjust behavior when the cue meaning is reversed. We also examined the effect of DMS lesions on food intake during tests with access to a highly palatable food along with standard chow diet. Rats with DMS lesions showed an altered pattern of intake, with an initial reduction in high-fat diet followed by an increase in chow consumption. These results demonstrate that the DMS has a role in mediating cue-food learning and its subsequent reversal, as well as changes in food intake when a choice is provided. Together, these results demonstrate the DMS is involved in reward associative learning and reward consumption, when behavioral flexibility is needed to adjust responding or consumption to match the current value. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats causes a selective reduction in the expression of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Isabella; Iacovelli, Luisa; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Nardecchia, Francesca; Mauro, Gianluca; Janiri, Delfina; De Blasi, Antonio; Sani, Gabriele; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Orlando, Rosamaria

    2017-03-01

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats is considered as an experimental animal model of mania endowed with face, construct, and pharmacological validity. We induced paradoxical sleep deprivation by placing rats onto a small platform surrounded by water. This procedure caused the animal to fall in the water at the onset of REM phase of sleep. Control rats were either placed onto a larger platform (which allowed them to sleep) or maintained in their home cage. Sleep deprived rats showed a substantial reduction in type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex or corpus striatum, as compared to both groups of control rats. No changes in the expression of mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels or mGlu1α and mGlu5 receptor protein levels were found with exception of an increase in mGlu1α receptor levels in the striatum of SD rats. Moving from these findings we treated SD and control rats with the selective mGlu2 receptor enhancer, BINA (30mg/kg, i.p.). SD rats were also treated with sodium valproate (300mg/kg, i.p.) as an active comparator. Both BINA and sodium valproate were effective in reversing the manic-like phenotype evaluated in an open field arena in SD rats. BINA treatment had no effect on motor activity in control rats, suggesting that our findings were not biased by a non-specific motor-lowering activity of BINA. These findings suggest that changes in the expression of mGlu2 receptors may be associated with the enhanced motor activity observed with mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans: Behavioral and Evolutionary Significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M.; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Andersen, Kasper Winther

    2017-01-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species......, the origin of this projection is more restricted than that of the ipsilateral projection. In monkeys, it consists of thin axons (0.4–0.6 µm), appropriate for spatial and temporal dispersion of subliminal inputs. For prefrontal cortex, contralateral minus ipsilateral delays to striatum calculated from axon...... diameters and conduction distance are monkey and, by extrapolation,

  10. CORPUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Gerd; Berger, Gerald; Freytag, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    experience with a knowledge brokerage system comprised of two intertwined building blocks, a series of “policy meets research” workshops which attracted almost 300 professionals from all over Europe, and a web platform named “SCP Knowledge Hub” which evolved into a major knowledge repository for almost 900...... registered users. We identify three design principles for effective knowledge brokerage and overcoming of the translation barriers between science and policy - i.e. participatory, activating and modular - and formulate practical recommendations for brokering knowledge through an online medium....

  11. Pulvinar projections to the striatum and amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Day-Brown

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Visually-guided movement is possible in the absence of conscious visual perception, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight. Similarly, fearful images can elicit emotional responses in the absence of their conscious perception. Both capabilities are thought to be mediated by pathways from the retina through the superior colliculus (SC and pulvinar nucleus. To define potential pathways that underlie behavioral responses to unperceived visual stimuli, we examined the projections from the pulvinar nucleus to the striatum and amygdala in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, a species considered to be a protypical primate. The tree shrew brain has a large pulvinar nucleus that contains two SC-recipient subdivisions; the dorsal (Pd and central (Pc pulvinar both receive topographic (specific projections from SC, and Pd receives an additional nontopographic (diffuse projection from SC (Chomsung et al., 2008; JCN 510:24-46. Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing revealed that both Pd and Pc project to the caudate and putamen, and Pd, but not Pc, additionally projects to the lateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemical staining for substance P (SP and parvalbumin (PV to reveal the patch/matrix organization of tree shrew striatum, we found that SP-rich/PV-poor patches interlock with a PV-rich/SP-poor matrix. Confocal microscopy revealed that tracer-labeled pulvinostriatal terminals preferentially innervate the matrix. Electron microscopy revealed that the postsynaptic targets of tracer-labeled pulvino-striatal and pulvino-amygdala terminals are spines, demonstrating that the pulvinar nucleus projects to the spiny output cells of the striatum matrix and the lateral amygdala, potentially relaying: 1 topographic visual information from SC to striatum to aid in guiding precise movements, and 2 nontopographic visual information from SC to the amygdala alerting the animal to potentially dangerous visual images.

  12. Extensive training and hippocampus or striatum lesions: effect on place and response strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Tara K; Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Markus, Etan J

    2012-02-01

    The hippocampus has been linked to spatial navigation and the striatum to response learning. The current study focuses on how these brain regions continue to interact when an animal is very familiar with the task and the environment and must continuously switch between navigation strategies. Rats were trained to solve a plus maze using a place or a response strategy on different trials within a testing session. A room cue (illumination) was used to indicate which strategy should be used on a given trial. After extensive training, animals underwent dorsal hippocampus, dorsal lateral striatum or sham lesions. As expected hippocampal lesions predominantly caused impairment on place but not response trials. Striatal lesions increased errors on both place and response trials. Competition between systems was assessed by determining error type. Pre-lesion and sham animals primarily made errors to arms associated with the wrong (alternative) strategy, this was not found after lesions. The data suggest a qualitative change in the relationship between hippocampal and striatal systems as a task is well learned. During acquisition the two systems work in parallel, competing with each other. After task acquisition, the two systems become more integrated and interdependent. The fact that with extensive training (as something becomes a "habit"), behaviors become dependent upon the dorsal lateral striatum has been previously shown. The current findings indicate that dorsal lateral striatum involvement occurs even when the behavior is spatial and continues to require hippocampal processing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Reward-modulated motor information in identified striatum neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Yoshikazu; Takekawa, Takashi; Harukuni, Rie; Handa, Takashi; Aizawa, Hidenori; Takada, Masahiko; Fukai, Tomoki

    2013-06-19

    It is widely accepted that dorsal striatum neurons participate in either the direct pathway (expressing dopamine D1 receptors) or the indirect pathway (expressing D2 receptors), controlling voluntary movements in an antagonistically balancing manner. The D1- and D2-expressing neurons are activated and inactivated, respectively, by dopamine released from substantia nigra neurons encoding reward expectation. However, little is known about the functional representation of motor information and its reward modulation in individual striatal neurons constituting the two pathways. In this study, we juxtacellularly recorded the spike activity of single neurons in the dorsolateral striatum of rats performing voluntary forelimb movement in a reward-predictable condition. Some of these neurons were identified morphologically by a combination of juxtacellular visualization and in situ hybridization for D1 mRNA. We found that the striatal neurons exhibited distinct functional activations before and during the forelimb movement, regardless of the expression of D1 mRNA. They were often positively, but rarely negatively, modulated by expecting a reward for the correct motor response. The positive reward modulation was independent of behavioral differences in motor performance. In contrast, regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons in any layers of the motor cortex displayed only minor and unbiased reward modulation of their functional activation in relation to the execution of forelimb movement. Our results suggest that the direct and indirect pathway neurons cooperatively rather than antagonistically contribute to spatiotemporal control of voluntary movements, and that motor information is subcortically integrated with reward information through dopaminergic and other signals in the skeletomotor loop of the basal ganglia.

  14. Edition des Corpus areopagiticum slavicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fahl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An Edition of the Corpus areopagiticum slavicum In the fourteenth century, the monk Isaiah of the holy Mount Athos translated the writings of pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (c. end of the 5th century, core texts for Eastern and Western European theological and philosophical thought, from Greek into Church Slavonic. This first Slavic translation of Dionysius’ oeuvre (“De Coelesti Hierarchia,” “De Ecclesiastica Hierarchia,” “De Divinis Nominibus,” “De Mystica Theologia,” the epistles and scholia, which played a significant role in the development of Slavic culture, Orthodox Slavic socio-political theory and praxis, is still central to the study of Slavia Orthodoxa. A working group of German and Russian scholars has completed an edition of the translator’s Church Slavonic autograph with an en face reconstruction of the Greek text used by the translator and philological commentary. A Church Slavonic-Greek and Greek-Church Slavonic dictionary of this edition, currently in preparation, plans to make the terminology used in this influential translation accessible to interdisciplinary researchers. For the first time, the Church Slavonic lexica of this corpus, a substantial part of which was coined by the translator, will be registered in an index of words and forms.

  15. Changes of cerebral contents of neuropeptides in rat models of multiple ischemic dementia (MID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Guo Jingcai; Song Changyi; Wang Shejiao; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of cerebral contents of the neuropeptides somatostatin (SS), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and substance P in rat models of MID. Methods: The rat models consisted of 15 rats undergoing intracarotid injection of autogenous thrombus powder. Another group of 15 rats undergoing sham operation served as controls. Learning and memory ability in these rats was assessed with daily passive avoidance task testing for 10 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on 30d and contents of the neuropeptides in tissue homogenate from different areas of brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and corpus striatum) were measured with (RIA). Results: On the first day of passive avoidance task testing, the frequency of errors in the MID group and the control group was about the same. From the third day on, the frequency of errors in the MID group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The neuropeptides contents of all these cerebral areas in the MID group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) with the only exception of the contents of substance P in thalamus (no significant difference between the contents in the two groups). Conclusion: The impairment of learning and memory in rat models with MID was possibly related to the lowered contents of SS, AVP and substance P in the brain tissue. (authors)

  16. Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7 Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam H. M. Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7 on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2, and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7 with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7 reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7 treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7 in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism.

  17. Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and

  18. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  19. Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective…

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses differ in meninges and associated vasculature, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic amphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Saini, Upasana T; Patterson, Tucker A; Hanig, Joseph P; Bowyer, John F

    2010-08-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, but it can produce neurotoxicity and adverse vascular effects at high doses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) entails the unfolded protein response, which helps to avoid or minimize ER dysfunction. ERSR is often associated with toxicities resulting from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and has been associated with methamphetamine toxicity in the striatum. The present study evaluates the effect of AMPH on several ERSR elements in meninges and associated vasculature (MAV), parietal cortex, and striatum. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to saline, environmentally induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four consecutive doses of AMPH that produce hyperthermia. Expression changes (mRNA and protein levels) of key ERSR-related genes in MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex at 3 h or 1 day postdosing were monitored. AMPH increased the expression of some ERSR-related genes in all tissues. Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4, an indicator of Perk pathway activation), Hspa5/Grp78 (Glucose regulated protein 78, master regulator of ERSR), Pdia4 (protein disulfide isomerase, protein-folding enzyme), and Nfkb1 (nuclear factor of kappa b, ERSR sensor) mRNA increased significantly in MAV and parietal cortex 3 h after AMPH. In striatum, Atf4 and Hspa5/Grp78 mRNA significantly increased 3 h after AMPH, but Pdia4 and Nfkb11 did not. Thus, AMPH caused a robust activation of the Perk pathway in all tissues, but significant Ire1 pathway activation occurred only after AMPH treatment in the parietal cortex and striatum. Ddit3/Chop, a downstream effector of the ERSR pathway related to the neurotoxicity, was only increased in striatum and parietal cortex. Conversely, Pdia4, an enzyme protective in the ERSR, was only increased in MAV. The overall ERSR manifestation varied significantly between MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic exposure to AMPH.

  1. Differential Arc expression in the hippocampus and striatum during the transition from attentive to automatic navigation on a plus maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert S.; Suarez, Daniel F.; Robinson-Burton, Nadira K.; Rudnicky, Christopher J.; Gulati, Asish; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    The strategies utilized to effectively perform a given task change with practice and experience. During a spatial navigation task, with relatively little training, performance is typically attentive enabling an individual to locate the position of a goal by relying on spatial landmarks. These (place) strategies require an intact hippocampus. With task repetition, performance becomes automatic; the same goal is reached using a fixed response or sequence of actions. These (response) strategies require an intact striatum. The current work aims to understand the activation patterns across these neural structures during this experience-dependent strategy transition. This was accomplished by region-specific measurement of activity-dependent immediate early gene expression among rats trained to different degrees on a dual-solution task (i.e., a task that can be solved using either place or response navigation). As expected, rats increased their reliance on response navigation with extended task experience. In addition, dorsal hippocampal expression of the immediate early gene Arc was considerably reduced in rats that used a response strategy late in training (as compared with hippocampal expression in rats that used a place strategy early in training). In line with these data, vicarious trial and error, a behavior linked to hippocampal function, also decreased with task repetition. Although Arc mRNA expression in dorsal medial or lateral striatum alone did not correlate with training stage, the ratio of expression in the medial striatum to that in the lateral striatum was relatively high among rats that used a place strategy early in training as compared with the ratio among over-trained response rats. Altogether, these results identify specific changes in the activation of dissociated neural systems that may underlie the experience-dependent emergence of response-based automatic navigation. PMID:26976088

  2. Contributions of Hippocampus and Striatum to Memory-Guided Behavior Depend on Past Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampal and striatal memory systems are thought to operate independently and in parallel in supporting cognitive memory and habits, respectively. Much of the evidence for this principle comes from double dissociation data, in which damage to brain structure A causes deficits in Task 1 but not Task 2, whereas damage to structure B produces the reverse pattern of effects. Typically, animals are explicitly trained in one task. Here, we investigated whether this principle continues to hold when animals concurrently learn two types of tasks. Rats were trained on a plus maze in either a spatial navigation or a cue–response task (sequential training), whereas a third set of rats acquired both (concurrent training). Subsequently, the rats underwent either sham surgery or neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus (HPC), medial dorsal striatum (DSM), or lateral dorsal striatum (DSL), followed by retention testing. Finally, rats in the sequential training condition also acquired the novel “other” task. When rats learned one task, HPC and DSL selectively supported spatial navigation and cue response, respectively. However, when rats learned both tasks, HPC and DSL additionally supported the behavior incongruent with the processing style of the corresponding memory system. Thus, in certain conditions, the hippocampal and striatal memory systems can operate cooperatively and in synergism. DSM significantly contributed to performance regardless of task or training procedure. Experience with the cue–response task facilitated subsequent spatial learning, whereas experience with spatial navigation delayed both concurrent and subsequent response learning. These findings suggest that there are multiple operational principles that govern memory networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Currently, we distinguish among several types of memories, each supported by a distinct neural circuit. The memory systems are thought to operate independently and in parallel. Here, we demonstrate

  3. Inhibiting PKMζ reveals dorsal lateral and dorsal medial striatum store the different memories needed to support adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Clark, Alexandra D; Guenther, Heidi J; O'Reilly, Randall C; Rudy, Jerry W

    2012-06-20

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or just coordinate the learning and retention of these solutions by other brain regions. To address this issue, we developed a two-lever concurrent variable-interval reinforcement operant conditioning task and used it to assess the trained rat's sensitivity to contingency shifts. Consistent with the view that these two regions make different contributions to actions and habits, injecting the NMDA antagonist DL-AP5 into the DMS just prior to the shift impaired the rat's performance but enhanced performance when injected into the DLS. To determine if these regions support memory content, we first trained rats on a biased concurrent schedule (Lever 1: VI 40" and Lever 2: VI 10"). With the intent of "erasing" the memory content stored in striatum, after this training we inhibited the putative memory-maintenance protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Infusing zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the DLS enhanced the rat's ability to adapt to the contingency shift 2 d later, whereas injecting it into the DMS had the opposite effect. Infusing GluR2(3Y) into the DMS 1 h before ZIP infusions prevented ZIP from impairing the rat's sensitivity to the contingency shift. These results support the hypothesis that the DMS stores information needed to support actions and the DLS stores information needed to support habits.

  4. Urethritis due to corynebacterium striatum: An emerging germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikh, Mohammed; El Yaagoubi, Imad; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Corynedbacterium striatum (CS) is a Gram-positive coryneform bacillus that is part of mucous and skin flora. It has been considered as a causative agent of many infections in intensive care, neurology, traumatology and urology, but was never implicated in non-gonococcal urethritis. We report the case of a nosocomial urethritis due to Corynebacterium striatum following resection of an intrameatus condyloma.

  5. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  6. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  7. Integrated regulation of AMPA glutamate receptor phosphorylation in the striatum by dopamine and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Chen, Elton C; He, Nan; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) signals converge onto protein kinase A (PKA) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum to control cellular and synaptic activities of these neurons, although underlying molecular mechanisms are less clear. Here we measured phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) at a PKA site (S845) as an indicator of AMPAR responses in adult rat brains in vivo to explore how DA and ACh interact to modulate AMPARs. We found that subtype-selective activation of DA D1 receptors (D1Rs), D2 receptors (D2Rs), or muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) induced specific patterns of GluA1 S845 responses in the striatum. These defined patterns support a local multitransmitter interaction model in which D2Rs inhibited an intrinsic inhibitory element mediated by M4Rs to enhance the D1R efficacy in modulating AMPARs. Consistent with this, selective enhancement of M4R activity by a positive allosteric modulator resumed the cholinergic inhibition of D1Rs. In addition, D1R and D2R coactivation recruited GluA1 and PKA preferentially to extrasynaptic sites. In sum, our in vivo data support an existence of a dynamic DA-ACh balance in the striatum which actively modulates GluA1 AMPAR phosphorylation and trafficking. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Ionotropic glutamate receptors'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Burton, Amanda C; Gentry, Ronny N; Goldstein, Brandon L; Hearn, Taylor N; Barnett, Brian R; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  9. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  11. Methamphetamine blocks exercise effects on Bdnf and Drd2 gene expression in frontal cortex and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew B; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can produce many neurobiological changes which may lead to increased valuation of rewards and decreased sensitivity to their costs. Many of these behavioral alterations are associated with activity of D2-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Additionally, Bdnf in the striatum has been shown to play a role in flexible reward-seeking behavior. Given that voluntary aerobic exercise can affect the expression of these proteins in healthy subjects, and that exercise has shown promise as an anti-addictive therapy, we set out to quantify changes in D2 and Bdnf expression in methamphetamine-exposed rats given access to running wheels. Sixty-four rats were treated for two weeks with an escalating dose of methamphetamine or saline, then either sacrificed, housed in standard cages, or given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. Rats treated with methamphetamine ran significantly greater distances than saline-treated rats, suggesting an augmentation in the reinforcement value of voluntary wheel running. Transcription of Drd2 and Bdnf was assessed via RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels of D2 and phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor were measured via western blot. Drd2 and Bdnf mRNA levels were impacted independently by exercise and methamphetamine, but exposure to methamphetamine prior to the initiation of exercise blocked the exercise-induced changes seen in rats treated with saline. Expression levels of both proteins were elevated immediately after methamphetamine, but returned to baseline after six weeks, regardless of exercise status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring of the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Anglin, J M; Paode, P R; Riggert, A G; Olive, M F; Conrad, C D

    2014-11-07

    Chronic stress is an established risk factor in the development of addiction. Addiction is characterized by a progressive transition from casual drug use to habitual and compulsive drug use. The ability of chronic stress to facilitate the transition to addiction may be mediated by increased engagement of the neurocircuitries underlying habitual behavior and addiction. In the present study, striatal morphology was evaluated after 2 weeks of chronic variable stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dendritic complexity of medium spiny neurons was visualized and quantified with Golgi staining in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, as well as in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. In separate cohorts, the effects of chronic stress on habitual behavior and the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine were also assessed. Chronic stress resulted in increased dendritic complexity in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens core, regions implicated in habitual behavior and addiction, while decreased complexity was found in the nucleus accumbens shell, a region critical for the initial rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Chronic stress did not affect dendritic complexity in the dorsomedial striatum. A parallel shift toward habitual learning strategies following chronic stress was also identified. There was an initial reduction in acute locomotor response to methamphetamine, but no lasting effect as a result of chronic stress exposure. These findings suggest that chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring in the striatum. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  14. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  15. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  16. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  17. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  18. Altered structural covariance of the striatum in functional dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Zeng, F; Yang, F; Wang, J; Liu, X; Wang, Q; Zhou, G; Zhang, D; Zhu, M; Zhao, R; Wang, A; Gong, Q; Liang, F

    2014-08-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is thought to be involved in dysregulation within the brain-gut axis. Recently, altered striatum activation has been reported in patients with FD. However, the gray matter (GM) volumes in the striatum and structural covariance patterns of this area are rarely explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the GM volumes and structural covariance patterns of the striatum between FD patients and healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained from 44 FD patients and 39 HCs. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was adopted to examine the GM volumes in the two groups. The caudate- or putamen-related regions identified from VBM analysis were then used as seeds to map the whole brain voxel-wise structural covariance patterns. Finally, a correlation analysis was used to investigate the effects of FD symptoms on the striatum. The results showed increased GM volumes in the bilateral putamen and right caudate. Compared with the structural covariance patterns of the HCs, the FD-related differences were mainly located in the amygdala, hippocampus/parahippocampus (HIPP/paraHIPP), thalamus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. And significant positive correlations were found between the volumes in the striatum and the FD duration in the patients. These findings provided preliminary evidence for GM changes in the striatum and different structural covariance patterns in patients with FD. The current results might expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of FD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tartrazine induced neurobiochemical alterations in rat brain sub-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Diksha; Vyas, Krati; Singh, Shakuntala; John, P J; Soni, Inderpal

    2018-03-01

    Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. The present study aimed to screen the neurobiochemical effects of Tartrazine in Wistar rats after administering the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) level. Tartrazine (7.5 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to 21 day old weanling rats through oral gavage once daily for 40 consecutive days. On 41st day, the animals were sacrificed and brain sub regions namely, frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were used to determine activities of anti-oxidant enzymes viz. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-Stransferase (GST), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and levels of lipid peroxides using Thio-barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) assay. Our investigation showed a significant decrease in SOD and CAT activity, whereas there occurred a decline in GST and GR activity with an increase in GPx activity to counteract the oxidative damage caused by significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides. The possible mechanism of this oxidative damage might be attributed to the production of sulphanilc acid as a metabolite in azofission of tartrazine. It may be concluded that the ADI levels of food azo dyes adversely affect and alter biochemical markers of brain tissue and cause oxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  1. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  2. Divergent Approaches to Corpus Processing: The Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    McEnery and Wilson (1996: 32) stress the importance of a corpus: 'As a stan- ... close to five million running words, and the Ndebele corpus at around three ... since their introduction and reinforcement through the second form of contact.

  3. Rheumatic diseases in the Corpus Hippocraticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Squillace

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medecine of V and IV centuries B.C. attested in the Corpus Hippocraticum ascribes all diseases to the rheuma, i.e. the flux of humours into the body. This flux produces not only the rise of cold, hoarsness, cough, reddenings, dropsy, but also arthritis, sciatica, gout.

  4. The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William White

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.

  5. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  6. Sirenomelia with agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Shapour; Rekabi, Vahab; Kamalian, Naser

    2006-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare anomaly presented with fusion of the lower limbs. Genitourinary, neural tube, and vertebral anomalies are found in most cases. We report a case of sirenomelia with agenesis of corpus callosum, which has not been reported previously.

  7. Topics in Corpus-Based Dutch Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Leonoor Johanneke van der

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation, corpus data is applied in various kinds of linguistic analyses. The data serves as a source of examples and counterexamples in a theoretical linguistic analysis of the Dutch cleft construction, as the source of quantitative data in a probabilistic account of the dative

  8. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  9. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Michael; Eckert, Miriam; Evans, Donald; Garcia, Kristin; Shipley, Krista; Sitnikov, Dmitry; Baumgartner, William A; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Verspoor, Karin; Blake, Judith A; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2012-07-09

    Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http://bionlp-corpora.sourceforge.net/CRAFT/index.shtml.

  10. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the serialized...

  11. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  12. The Nordic Dialect Corpus – a joint research infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.

  13. Dictionary Writing System (DWS) + Corpus Query Package (CQP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be employed ...

  14. Divergent approaches to corpus processing: the need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a good corpus, data can be provided giving an authoritative body of linguistic evidence which can support generalisations and against which hypotheses can be tested. As this proves the invaluable status of a corpus, the article assesses the processing of the Shona corpus and discusses how some aspects of the ...

  15. Distribution of kappa opioid receptors in the brain of young and old male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, R.; Limonta, P.; Dondi, D.; Martini, L.; Piva, F.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments to be described have been designed in order to: (a) provide new information on the concentrations of opioid kappa receptors in different regions of the brain of the male rats; and (b) to analyze whether the density of brain kappa receptors might be modified by the process of aging. The concentration of kappa receptors was investigated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, frontal poles, anterior and posterior cortex collected from male rats of 2 and 19 months of age. 3 H-bremazocine (BRZ) was used as the ligand of kappa receptors, after protection of mu and delta receptors respectively with dihydromorphine and d-ala-d-leu-enkephalin. The results obtained show that: (1) in young male rats, the number of kappa opioid receptors is different in the various brain areas examined. (2) Aging exerts little influence on the number of kappa receptors in the majority of the brain structures considered. However in the amygdala and in the thalamus the number of kappa receptors was increased in old animals

  16. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Khanna, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Cognitive changes have been known in encephalitis but in Japanese encephalitis (JE) such studies are limited. This study aims at evaluating the spatial memory and learning and correlate with markers of cholinergic activity in the brain.12day old Wistar rats were inoculated with dose of 3×10(6)pfu/ml of JE virus. On 10, 33 and 48days post-inoculation (dpi), spatial memory and learning was assessed by Y maze. Brain biopsies from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were taken. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory showed significant decline in rats inoculated with JEV on 10 and 33dpi (47.5%, pmemory were found at different dpi. There was transient spatial learning and memory impairment which was associated with reduction of total muscarinic receptor binding, CHRM2 gene and ChAT expression in different brain region of rat infected with JE Virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Alcohol Administration on the Corpus Cavernosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Min Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC using an animal model. Materials and Methods: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays. After chronic alcohol administration, ICP/MAP percentage, cAMP and cGMP were compared in rats. Histological changes were examined using the Masson trichrome stain and the Sircol collagen assay. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: Alcohol relaxed the CC in a dose-dependent manner, and the relaxation response was suppressed when pretreated with propranolol, indomethacin, glibenclamide, and 4-aminopyridine. In rats with acute alcohol exposure, the cAMP level in the CC was significantly greater than was observed in the control group (p<0.05. In rats with chronic alcohol exposure, however, changes in cAMP and cGMP levels were insignificant, and the CC showed markedly smaller areas of smooth muscle, greater amounts of dense collagen (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical analysis of eNOS showed a less intense response, and western blotting showed that eNOS expression was significantly lower in this group (p<0.05. Conclusions: Acute alcohol administration activated the cAMP pathway with positive effects on erectile function. In contrast, chronic alcohol administration changed the ultrastructures of the CC and suppressed eNOS expression, thereby leading to erectile dysfunction.

  18. CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: Association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eVan Waes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits mediate various aspects of goal-directed behavior and are critically important for basal ganglia-related disorders. Activity in these circuits is regulated by the endocannabinoid system via stimulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are highly expressed in projection neurons and select interneurons of the striatum, but expression levels vary considerably between different striatal regions (functional domains. We investigated CB1 receptor expression within specific corticostriatal circuits by mapping CB1 mRNA levels in striatal sectors defined by their cortical inputs in rats. We also assessed changes in CB1 expression in the striatum during development. Our results show that CB1 expression is highest in juveniles (P25 and then progressively decreases towards adolescent (P40 and adult (P70 levels. At every age, CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed in sensorimotor striatal sectors, with considerably lower expression in associative and limbic sectors. Moreover, for most corticostriatal circuits there is an inverse relationship between cortical and striatal expression levels. Thus, striatal sectors with high CB1 expression (sensorimotor sectors tend to receive inputs from cortical areas with low expression, while striatal sectors with low expression (associative/limbic sectors receive inputs from cortical regions with higher expression (medial prefrontal cortex. In so far as CB1 mRNA levels reflect receptor function, our findings suggest differential CB1 signaling between different developmental stages and between sensorimotor and associative/limbic circuits. The regional distribution of CB1 receptor expression in the striatum further suggests that, in sensorimotor sectors, CB1 receptors mostly regulate GABA inputs from local axon collaterals of projection neurons, whereas in associative/limbic sectors, CB1 regulation of GABA inputs from interneurons and glutamate inputs may be more important.

  19. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oso Bay in Corpus Christi, Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air... entities and very few recreational fisherman utilize this section of Oso Bay, the restriction of vessel...

  20. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    diffusion of [(18)F]fluorodopamine metabolites from brain. Consequently, time-radioactivity recordings of striatum are progressively influenced by metabolite loss. In linear analyses, the net blood-brain clearance of FDOPA (K(D)(i), ml g(-1) min(-1)) can be corrected for this loss by the elimination rate...... constant k(Lin)(cl) (min(-1)). Similarly, the DOPA decarboxylation rate constant (k(D)(3), min(-1)) calculated by compartmental analysis can also be corrected for metabolite loss by the elimination rate constant k(DA)(9) (min(-1)). To compare the two methods, we calculated the two elimination rate...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  1. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  2. Chronically administered 3-nitropropionic acid produces selective lesions in the striatum and reduces muscle tonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Y; Kumazaki, M; Sakurai, T; Hida, H; Fujimoto, I; Fukuda, A; Nishino, H

    1995-12-01

    Systemically administered 3-nitropropionic acid (3- NPA), irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, produced characteristic bilateral lesions in the striatum (STR) in the rat. Inside the lesion, neutrophils invaded and strong immunoreaction for IgG as well as complement factor C3b/C4b receptor (C3b/C4br) were observed. The core of the lesion lost the immunoreaction for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) while the marginal area had abundant GFAP-labeled astrocytes around the vessels. Intoxicated rats often became somnolent and were awkward in cooperative movement on a pole climbing test, but they had a quite good memory retention in a passive avoidance learning. Muscle tonus in some of the intoxicated rats became hypotonic with low voltage electromyogram (EMG) activity, especially in lower limbs. In summary, 3-NPA intoxicated rats had selective bilateral lesions in the STR and exhibited disturbances in a cooperative movement owing to the impairment in muscle tonus, thus it would be a useful animal model to deduce the central pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.

  3. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  4. Corpus-based Studies on Nursing Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Fairus Nor Mohamad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP, there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing students and educators. This research aims to highlight the 2,000 most frequently used nursing words across the core textbooks of nursing and to profile the types of ‘low frequency’ lexis which comprise the nursing corpus in terms of the General Service List (GSL and Academic Word List (AWL lexis coverage. By knowing the frequently used nursing words would further reduce students’ reading deficiency if the students use the 2000-word list.

  5. Striatum-dependent habits are insensitive to both increases and decreases in reinforcer value in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jennifer J; Pittenger, Christopher; Lee, Anni S; Pierson, Jamie L; Taylor, Jane R

    2013-03-01

    The mouse has emerged as an advantageous species for studying the brain circuitry that underlies complex behavior and for modeling neuropsychiatric disease. The transition from flexible, goal-directed actions to inflexible, habitual responses is argued to be a valid and reliable behavioral model for studying a core aspect of corticostriatal systems that is implicated in certain forms of psychopathology. This transition is thought to correspond to a progression of behavioral control from associative to sensorimotor corticobasal ganglia networks. Habits form following extensive training and are characterized by reduced sensitivity of instrumental responding to reinforcer revaluation; few studies have examined this form of behavioral control in mice. Here we examined the involvement of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum in this transition in the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain. We provided evidence that damage to the dorsolateral striatum disrupted habitual responding, i.e. it preserved sensitivity to changes in outcome value following either outcome devaluation or, shown for the first time in mice, outcome inflation. Together, these data show that instrumental responding in lesioned mice tracks the current value of a reinforcer and provide evidence that neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying habit learning in rats are preserved in the mouse. This will allow for the genetic and molecular dissection of neural factors involved in decision-making and mechanisms of aberrant habit formation. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. CORPUS CHRISTI E A FOME NO MUNDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto dos Santos Dutra

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A festa religiosa de Corpus Christi, data da instituição da Eucaristia, neste ano foi comemorada no dia 15 de junho. Neste sacramento, entende a Igreja católica, o próprio Cristo se comunica para nutrir e salvar o homem. Expressão e síntese do cristianismo, é a identificação do sacrifício de Cristo com o sacrifício do homem.

  7. The VGLC: The Video Game Level Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Adam James; Snodgrass, Sam; Mateas, Michael; Ontañón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Levels are a key component of many different video games, and a large body of work has been produced on how to procedurally generate game levels. Recently, Machine Learning techniques have been applied to video game level generation towards the purpose of automatically generating levels that have the properties of the training corpus. Towards that end we have made available a corpora of video game levels in an easy to parse format ideal for different machine learning and other game AI researc...

  8. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  9. Evolution of extra-nigral damage predicts behavioural deficits in a rat proteasome inhibitor model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Vernon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the neurological basis of behavioural dysfunction is key to provide a better understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD and facilitate development of effective novel therapies. For this, the relationships between longitudinal structural brain changes associated with motor behaviour were determined in a rat model of PD and validated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry. Rats bearing a nigrostriatal lesion induced by infusion of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin into the left-medial forebrain bundle and saline-injected controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at baseline (prior to surgery and 1, 3 and 5 weeks post-surgery with concomitant motor assessments consisting of forelimb grip strength, accelerating rotarod, and apormorphine-induced rotation. Lactacystin-injected rats developed early motor deficits alongside decreased ipsilateral cortical volumes, specifically thinning of the primary motor (M1 and somatosensory cortices and lateral ventricle hypertrophy (as determined by manual segmentation and deformation-based morphometry. Although sustained, motor dysfunction and nigrostriatal damage were maximal by 1 week post-surgery. Additional volume decreases in the ipsilateral ventral midbrain; corpus striatum and thalamus were only evident by week 3 and 5. Whilst cortical MRI volume changes best predicted the degree of motor impairment, post-mortem tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum was a better predictor of motor behaviour overall, with the notable exception of performance in the accelerating rotarod, in which, M1 cortical thickness remained the best predictor. These results highlight the importance of identifying extra-nigral regions of damage that impact on behavioural dysfunction from damage to the nigrostriatal system.

  10. Divergent brain changes in two audiogenic rat strains: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging comparison of the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yichien; Rodriguez, Olga C; Albanese, Chris; Santos, Victor Rodrigues; Cortes de Oliveira, José Antônio; Donatti, Ana Luiza Ferreira; Fernandes, Artur; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2018-03-01

    Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown. Here, we examined the brain structure of Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WIS) rats, and quantified changes in the GEPR-3 and WAR, respectively. Brains from adult, male rats of each strain (n=8-10 per group) were collected, fixed, and embedded in agar and imaged using a 7 tesla Bruker MRI. Post-acquisition analysis included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and manual volumetric tracing. In the VBM analysis, GEPR-3 displayed volumetric changes in brainstem structures known to be engaged by AGS (e.g., superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey) and in forebrain structures (e.g., striatum, septum, nucleus accumbens). WAR displayed volumetric changes in superior colliculus, and a broader set of limbic regions (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex). The only area of significant overlap in the two strains was the midline cerebellum: both GEPR-3 and WAR showed decreased volume compared to their control strains. In the DTI analysis, GEPR-3 displayed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, posterior commissure and commissure of the inferior colliculus (IC). WAR displayed increased FA only in the commissure of IC. These data provide a biological basis for further comparative and mechanistic studies in the GEPR-3 and WAR models, as well as provide additional insight into commonalities in the pathways underlying AGS susceptibility and behavioral comorbidity. Copyright © 2017

  11. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Shape abnormalities of the striatum in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laura W; Ferrarini, Luca; van der Grond, Jeroen; Milles, Julien R; Reiber, Johan H C; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Bollen, Edward L E M; Middelkoop, Huub A M; van Buchem, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Postmortem studies show pathological changes in the striatum in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examine the surface of the striatum in AD and assess whether changes of the surface are associated with impaired cognitive functioning. The shape of the striatum (n. accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) was compared between 35 AD patients and 35 individuals without cognitive impairment. The striatum was automatically segmented from 3D T1 magnetic resonance images and automatic shape modeling tools (Growing Adaptive Meshes) were applied for morphometrical analysis. Repeated permutation tests were used to identify locations of consistent shape deformities of the striatal surface in AD. Linear regression models, corrected for age, gender, educational level, head size, and total brain parenchymal volume were used to assess the relation between cognitive performance and local surface deformities. In AD patients, differences of shape were observed on the medial head of the caudate nucleus and on the ventral lateral putamen, but not on the accumbens. The head of the caudate nucleus and ventral lateral putamen are characterized by extensive connections with the orbitofrontal and medial temporal cortices. Severity of cognitive impairment was associated with the degree of deformity of the surfaces of the accumbens, rostral medial caudate nucleus, and ventral lateral putamen. These findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that in AD primarily associative and limbic cerebral networks are affected.

  13. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  14. A dissociation of dorso-lateral striatum and amygdala function on the same stimulus-response habit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R J; Hong, N S

    2004-01-01

    This experiment tested the idea that the amygdala-based learning and memory system covertly acquires a stimulus-reward (stimulus-outcome) association during acquisition of a stimulus-response (S-R) habit task developed for the eight-arm radial maze. Groups of rats were given dorso-lateral striatal or amygdala lesions and then trained on the S-R habit task on the eight-arm radial maze. Rats with neurotoxic damage to the dorso-lateral striatum were severely impaired on the acquisition of the S-R habit task but showed a conditioned-cue preference for the stimulus reinforced during S-R habit training. Rats with neurotoxic damage to the amygdala were able to acquire the S-R habit task but did not show a conditioned-cue preference for the stimulus reinforced during S-R habit training. This pattern of results represents a dissociation of learning and memory functions of the dorsal striatum and amygdala on the same task.

  15. Role of Anterior Intralaminar Nuclei of Thalamus Projections to Dorsomedial Striatum in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Witonsky, Kailyn R; Lofaro, Olivia M; Surjono, Felicia; Zhang, Jianjun; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-02-28

    Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas. Next, we determined the effect of pharmacological reversible inactivation of lateral or medial anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus (AIT-L or AIT-M) on incubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 30. We then used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to determine whether an interaction between AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections and postsynaptic DMS D1Rs contributes to incubated Meth seeking. We also determined the effect of unilateral inactivation of AIT-L and D1R blockade of DMS on incubated Meth seeking, and the effect of contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections on nonincubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 1. Incubated Meth seeking was associated with selective activation of AIT→DMS projections; other glutamatergic projections to DMS were not activated. AIT-L (but not AIT-M) inactivation or anatomical disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections decreased incubated Meth seeking. Unilateral inactivation of AIT-L or D1R blockade of the DMS had no effect on incubated Meth craving, and contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections had no effect on nonincubated Meth seeking. Our results identify a novel role of AIT-L and AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections in incubation of drug craving and drug seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of

  16. The Ndebele Language Corpus: A Review of Some Factors Influencing the Content of the Corpus*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samukele Hadebe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The Ndebele language corpus described here is that compiled by the ALLEX Project (now ALRI at the University of Zimbabwe. It is intended to reflect as much as possible the Ndebele language as spoken in Zimbabwe. The Ndebele language corpus was built in order to provide much-needed material for the study of the Ndebele language with a special focus on dictionarymaking and research. Like most corpora, the Ndebele language corpus may in future be used for other purposes not thought of at the time of its inception. It has been designed to meet generally acceptable standards so that it can be adaptable to various possible uses by various researchers. The article wants to outline the building process of the Ndebele language corpus with special emphasis on the challenges that faced compilers, and possible solutions. It is assumed that some of these challenges might not be peculiar to Ndebele alone but could also affect related African languages in a more or less similar situation. The main focus of the discussion will be the composition of the Ndebele language corpus, i.e. the type of texts that constitute the corpus. The corpus is composed of published texts, unpublished texts and oral material gathered from Ndebele-speaking districts of Zimbabwe. It will be argued that the use of the corpus and its reliability for research depends among other factors on its contents. It will also be shown that the contents of a corpus depend on a number of factors, some of which include sociolinguistic, political and economic considerations. These considerations have implications on both the content and quality of published and oral texts that constitute the Ndebele language corpus.

    Keywords: CORPUS, ORAL MATERIALS, CODE-MIXING, CODE-SWITCHING, MOTHER- TONGUE, NDEBELE

    Opsomming: Die Ndebeletaalkorpus: 'n Oorsig van sommige faktore wat die inhoud van die korpus be?nvloed. Die Ndebeletaalkorpus wat hier beskryf word, is di? saamgestel deur die

  17. Diffuse corpus callosum infarction - Rare vascular entity with differing etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Rohan; Mehta, Anish; Buddaraju, Kiran; John, Aju Abraham; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2016-01-15

    Infarctions of the corpus callosum are rare vascular events. It is relatively immune to vascular insult because of its rich vascular supply from anterior and posterior circulations of brain. Report of 3 patients with largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction. 3 patients with largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction were studied and each of these 3 patients had 3 different aetiologies. The 3 different aetiologies of largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction were cardioembolism, tuberculous arteritis and takayasu arteritis. Diffuse corpus callosum infarcts are rare events. This case series narrates the three different aetiologies of diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction which is a rare vascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Parallel Representation of Value-Based and Finite State-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to predict rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to predict environmental states. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit prediction of rewards or states. Here we consider another strategy, the finite state-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal state and updates the state depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite state-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite state-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS, and the ventral striatum (VS identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual states of the finite state-based strategy. The signal of internal states at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of states was found in VS. In addition, action values and state values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite state-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.

  19. Parallel Representation of Value-Based and Finite State-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to predict rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to predict environmental states. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit prediction of rewards or states. Here we consider another strategy, the finite state-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal state and updates the state depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite state-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite state-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), and the ventral striatum (VS) identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual states of the finite state-based strategy. The signal of internal states at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of states was found in VS. In addition, action values and state values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite state-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.

  20. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Spontal-N: A Corpus of Interactional Spoken Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Sikveland, A.; Öttl, A.; Amdal, I.; Ernestus, M.; Svendsen, T.; Edlund, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spontal-N is a corpus of spontaneous, interactional Norwegian. To our knowledge, it is the first corpus of Norwegian in which the majority of speakers have spent significant parts of their lives in Sweden, and in which the recorded speech displays varying degrees of interference from Swedish. The corpus consists of studio quality audio- and video-recordings of four 30-minute free conversations between acquaintances, and a manual orthographic transcription of the entire material. On basis of t...

  2. Learner corpus profiles the case of Romanian learner English

    CERN Document Server

    Chitez, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.

  3. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving facility. (2) For outgoing tank vessels loaded with LPG, the waters...

  4. GECO, un Gestor de Corpus colaborativo basado en web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sierra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta GEstor de COrpus (GECO, un software de gestión de corpus en línea que permite a los usuarios subir colecciones de documentos y volverlos corpus digitales. En el sistema, los corpus pueden ser procesados por otras aplicaciones, las cuales están implementadas como módulos integrados a la infraestructura de GECO. En este documento se describen a detalle sus características, así como la funcionalidad del generador de concordancias desarrollado en torno a él.

  5. [Behavioral and cognitive profile of corpus callosum agenesia - Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábadi, Beatrix; Beke, Anna Maria

    2016-11-30

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is a relatively frequent congenital cerebral malformation including dysplasia, total or partial absence of corpus callosum. The agenesis of corpus callosum can be occured in isolated form without accompanying somatic or central nervous system abnormalities and it can be associated with other central nervus system malformations. The behavioral and cognitive outcome is more favorable for patients with isolated agenesis of corpus callous than syndromic form of corpus callosum. The aim of this study is to review recent research on behavioral and social-cognitive functions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum. Developmental delay is common especially in higher-order cognitive and social functions. An internet database search was performed to identify publications on the subject. Fifty-five publications in English corresponded to the criteria. These studies reported deficits in language, social cognition and emotions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum which is known as primary corpus callous syndrome. The results indicate that individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum have deficiency in social-cognitive domain (recognition of emotions, weakness in paralinguistic aspects of language and mentalizing abilities). The impaired social cognition can be manifested in behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  6. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  7. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.

  8. Neuronal basis for evaluating selected action in the primate striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Ueda, Yasumasa; Kimura, Minoru

    2011-08-01

    Humans and animals optimize their behavior by evaluating outcomes of individual actions and predicting how much reward the actions will yield. While the estimated values of actions guide choice behavior, the choices are also governed by other behavioral norms, such as rules and strategies. Values, rules and strategies are represented in neuronal activity, and the striatum is one of the best qualified brain loci where these signals meet. To understand the role of the striatum in value- and strategy-based decision-making, we recorded striatal neurons in macaque monkeys performing a behavioral task in which they searched for a reward target by trial-and-error among three alternatives, earned a reward for a target choice, and then earned additional rewards for choosing the same target. This task allowed us to examine whether and how values of targets and strategy, which were defined as negative-then-search and positive-then-repeat (or win-stay-lose-switch), are represented in the striatum. Large subsets of striatal neurons encoded positive and negative outcome feedbacks of individual decisions and actions. Once monkeys made a choice, signals related to chosen actions, their values and search- or repeat-type actions increased and persisted until the outcome feedback appeared. Subsets of neurons exhibited a tonic increase in activity after the search- and repeat-choices following negative and positive feedback in the last trials as the task strategy monkeys adapted. These activity profiles as a heterogeneous representation of decision variables may underlie a part of the process for reinforcement- and strategy-based evaluation of selected actions in the striatum. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Subregion-specific modulation of excitatory input and dopaminergic output in the striatum by tonically activated glycine and GABAA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eAdermark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia is a complex spatiotemporal pattern of increased and decreased firing. The striatum is the biggest input nucleus to the basal ganglia and the aim of this study was to assess the role of inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors in regulating synaptic activity in the dorsolateral (DLS and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc. Local field potential recordings from coronal brain slices of juvenile and adult Wistar rats showed that GABAA receptors and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are tonically activated and inhibit excitatory input to the DLS and to the nAc. Strychnine-induced disinhibition of glutamatergic transmission was insensitive to the muscarinic receptor inhibitor scopolamine (10 µM, inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 µM and blocked by GABAA receptor inhibitors, suggesting that tonically activated glycine receptors depress excitatory input to the striatum through modulation of cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. As an end-product example of striatal GABAergic output in vivo we measured dopamine release in the DLS and nAc by microdialysis in the awake and freely moving rat. Reversed dialysis of bicuculline (50 μM in perfusate only increased extrasynaptic dopamine levels in the nAc, while strychnine administered locally (200 μM in perfusate decreased dopamine output by 60% in both the DLS and nAc. Our data suggest that GABAA and glycine receptors are tonically activated and modulate striatal transmission in a partially sub-region specific manner.

  10. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  11. Rab proteins in the brain and corpus allatum of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tomohide; Furutani, Masayuki; Watanabe, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Uno, Yuichi; Kanamaru, Kengo; Yamagata, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takeda, Makio

    2016-07-01

    In eukaryotic cells, Rab guanosine triphosphate-ases serve as key regulators of membrane-trafficking events, such as exocytosis and endocytosis. Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 control the regulatory secretory pathway of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cDNAs of Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 from B. mori were inserted into a plasmid, transformed into Escherichia coli, and then subsequently purified. We then produced antibodies against Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 of Bombyx mori in rabbits and rats for use in western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Western immunoblotting of brain tissue revealed a single band at approximately 26 kDa. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 expression was restricted to neurons in the pars intercerebralis and dorsolateral protocerebrum of the brain. Rab3 and Rab6 co-localized with bombyxin, an insect neuropeptide. However, there was no Rab that co-localized with prothoracicotropic hormone. The corpus allatum secretes neuropeptides synthesized in the brain into the hemolymph. Results showed that Rab3 and Rab6 co-localized with bombyxin in the corpus allatum. These findings suggest that Rab3 and Rab6 are involved in neurosecretion in B. mori. This study is the first to report a possible relationship between Rab and neurosecretion in the insect corpus allatum.

  12. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  14. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  15. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D

    2016-02-16

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone.

  16. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  17. Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment fraud detection in website. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...

  18. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging | Chabata | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data.

  19. DutchParl: A corpus of parliamentary documents in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.; Schuth, A.

    2010-01-01

    A corpus called DutchParl is created which aims to contain all digitally available parliamentary documents written in the Dutch language. The first version of DutchParl contains documents from the parliaments of The Netherlands, Flanders and Belgium. The corpus is divided along three dimensions: per

  20. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Sub; Kim, Jong Chul; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Wol

    1997-01-01

    To measure the mean size of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal Korean children, using MR imaging. Our subjects were 166 children (male : female=100 : 66) aged under 15 whose findings on MR imaging and neurologic examination were normal. Using midsagittal T1-weighted imaging, we measured the length of the brain and corpus callosum, the height of the latter, and the thickness of its genu body, transitional zone and splenium. The measurements were statistically analysed according to age and sex. Brain length and the size of the various portions of the corpus callosum tended to increase relatively rapidly during the first three years of life, but the rate of growth tended to decrease according to age. The mean lenght of the brain and corpus callosum and the mean thickness of the splenium of the corpus callosum did not differ according to sex. The mean thickness of the genu, body and transitional zone of the corpus callosum was greater in males than in females. The ratio of the length of the corpus callosum to the anteroposterior diameter of the brain was significantly greater in females than in males (alpha=0.05). Using MR imaging, we measured the mean sizes of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal children;these values may provide a useful basis for determing changes occurring in its structure

  1. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  2. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  3. Comparative study of D2 receptors and content of DA in striatum before and after electro-acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the change of D 2 receptors and its relationship with DA content in experimental hemi-parkinsonism rats before and after electron-acupuncture treatment. Methods: 125 I-IBZM D 2 receptor cerebral autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content detection were used to study in striatum in before treatment, electro-acupuncture treatment and treatment control group. Results: 1) The DA, HVA and DOPAC level in striatum of lesioned side in electro-acupuncture group was increased comparing with the before treatment and treatment control group (P 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71, (29.34 +- 4.83)% more than that of the contralateral side, but no significant difference was observed as compared with that of the pretreatment group [(8.09 +- 0.52), P>0.05]; however it was much lower than that of the treatment control group (8.61 +- 0.63), P 2 receptors' up regulation in rats with experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  4. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  5. A functional difference in information processing between orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum during decision-making behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jeffrey J; Redish, A David

    2014-11-05

    Both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (vStr) have been identified as key structures that represent information about value in decision-making tasks. However, the dynamics of how this information is processed are not yet understood. We recorded ensembles of cells from OFC and vStr in rats engaged in the spatial adjusting delay-discounting task, a decision-making task that involves a trade-off between delay to and magnitude of reward. Ventral striatal neural activity signalled information about reward before the rat's decision, whereas such reward-related signals were absent in OFC until after the animal had committed to its decision. These data support models in which vStr is directly involved in action selection, but OFC processes decision-related information afterwards that can be used to compare the predicted and actual consequences of behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root 'sublux.' It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as 'subluxation:' i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation.

  7. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.

  8. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Language corpora are now indispensable to dictionary compilation. They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1 it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2 it shows local characteristics; and (3 it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment. The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon.

    Keywords: MULTILINGUAL, SPECIAL PURPOSE, CORPUS, LEXICON

    Opsomming: Van sakekorpus tot sakeleksikon. Taalkorpora is tans onontbeerlik virdie samestelling van woordeboeke. Hulle help om die rol van die woordeboek uit te brei vanaf diestandaardisering van die woordeskat tot die optekening van ‘n taal. Die drietalige korpus wat deurdie Hongkongse Politegniese Universiteit ontwikkel is, verskaf ‘n opgawe van die saketale wat inHongkong gebruik word. Dit verskil van ander korpora deurdat (1 dit Engels, Chinees and Japaneesinsluit; (2 dit plaaslike eienskappe vertoon; en (3 dit op 'n spesifieke gebied (finansiële dienste,insluitende bankwese, rekeningkunde, ouditering, versekering en belegging fokus. Die artikelbespreek verskillende aspekte van die totstandbrenging van 'n drietalige korpus, en hoe om vollegebruik te maak van die data om 'n drietalige leksikon te genereer.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIG, SPESIALE DOEL, KORPUS, LEKSIKON

  9. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics Metáfora e linguística de corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I look at four different aspects of metaphor research from a corpus linguistic perspective, namely: (1 the lexicogrammar of metaphors, which refers to the patterning of linguistic metaphor revealed by corpus analysis; (2 metaphor probabilities, which is a facet of metaphor that emerges from frequency-based studies of metaphor; (3 dimensions of metaphor variation, or the search for systematic parameters of variation in metaphor use across different registers; and (4 automated metaphor retrieval, which relates to the development of software to help identify metaphors in corpora. I argue that these four aspects are interrelated, and that advances in one of them can drive changes in the others.Neste artigo discuto quarto aspectos da pesquisa sobre metáfora do ponto de vista da linguística de corpus: (1 a lexicogramática das metáforas, que se refere aos padrões da metáfora linguística revelados pela análise de corpus; (2 probabilidades metafóricas, que é uma faceta da metáfora que emerge a partir dos estudos relacionados à freqüência de metáforas; (3 dimensões da variação de metáforas, ou a busca por parâmetros sistemáticos de variação de uso de metáfora em diferentes gêneros; e (4 captura automática de metáfora, que está relacionada ao desenvolvimento de softwares que auxiliam na identificação de metáforas em corpora. I defendo que esses quatro aspectos são interrelacionados, e que progressos em um deles podem acarretar mudanças nos outros.

  10. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  11. Holistic corpus-based dialectology Dialetologia holística baseada em corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Szmrecsanyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sketching future directions for corpus-based dialectology. We advocate a holistic approach to the study of geographically conditioned linguistic variability, and we present a suitable methodology, 'corpusbased dialectometry', in exactly this spirit. Specifically, we argue that in order to live up to the potential of the corpus-based method, practitioners need to (i abandon their exclusive focus on individual linguistic features in favor of the study of feature aggregates, (ii draw on computationally advanced multivariate analysis techniques (such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, and (iii aid interpretation of empirical results by marshalling state-of-the-art data visualization techniques. To exemplify this line of analysis, we present a case study which explores joint frequency variability of 57 morphosyntax features in 34 dialects all over Great Britain.Este artigo debruça-se sobre o esboço propositivo de futuras direções para a dialetologia baseada em corpus. Defendemos uma abordagem holística para o estudo da variabilidade linguística geograficamente condicionada, e apresentamos uma metodologia adequada para tal - a dialetometria baseada em corpus. Mais especificamente, defendemos que para que se obtenham todos os resultados esperados da metodologia de corpus, pesquisadores devem: (i abandonar seu foco exclusivo em traços linguísticos individuais em favor do estudo dos agregados de traços, (ii amparar-se em métodos computacionais avançados de técnicas de análise multivariada (tais como escalagem multidimensional, análise de clusters, e análise de componente principal, e (iii auxiliar a interpretação de resultados empíricos através da utilização do estado da arte em técnicas de visualização. A fim de exemplificarmos essa linha de análise, apresentamos um estudo de caso que explora a variabilidade da frequência agregada de 57 tra

  12. Altered gene expression profiles in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahman Omar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing body of epidemiologic and biochemical evidence implying the role of cerebral insulin resistance in Alzheimer-type dementia. For a better understanding of the insulin effect on the central nervous system, we performed microarray-based global gene expression profiling in the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced and spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats as model animals for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Results Following pathway analysis and validation of gene lists by real-time polymerase chain reaction, 30 genes from the hippocampus, such as the inhibitory neuropeptide galanin, synuclein gamma and uncoupling protein 2, and 22 genes from the prefrontal cortex, e.g. galanin receptor 2, protein kinase C gamma and epsilon, ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette A1, CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47 and the RET (Rearranged During Transfection protooncogene, were found to exhibit altered expression levels in type 2 diabetic model animals in comparison to non-diabetic control animals. These gene lists proved to be partly overlapping and encompassed genes related to neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, neuronal development, insulin secretion, oxidative damage and DNA repair. On the other hand, no significant alterations were found in the transcriptomes of the corpus striatum in the same animals. Changes in the cerebral gene expression profiles seemed to be specific for the type 2 diabetic model, as no such alterations were found in streptozotocin-treated animals. Conclusions According to our knowledge this is the first characterization of the whole-genome expression changes of specific brain regions in a diabetic model. Our findings shed light on the complex role of insulin signaling in fine-tuning brain functions, and provide further experimental evidence in support of the recently elaborated theory of type 3 diabetes.

  13. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astiz, Mariana, E-mail: marianaastiz@gmail.com; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda, E-mail: ydiz@cajal.csic.es; Garcia-Segura, Luis M., E-mail: lmgs@cajal.csic.es

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5 weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4 mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity. - Highlights: • The dose of pesticide used was comparable to the levels of residues found in food. • Dimethoate administration increased cytokine expression and microglia reactivity. • Hippocampus and striatum were differentially affected by the treatment.

  14. Computerized tomography of the traumatic hematoma in the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Isao; Hara, Makoto; Suzuki, Yoshio; Nakane, Toshichi; Watanabe, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    The value of the computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of the intracerebral hematoma has been well documented. However, there is little report about the CT findings of the hematoma of the corpus callosum. This report presents two cases of the traumatic hematoma in the corpus callosum and is discussed about their CT findings. Two patients, 52 year-old male and 40 year-old male, respectively, are the cases of blunt mechanical head trauma which were accompanied neither by skull fracture nor by scalp injury. In all these cases, the findings that hematoma occupied from the genu to the body of the corpus callosum were verified by surgery and the axial CT revealed the following two similar findings. First; the hematoma in the genu of the corpus callosum was shown as a cresent-shaped high density mass. This finding seems to be due to the following anatomical structure, that is, the genu of the corpus callosum is located just in front of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricles in the shape of the convex towards posteriorly. Second; as the midportion of the body of the corpus callosum tends to be appeared narrow in width between both lateral ventricles, the hematoma which extended from the genu towards the body of the corpus callosum was shown as a dumbbell-shaped high density mass. (author)

  15. New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvi Hurskainen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article presents various approaches used in corpus-based computational lexico-graphy. A claim is made that in order for computational lexicography to be efficient, precise and comprehensive, it should utilize the method where the corpus text is first analysed, and the results of this analysis is then processed further to meet the needs of a dictionary. This method has several advantages, including high precision and recall, as well as the possibility to automate the process much further than with more traditional computational methods. The frequency list obtained by using the lemma (the equivalent of the headword as basis helps in selecting the words to be in-cluded in the dictionary. The approach is demonstrated through various phases by applying SALAMA (the Swahili Language Manager to the process. Manual work will be needed in the phase when examples of use are selected from the corpus, and possibly modified. However, the list of examples of use, arranged alphabetically according to the corresponding headword, can also be produced automatically. Thus the alphabetical list of headwords with examples of use is the mate-rial on which the lexicographer works manually. The article deals with problems encountered in compiling traditional printed dictionaries, and it excludes electronic dictionaries and thesauri.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTA-TIONAL LINGUISTICS, AUTOMATIC COMPILATION, DICTIONARY TESTING, INFORMA-TION RETRIEVAL, MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, SEMANTIC ANALYSIS, DISAMBIGUA-TION, HEURISTICS

    Opsomming: Nuwe ontwikkelinge in korpusgebaseerde leksikografie. Hier-die artikel beskryf verskillende benaderings wat in korpusgebaseerde rekenaarleksikografie ge-bruik word. Daar word aangevoer dat vir rekenaarleksikografie om doelmatig, noukeurig en omvattend te wees, dit die metode behoort te gebruik waarby die korpusteks eers ontleed word, en die resultaat van hierdie ontleding dan verder

  16. Google and beyond : web-as-corpus methodologies for translators

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraresi, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    Aquest article fa un repàs als plantejaments actuals sobre l'ús del web com a corpus lingüístic i emfatitza els avantatges (així com els inevitables riscos) que aquests poden introduir en el treball del traductor. Per tal d'il•lustrar aquest punt, es mostra un exemple de les diferents maneres en què un corpus derivat del web es pot aplicar profitosament a una tasca de traducció especialitzada.. Este artículo estudia los planteamientos actuales sobre el uso de la web como corpus lingüístico...

  17. Glucocorticoid enhancement of dorsolateral striatum-dependent habit memory requires concurrent noradrenergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Leong, K-C; Packard, M G

    2015-12-17

    Previous findings indicate that post-training administration of glucocorticoid stress hormones can interact with the noradrenergic system to enhance consolidation of hippocampus- or amygdala-dependent cognitive/emotional memory. The present experiments were designed to extend these findings by examining the potential interaction of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in enhancement of dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent habit memory. In experiment 1, different groups of adult male Long-Evans rats received training in two DLS-dependent memory tasks. In a cued water maze task, rats were released from various start points and were reinforced to approach a visibly cued escape platform. In a response-learning version of the water plus-maze task, animals were released from opposite starting positions and were reinforced to make a consistent egocentric body-turn to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately post-training, rats received peripheral injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (1 or 3 mg/kg) or vehicle solution. In both tasks, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) enhanced DLS-dependent habit memory. In experiment 2, a separate group of animals received training in the response learning version of the water plus-maze task and were given peripheral post-training injections of corticosterone (3 mg/kg), the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol (3 mg/kg), corticosterone and propranolol concurrently, or control vehicle solution. Corticosterone injections again enhanced DLS-dependent memory, and this effect was blocked by concurrent administration of propranolol. Propranolol administration by itself (3 mg/kg) did not influence DLS-dependent memory. Taken together, the findings indicate an interaction between glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in DLS-dependent habit memory. Propranolol administration may be useful in treating stress-related human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional DLS-dependent habit memory system. Copyright © 2015

  18. Enhancing and impairing extinction of habit memory through modulation of NMDA receptors in the dorsolateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Ressler, Reed L; Packard, Mark G

    2017-06-03

    The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline. In experiment 2, immediately following the first day of extinction training, animals were given intra-DLS injections of NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS; 10 or 20µg/side) or saline. In both experiments, the number of perseverative trials (a trial in which a rat made the same previously reinforced body-turn response) and latency to reach the previously correct food well were used as measures of extinction behavior. Results indicated that post-training intra-DLS injections of AP5 impaired extinction. In contrast, post-training intra-DLS infusions of DCS (20µg) enhanced extinction. Intra-DLS administration of AP5 or DCS given two hours after extinction training did not influence extinction of response learning, indicating that immediate post-training administration of AP5 and DCS specifically influenced consolidation of the extinction memory. The present results indicate a critical role for DLS NMDA receptors in modulating extinction of habit memory and may be relevant to developing therapeutic approaches to combat the maladaptive habits observed in human psychopathologies in which DLS-dependent memory has been implicated (e.g. drug addiction and relapse and obsessive compulsive disorder). Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans: Behavioral and Evolutionary Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Dyrby, Tim B; Andersen, Kasper Winther; Rouiller, Eric M; Caminiti, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species, the origin of this projection is more restricted than that of the ipsilateral projection. In monkeys, it consists of thin axons (0.4-0.6 µm), appropriate for spatial and temporal dispersion of subliminal inputs. For prefrontal cortex, contralateral minus ipsilateral delays to striatum calculated from axon diameters and conduction distance are <2 ms in the monkey and, by extrapolation, <4 ms in humans. This delay corresponds to the performance in Poffenberger's paradigm, a classical attempt to estimate central conduction delays, with a neuropsychological task. In both species, callosal cortico-striatal projections originate from prefrontal, premotor, and motor areas. In humans, we discovered a new projection originating from superior parietal lobule, supramarginal, and superior temporal gyrus, regions engaged in language processing. This projection crosses in the isthmus the lesion of which was reported to dissociate syntax and prosody. The projection might originate from an overproduction of callosal projections in development, differentially pruned depending on species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  1. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  2. The role of the intrinsic cholinergic system of the striatum: What have we learned from TAN recordings in behaving animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Paul

    2017-09-30

    Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli. Although the bulk of this work has been conducted in monkeys, several studies have also been carried out in behaving rats, but information remains rather disparate across studies and it is still questionable whether rodent TANs correspond to TANs described in monkeys. Consequently, our current understanding of the function of cholinergic transmission in the striatum is challenged by the rapidly growing, but often confusing literature on the relationship between TAN activity and specific behaviors. As regards the precise nature of the information conveyed by the cholinergic TANs, a recent influential view emphasized that these local circuit neurons may play a special role in the processing of contextual information that is important for reinforcement learning and selection of appropriate actions. This review provides a summary of recent progress in TAN physiology from which it is proposed that striatal cholinergic interneurons are crucial elements for flexible switching of behaviors under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Architecture of the Corpus Spongiosum : An Anatomical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenhof, Sarah R; de Graaf, Petra; Soeterik, Timo F W; Neeter, Lidewij M F H; Zilverschoon, Marijn; Spinder, Matty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Heck-de Kort, Laetitia

    PURPOSE: Urethral reconstruction is performed for urethral stricture or hypospadias correction. Research on urethral tissue engineering is increasing. Because the corpus spongiosum is important to support the urethra, urethral tissue engineering should ideally be combined with reconstruction of a

  4. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available development. Extracted contours are processed and analysed statistically to describe acoustic properties in different tonal contexts. The authors demonstrate how features useful for tone recognition or synthesis can be successfully extracted from a corpus...

  5. A massively parallel corpus: the Bible in 100 languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodouloupoulos, Christos; Steedman, Mark

    We describe the creation of a massively parallel corpus based on 100 translations of the Bible. We discuss some of the difficulties in acquiring and processing the raw material as well as the potential of the Bible as a corpus for natural language processing. Finally we present a statistical analysis of the corpora collected and a detailed comparison between the English translation and other English corpora.

  6. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang; Kim, Jong Chul; And Others

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury

  7. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  8. Compiling a corpus-based dictionary grammar: an example for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho ...

  9. The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauranen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

  10. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  11. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  12. A corpus and a concordancer of academic journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny A. Kwary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents a corpus (i.e. a selection of a big number of words in an electronic form and a concordancer (i.e. a tool to show the word in its context of use of academic journal articles. As the title suggests, the data were collected from research articles published in academic journals. The corpus contains 5,686,428 words selected from 895 journal articles published by Elsevier in 2011–2015. The corpus is classified into four subject areas: Health sciences, Life sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences, following the classifications of Scopus, which is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. To ease the access and utilization of the corpus, a program to produce the key word in context (KWIC and word frequency was created and placed on the website: corpus.kwary.net. The corpus is a valuable resource for researchers, teachers, and translators working on academic English.

  13. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel P. Regadas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm3 were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. RESULTS: Phenylephrine (1µM was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3 - 5 g tension and cavernous artery (0.5 - 1g tension until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10-12M to 10-4 M. Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. CONCLUSION: The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  14. Hemoperitoneum from corpus luteum rupture in patients with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaquan; Guo, Lifang; Shao, Zonghong

    2015-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare hematopoietic stem-cell disorder that results in pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Women with aplastic anemia usually are at increased risk of corpus luteum rupture due to thrombocytopenia and infection. Here we report two cases had hemoperitoneum from corpus luteum rupture in patients with aplastic anemia in our center. Case 1 involved two episodes of hemoperitoneum resulting from rupture of the corpus luteum in a 23-year-old unmarried female with severe aplastic anemia. This patient was managed conservatively with platelet and packed red cell transfusion. Case 2 involved two episodes of hemoperitoneum resulting from rupture of the corpus luteum in a 33-year-old married patient with aplastic anemia. Emergency laparoscopy revealed massive hemoperitoneum. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed successively with platelet and packed red cell transfusion. Hemoperitoneum resulting from a ruptured corpus luteum is a life-threatening condition in patients with aplastic anemia. Prompt and appropriate evaluation of corpus luteum rupture and emergent therapy are needed.

  15. A corpus and a concordancer of academic journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwary, Deny A

    2018-02-01

    This data article presents a corpus (i.e. a selection of a big number of words in an electronic form) and a concordancer (i.e. a tool to show the word in its context of use) of academic journal articles. As the title suggests, the data were collected from research articles published in academic journals. The corpus contains 5,686,428 words selected from 895 journal articles published by Elsevier in 2011-2015. The corpus is classified into four subject areas: Health sciences, Life sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences, following the classifications of Scopus, which is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. To ease the access and utilization of the corpus, a program to produce the key word in context (KWIC) and word frequency was created and placed on the website: corpus.kwary.net. The corpus is a valuable resource for researchers, teachers, and translators working on academic English.

  16. Corpus Based Authenicity Analysis of Language Teaching Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah PEKSOY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resemblance of the language learning course books used in Turkey to authentic language spoken by native speakers is explored by using a corpus-based approach. For this, the 10-million-word spoken part of the British National Corpus was selected as reference corpus. After that, all language learning course books used in high schools in Turkey were scanned and transferred to SketchEngine, an online corpus query tool. Lastly, certain grammar points were extracted first from British National Corpus and then from course books; similaritites and differences were compared. At the end of the study, it was found that the language learning course books have little similarity to authentic language in terms of certain grammatical items and frequency of their collocations. In this way, the points to be revised and changed were explored. In addition, this study emphasized the role of corpus approach as a material development and analysis tool; and tested the functionality of course books for writers and for Ministry of National Education.

  17. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  18. Quantitative localization of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding in rat brain by light microscopy autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, R; Zukin, S R

    1985-09-30

    The anatomical localization of phencyclidine (PCP)/sigma-opiate receptors in rat brain was determined by quantitative light microscopy autoradiography using the new ligand N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl(/sup 3/H) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP). TCP is a potent analog of PCP which possesses a higher affinity for PCP/sigma-opiate receptor than does PCP itself. The highest level of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding was detected in the hippocampus. Intermediate levels were found in frontal cortex, striatum, amygdala and cerebellum. Specific (/sup 3/H)TCP binding was undetectable in anterior commissure and corpus callosum. The distribution pattern of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding sites is similar to the pattern obtained with (/sup 3/H)PCP but more sharply defined. On the basis of its greater potency and specificity, (/sup 3/H)TCP may prove superior to (/sup 3/H)PCP as a molecular probe for the study of brain sigma opiate/phencyclidine receptors. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table.

  19. Measurement of normal corpus callosum with MRI in Korean adults and morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Chang, Seung Kuk; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Park, Dong Woo

    1995-01-01

    To measure the size of normal corpus callosum in each portion using objective and reproducible method with MRI and evaluation of morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus. Midsagittal T1-weighted MR imaging of the corpus callosum was investigated in 41 volunteers of normal Korean adults and 19 patients with hydrocephalus. Corpus callosum was measured for the anteroposterior length(A), height(B), and the thickness of genu(C), body(D), splenium(E), and the narrowest portion of body(F). And the analysis of morphology and signal intensity of the corpus callosum were also evaluated. Hydrocephalus was graded as mild, moderate, and severe, and comparison of thickness with normal corpus callosum in each portion was done. The mean length and height were 72.3 mm, 28.6 mm in male, and 70.7 mm, 28.9 mm in female. And the mean dimension for C, D, E and F were 13.1 mm, 8 mm, 13.2 mm, 5.2 mm in male, and 12.8 mm, 7.5 mm, 12.3 mm, 5 mm in female. The morphology of normal corpus callosum was 'hook' shaped on midline sagittal T1-weighted image. Narrowing at posterior third portion of body were present on 30 cases(73.2%) and even in thickness of the body in 11 cases(26.8%). The signal intensity of the corpus callosum on midsagittal T1-weighted spin echo image of normal cases was homogeneous hyperintense as compared with cerebral gray matter. In hydrocephalus, A and B were increased and other portions were decreased in thickness. Genu and the narrowest portion of body showed significant difference of thickness according to the grade of hydrocephalus. The mean dimension of all portion of corpus callosum were larger in male than female except for callosal height but not significant statistically with the exception of splenium. Hydrocephalus lead to morphological change of the corpus callosum. Among the portion of corpus callosum, genu and the narrowest portion of the body were thought to be the most sensitive indicators of degree in hydrocephalus

  20. Notes on Compiling a Corpus- Based Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Čermák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: On the basis of sample analysis of a Czech adjective, a definition based on the data drawn from the Czech National Corpus (cf. Čermák and Schmiedtová 2003 is gradually compiled and finally offered, pointing at the drawbacks of definitions found in traditional dictionaries. Steps undertaken here are then generalized and used, in an ordered sequence (similar to a work-flow ordering, as topics, briefly discussed in the second part to which lexicographers of monolingual dictionaries should pay attention. These are supplemented by additional remarks and caveats useful in the compilation of a dictionary. Thus, a brief survey of some of the major steps of dictionary compilation is presented here, supplemented by the original Czech data, analyzed in their raw, though semiotically classified form.

    OPSOMMING: Aantekeninge oor die samestelling van 'n korpusgebaseerde woordeboek. Op grond van 'n steekproefontleding van 'n Tsjeggiese adjektief, word 'n definisie gebaseer op data ontleen aan die Tsjeggiese Nasionale Korpus (cf. Čermák en Schmiedtová 2003 geleidelik saamgestel en uiteindelik aangebied wat wys op die gebreke van definisies aangetref in tradisionele woordeboeke. Stappe wat hier onderneem word, word dan veralgemeen en gebruik in 'n geordende reeks (soortgelyk aan 'n werkvloeiordening, as onderwerpe, kortliks bespreek in die tweede deel, waaraan leksikograwe van eentalige woordeboeke aandag behoort te gee. Hulle word aangevul deur bykomende opmerkings en waarskuwings wat nuttig is vir die samestelling van 'n woordeboek. Op dié manier word 'n kort oorsig van sommige van die hoofstappe van woordeboeksamestelling hier aangebied, aangevul deur die oorspronklike Tsjeggiese data, ontleed in hul onbewerkte, alhoewel semioties geklassifiseerde vorm.

    Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, KORPUSLEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINTAGMATIEK EN PARADIGMATIEK IN WOORDEBOEKE, WOORDEBOEKINSKRYWING, SOORTE LEMMAS, PRAGMATIEK, BEHANDELING VAN

  1. Development of striatal patch/matrix organization in organotypic co-cultures of perinatal striatum, cortex and substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A; Costantini, L C; Graber, D J

    2001-01-01

    Organotypic cultures of fetal or early postnatal striatum were used to assess striatal patch formation and maintenance in the presence or absence of dopaminergic and glutamatergic influences. Vibratome-cut slices of the striatum prepared from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 rat pups were maintained in static culture on clear membrane inserts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 (1:1) with 20% horse serum. Some were co-cultured with embryonic day 12-16 ventral mesencephalon and/or embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 cortex, which produced a dense dopaminergic innervation and a modest cortical innervation. Donors of striatal and cortical tissue were previously injected with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on embryonic days 13 and 14 in order to label striatal neurons destined to populate the patch compartment of the striatum. Patches of BrdU-immunoreactive cells were maintained in organotypic cultures of late prenatal (embryonic days 20-22) or early postnatal striatum in the absence of nigral dopaminergic or cortical glutamatergic influences. In slices taken from embryonic day 19 fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation, patches were observed to form after 10 days in vitro, in 39% of nigral-striatal co-cultures compared to 6% of striatal slices cultured alone or in the presence of cortex only. Patches of dopaminergic fibers, revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, were observed in the majority of nigral-striatal co-cultures. Immunostaining for the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 revealed a dense patch distribution in nearly all cultures, which developed in embryonic day 19 cultures after at least six days in vitro. These findings indicate that striatal patch/matrix organization is maintained in organotypic culture, and can be induced to form in vitro in striatal slices removed from fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation. Furthermore, dopaminergic innervation from co-cultured pieces of ventral mesencephalon enhances patch

  2. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  3. Chronic cocaine administration induces opposite changes in dopamine receptors in the striatum and nucleus accumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of clinical and animal data suggest that the repeated administration of cocaine and related psychomotor stimulants may be associated with a behavioral sensitization whereby the same dose of the drug results in increasing behavioral pathology. This investigation was designed to determine the effects of chronic cocaine administration on the binding of [ 3 H]sulpiride, a relatively specific ligand for D2 dopaminergic receptors, in the rat brain using in vitro homogenate binding and light microscopic quantitative autoradiographic methodologies. Chronic daily injections of cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the maximum concentration of sulpiride binding sites in the striatum and a significant increase in the maximum number of these binding sites in the nucleus accumbens. No significant differences in binding affinity were observed in either brain region. These data suggest that chronic cocaine administration may result in differential effects on D2 receptors in the nigro-striatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems

  4. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  5. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  6. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  7. Paralimbic system and striatum are involved in motivational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Jobu; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2009-10-28

    Goal-directed rewarded behavior and goal-directed non-rewarded behavior are concerned with motivation. However, the neural substrates involved in goal-directed non-rewarded behaviors are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the brain activities of healthy individuals during a novel tool use (turning a screwdriver) to elucidate the relationship between the brain mechanism relevant to goal-directed non-rewarded behavior and motivation. We found that our designed behavioral task evoked activities in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior insula, lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex compared with a meaningless task. These results suggest that activation in these cerebral regions play important roles in motivational behavior without tangible rewards.

  8. Classification of acquired lesions of the corpus callosum with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, S.A.; Bitzer, M.; Voigt, K.; Kueker, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Freudenstein, D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    MRI has facilitated diagnostic assessment of the corpus callosum. Diagnostic classification of solitary or multiple lesions of the corpus callosum has not attracted much attention, although signal abnormalities are not uncommon. Our aim was to identify characteristic imaging features of lesions frequently encountered in practice. We reviewed the case histories of 59 patients with lesions shown on MRI. The nature of the lesions was based on clinical features and/or long term follow-up (ischaemic 20, Virchow-Robin spaces 3, diffuse axonal injury 7, multiple sclerosis 11, hydrocephalus 5, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 5, Marchiafava-Bignami disease 4, lymphoma 2, glioblastoma hamartoma each 1). The location in the sagittal plane, the relationship to the borders of the corpus callosum and midline and the size were documented. The 20 ischaemic lesions were asymmetrical but adjacent to the midline; the latter was involved in new or large lesions. Diffuse axonal injury commonly resulted in large lesions, which tended to be asymmetrical; the midline and borders of the corpus callosum were always involved. Lesions in MS were small, at the lower border of the corpus callosum next to the septum pellucidum, and crossed the midline asymmetrically. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and the other perivenous inflammatory diseases caused relatively large, asymmetrical lesions. Hydrocephalus resulted in lesions of the upper part of the corpus callosum, and mostly in its posterior two thirds; they were found in the midline. Lesions in Marchiafava-Bignami disease were large, often symmetrically in the midline in the splenium and did not reach the edge of the corpus callosum. (orig.)

  9. Enhancement of striatum-dependent memory by conditioned fear is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis D. Goode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal can have a profound impact on various learning and memory processes. For example, unconditioned emotional stimuli (e.g., predator odor or anxiogenic drugs enhance dorsolateral striatum (DLS-dependent habit memory. These effects critically depend on a modulatory role of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA. Recent work indicates that, like unconditioned emotional stimuli, exposure to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS (i.e., a tone previously paired with shock can also enhance consolidation of DLS-dependent habit memory. The present experiments examined whether noradrenergic activity, particularly within the BLA, is required for a fear CS to enhance habit memory consolidation. First, rats underwent a fear conditioning procedure in which a tone CS was paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. Over the course of the next five days, rats received training in a DLS-dependent water plus-maze task, in which rats were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately after training on days 1–3, rats received post-training systemic (Experiment 1 or intra-BLA (Experiment 2 administration of the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, propranolol. Immediately after drug administration, half of the rats were re-exposed to the tone CS in the conditioning context (without shock. Post-training CS exposure enhanced consolidation of habit memory in vehicle-treated rats, and this effect was blocked by peripheral (Experiment 1 or intra-BLA (Experiment 2 propranolol administration. The present findings reveal that noradrenergic activity within the BLA is critical for the enhancement of DLS-dependent habit memory as a result of exposure to conditioned emotional stimuli.

  10. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p177 As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and

  12. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and complex terms. These works will encourage the

  13. Inhibiting PKM[zeta] Reveals Dorsal Lateral and Dorsal Medial Striatum Store the Different Memories Needed to Support Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; Clark, Alexandra D.; Guenther, Heidi J.; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Rudy, Jerry W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or…

  14. MR imaging of spastic diplegia. The importance of corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, K.; Kanda, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Okuno, Y.; Yamori, Y.; Yuge, M.; Ando, R.; Ozaki, N.; Tamamoto, A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The MR findings in patients with spastic diplegia were investigated and the role of MR imaging in assessing the extent of brain injury was evaluated. Material and Methods: 39 male and 24 female patients (preterm/term 43/20) were imaged using a 0.5 T MR system. Results: The MR findings in term patients were quite different from those in preterm patients; 55% of the term patients showed normal and minimal changes on MR, whereas 90.7% of the 43 preterm children had periventricular leucomalacia. The deep cerebral white matter was the most frequently involved site. Objective measurements revealed significant reductions of the entire sagittal area of corpus callosum in diplegic patients in comparison with normal controls. The motor plasy severity correlated well with the extent of corpus callosum involvement. Conclusion: The corpus callosum appears to be a sensitive marker site for the assessment of the extent of white matter injury. (orig.)

  15. Normal Corpus Callosum Dimensions Measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum

    2008-01-01

    As a result of measuring the size of corpus callosum in normal Korean people by using MRI, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Maximum, minimum, and mean values by the region in whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length amounted to the mean with 69.30 mm, the minimum with 50.70 mm, and the maximum with 80.40 mm. 2) Diameter of genu amounted to the mean with 11.93 mm, the minimum with 6.00 mm, and the maximum with 18.50 mm. 3) Diameter of mid body amounted to the mean with 7.00 mm, the minimum with 3.40 mm, and the maximum with 10.40 mm. 4) Diameter of narrowing portion amounted to the mean with 4.51 mm, the minimum with 0.80 mm, and the maximum with 9.50 mm. 5) Diameter of splenium amounted to the mean with 12.17 mm, the minimum with 6.90 mm, and the maximum with 17.20 mm. 2. Comparison by region according to the gender in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was bigger in men than in women, and showed the significant difference depending on gender. 2) Diameter of genu, diameter of mid body, and diameter of narrowing portion were bigger in men than in women, but there was no significant difference. 3) Diameter of splenium was bigger in men than in women, and showed the statistically significant difference. 3. Comparison by region according to the age in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was the biggest in the 50s at the age, and was smaller in heir 10s than other age levels. In addition, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 2) Diameter of genu and diameter of mid body were the biggest in their 30s, and were smaller in the 60s than other age levels. And, the statistically significant difference was indicated. 3) Diameter of narrowing portion was the thickest in their 20s, and was thinner in their 60s than other age levels. And, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 4) Diameter of splenium was the thickest in their 30s, and was thinner in their 10s than other age levels. And, the statistically

  16. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi [Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP.

  17. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi

    2008-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP

  18. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-07-01

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this paper the writer examines problems the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (at present the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI? encountered while tagging the Shona corpus. The problems to be highlighted include general problems which apply to more than one language as well as problems peculiar to Shona. The paper was inspired by the challenges the writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data. To utilise the benefits of a tagged corpus, the tagging should be thorough and accurate. Wellinformed decisions form an integral part of the tagging process since the utility of a tagged corpus depends largely on the input of the tagging process. This paper shows the need to take the tagging process seriously.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, COMPUTER, CORPUS, ENCODING, FOREIGN WORD, LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOGRAPHY, MONITOR CORPUS, PART OF SPEECH, SCANNING, SHONA, SLANG, TAGGING, TRANSCRIPTION, WORD

    Opsomming: Die Shonakorpus en die probleem van etikettering, In hierdieartikel ondersoek die outeur probleme wat die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (tansdie African Languages Research Institute (ALRI» teegekom het terwyl die Shonakorpus geetiketteeris. Die probleme wat bespreek word, sluit algemene probleme in wat van toepassing is opmeer as een taa, sowel as spesifieke probleme wat eie aan Shona is. Die artikel het sy ontstaan indie uitdagings wat die outeur teegekom het terwyl hy deel gehad het aan die opbou van die Shonakorpus.'n Ontieding van die probleme waarvoor die meeste korpusbouers te staan kom, toon datdaar waarskynlik meer probleme teegekom word wanneer daar met gesproke

  20. Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Sánchez, E; Medina-Benítez, A; Medina-Salas, V; Fernández-Navarro, L

    2018-03-05

    Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum is an unusual clinical condition of unknown origin that mainly affects young males, whose characteristic presentation is the appearance of unexplained perineal pain associated with a palpable perineal mass. This entity consists of thrombosis in the perineal portion of the corpus cavernosum, usually unilateral and it is associated with underlying malignant pathologies and predisposing factors such as microtrauma. After the adequate adherence to conservative treatment, the appearance of complications such as erectile dysfunction is very uncommon. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between the distribution of 3H-labelled enkephalin in rat brain and the anatomical regions involved in enkephalin-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffmans, J; Blankwater, Y J; Ukponmwan, O E; Zijlstra, F J; Vincent, J E; Hespe, W; Dzoljic, M R

    1983-08-01

    The correlation between the distribution of the intraventricularly (i.v.t.) administered delta agonist [3H](D-ala2,D-leu5)-enkephalin ([3H]DADL) and the anatomical regions involved in enkephalin-induced seizures has been studied in rat by using an autoradiographic method and recording of the electromyogram (EMG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG). The results indicate that within 10 min, the radioactivity of the intraventricularly administered drug reached all parts of the ventricular system, including the central canal of the spinal cord. However, within 2.5 min after the intraventricular administration of [3H]DADL, which corresponds to the onset of DADL-induced seizures, the substance appeared mainly in the left lateral ventricle and occasionally in the third ventricle. During the first 2.5 min the substance penetrated regularly into the surrounding periventricular tissue of the striatum, septum and hippocampus to a depth of about 100 microns. The most intensive and long-lasting epileptic discharges, exceeding 30 min were observed in the hippocampus, in contrast to the mild and short-lasting electrophysiological responses of the septum and corpus striatum. The experiments suggest that the short onset of enkephalin-induced excitatory phenomena is due to the rapid distribution and penetration of the substance in the surrounding periventricular tissue. According to these data, it is proposed that activation of delta opiate receptors, localized within the first 100 microns of the periventricular tissue, mainly in the hippocampus, is essential for the triggering of endorphin-induced seizure activity.

  3. Dorsolateral Striatum Engagement Interferes with Early Discrimination Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C. Bergstrom

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In current models, learning the relationship between environmental stimuli and the outcomes of actions involves both stimulus-driven and goal-directed systems, mediated in part by the DLS and DMS, respectively. However, though these models emphasize the importance of the DLS in governing actions after extensive experience has accumulated, there is growing evidence of DLS engagement from the onset of training. Here, we used in vivo photosilencing to reveal that DLS recruitment interferes with early touchscreen discrimination learning. We also show that the direct output pathway of the DLS is preferentially recruited and causally involved in early learning and find that silencing the normal contribution of the DLS produces plasticity-related alterations in a PL-DMS circuit. These data provide further evidence suggesting that the DLS is recruited in the construction of stimulus-elicited actions that ultimately automate behavior and liberate cognitive resources for other demands, but with a cost to performance at the outset of learning. : What is the contribution of the DLS in early discrimination learning? Bergstrom et al. show using in vivo optogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and brain-wide activity mapping that silencing the DLS facilitates early discrimination learning, drives activity in a parallel PL-DMS circuit, and preferentially recruits the DLS “direct” output pathway. Keywords: striatum, reward, goal-directed, habit, optogenetics, plasticity, cognition, Arc

  4. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  5. The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Mowery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL, are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx. However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, adult ACx neurons recovered balanced excitatory-inhibitory synaptic gain and control-like firing rates, but striatal neuron synapses and firing properties did not recover. Thus, a brief period of abnormal cortical activity may induce cellular impairments that persist into adulthood and contribute to neurological disorders that are striatal in origin.

  6. Corpus Juris ja Eesti : [bakalaureusetöö] / Artur Kink ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Eerik Kergandberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kink, Artur

    1999-01-01

    Corpus Jurise taust ja areng - finantshuvide kaitse areng, Corpus Jurise ajalugu; Corpus Jurise õiguslik baas (Amsterdami leping), ülesehitus ja struktuur (üleeuroopalise territoriaalsuse printsiip, kohtuliku kontrolli printsiip, "vastuväitelise" protsessi printsiip, kohaliku õiguse subsidiaarsuse printsiip)

  7. Difluoromethylornithine enhanced uptake of tritiated putrescine in 9L rat brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redgate, E.S.; Grudziak, A.G.; Deutsch, M.; Boggs, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) depletes endogenous putrescine and enhances the uptake of and retention of [ 3 H] putrescine in vitro. To determine if DFMO also enhances uptake of [ 3 H] putrescine in vivo, DFMO and trace doses of [ 3 H] putrescine, dissolved in artificial CSF, were infused into growing (6-9 day) 9L brain tumors by means of osmotic pumps. When 7-day osmotic pumps were loaded with 1 μCi [ 3 H] putrescine, with or without 10 or 100 mM DFMO, pumped at 1 μl/h, the mean uptake after 3 days was 168 ± 62 cpm/mg tumor (17 rats) without DFMO, 300 ± 197 cpm/mg tumor (11 rats) with 10 mM DFMO and 1088 ± 421 cpm/mg tumor (11 rats) with 100 mM DFMO (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control). Significantly less radioactivity was detected in the contralateral brain and in nonbrain tissues (0.5 ± 0.1 to 14 ± 5 cpm/mg). To measure the extent of [ 3 H] putrescine distribution in the tumor, the same dose of drugs was delivered for a longer period of time, using 14-day pumps to allow tumors to become large enough to be divided into 1.4 mm thick transections. The mean radioactivity in the sections from eight control rats receiving [ 3 H] putrescine without DFMO were not significantly different between the sections (174 ± 61 cpm/mg tumor for sections containing the cannulas, 273 ± 61 and 259 ± 91 cpm/mg for adjacent sections). In the six rats given 100 mM DFMO there was a significant increase in mean radioactivity in the cannula containing section (2251 ± 919 cpm/mg tumor). Mean counts from adjacent sections in these rats were 97 ± 44 and 33 ± 13 cpm/mg. Values for contralateral corpus striatum and nonbrain tissues ranged from 0.7 ± 0.3 to 4.3 ± 1.5 cpm/mg tissue. When DFMO was delivered directly to the tumors while [ 3 H] putrescine was infused intraperitoneally, the uptake in the tumor slices was low (5-10 cpm/mg in different slices). These results demonstrate that infusion of DFMO directly into growing 9L brain tumors can selectively enhance the uptake of exogenous [ 3 H

  8. Designing a Lexical Database for a Combined Use of Corpus Annotation and Dictionary Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas; Langer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In a combined corpus-dictionary project, you would need one lexical database that could serve as a shared “backbone” for both corpus annotation and dictionary editing, but it is not that easy to define a database structure that applies satisfactorily to both these purposes. In this paper, we...... will exemplify the problem and present ideas on how to model structures in a lexical database that facilitate corpus annotation as well as dictionary editing. The paper is a joint work between the DGS Corpus Project and the DTS Dictionary Project. The two projects come from opposite sides of the spectrum (one...... adjusting a lexical database grown from dictionary making for corpus annotating, one building a lexical database in parallel with corpus annotation and editing a corpus-based dictionary), and we will consider requirements and feasible structures for a database that can serve both corpus and dictionary....

  9. A corpus of images and text in online news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Hollink (Laura); A. Bedjeti (Adriatik); M. van Harmelen; D. Elliott (Desmond)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn recent years, several datasets have been released that include images and text, giving impulse to new methods that combine natural language processing and computer vision. However, there is a need for datasets of images in their natural textual context. The ION corpus contains 300K

  10. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  11. Open Corpus Adaptation++ in GALE : friend or foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bra, P.M.E.; Smits, D.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Knutov, E.; Yudelson, M.; Abel, F.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Herder, E.

    2012-01-01

    "Open" has quickly become the hottest topic in any field related to information, including open government data, open learning resources, open user models, … Open Corpus Adaptation has been defined as the ability to perform adaptation to resources located anywhere on the Web. This leaves the

  12. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  13. Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    Separation of Powers Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Eliminating Federal Court Jurisdiction Where There Is No State Court Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1 542 U.S. 466 (2004). Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court In Rasul v. Bush,1 a divided Supreme Court declared that “a state

  14. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and…

  15. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain......, such as age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and progression of the disease....

  16. The NCHLT speech corpus of the South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The NCHLT speech corpus contains wide-band speech from approximately 200 speakers per language, in each of the eleven of cial languages of South Africa. We describe the design and development processes that were undertaken in order to develop...

  17. Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic analysis of a key readability feature. E Hilton Hubbard. Abstract. The rapid change in the demographics of South Africa's tertiary level student population over the last decade — and most specifically the huge increase in those who have to study at a ...

  18. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  19. Corpus-Based Rhythmic Pattern Analysis of Ragtime Syncopation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Hendrik Vincent; Volk, A.; de Haas, W.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in the RAG-collection of approximately 11.000 symbolically encoded ragtime pieces. While characteristic musical features that define ragtime as a genre have been debated since its inception, musicologists argue that specific syncopation

  20. A new English–Arabic parallel text corpus for lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chosen source texts deal with a variety of topics such as the environment, globalization, psychology, history, politics, drama, etc. Their Arabic translations were taken from The World of Knowledge series published by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL) in Kuwait. Keywords: parallel corpus ...

  1. An annotated corpus with nanomedicine and pharmacokinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewinski NA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nastassja A Lewinski,1 Ivan Jimenez,1 Bridget T McInnes2 1Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 2Department of Computer Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: A vast amount of data on nanomedicines is being generated and published, and natural language processing (NLP approaches can automate the extraction of unstructured text-based data. Annotated corpora are a key resource for NLP and information extraction methods which employ machine learning. Although corpora are available for pharmaceuticals, resources for nanomedicines and nanotechnology are still limited. To foster nanotechnology text mining (NanoNLP efforts, we have constructed a corpus of annotated drug product inserts taken from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Drugs@FDA online database. In this work, we present the development of the Engineered Nanomedicine Database corpus to support the evaluation of nanomedicine entity extraction. The data were manually annotated for 21 entity mentions consisting of nanomedicine physicochemical characterization, exposure, and biologic response information of 41 Food and Drug Administration-approved nanomedicines. We evaluate the reliability of the manual annotations and demonstrate the use of the corpus by evaluating two state-of-the-art named entity extraction systems, OpenNLP and Stanford NER. The annotated corpus is available open source and, based on these results, guidelines and suggestions for future development of additional nanomedicine corpora are provided. Keywords: nanotechnology, informatics, natural language processing, text mining, corpora

  2. Using the Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans to generate an Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents two chatbot systems, ALICE and. Elizabeth, illustrating the dialogue knowledge representation and pattern matching techniques of each. We discuss the problems which arise when using the. Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans (Korpus Gesproke Afrikaans) to retrain the ALICE chatbot system with human ...

  3. Euphemism vs explicitness: A corpus-based analysis of translated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the governing initial norms, namely explicitness and euphemism in English source texts and Ndebele translations, focusing on how these norms influenced the strategies chosen by the Ndebele translators in the translation of taboo terms. In the article, a corpus-based approach is used to identify head ...

  4. The Danish NOMCO Corpus Multimodal Interaction in First Acquaintance Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    , specifically head movements, facial expressions, and body posture. The corpus has served as the empirical basis for a number of studies of communication phenomena related to turn management, feedback exchange, information packaging and the expression of emotional attitudes. We describe the annotation scheme...

  5. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  6. Defining Formats and Corpus- based Examples in the General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Institute, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe (langa@arts.uz.ac.zw). Abstract: In this article the writer ... sentative" in terms of size in order to be appropriately used as basis for such corpus-based diction- aries, the ISN editors .... (e) the format should suggest a preference rather than a restriction. For COBUILD, a good ...

  7. Learner features in a New Corpus-based Swahili dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As far as traditionally published Swahili language dictionaries are concerned, throughout the long history of Swahili lexicography, most new dictionaries were based on their predecessors. Thus far the only innovative traditionally printed corpus-based dictionary has been published by Finnish scholars (Abdulla et al. 2002).

  8. Considering bilingual dictionaries against a corpus. Do English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent to which four representatives of the latest generation of English-French / French-English dictionaries present "real English", i.e. actually used meanings of actually used English word patterns. The findings of a corpus study of the verb CONSIDER are confronted with the entries for this verb ...

  9. An annotated corpus with nanomedicine and pharmacokinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Jimenez, Ivan; McInnes, Bridget T

    2017-01-01

    A vast amount of data on nanomedicines is being generated and published, and natural language processing (NLP) approaches can automate the extraction of unstructured text-based data. Annotated corpora are a key resource for NLP and information extraction methods which employ machine learning. Although corpora are available for pharmaceuticals, resources for nanomedicines and nanotechnology are still limited. To foster nanotechnology text mining (NanoNLP) efforts, we have constructed a corpus of annotated drug product inserts taken from the US Food and Drug Administration's Drugs@FDA online database. In this work, we present the development of the Engineered Nanomedicine Database corpus to support the evaluation of nanomedicine entity extraction. The data were manually annotated for 21 entity mentions consisting of nanomedicine physicochemical characterization, exposure, and biologic response information of 41 Food and Drug Administration-approved nanomedicines. We evaluate the reliability of the manual annotations and demonstrate the use of the corpus by evaluating two state-of-the-art named entity extraction systems, OpenNLP and Stanford NER. The annotated corpus is available open source and, based on these results, guidelines and suggestions for future development of additional nanomedicine corpora are provided.

  10. Corpus applications for the African languages, with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to illustrate the feasibility of corpus applications for the African languages at present, the article first considers 'fundamental linguistic research' in the fields of phonetics and question particles. It is shown how that research was boosted as a result of the utilisation of corpora. In a second section 'language teaching ...

  11. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  12. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.

  13. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum: Digital morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Changes in the morphology and the size of the corpus callosum, are related to various pathological conditions. An analysis of these changes requires data about sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum, which we tried to obtain in our study. We also investigated the method of digital morphometry and compared the obtained results with the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or by planimetry. Methods. A morphological research included 34 human brains (cadavers of both sexes − 19 female and 15 male aged 26−72 years. By digital morphometry using an AutoCAD software we performed measurements in the corpus callosum: the length (L, width in the half of its length (WW’, length of its cortical margin (LCM, area and perimeter of the anterior and posterior callosal segments, as well as the area and perimeter of the corpus callosum section area. The investigated parameters were analyzed and compared between the females and males. Results. There was not a statistically significant difference between the males and females in the investigated parameters of the corpus callosum (t test; p > 0.05, including the mean values of the two most important parameters, the surface of its midsagittal section area (males 654.11 mm2; females 677.40 mm2 and of its perimeter (males 19.61 cm; females 19.72 cm. The results obtained by digital morphometry were in the range of the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance and by planimetry. However, the value of Pearson coefficient of linear correlation between the section surface area and perimeter of the corpus callosum in the males was highly significant (rxy = 0.6943, p < 0.01, while in the females this value was statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Digital morphometry is accurate method in encephalometric investigations. Our results suggest that the problem of sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum is very complex, because the identical variables (section

  14. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  15. Corpus callosum dysgenesis and lipoma: embryologic and magnetic resonance imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Luiz de; Borri, Maria Lucia; Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri; Hartmann, Luiz Guilherme de Carvalho; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the major system of association fibers that permits communication of both cerebral hemispheres. Magnetic resonance imaging has improved the study of brain malformations, including the corpus callosum dysgenesis. Lipoma is a common finding in the spectrum of corpus callosum dysgenesis. The purpose of these study was to review the embryologic events and the magnetic resonance imaging aspects related to the corpus callosum dysgenesis and to the formation of the related lipoma. (author)

  16. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  18. Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Zhao, Adam C; Patel, Pooja K; Roesch, Matthew R

    2017-08-09

    Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse

  19. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  20. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Onintza; González, Sara; Aroyo, Ilia; Pazos, María Ruth; Benito, Cristina; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Romero, Juan P.; Tolón, Rosa M.; Mechoulam, Raphael; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Romero, Julián; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid agonists might serve as neuroprotective agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined this hypothesis in a rat model of Huntington’s disease (HD) generated by intrastriatal injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Our results showed that only compounds able to activate CB2 receptors were capable of protecting striatal projection neurons from malonate-induced death. That CB2 receptor agonists are neuroprotective was confirmed by using the selective CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528, and by the observation that mice deficient in CB2 receptor were more sensitive to malonate than wild-type animals. CB2 receptors are scarce in the striatum in healthy conditions but they are markedly up-regulated after the lesion with malonate. Studies of double immunostaining revealed a significant presence of CB2 receptors in cells labelled with the marker of reactive microglia OX-42, and also in cells labelled with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes). We further showed that the activation of CB2 receptors significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) that had been increased by the lesion with malonate. In summary, our results demonstrate that stimulation of CB2 receptors protect the striatum against malonate toxicity, likely through a mechanism involving glial cells, in particular reactive microglial cells in which CB2 receptors would be up-regulated in response to the lesion. Activation of these receptors would reduce the generation of proinflammatory molecules like TNF-α. Altogether our results support the hypothesis that CB2 receptors could constitute a therapeutic target to slowdown neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:19115380

  1. Decrease in the number of rat brain dopamine and muscarinic receptors after chronic alcohol intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvaelahti, E.K.G.; Hietala, J.; Roeyttae, M.; Groenroos, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of 32 weeks' alcohol treatment on the number and affinity of dopamine and muscarinic receptor sites in rat striatum were measured using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzilate ( 3 H-QNB) as radioligans. The number of dopamine receptor sites was 38 per cent and the number of muscarinic receptor sites 36 per cent lower in the alcohol group than in control rats. The differences in receptor affinities were less marked. In conclusion, a long-term alcohol intake with rather moderate doses seems to induce a pronounced down-regulation in dopamine and muscarinic receptor systems in rat striatum. (author)

  2. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  3. The Influence of Reference Corpus Size on Wordsmith Tools Keywords Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A KeyWords analysis (using WordSmith Tools enables the discovery of lexical items which reveal the main lexical sets in a text or corpus. Such an analysis requires that a reference corpus be compared to the corpus the researcher intends to describe (the study corpus. This paper presents a mathematical method for finding out the influence of reference corpus size on the number of key words extracted by the program. The results reveal that a reference corpus that is at least five times as large as the study corpus allows for drawing an amount of key words that is statistically equivalent to larger reference corpora, thus suggesting five times (as larger as the study corpora as the minimum order of magnitude for reference corpora.

  4. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  5. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with [ 3 H]choline accumulated [ 3 H]choline and synthesized [ 3 H]acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. [ 3 H]Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum

  6. MORPOHOLOGICAL POS TAGGING IN ORAL LANGUAGE CORPUS: CHALLENGES FOR AELIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Ávila Othero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of our work with automatic morphological annotation of excerpts from a corpus of spoken language – belonging to the VARSUL project – using the free morphosyntatic tagger Aelius. We present 20 texts containing 154,530 words, annotated automatically and corrected manually. This paper presents the tagger Aelius and our work of manual review of the texts, as well as our suggestions for improvements of the tool, concerning aspects of oral texts. We verify the performance of morphosyntactic tagging a spoken language corpus, an unprecedented challenge for the tagger. Based on the errors of the tagger, we try to infer certain patterns of annotation to overcome limitations presented by the program, and we propose suggestions for implementations in order to allow Aelius to tag spoken language corpora in a more effective way, specially treating cases such as interjections, apheresis, onomatopeia and conversational markers.

  7. Translating children’s literature: some insights from corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Čermáková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the potential of a corpus stylistic approach to the study of literary translation. The study focuses on translation of children’s literature with its specific constrains, and illustrates with two corpus linguistic techniques: keyword and cluster analysis — specific cases of repetition. So in a broader sense the paper discusses the phenomenon of repetition in different literary (stylistic traditions. These are illustrated by examples from two children’s classics aimed at two different age groups: the Harry Potter and the Winnie the Pooh books — and their translations into Czech. Various shifts in translation, especially in the translation of children’s literature, are often explained by the operation of so-called ‘translation universals’. Though ‘repetition’ as such does not belong to the commonly discussed set of translation universals, the stylistic norms opposing repetition seem to be a strong explanation for the translation shifts identified.

  8. Data for lexicography The central role of the corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Lauder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the nature of data for lexicography and in particular on the central role that electronic corpora can play in providing it. Data has traditionally come from existing dictionaries, citations, and from the lexicographer’s own knowledge of words, through introspection. Each of these is examined and evaluated. Then the electronic corpus is considered. Different kinds of corpora are described and key design criteria are explained, in particular the size of corpus needed for lexicography as well as the issue of representativeness and sampling. The advantages and disadvantages of corpora are weighed and compared against the other types of data. While each of these has benefits, it is argued that corpora are a requirement, not an option, as data for dictionary making.

  9. Cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis by the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christenson Lane K

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The synthesis of progesterone by the corpus luteum is essential for the establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. Regulation of luteal steroidogenesis can be broken down into three major events; luteinization (i.e., conversion of an ovulatory follicle, luteal regression, and pregnancy induced luteal maintenance/rescue. While the factors that control these events and dictate the final steroid end products are widely varied among different species, the composition of the corpus luteum (luteinized thecal and granulosa cells and the enzymes and proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway are relatively similar among all species. The key factors involved in luteal steroidogenesis and several new exciting observations regarding regulation of luteal steroidogenic function are discussed in this review.

  10. Techniques and Rules of Ineffability in the Dionysian Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knepper Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the Dionysian God, or an experience of the Dionysian God, absolutely ineffable? Does the Dionysian corpus assert or perform such ineffability? This paper will argue that the answer to each of these questions is no. The Dionysian God is known hyper-nous as the hyper-ousia cause of all. And the Dionysian corpus unambiguously refers to, asserts of, and metaphorizes about this God just so. In arguing these points, this paper will call upon both the speech act theory of John Searle and the metaphor theory of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. More particularly, it will look to Searle’s rules of reference and predication and conditions of illocutionary acts, as well as Lakoff and Johnson’s schematization of metaphor gestalt and entailment to show how Dionysian expressions of inexpressibility are rule-governed and the Dionysian God is thereby (relatively effable.

  11. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV was created. The article presents the practical analysis (frequency, keyword, collocation and cluster analysis that was carried out in the initial phases of the study aimed at establishing the theoretical and practical background and framework for our matrix and network analysis of the scientific discourse of the UPV. In the methodology section, the processes that have allowed us to extract from the corpus the linguistic elements needed to develop co-occurrence matrices, as well as the computer tools used in the research, are described. From these co-occurrence matrices, semantic networks of subject and discipline knowledge were generated. Finally, based on the results obtained, we suggest that it may be viable to extract and to represent the intellectual capital of an academic institution using corpus linguistics methods in combination with the formulations of network theory.En este artículo describimos la investigación que se ha desarrollado en el diseño de una metodología para la representación reticular del conocimiento que se genera en el seno de una institución a partir de un corpus representativo de la producción científica de los integrantes de dicha comunidad discursiva, la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.. Para ello, presentamos las acciones que se realizaron en las fases iniciales del estudio encaminadas a establecer el marco teórico y práctico en el que se inscribe nuestro análisis. En la sección de metodología se describen las herramientas informáticas utilizadas, así como los procesos que nos permitieron disponer de aquellos elementos presentes en el corpus, que nos llevarían al desarrollo de

  12. A corpus-based approach to generalising a chatbot system

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Shawar, Bayan; Atwell, Eric

    2003-01-01

    International research in NLP is dominated by work on English. NLP techniques and systems can be ported to other natural languages, but this is generally a labour-intensive task, requiring scarce computational and linguistic expertise; hence minority languages are poorly represented in NLP technology. We present an automated approach to porting an NLP technology, the AIML-based chatbot, to new languages, by using a corpus in the target language to retrain the chatbot. We have s...

  13. Tracking Anglicisms in Domains by the Corpus-Linguistic Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2015-01-01

    Lay investors and semi-professionals lean on professional stock bloggers and stock analysts for advice on stock investments; semi-professionals and professionals write about investments globally, and stock information has to be available in many local markets. Using the correct terminology......’s critical sense is not enough to make the right choices. Our corpus-linguistic tool can be a help in this specialized field....

  14. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  15. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  16. Mind-modelling with corpus stylistics in David Copperfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Peter; Mahlberg, Michaela

    2015-05-01

    We suggest an innovative approach to literary discourse by using corpus linguistic methods to address research questions from cognitive poetics. In this article, we focus on the way that readers engage in mind-modelling in the process of characterisation. The article sets out our cognitive poetic model of characterisation that emphasises the continuity between literary characterisation and real-life human relationships. The model also aims to deal with the modelling of the author's mind in line with the modelling of the minds of fictional characters. Crucially, our approach to mind-modelling is text-driven. Therefore we are able to employ corpus linguistic techniques systematically to identify textual patterns that function as cues triggering character information. In this article, we explore our understanding of mind-modelling through the characterisation of Mr. Dick from David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. Using the CLiC tool (Corpus Linguistics in Cheshire) developed for the exploration of 19th-century fiction, we investigate the textual traces in non-quotations around this character, in order to draw out the techniques of characterisation other than speech presentation. We show that Mr. Dick is a thematically and authorially significant character in the novel, and we move towards a rigorous account of the reader's modelling of authorial intention.

  17. The Gutenberg English Poetry Corpus: Exemplary Quantitative Narrative Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Jacobs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus of about 3,000 English literary texts with about 250 million words extracted from the Gutenberg project that span a range of genres from both fiction and non-fiction written by more than 130 authors (e.g., Darwin, Dickens, Shakespeare. Quantitative narrative analysis (QNA is used to explore a cleaned subcorpus, the Gutenberg English Poetry Corpus (GEPC, which comprises over 100 poetic texts with around two million words from about 50 authors (e.g., Keats, Joyce, Wordsworth. Some exemplary QNA studies show author similarities based on latent semantic analysis, significant topics for each author or various text-analytic metrics for George Eliot’s poem “How Lisa Loved the King” and James Joyce’s “Chamber Music,” concerning, e.g., lexical diversity or sentiment analysis. The GEPC is particularly suited for research in Digital Humanities, Computational Stylistics, or Neurocognitive Poetics, e.g., as training and test corpus for stimulus development and control in empirical studies.

  18. A case of total agenesis of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Masanobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Bandou, Mitsuaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sakuta, Manabu

    1985-01-01

    We have reported a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum, in which NMR-CT revealed a complete defect of it, and have examined the localization of the speech center of this patient. The patient is a right-handed 26-year-old man who has complained of headache on the parietal region. His neurological examination revealed only a mild mental difficulty (IQ 77). X-ray CT showed the lateral ventricles to be separated widely and the posterior horns dilated, which were compatible with the agenesis of the corpus callosum. Further, NMR-CT has revealed a total agenesis of the corpus callosum. NMR-CT seems to be highly useful for the detection of the degree of the callosal defect. We have carried out the intracarotid amobarbital injection (Wada's test) for the determination of the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. It had been reported by some authors that when it comes to the cerebral speech dominance, acallosal patients had no difference between each hemisphere. However, our results have demonstrated a left sided dominance. (author)

  19. Handedness and corpus callosal morphology in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A; Wilson, Sarah J; Chen, Jian; Wood, Amanda G; Reutens, David C

    2013-02-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, resulting in atypical brain structure and function, including abnormal morphology of the corpus callosum. An influence of handedness on the size of the corpus callosum has been observed in studies of typical individuals, but handedness has not been taken into account in studies of callosal morphology in Williams syndrome. We hypothesized that callosal area is smaller and the size of the splenium and isthmus is reduced in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to healthy controls, and examined age, sex, and handedness effects on corpus callosal area. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on 25 individuals with Williams syndrome (18 right-handed, 7 left-handed) and 25 matched controls. We found that callosal thickness was significantly reduced in the splenium of Williams syndrome individuals compared to controls. We also found novel evidence that the callosal area was smaller in left-handed participants with Williams syndrome than their right-handed counterparts, with opposite findings observed in the control group. This novel finding may be associated with LIM-kinase hemizygosity, a characteristic of Williams syndrome. The findings may have significant clinical implications in future explorations of the Williams syndrome cognitive phenotype.

  20. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  1. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  2. BAS-drive trait modulates dorsomedial striatum activity during reward response-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ávila, César

    2016-09-01

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, behavioral studies have found that individuals with stronger reward sensitivity easily detect cues of reward and establish faster associations between instrumental responses and reward. Neuroimaging studies have shown that processing anticipatory cues of reward is accompanied by stronger ventral striatum activity in individuals with stronger reward sensitivity. Even though establishing response-outcome contingencies has been consistently associated with dorsal striatum, individual differences in this process are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to study the relation between reward sensitivity and brain activity while processing response-reward contingencies. Forty-five participants completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire and performed a gambling task paradigm in which they received monetary rewards or punishments. Overall, our task replicated previous results that have related processing high reward outcomes with activation of striatum and medial frontal areas, whereas processing high punishment outcomes was associated with stronger activity in insula and middle cingulate. As expected, the individual differences in the activity of dorsomedial striatum correlated positively with BAS-Drive. Our results agree with previous studies that have related the dorsomedial striatum with instrumental performance, and suggest that the individual differences in this area may form part of the neural substrate responsible for modulating instrumental conditioning by reward sensitivity.

  3. Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum form an anatomically distinct subclass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegas, William; Bergan, Joseph F; Ogawa, Sachie K; Isogai, Yoh; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Osten, Pavel; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Combining rabies-virus tracing, optical clearing (CLARITY), and whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we mapped the monosynaptic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to different targets (different parts of the striatum, cortex, amygdala, etc) in mice. We found that most populations of dopamine neurons receive a similar set of inputs rather than forming strong reciprocal connections with their target areas. A common feature among most populations of dopamine neurons was the existence of dense ‘clusters’ of inputs within the ventral striatum. However, we found that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum were outliers, receiving relatively few inputs from the ventral striatum and instead receiving more inputs from the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and zona incerta. These results lay a foundation for understanding the input/output structure of the midbrain dopamine circuit and demonstrate that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum constitute a unique class of dopamine neurons regulated by different inputs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10032.001 PMID:26322384

  4. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  5. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Memory-Guided Attention: Independent Contributions of the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V; Chun, Marvin M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-20

    Memory can strongly influence how attention is deployed in future encounters. Though memory dependent on the medial temporal lobes has been shown to drive attention, how other memory systems could concurrently and comparably enhance attention is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that both reinforcement learning and context memory facilitate attention in a visual search task. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we dissociate the mechanisms by which these memories guide attention: trial by trial, the hippocampus (not the striatum) predicted attention benefits from context memory, while the striatum (not the hippocampus) predicted facilitation from rewarded stimulus-response associations. Responses in these regions were also distinctly correlated with individual differences in each type of memory-guided attention. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the striatum in guiding attention, dissociable from hippocampus-dependent context memory.

  8. Hemiballism due to the lesion in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, S; Ito, N; Hirayama, K [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tochigi, S

    1981-09-01

    Two cases of hemiballism due to vascular lesions in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan were reported. Case 1 was a 58-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, who had cerebral hemorrhage in the right striatum. Hemiballistic movements, which were confined to his face, neck and trunk as well as limbs of the left side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with haloperidol up to 4 mg per day. Case 2 was a 63-year-old woman with hypertension, who had probable cerebral infarct in the right striatum. The hemiballistic movements, confined to her right side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with chlorpromazine up to 50 mg per day, and perphenazine up to 6 mg per day. Whereas case 1 had contralateral hemiballism, case 2 had homolateral hemiballism, both due to vascular lesions in the striatum. Although it has been generally accepted, from postmortem and experimental studies, that the lesion responsible for hemiballism was localized in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus, a few cases of hemiballism have been reported, in which the subthalamic nucleus (Luys' body) and its connections appeared to be intact at necropsy. The present cases of hemiballism with involvement of the striatum without involvement of the subthalamic nucleus by CT scan, seem to be the first reported cases. It is not clear in the CT scan whether the subthalamic nucleus is also involved in addition to the striatal lesion, however, it is unlikely due to different vascular supplies to these areas. From a clinical and an experimental point of view, we would like to propose that hemiballism can occur due to the lesion in the striatum, especially the caudate nucleus even when the subthalamic nucleus and its connections are intact.

  9. Lateralization and gender differences in the dopaminergic response to unpredictable reward in the human ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison; Barhaghi, Krystle; Rallis, Denise; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E; Drevets, Wayne C

    2011-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown that mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons increase activity in response to unpredicted rewards. With respect to other functions of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, dopamine's actions show prominent laterality effects. Whether changes in DA transmission elicited by rewards also are lateralized, however, has not been investigated. Using [¹¹C]raclopride-PET to assess the striatal DA response to unpredictable monetary rewards, we hypothesized that such rewards would induce an asymmetric reduction in [¹¹C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum, reflecting lateralization of endogenous dopamine release. In 24 healthy volunteers, differences in the regional D₂/₃ receptor binding potential (ΔBP) between an unpredictable reward condition and a sensorimotor control condition were measured using the bolus-plus-constant-infusion [¹¹C]raclopride method. During the reward condition subjects randomly received monetary awards while performing a 'slot-machine' task. The ΔBP between conditions was assessed in striatal regions-of-interest and compared between left and right sides. We found a significant condition × lateralization interaction in the ventral striatum. A significant reduction in binding potential (BP(ND) ) in the reward condition vs. the control condition was found only in the right ventral striatum, and the ΔBP was greater in the right than the left ventral striatum. Unexpectedly, these laterality effects appeared to be partly accounted for by gender differences, as our data showed a significant bilateral BP(ND) reduction in women while in men the reduction reached significance only in the right ventral striatum. These data suggest that DA release in response to unpredictable reward is lateralized in the human ventral striatum, particularly in males. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Functional responses of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors in rat brain striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    El sistema dopaminèrgic has estat molt estudiat en els darrers anys, principalment degut a la seva implicació en diverses patologies com la malaltia de Parkinson, la esquizofrènia o la síndrome de Tourette, així com també en l'abús de drogues. S'han descrit cinc subtipus de receptors per la dopamina (DA), tots els quals pertanyen a la família de receptors acoblats a proteïnes G (GPCRs). D'aquests cinc subtipus, els receptors D2 son la diana principal dels antipsicòtics (antagonistes) i també ...

  11. Kynurenic Acid Prevents Cytoskeletal Disorganization Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Mixed Cultures of Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Biasibetti-Brendler, Helena; Schmitz, Felipe; Ferreira, Fernanda; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Wyse, Angela T S

    2018-06-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan known to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in neural dysfunction. Although its activity in the brain has been widely studied, the effect of KYNA counteracting the actions of quinolinic acid (QUIN) remains unknown. The present study aims at describing the ability of 100 μM KYNA preventing cytoskeletal disruption provoked by QUIN in astrocyte/neuron/microglia mixed culture. KYNA totally preserved cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology, and redox imbalance in mixed cultures exposed to QUIN. However, KYNA partially prevented morphological alteration in isolated primary astrocytes and failed to protect the morphological alterations of neurons caused by QUIN exposure. Moreover, KYNA prevented QUIN-induced microglial activation and upregulation of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and partially preserved tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level in mixed cultures. TNF-α level was also partially preserved in astrocytes. In addition to the mechanisms dependent on redox imbalance and microglial activation, KYNA prevented downregulation of connexin-43 and the loss of functionality of gap junctions (GJs), preserving cell-cell contact, cytoskeletal organization, and cell morphology in QUIN-treated cells. Furthermore, the toxicity of QUIN targeting the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures was not prevented by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. We suggest that KYNA protects the integrity of the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures by complex mechanisms including modulating microglial activation preventing oxidative imbalance and misregulated GJs leading to disrupted cytoskeleton in QUIN-treated cells. This study contributed to elucidate the molecular basis of KYNA protection against QUIN toxicity.

  12. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A

    1999-01-01

    Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  13. Hints on the Lateralization of Dopamine Binding to D-1 Receptors in Rat Striatum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franco, R.; Casadó-Anguera, V.; Muňoz, A.; Petrovič, Miloš; Navarro, G.; Moreno, E.; Lanciego, J. L.; Labandeira-García, J. L.; Cortés, A.; Casadó, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2016), s. 5436-5445 ISSN 0893-7648 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : lateralization * basal ganglia * G-protein-coupled receptor dimer * dyskinesia * 6-hydroxydopamine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.190, year: 2016

  14. Quinolinic acid induced neurodegeneration in the striatum: a combined in vivo and in vitro analysis of receptor changes and microglia activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moresco, R.M.; Lavazza, T.; Belloli, S.; Todde, S.; Matarrese, M.; Carpinelli, A.; Turolla, E.; Fazio, F.; Lecchi, M.; Pezzola, A.; Popoli, P.; Zimarino, V.; Malgaroli, A.

    2008-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterised by prominent neuronal cell loss in the basal ganglia with motor and cognitive disturbances. One of the most well-studied pharmacological models of HD is produced by local injection in the rat brain striatum of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA), which produces many of the distinctive features of this human neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report a detailed analysis, obtained both in vivo and in vitro of this pharmacological model of HD. By combining emission tomography (PET) with autoradiographic and immunocytochemical confocal laser techniques, we quantified in the QA-injected striatum the temporal behavior (from 1 to 60 days from the excitotoxic insult) of neuronal cell density and receptor availability (adenosine A 2A and dopamine D 2 receptors) together with the degree of microglia activation. Both approaches showed a loss of adenosine A 2A and dopamine D 2 receptors paralleled by an increase of microglial activation. This combined longitudinal analysis of the disease progression, which suggested an impairment of neurotransmission, neuronal integrity and a reversible activation of brain inflammatory processes, might represent a more quantitative approach to compare the differential effects of treatments in slowing down or reversing HD in rodent models with potential applications to human patients. (orig.)

  15. Differences between Dorsal and Ventral Striatum in the Sensitivity of Tonically Active Neurons to Rewarding Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs, represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum, but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i.e., limbic striatum, a region specialized for processing of motivational information. To address this issue, we examined the activity of dorsal and ventral TANs in two monkeys trained on a Pavlovian conditioning task in which a visual stimulus preceded the delivery of liquid reward by a fixed time interval. We found that the proportion of TANs responding to the stimulus predictive of reward did not vary significantly across regions (58%–80%, whereas the fraction of TANs responding to reward was higher in the limbic striatum (100% compared to the motor (65% and associative striatum (52%. By examining TAN modulation at the level of both the population and the individual neurons, we showed that the duration of pause responses to the stimulus and reward was longer in the ventral than in the dorsal striatal regions. Also, the magnitude of the pause was greater in ventral than dorsal striatum for the stimulus predictive of reward but not for the reward itself. We found similar region-specific differences in pause response duration to the stimulus when the timing of reward was less predictable (fixed replaced by variable time interval. Regional variations in the duration and magnitude of the pause response were transferred from the stimulus to reward when reward was delivered in the absence of any predictive stimulus. It therefore appears that ventral TANs exhibit stronger responses to

  16. Interactions between lysergic acid diethylamide and dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungen, K V; Roberts, S; Hill, D F

    1975-08-22

    Investigations were carried out on the interactions of the hallucinogenic drug, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (D-LSD), and other serotonin antagonists with catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free preparations from different regions of rat brain. In equimolar concentration, D-LSD, 2-brono-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), or methysergide (UML) strongly blocked maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by either norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from cerebral cortices of young adult rats. D-LSD also eliminated the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity of equimolar concentrations of norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from rat hippocampus. The effects of this hallucinogenic agent on adenylate cyclase activity were most striking in particulate preparations from corpus striatum. Thus, in 10 muM concentration, D-LSD not only completely eradicated the response to 10 muM dopamine in these preparations but also consistently stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. L-LSD (80 muM) was without effect. Significant activation of striatal adenylate cyclase was produced by 0.1 muM D-LSD. Activation of striatal adenylate cyclase of either D-LSD or dopamine was strongly blocked by the dopamine-blocking agents trifluoperazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. The stimulatory effects of D-LSD and dopamine were also inhibited by the serotonin-blocking agents, BOL, 1-methyl-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (MLD), and cyproheptadine, but not by the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, propranolol. However, these serotonin antagonists by themselves were incapable of stimulating adenylate cyclase activity in the striatal preparations. Several other hallucinogens, which were structurally related to serotonin, were also inactive in this regard, e.g., mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin and bufotenine. Serotonin itself produced a small stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in striatal preparations and

  17. NMDA receptor antagonism by repetitive MK801 administration induces schizophrenia-like structural changes in the rat brain as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Wang, X; Gao, Y; Lin, F; Song, T; Zou, Y; Xu, L; Lei, H

    2016-05-13

    Animal models of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism have been widely used for schizophrenia research. Less is known whether these models are associated with macroscopic brain structural changes that resemble those in clinical schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure brain structural changes in rats subjected to repeated administration of MK801 in a regimen (daily dose of 0.2mg/kg for 14 consecutive days) known to be able to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed significant gray matter (GM) atrophy in the hippocampus, ventral striatum (vStr) and cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrated microstructural impairments in the corpus callosum (cc). Histopathological results corroborated the MRI findings. Treatment-induced behavioral abnormalities were not measured such that correlation between the brain structural changes observed and schizophrenia-like behaviors could not be established. Chronic MK801 administration induces MRI-observable brain structural changes that are comparable to those observed in schizophrenia patients, supporting the notion that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to the pathology of schizophrenia. Imaging-derived brain structural changes in animal models of NMDAR antagonism may be useful measurements for studying the effects of treatments and interventions targeting schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  19. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bychkov

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.

  20. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations.......The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized...

  1. Bollywood Movie Corpus for Text, Images and Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Saxena, Mayank; Aggarwal, Aditi; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda

    2017-01-01

    In past few years, several data-sets have been released for text and images. We present an approach to create the data-set for use in detecting and removing gender bias from text. We also include a set of challenges we have faced while creating this corpora. In this work, we have worked with movie data from Wikipedia plots and movie trailers from YouTube. Our Bollywood Movie corpus contains 4000 movies extracted from Wikipedia and 880 trailers extracted from YouTube which were released from 1...

  2. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  3. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  4. Materials as regard about ecology and spreading of lycodine striatum bicolor nik in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattorov, T.S.; Khidirov, Kh.; Mukhammadkulov, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article is placed new scientific information about biology, ecology and spreading of Lycodine striatum bicolor within the territory of Tajikistan. Finding available in this article concerning spreading of flus snake are considered to be new. This scarce snake was discovered for the first time in Northern part of Tajikistan. This new information will enrich our notions about Reptile fauna of Tajikistan

  5. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  6. Sensory Processing in the Dorsolateral Striatum: The Contribution of Thalamostriatal Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Alloway

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum. The thalamostriatal projections to DLS originate mainly from the caudal intralaminar region, which contains the parafascicular (Pf nucleus, and from higher-order thalamic nuclei such as the medial part of the posterior (POm nucleus. Based on recent findings, we hypothesize that the thalamostriatal projections from these two regions exert opposing influences on the expression of behavioral habits. This article reviews the subcortical circuits that regulate the transmission of sensory information through these thalamostriatal projection systems, and describes the evidence that indicates these circuits could be manipulated to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD and related neurological disorders.

  7. Hippocampal projections to the ventral striatum: from spatial memory to motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.M.A; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Derdikman, D.; Knierim, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple regions of the hippocampal formation project to the ventral striatum, a central node in brain circuits that subserve aspects of motivation. These projections emphasize information flow from the ventral (temporal) pole of the hippocampus and interact with converging projections and

  8. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernández, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  9. Stress induces a shift towards striatum-dependent stimulus-response learning via the mineralocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernandez, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  10. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schroeder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T.; Krugers, Harm J.; Oitzl, Melly S.; Joels, Marian; Doeller, Christian F.; Fernandez, Guillen

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  11. Sensory Processing in the Dorsolateral Striatum: The Contribution of Thalamostriatal Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Kevin D.; Smith, Jared B.; Mowery, Todd M.; Watson, Glenn D. R.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum. The thalamostriatal projections to DLS originate mainly from the caudal intralaminar region, which contains the parafascicular (Pf) nucleus, and from higher-order thalamic nuclei such as the medial part of the posterior (POm) nucleus. Based on recent findings, we hypothesize that the thalamostriatal projections from these two regions exert opposing influences on the expression of behavioral habits. This article reviews the subcortical circuits that regulate the transmission of sensory information through these thalamostriatal projection systems, and describes the evidence that indicates these circuits could be manipulated to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related neurological disorders. PMID:28790899

  12. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats was studied. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), apomorphine (Apo) which could induced the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to select the rats, 125 I-IBZM ex-vivo autoradiography analysis and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional cerebral biodistribution were used to evaluate D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure striatum DA and its metabolites content. The lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 0.05). These results indicated that in the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and an up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites was induced in hemi-parkinsonism rats, which showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  13. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  14. Emotional Intelligence in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Luke B; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2017-05-01

    People with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) with normal general intelligence have deficits in complex cognitive processing, as well as in social cognition. It is uncertain the extent to which impoverished processing of emotions may contribute to social processing deficiencies. We used the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to clarify the nature of emotional intelligence in 16 adults with AgCC. As hypothesized, persons with AgCC exhibited greater disparities from norms on tests involving more socially complex aspects of emotions. The AgCC group did not differ from norms on the Experiential subscale, but they were significantly below norms on the Strategic subscale. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum is not essential for experiencing and thinking about basic emotions in a "normal" way, but is necessary for more complex processes involving emotions in the context of social interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Revisiting corpus creation and analysis tools for translation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many translation scholars have proposed the use of corpora to allow professional translators to produce high quality texts which read like originals. Yet, the diffusion of this methodology has been modest, one reason being the fact that software for corpora analyses have been developed with the linguist in mind, which means that they are generally complex and cumbersome, offering many advanced features, but lacking the level of usability and the specific features that meet translators’ needs. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed TranslatorBank, a free corpus creation and analysis tool designed for translation tasks. TranslatorBank supports the creation of specialized monolingual corpora from the web; it includes a concordancer with a query system similar to a search engine; it uses basic statistical measures to indicate the reliability of results; it accesses the original documents directly for more contextual information; it includes a statistical and linguistic terminology extraction utility to extract the relevant terminology of the domain and the typical collocations of a given term. Designed to be easy and intuitive to use, the tool may help translation students as well as professionals to increase their translation quality by adhering to the specific linguistic variety of the target text corpus.

  16. Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences].

  17. The significance of estradiol metabolites in human corpus luteum physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Luigi; Henríquez, Soledad; Kohen, Paulina; Strauss, Jerome F

    2017-07-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a temporary endocrine gland derived from the ovulated follicle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for steroid hormone production required to support menstrual cyclicity, endometrial receptivity for successful implantation, and the maintenance of early pregnancy. Endocrine and paracrine-autocrine molecular mechanisms associated with progesterone production throughout the luteal phase are critical for the development, maintenance, regression, and rescue by hCG which sustains CL function into early pregnancy. However, the signaling systems driving the regression of the primate corpus luteum in non-conception cycles are not well understood. Recently, there has been interest in the functional roles of estradiol metabolites (EMs), mostly in estrogen-producing tissues. The human CL produces a number of EMs, and it has been postulated that the EMs acting via paracrine-autocrine pathways affect angiogenesis or LH-mediated events. The present review describes advances in understanding the role of EMs in the functional lifespan and regression of the human CL in non-conception cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  20. Revisiting corpus creation and analysis tools for translation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2016-04-01

    Many translation scholars have proposed the use of corpora to allow professional translators to produce high quality texts which read like originals. Yet, the diffusion of this methodology has been modest, one reason being the fact that software for corpora analyses have been developed with the linguist in mind, which means that they are generally complex and cumbersome, offering many advanced features, but lacking the level of usability and the specific features that meet translators’ needs. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed TranslatorBank, a free corpus creation and analysis tool designed for translation tasks. TranslatorBank supports the creation of specialized monolingual corpora from the web; it includes a concordancer with a query system similar to a search engine; it uses basic statistical measures to indicate the reliability of results; it accesses the original documents directly for more contextual information; it includes a statistical and linguistic terminology extraction utility to extract the relevant terminology of the domain and the typical collocations of a given term. Designed to be easy and intuitive to use, the tool may help translation students as well as professionals to increase their translation quality by adhering to the specific linguistic variety of the target text corpus.

  1. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  2. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  3. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Du Plessis, Vicci [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban (South Africa); Prabhu, Sanjay P. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  4. Building a comprehensive syntactic and semantic corpus of Chinese clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Dong, Bin; Guan, Yi; Yang, Jinfeng; Jiang, Zhipeng; Yu, Qiubin; Cheng, Jianyi; Qu, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    To build a comprehensive corpus covering syntactic and semantic annotations of Chinese clinical texts with corresponding annotation guidelines and methods as well as to develop tools trained on the annotated corpus, which supplies baselines for research on Chinese texts in the clinical domain. An iterative annotation method was proposed to train annotators and to develop annotation guidelines. Then, by using annotation quality assurance measures, a comprehensive corpus was built, containing annotations of part-of-speech (POS) tags, syntactic tags, entities, assertions, and relations. Inter-annotator agreement (IAA) was calculated to evaluate the annotation quality and a Chinese clinical text processing and information extraction system (CCTPIES) was developed based on our annotated corpus. The syntactic corpus consists of 138 Chinese clinical documents with 47,426 tokens and 2612 full parsing trees, while the semantic corpus includes 992 documents that annotated 39,511 entities with their assertions and 7693 relations. IAA evaluation shows that this comprehensive corpus is of good quality, and the system modules are effective. The annotated corpus makes a considerable contribution to natural language processing (NLP) research into Chinese texts in the clinical domain. However, this corpus has a number of limitations. Some additional types of clinical text should be introduced to improve corpus coverage and active learning methods should be utilized to promote annotation efficiency. In this study, several annotation guidelines and an annotation method for Chinese clinical texts were proposed, and a comprehensive corpus with its NLP modules were constructed, providing a foundation for further study of applying NLP techniques to Chinese texts in the clinical domain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda; Du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P.

    2015-01-01

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  6. Serotonin 2A and 2C receptor biosynthesis in the rodent striatum during postnatal development: mRNA expression and functional linkage to neuropeptide gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2000-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine if there are region-specific differences in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor expression that may limit the stimulatory effects of the 5-HT releaser p-chloroamphetamine (pCA) on striatal neuropeptide gene expression to the posterior striatum (P-STR) during postnatal maturation. Sprague-Dawley rat brains from postnatal days (PND) 1-35 were processed for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization and monoamine analysis by HPLC. Within the P-STR, 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression reached young adult (PND 35) levels by PND 3, while levels in the A-STR were significantly less (range: 1.43 +/- 0.219-6. 36 +/- 0.478) than P-STR (5.36 +/- 0.854-12.11 +/- 1.08) at each respective age throughout the time course. 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression reached young adult levels at PND 7 in the A-STR and by PND 3 in the P-STR. At each PND age 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA levels within the P-STR were significantly less (6.23 +/- 1.02-12.32 +/- 0.427) than the A-STR (7.31 +/- 1.65-26.84 +/- 2.24). 5-HT content increased across the developmental time course within the P-STR (5.01 +/- 0.327-15.7 +/- 1.03 ng/mg protein) and A-STR (2.97 +/- 0. 223-11.2 +/- 0.701 ng/mg protein). Four hours following injection (i. p.) of pCA (10 mg/kg), preprotachykinin (PPT) mRNA levels increased 89% in the P-STR but not the anterior (A-STR) striatum of the 3-week-old rat, which were prevented by preinjection (30 min, i.p.) of the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg). Together, these data suggest that faster maturity of 5-HT(2A) receptor expression in the P-STR may be sufficient to convey the region-specific acute stimulatory effects of pCA on PPT mRNA transcription in the developing rodent striatum. These results provide further evidence that the influence of 5-HT on neuropeptide gene expression is far stronger in caudal vs. rostral striatal regions during postnatal development. Copyright 2000 Wiley

  7. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  8. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  9. Copy Number Variations Found in Patients with a Corpus Callosum Abnormality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Solveig; Keren, Boris; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Depienne, Christel; Nava, Caroline; Mignot, Cyril; Jacquette, Aurélia; Fonteneau, Eric; Lejeune, Elodie; Mach, Corinne; Marey, Isabelle; Whalen, Sandra; Lacombe, Didier; Naudion, Sophie; Rooryck, Caroline; Toutain, Annick; Caignec, Cédric Le; Haye, Damien; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lesne, Fabien; Faudet, Anne; Ville, Dorothée; des Portes, Vincent; Sanlaville, Damien; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Héron, Delphine

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the role that chromosomal micro-rearrangements play in patients with both corpus callosum abnormality and intellectual disability, we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability STUDY DESIGN: We screened 149 patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability using Illumina SNP arrays. In 20 patients (13%), we have identified at least 1 CNV that likely contributes to corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability phenotype. We confirmed that the most common rearrangement in corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability is inverted duplication with terminal deletion of the 8p chromosome (3.2%). In addition to the identification of known recurrent CNVs, such as deletions 6qter, 18q21 (including TCF4), 1q43q44, 17p13.3, 14q12, 3q13, 3p26, and 3q26 (including SOX2), our analysis allowed us to refine the 2 known critical regions associated with 8q21.1 deletion and 19p13.1 duplication relevant for corpus callosum abnormality; report a novel 10p12 deletion including ZEB1 recently implicated in corpus callosum abnormality with corneal dystrophy; and) report a novel pathogenic 7q36 duplication encompassing SHH. In addition, 66 variants of unknown significance were identified in 57 patients encompassed candidate genes. Our results confirm the relevance of using microarray analysis as first line test in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  11. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  12. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  13. 75 FR 31677 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Jose Island Airport, TX (Lat. 27[deg]56'40'' N., long. 96[deg]59'06'' W.) Rockport, Aransas County... Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76137; telephone (817) 321- 7716. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On... Corpus Christi, TX [Amended] Corpus Christi International Airport, TX (Lat. 27[deg]46'13'' N., long. 97...

  14. US News Media Portrayal of Islam and Muslims: A Corpus-Assisted Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaie, Mahmoud; Malmir, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    This article exploits the synergy of critical discourse studies and Corpus Linguistics to study the pervasive representation of Islam and Muslims in an approximate 670,000-word corpus of US news media stories published between 2001 and 2015. Following collocation and concordance analysis of the most frequent topics or categories which revolve…

  15. Corpus gastritis in patients with endoscopic diagnosis of reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with

  16. Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

  17. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  18. An Analysis of Stative Verbs Used with the Progressive Aspect in Corpus-Informed Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Serap Atasever

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether contemporary corpus-informed grammar textbooks written for English language learners and teachers presented the progressive use of stative verbs and if yes, which stative verbs were presented to occur with the progressive aspect and for which functions they took this aspect. A corpus of six electronic…

  19. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  20. Incidence and lifetime risk of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwanese women from 1991 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the observed changes in incidence rate, the burden of uterine corpus cancer in the general female population is expected to increase in the near future. From a public-health perspective, care providers should develop strategies for the prevention, early detection, and intervention to reduce the rapidly increasing incidence of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwan.

  1. Analysing Culture and Interculture in Saudi EFL Textbooks: A Corpus Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almujaiwel, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    This paper combines corpus processing tools to investigate the cultural elements of Saudi education of English as a foreign language (EFL). The latest Saudi EFL textbooks (2016 onwards) are available in researchable PDF formats. This helps process them through corpus search software tools. The method adopted is based on analysing 20 cultural…

  2. A 38 million words Dutch text corpus and its users | Kruyt | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In August 1996, the 38 Million Words Corpus was available for consultation by the international research community. The present paper reports on the characteristics of this corpus (design, text classification, linguistic annotation) and on its use, both in dictionary projects and in linguistic research. In spite of limitations with ...

  3. Quantitative Imaging of Cholinergic Interneurons Reveals a Distinctive Spatial Organization and a Functional Gradient across the Mouse Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Information processing in the striatum requires the postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals, which are then relayed to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia to influence behavior. Although cellularly homogeneous in appearance, the striatum contains several rare interneuron populations which tightly modulate striatal function. Of these, cholinergic interneurons (CINs have been recently shown to play a critical role in the control of reward-related learning; however how the striatal cholinergic network is functionally organized at the mesoscopic level and the way this organization influences striatal function remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically mapped and digitally reconstructed the entire ensemble of CINs in the mouse striatum and quantitatively assessed differences in densities, spatial arrangement and neuropil content across striatal functional territories. This approach demonstrated that the rostral portion of the striatum contained a higher concentration of CINs than the caudal striatum and that the cholinergic content in the core of the ventral striatum was significantly lower than in the rest of the regions. Additionally, statistical comparison of spatial point patterns in the striatal cholinergic ensemble revealed that only a minor portion of CINs (17% aggregated into cluster and that they were predominantly organized in a random fashion. Furthermore, we used a fluorescence reporter to estimate the activity of over two thousand CINs in naïve mice and found that there was a decreasing gradient of CIN overall function along the dorsomedial-to-ventrolateral axis, which appeared to be independent of their propensity to aggregate within the striatum. Altogether this work suggests that the regulation of striatal function by acetylcholine across the striatum is highly heterogeneous, and that signals originating in external afferent systems may be principally determining the function of CINs in the

  4. Enculturating Conversational Agents based on a Comparative Corpus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Yamaoka, Yuji; Rehm, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    When encountering people who have a different cultural background from our own, many of us feel uncomfortable because gestures and facial expressions may not be familiar to us. Thus, to enhance the believability of conversational agents, culture-specific nonverbal behaviors should be implemented ...... a more detailed analysis about posture shifts, and proposes a chat system with an embodied conversational agent (ECA) that can act as a language trainer....... into the agents. In our previous study, with the goal of building a user interface that incorporates a user’s cultural background, we have collected comparative conversation corpus in Germany and Japan, and investigated the differences in gestures and posture shifts between these two countries. This paper reports...

  5. The Brazilian Theory of Habeas Corpus for Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heron José de Santana Gordilho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a comparison between human evolution and legal developments, trying to demonstrate how darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection has caused changes in the legal world, the bridge of today some lawyers using the recent discoveries about how similar genetic between man and great primates to claim extension of human rights for chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangs. It also that many activists for animal`s rights have considered the dispute an important strategy, whether to set new means for legal institutes such as the Habeas Corpus, hitherto used only to ensure human freedom, whether to increase the movement and increase the conscietization of the general population about the importance of the recognition of animals as holders of basic rights.

  6. Some aspects of endotoxins and corpus luteum function in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edqvist, L.E.; Fredriksson, G.; Kindahl, H.

    1984-01-01

    Following parturition in cattle, prostaglandin levels are high for 10-20 days. The duration and possibly the magnitude of the release seem to be related to the time required for completion of uterine involution. Animals showing clinical signs of postpartum uterine disorder have a prolonged release of prostaglandin. The intravenous administration of an endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium to goats induces a massive prostaglandin release terminating corpus luteum function, resulting in short oestrous cycles in non-pregnant animals and abortions in pregnant animals. The possibility exists that postpartum uterine infections may be partly responsible for the postpartum prostaglandin release and that this bacteriologic/endocrine interrelationship represents a way in which the uterus eliminates infectious agents, particularly gram-negative bacteria. (author)

  7. ANR Corpus architecturae religiosae europeae [CARE], saec. IV-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sapin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available À la fin de l’année 2007, le projet déposé auprès de l’Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR et consacré à la constitution d’un corpus des monuments religieux (CARE antérieurs à l’an Mil a été retenu. Il correspond au volet propre à la France. En effet, plusieurs pays, dont l’Italie, l’Espagne, la République Tchèque, la Slovaquie, la Pologne et la Croatie ont commencé depuis deux ans les travaux préparatoires à cette ambitieuse entreprise ; la Grèce est, depuis, intéressée, de même que l’Al...

  8. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  9. Embedding epistemic modals in English: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Hacquard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether epistemic modals contribute to the truth conditions of the sentences they appear in is a matter of active debate in the literature. Fueling this debate is the lack of consensus about the extent to which epistemics can appear in the scope of other operators. This corpus study investigates the distribution of epistemics in naturalistic data. Our results indicate that they do embed, supporting the view that they contribute semantic content. However, their distribution is limited, compared to that of other modals. This limited distribution seems to call for a nuanced account: while epistemics are semantically contentful, they may require special licensing conditions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.4 BibTeX info

  10. Murine Models of Gastric Corpus PreneoplasiaSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma evolves in a field of pre-existing metaplasia. Over the past 20 years, a number of murine models have been developed to address aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of metaplasia induction. Although none of these models has achieved true recapitulation of the induction of adenocarcinoma, they have led to important insights into the factors that influence the induction and progression of metaplasia. Here, we review the pathologic definitions relevant to alterations in gastric corpus lineages and classification of metaplasia by specific lineage markers. In addition, we review present murine models of the induction and progression of spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2–expressing metaplasia, the predominant metaplastic lineage observed in murine models. These models provide a basis for the development of a broader understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of metaplasia in the stomach. Keywords: SPEM, Intestinal Metaplasia, Gastric Cancer, TFF2, Chief Cell, Hyperplasia

  11. METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED CELL DEATH: SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY IN NEURONAL SUBPOPULATIONS OF THE STRIATUM IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, J. P. Q.; XU, W.; ANGULO, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit and potent psychostimulant, which acts as an indirect dopamine agonist. In the striatum, METH has been shown to cause long lasting neurotoxic damage to dopaminergic nerve terminals and recently, the degeneration and death of striatal cells. The present study was undertaken to identify the type of striatal neurons that undergo apoptosis after METH. Male mice received a single high dose of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 h later. To demonstrate that METH induces apoptosis in neurons, we combined terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining with immunohistofluorescence for the neuronal marker neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). Staining for TUNEL and NeuN was colocalized throughout the striatum. METH induces apoptosis in approximately 25% of striatal neurons. Cell counts of TUNEL-positive neurons in the dorsomedial, ventromedial, dorsolateral and ventrolateral quadrants of the striatum did not reveal anatomical preference. The type of striatal neuron undergoing cell death was determined by combining TUNEL with immunohistofluorescence for selective markers of striatal neurons: dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000, parvalbumin, choline acetyltransferase and somatostatin (SST). METH induces apoptosis in approximately 21% of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000-positive neurons (projection neurons), 45% of GABA-parvalbumin-positive neurons in the dorsal striatum, and 29% of cholinergic neurons in the dorsal–medial striatum. In contrast, the SST-positive interneurons were refractory to METH-induced apoptosis. Finally, the amount of cell loss determined with Nissl staining correlated with the amount of TUNEL staining in the striatum of METH-treated animals. In conclusion, some of the striatal projection neurons and the GABA-parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons were removed by apoptosis in the aftermath of METH. This

  12. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  13. Age-related decreases in the concentration of Met- and Leu-enkephalin and neurotensin in the basal ganglia or rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos, M.L. de; Boyce, S.; Taylor, M.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies using radioimmunoassay procedures have failed to show age-related changes in the concentration of Met-and Leu-enkephalin or neurotensin in rat basal ganglia. In contrast, using a combined high-pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC)- radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique we now report considerable decreases in the levels of these neuropeptides in areas of basal ganglia of 22 months-old compared to 3 months-old male Wistar rats. The concentration of Met-enkephalin was greatly reduced in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, but not in substantia nigra, of old compared to young animals. There was a similarly large decrease in Leu-enkephalin content in striatum of old rats with less marked decreases occurring in both the nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra. Neurotensin levels in the striatum and substantia nigra were greatly reduced in old rats, with a less marked decrease in the nucleus accumbens

  14. Age-related decreases in the concentration of Met- and Leu-enkephalin and neurotensin in the basal ganglia or rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, M.L. de; Boyce, S; Taylor, M; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1987-03-20

    Previous studies using radioimmunoassay procedures have failed to show age-related changes in the concentration of Met-and Leu-enkephalin or neurotensin in rat basal ganglia. In contrast, using a combined high-pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC)- radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique we now report considerable decreases in the levels of these neuropeptides in areas of basal ganglia of 22 months-old compared to 3 months-old male Wistar rats. The concentration of Met-enkephalin was greatly reduced in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, but not in substantia nigra, of old compared to young animals. There was a similarly large decrease in Leu-enkephalin content in striatum of old rats with less marked decreases occurring in both the nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra. Neurotensin levels in the striatum and substantia nigra were greatly reduced in old rats, with a less marked decrease in the nucleus accumbens.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Angiogenesis Markers of Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Hashemvarzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parkinson is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in central nervous system. Non-pharmacologic treatment methods such as stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered as a treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effects of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. 42 rats were divided into six groups: Normal (N, Sham (S, Parkinson’s (P, Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP, Exercised Parkinson’s (EP and Stem cells transplanted+Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP. To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats aged 6-8 weeks. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end of the study, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, dopamine (DA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH levels. VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP, especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05. The BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Keywords: Stem cells, Aerobic exercise, Neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

  16. The structure of an entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengi V. Ondar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary information technologies and mathematical modelling has made creating corpora of natural languages significantly easier. A corpus is an information and reference system based on a collection of digitally processed texts. A corpus includes various written and oral texts in the given language, a set of dictionaries and markup – information on the properties of the text. It is the presence of the markup which distinguishes a corpus from an electronic library. At the moment, national corpora are being set up for many languages of the Russian Federation, including those of the Turkic peoples. Faculty members, postgraduate and undergraduate students at Tuvan State University and Siberian Federal University are working on the National corpus of Tuvan language. This article describes the structure of a dictionary entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language. The corpus database comprises the following tables: MAIN – the headword table, RUS, ENG, GER — translations of the headword into three languages, MORPHOLOGY — the table containing morphological data on the headword. The database is built in Microsoft Office Access. Working with the corpus dictionary includes the following functions: adding, editing and removing an entry, entry search (with transcription, setting and visualizing morphological features of a headword. The project allows us to view the corpus dictionary as a multi-structure entity with a complex hierarchical structure and a dictionary entry as its key component. The corpus dictionary we developed can be used for studying Tuvan language in its pronunciation, orthography and word analysis, as well as for searching for words and collocations in the texts included into the corpus.

  17. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection of the dorsolateral striatum. Exercise in lesioned rats resulted in: (a) normalization of many of the lesion-induced alterations in rsFC, including reintegration of the dorsolateral striatum into the motor network; (b) emergence of the ventrolateral striatum as a new broadly connected network hub; (c) increased rsFC among the motor cortex, motor thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Our results showed for the first time that long-term exercise training partially reversed lesion-induced alterations in rsFC of the motor circuits, and in addition enhanced functional connectivity in specific motor pathways in the Parkinsonian rats, which could underlie recovery in motor functions observed in these rats. PMID:25219465

  18. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  19. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelzakker, Michael B; Zoladz, Phillip R; Thompson, Vanessa M; Park, Collin R; Halonen, Joshua D; Spencer, Robert L; Diamond, David M

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24 h later. Rat brains were extracted 30 min after the 24-h memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: (1) Rats given standard training (Standard); (2) Rats given cat exposure (Predator Stress) 30 min prior to training (Pre-Training Stress); (3) Rats given water exposure only (Water Yoked); and (4) Rats given no water exposure (Home Cage). The Standard trained group exhibited excellent 24 h memory which was accompanied by increased c-fos mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The Water Yoked group exhibited no increase in c-fos mRNA in any brain region. Rats in the Pre-Training Stress group were classified into two subgroups: good and bad memory performers. Neither of the two Pre-Training Stress subgroups exhibited a significant change in c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus or BLA. Instead, stressed rats with good memory exhibited significantly greater c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) compared to stressed rats with bad memory. This finding suggests that stressed rats with good memory used their DLS to generate a non-spatial (cue-based) strategy to learn and subsequently retrieve the memory of the platform location. Collectively, these findings provide evidence at a molecular level for the involvement of the hippocampus and BLA in the retrieval of spatial memory and contribute novel observations on the influence of pre-training stress in activating the DLS in response to long-term memory retrieval.

  20. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B VanElzakker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24 hr later. Rat brains were extracted 30 min after the 24 hr memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: 1 Rats given standard training (Standard; 2 Rats given cat exposure (Predator Stress 30 min prior to training (Pre-Training Stress; 3 Rats given water exposure only (Water Yoked; and 4 Rats given no water exposure (Home Cage. The Standard trained group exhibited excellent 24 hr memory which was accompanied by increased c-fos mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA. The Water Yoked group exhibited no increase in c-fos mRNA in any brain region. Rats in the Pre-Training Stress group were classified into two subgroups: good and bad memory performers. Neither of the two Pre-Training Stress subgroups exhibited a significant change in c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus or BLA. Instead, stressed rats with good memory exhibited significantly greater c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS compared to stressed rats with bad memory. This finding suggests that stressed rats with good memory used their DLS to generate a non-spatial (cue-based strategy to learn and subsequently retrieve the memory of the platform location. Collectively, these findings provide evidence at a molecular level for the involvement of the hippocampus and BLA in the retrieval of spatial memory and contribute novel observations on the influence of pre-training stress in activating the DLS in response to long-term memory retrieval.

  1. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanElzakker, Michael B.; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Park, Collin R.; Halonen, Joshua D.; Spencer, Robert L.; Diamond, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24 h later. Rat brains were extracted 30 min after the 24-h memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: (1) Rats given standard training (Standard); (2) Rats given cat exposure (Predator Stress) 30 min prior to training (Pre-Training Stress); (3) Rats given water exposure only (Water Yoked); and (4) Rats given no water exposure (Home Cage). The Standard trained group exhibited excellent 24 h memory which was accompanied by increased c-fos mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The Water Yoked group exhibited no increase in c-fos mRNA in any brain region. Rats in the Pre-Training Stress group were classified into two subgroups: good and bad memory performers. Neither of the two Pre-Training Stress subgroups exhibited a significant change in c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus or BLA. Instead, stressed rats with good memory exhibited significantly greater c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) compared to stressed rats with bad memory. This finding suggests that stressed rats with good memory used their DLS to generate a non-spatial (cue-based) strategy to learn and subsequently retrieve the memory of the platform location. Collectively, these findings provide evidence at a molecular level for the involvement of the hippocampus and BLA in the retrieval of spatial memory and contribute novel observations on the influence of pre-training stress in activating the DLS in response to long-term memory retrieval. PMID:21738501

  2. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from human fetal striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoxia; Xu Jinchong; Bai Yun; Wang Xuan; Dai Xin; Liu Yinan; Zhang Jun; Zou Junhua; Shen Li; Li Lingsong

    2005-01-01

    This paper described that neural stem cells (hsNSCs) were isolated and expanded rapidly from human fetal striatum in adherent culture. The population was serum- and growth factor-dependent and expressed neural stem cell markers. They were capable of multi-differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. When plated in the dopaminergic neuron inducing medium, human striatum neural stem cells could differentiate into tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons. hsNSCs were morphologically homogeneous and possessed high proliferation ability. The population doubled every 44.28 h and until now it has divided for more than 82 generations in vitro. Normal human diploid karyotype was unchanged throughout the in vitro culture period. Together, this study has exploited a method for continuous and rapid expansion of human neural stem cells as pure population, which maintained the capacity to generate almost fifty percent neurons. The availability of such cells may hold great interest for basic and applied neuroscience

  3. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatially Compact Neural Clusters in the Dorsal Striatum Encode Locomotion Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-10-05

    An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. SELEKSI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus striatum DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT UNTUK BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya rumput laut di Indonesia semakin berkembang seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan bahan baku industri untuk pasar domestik dan eksport. Rumput laut Kappaphycus striatum, salah satu spesies rumput laut komersil, telah intensif dibudidayakan di perairan pantai. Saat ini, masalah utama yang dihadapi pembudidaya adalah rendahnya kualitas bibit yang berasal dari hasil budidaya. Seleksi varietas merupakan salah satu metode yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh seleksi varietas terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut sehingga dapat dilakukan produksi bibit unggul untuk keperluan budidaya. Budidaya rumput laut K. striatum telah dilakukan di Teluk Laikang, Kabupaten Takalar, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dengan menggunakan metode long line. Seleksi varietas dilakukan berdasarkan parameter laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH dan metode seleksi mengacu pada protokol seleksi yang telah dikembangkan pada rumput laut K. alvarezii. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPH bibit hasil seleksi lebih tinggi (P

  6. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of…

  7. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [ 11 C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2→3.9%, CA: 57.4→14.1%, ST: 17.7→0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction

  8. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2{yields}3.9%, CA: 57.4{yields}14.1%, ST: 17.7{yields}0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction.

  9. Existence and control of Go/No-Go decision transition threshold in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A typical Go/No-Go decision is suggested to be implemented in the brain via the activation of the direct or indirect pathway in the basal ganglia. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the striatum, receiving input from cortex and projecting to the direct and indirect pathways express D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors, respectively. Recently, it has become clear that the two types of MSNs markedly differ in their mutual and recurrent connectivities as well as feedforward inhibition from FSIs. Therefore, to understand striatal function in action selection, it is of key importance to identify the role of the distinct connectivities within and between the two types of MSNs on the balance of their activity. Here, we used both a reduced firing rate model and numerical simulations of a spiking network model of the striatum to analyze the dynamic balance of spiking activities in D1 and D2 MSNs. We show that the asymmetric connectivity of the two types of MSNs renders the striatum into a threshold device, indicating the state of cortical input rates and correlations by the relative activity rates of D1 and D2 MSNs. Next, we describe how this striatal threshold can be effectively modulated by the activity of fast spiking interneurons, by the dopamine level, and by the activity of the GPe via pallidostriatal backprojections. We show that multiple mechanisms exist in the basal ganglia for biasing striatal output in favour of either the `Go' or the `No-Go' pathway. This new understanding of striatal network dynamics provides novel insights into the putative role of the striatum in various behavioral deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including increased reaction times, L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, and deep brain stimulation-induced impulsivity.

  10. Existence and control of Go/No-Go decision transition threshold in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Jyotika; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-04-01

    A typical Go/No-Go decision is suggested to be implemented in the brain via the activation of the direct or indirect pathway in the basal ganglia. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum, receiving input from cortex and projecting to the direct and indirect pathways express D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors, respectively. Recently, it has become clear that the two types of MSNs markedly differ in their mutual and recurrent connectivities as well as feedforward inhibition from FSIs. Therefore, to understand striatal function in action selection, it is of key importance to identify the role of the distinct connectivities within and between the two types of MSNs on the balance of their activity. Here, we used both a reduced firing rate model and numerical simulations of a spiking network model of the striatum to analyze the dynamic balance of spiking activities in D1 and D2 MSNs. We show that the asymmetric connectivity of the two types of MSNs renders the striatum into a threshold device, indicating the state of cortical input rates and correlations by the relative activity rates of D1 and D2 MSNs. Next, we describe how this striatal threshold can be effectively modulated by the activity of fast spiking interneurons, by the dopamine level, and by the activity of the GPe via pallidostriatal backprojections. We show that multiple mechanisms exist in the basal ganglia for biasing striatal output in favour of either the `Go' or the `No-Go' pathway. This new understanding of striatal network dynamics provides novel insights into the putative role of the striatum in various behavioral deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including increased reaction times, L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, and deep brain stimulation-induced impulsivity.

  11. 5HT2A receptor blockade in dorsomedial striatum reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, D A; Rivera, E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A; Ragozzino, M E

    2017-03-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a defining feature of autism, which can be expressed as a cognitive flexibility deficit or stereotyped, motor behaviors. There is limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathophysiology contributing to these behaviors. Previous findings suggest that central 5HT 2A receptor activity is altered in autism, while recent work indicates that systemic 5HT 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic model of autism. 5HT 2A receptors are expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. These two regions have been shown to be altered in autism. The present study investigated whether 5HT 2A receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum or orbitofrontal cortex in the BTBR mouse strain, an idiopathic model of autism, affects the phenotype related to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Microinfusion of the 5HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907 into the dorsomedial striatum alleviated a reversal learning impairment and attenuated grooming behavior. M100907 infusion into the orbitofrontal cortex increased perseveration during reversal learning and potentiated grooming. These findings suggest that increased 5HT 2A receptor activity in the dorsomedial striatum may contribute to behavioral inflexibility and stereotyped behaviors in the BTBR mouse. 5HT 2A receptor signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex may be critical for inhibiting a previously learned response during reversal learning and expression of stereotyped behavior. The present results suggest which brain areas exhibit abnormalities underlying repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic mouse model of autism, as well as which brain areas systemic treatment with M100907 may principally act on in BTBR mice to attenuate repetitive behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Identification of Functional Clusters in the Striatum Using Infinite Relational Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Siebner, Hartwig

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the Infinite Relational Model can be used to infer functional groupings of the human striatum using resting state fMRI data from 30 healthy subjects. The Infinite Relational Model is a non-parametric Bayesian method for infering community structure in complex netw...... and non-links in the graphs as missing. We find that the model is performing well above chance for all subjects....

  13. Differences between Neural Activity in Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum during Learning of Novel Abstract Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to classify diverse experiences into meaningful groups, like categories, is fundamental to normal cognition. To understand its neural basis, we simultaneously recorded from multiple electrodes in the lateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, two interconnected brain structures critical for learning. Each day, monkeys learned to associate novel, abstract dot-based categories with a right vs. left saccade. Early on, when they could acquire specific stimulus-response associations, ...

  14. A common currency for the computation of motivational values in the human striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Reward comparison in the brain is thought to be achieved through the use of a ‘common currency’, implying that reward value representations are computed on a unique scale in the same brain regions regardless of the reward type. Although such a mechanism has been identified in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum in the context of decision-making, it is less clear whether it similarly applies to non-choice situations. To answer this question, we scanned 38 participants with fMRI while they were presented with single cues predicting either monetary or erotic rewards, without the need to make a decision. The ventral striatum was the main brain structure to respond to both cues while showing increasing activity with increasing expected reward intensity. Most importantly, the relative response of the striatum to monetary vs erotic cues was correlated with the relative motivational value of these rewards as inferred from reaction times. Similar correlations were observed in a fronto-parietal network known to be involved in attentional focus and motor readiness. Together, our results suggest that striatal reward value signals not only obey to a common currency mechanism in the absence of choice but may also serve as an input to adjust motivated behaviour accordingly. PMID:24837478

  15. Efferent projections of the dorsal ventricular ridge and the striatum in the Tegu lizard. Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voneida, T J; Sligar, C M

    1979-07-01

    A H3 proline-leucine mixture was injected into the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and striatum of the Tegu lizard in order to determine their efferent projections. The brains were processed according to standard radioautographic technique, and counterstained with cresyl violet. DVR projections were generally restricted to the telencephalon, while striatal projections were limited to diencephalic and mesencephalic structures. Thus the anterior DVR projects ipsilaterally to nuclei sphericus and lateralis amygdalae, striatum (ipsilateral and contralateral) ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and lateral pallium. Posterior DVR projections enter ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and interstitial amygdalar nuclei, olfactory tubercle and bulb, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and a zone surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Labeled axons from striatal injections pass caudally in the lateral forebrain bundle to enter (via dorsal peduncle) nuclei dorsomedialis, medialis posterior, entopeduncularis anterior, and a zone surrounding nucleus rotundus. Others join the ventral peduncle of LFB and enter ventromedial nucleus (thalami), while the remaining fibers continue caudally in the ventral peduncle to the mesencephalic prerubral field, central gray, substantia nigra, nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation and pretectal nucleus posterodorsalis. These results are discussed in relation to the changing notions regarding terminology, classification and functions of dorsl ventricular ridge and striatum.

  16. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  17. Dopamine dynamics and cocaine sensitivity differ between striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Armando G.; Davis, Margaret I.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease and addiction. Using Nr4a1-eGFP mice, we provide evidence that electrically evoked dopamine release differs between the striosome and matrix compartments in a regionally-distinct manner. We further demonstrate that this difference is not due to differences in inhibition of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, cocaine enhanced extracellular dopamine in striosomes to a greater degree than in the matrix and concomitantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the matrix to a greater degree than in striosomes. Importantly, these compartment differences in cocaine sensitivity were limited to the dorsal striatum. These findings demonstrate a level of exquisite microanatomical regulation of dopamine by the DAT in striosomes relative to the matrix. PMID:27036891

  18. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Carbonylated Proteins from the Striatum and Cortex of Pesticide-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ and fungicide maneb (MB are associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Oxidative stress appears to be a premier mechanism that underlies damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in PD and pesticide exposure. Enhanced oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation and production of reactive aldehydes; therefore, we conducted proteomic analyses to identify carbonylated proteins in the striatum and cortex of pesticide-treated mice in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of toxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated biweekly for 6 weeks with saline, PQ (10 mg/kg, MB (30 mg/kg, or the combination of PQ and MB (PQMB. Treatments resulted in significant behavioral alterations in all treated mice and depleted striatal dopamine in PQMB mice. Distinct differences in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins were observed in the striatum and cortex. Proteomic analyses identified carbonylated proteins and peptides from the cortex and striatum, and pathway analyses revealed significant enrichment in a variety of KEGG pathways. Further analysis showed enrichment in proteins of the actin cytoskeleton in treated samples, but not in saline controls. These data indicate that treatment-related effects on cytoskeletal proteins could alter proper synaptic function, thereby resulting in impaired neuronal function and even neurodegeneration.

  19. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, A.; O'uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  20. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, A.; O' uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N. [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance findings of the corpus callosum in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses.

  2. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  3. English Writing Teaching Model Dependent on Computer Network Corpus Drive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the mainstream lexicalized English writing methods take only the corpus dependence between words into consideration, without introducing the corpus collocation and other issues. “Drive” is a relatively essential feature of words. And once the drive structure of a word is determined, it will be relatively clear what kinds of words to collocate with, hence the structure of the sentence can be derived relatively directly. In this paper, the English writing model that relies on the computer network corpus drive model is put forward. In this model, rich English corpus is introduced in the decomposition of the rules and the calculation of the probability, which includes not only the corpus dependence information, but also the drive structure and other corpus collocation information. Improved computer network corpus drive model is used to carry out the English writing teaching experiment. The experimental results show that the precision and the recall rate are 88.76% and 87.43%, respectively. The F value of the comprehensive index is improved by 6.65% compared with the Collins headword driven English modes of writing.

  4. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivaros, Stavros M.; Radon, Mark R.; Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A.; Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth; Cowell, Patricia E.; Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D.; Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  5. The MR findings of the corpus callosum of normal young volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kouichirou; Ito, Jusuke; Tokiguchi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the corpus callosum of twenty seven normal young volunteers (age 18-31 years, 17 men and 10 women) were investigated using a superconducting high field (1.5 T) MRI unit. The length of the corpus callosum was 71.1±5.1 mm (mean±S.D.) and the height was 24.9±2.1 mm. The length ratio of the corpus callosum to the brain was 43.9±2.3% with the ratio of the height 25.0±2.3%. The callosal index (height/length) was 35.4±2.9%. The area of the corpus callosum in the midsagittal plane was 681.4±93.6 mm 2 (min. 563 mm 2 to max. 902 mm 2 ). We divided the corpus callosum into three segments: rostrum and genu; anterior and posterior trunks; splenium. Each part accounts for one third of the total area of the corpus callosum. The genu and splenium were generally equal in thickness. The minimal thickness of the trunk was 3 mm with the maximal one 9 mm. The posterior trunk was never thicker than the anterior one. The posterior part of the posterior trunk showed thinning and concavity in almost all cases. So-called impressio corporis callosi was observed in 12 cases (44.4%). Thirteen cases (48.1%) showed a shallow concave configuration at the anterior dorsal surface of the corpus callosum. Six cases of these were thought to be due to compression by the pericallosal artery. This finding was not detected in the posterior portion of the corpus callosum. This concavity was also seen in infants. The thinning of the posterior part of the posterior trunk was seen after the development of the splenium, but the concave configuration at the anterior dorsal surface of the corpus callosum may be encountered before the full development of the genu and splenium. (author)

  6. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis: comparison of [{sup 11}C]MeDAS, [{sup 11}C]CIC and [{sup 11}C]PIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Faria, Daniele de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Center of Nuclear Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Copray, Sjef [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijbesma, Jurgen W.A.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Vries, Erik F.J. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Buchpiguel, Carlos A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Center of Nuclear Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, we compared the ability of [{sup 11}C]CIC, [{sup 11}C]MeDAS and [{sup 11}C]PIB to reveal temporal changes in myelin content in focal lesions in the lysolecithin rat model of multiple sclerosis. Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed to determine the best method to quantify tracer uptake. Sprague-Dawley rats were stereotactically injected with either 1 % lysolecithin or saline into the corpus callosum and striatum of the right brain hemisphere. Dynamic PET imaging with simultaneous arterial blood sampling was performed 7 days after saline injection (control group), 7 days after lysolecithin injection (demyelination group) and 4 weeks after lysolecithin injection (remyelination group). The kinetics of [{sup 11}C]CIC, [{sup 11}C]MeDAS and [{sup 11}C]PIB was best fitted by Logan graphical analysis, suggesting that tracer binding is reversible. Compartment modelling revealed that all tracers were fitted best with the reversible two-tissue compartment model. Tracer uptake and distribution volume in lesions were in agreement with myelin status. However, the slow kinetics and homogeneous brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]CIC make this tracer less suitable for in vivo PET imaging. [{sup 11}C]PIB showed good uptake in the white matter in the cerebrum, but [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake in the cerebellum was low, despite high myelin density in this region. [{sup 11}C]MeDAS distribution correlated well with myelin density in different brain regions. This study showed that PET imaging of demyelination and remyelination processes in focal lesions is feasible. Our comparison of three myelin tracers showed that [{sup 11}C]MeDAS has more favourable properties for quantitative PET imaging of demyelinated and remyelinated lesions throughout the CNS than [{sup 11}C]CIC and [{sup 11}C]PIB. (orig.)

  7. Long-Lasting Impairment of mGluR5-Activated Intracellular Pathways in the Striatum After Withdrawal of Cocaine Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Hanne Mette; Crouzin, Nadine; Moreno, Estefanía; Raivio, Noora; Fuentes, Silvia; McCormick, Peter J.; Vignes, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cocaine addiction continues to be a major heath concern, and despite public health intervention there is a lack of efficient pharmacological treatment options. A newly identified potential target are the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, with allosteric modulators showing particular promise. Methods: We evaluated the capacity of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors to induce functional responses in ex vivo striatal slices from rats with (1) acute cocaine self-administration, (2) chronic cocaine self-administration, and (3) 60 days cocaine self-administration withdrawal by Western blot and extracellular recordings of synaptic transmission. Results: We found that striatal group I metabotropic glutamate receptors are the principal mediator of the mGluR1/5 agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine-induced cAMP responsive-element binding protein phosphorylation. Both acute and chronic cocaine self-administration blunted group I metabotropic glutamate receptor effects on cAMP responsive-element binding protein phosphorylation in the striatum, which correlated with the capacity to induce long-term depression, an effect that was maintained 60 days after chronic cocaine self-administration withdrawal. In the nucleus accumbens, the principal brain region mediating the rewarding effects of drugs, chronic cocaine self-administration blunted group I metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 and cAMP responsive-element binding protein. Interestingly, the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist/inverse-agonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride, led to a specific increase in cAMP responsive-element binding protein phosphorylation after chronic cocaine self-administration, specifically in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the striatum. Conclusions: Prolonged cocaine self-administration, through withdrawal, leads to a blunting of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor

  8. On immune responsiveness of the organism of patients with corpus uteri cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodilova, V.V.; Yatskovskaya, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Studied were some immunological indices in patients with cancer of corpus uteri. An attempt was made to elucidate a possible dependence of immunological indices on the process propagation rate and treatment methods. Updated methods used for uteri corpus cancer treatment except for progestinotherapeutics promote the decrease of organism responsiveness. Radiation therapy applied with total therapeutic dose has especially pronounced immunodepressing effect. Progestine series preparations result in the differentiation effect on tumours in some patients with cancer of corpus uteri, which clinically manifests in decreasing the tumour and even complete elimination. Simultaneously immunological indices in such patients are improved

  9. Radiographic evaluation of 70 patients with absence of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Flannery, A.; Osborn, R.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; Naidich, T.P.; Bohan, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum is one of the most common congenital malformations of the brain seen in the pediatric population. The authors used CT, MR imaging, or US to study 70 children with absence of the corpus callosum. Patients were divided into two groups; those with isolated absence of the corpus callosum, and those with other associated brain lesions. The associated brain lesions included interhemispheric arachnoid cyst, Dandy-Walker malformations, encephaloceles, and migrational disorders (heterotopias, schizencephaly, lissencaphaly, septo-optic dysplasia, lipoma, Chiari malformations, and holoprosenscephaly). The clinical presentations and radiologic findings are described

  10. Preparing an annotated gold standard corpus to share with extramural investigators for de-identification research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleger, Louise; Lingren, Todd; Ni, Yizhao; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Marsolo, Keith; Kouril, Michal; Molnar, Katalin; Solti, Imre

    2014-08-01

    The current study aims to fill the gap in available healthcare de-identification resources by creating a new sharable dataset with realistic Protected Health Information (PHI) without reducing the value of the data for de-identification research. By releasing the annotated gold standard corpus with Data Use Agreement we would like to encourage other Computational Linguists to experiment with our data and develop new machine learning models for de-identification. This paper describes: (1) the modifications required by the Institutional Review Board before sharing the de-identification gold standard corpus; (2) our efforts to keep the PHI as realistic as possible; (3) and the tests to show the effectiveness of these efforts in preserving the value of the modified data set for machine learning model development. In a previous study we built an original de-identification gold standard corpus annotated with true Protected Health Information (PHI) from 3503 randomly selected clinical notes for the 22 most frequent clinical note types of our institution. In the current study we modified the original gold standard corpus to make it suitable for external sharing by replacing HIPAA-specified PHI with newly generated realistic PHI. Finally, we evaluated the research value of this new dataset by comparing the performance of an existing published in-house de-identification system, when trained on the new de-identification gold standard corpus, with the performance of the same system, when trained on the original corpus. We assessed the potential benefits of using the new de-identification gold standard corpus to identify PHI in the i2b2 and PhysioNet datasets that were released by other groups for de-identification research. We also measured the effectiveness of the i2b2 and PhysioNet de-identification gold standard corpora in identifying PHI in our original clinical notes. Performance of the de-identification system using the new gold standard corpus as a training set was very

  11. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  12. A double dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal function on a learning and memory task mediated by the dorso-lateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Jones, Jana; Richards, Blake; Hong, Nancy S

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to further delineate the neural circuits subserving proposed memory-based behavioural subsystems in the hippocampal formation. These studies were guided by anatomical evidence showing a topographical organization of the hippocampal formation. Briefly, perpendicular to the medial/lateral entorhinal cortex division there is a second system of parallel circuits that separates the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Recent work from this laboratory has provided evidence that the hippocampus incidentally encodes a context-specific inhibitory association during acquisition of a visual discrimination task. One question that emerges from this dataset is whether the dorsal or ventral hippocampus makes a unique contribution to this newly described function. Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus were assessed on the acquisition of the visual discrimination task. Following asymptotic performance they were given reversal training in either the same or a different context from the original training. The results showed that the context-specific inhibition effect is mediated by a circuit that includes the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. Results from a control procedure showed that rats with either dorso-lateral striatum damage or dorsal hippocampal lesions were impaired on a tactile/spatial discrimination. Taken together, the results represent a double dissociation of learning and memory function between the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. The formation of an incidental inhibitory association was dependent on ventral but not dorsal hippocampal circuitry, and the