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Sample records for raspberry rubus idaeus

  1. [Acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (Rubus idaeus)].

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    Simpson, Ricardo R; Jiménez, Maite P; Carevic, Erica G; Grancelli, Romina M

    2007-06-01

    Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees C. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees C) and an electric field intensity <100 V/cm. When comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is reduced when ohmic heating technique was used. In some cases this reduction reached even 50%. This is explained by the additional effect to the thermal damage that is generated in an ohmic process, denominated electroporation.

  2. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

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    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  3. Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum.

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    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Lipińska, Lidia; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-07-13

    The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.

  4. The influence of biodegradable mulches on the yielding of autumn raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.

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    Król-Dyrek Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-year experiment was set up to assess the effect of three mulch types on the growth and yield of ‘Polka’ autumn fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.. The experimental arrangement comprised four combinations of two parallel blocks, one of which was a field crop and the second was a covered crop in the form of a high tunnel with raised beds sides. The crop was grown on raised beds (approximately 30 cm high covered with a mulch made of: 1 polypropylene non-woven (PP; 2 PP with a photodegradant; 3 polylactide nonwoven (PLA. A crop on a raised bed without any mulch was the control. Biometric, physiological and yield parameters were assessed and included the number of canes, plant height, chlorophyll content in the leaves, fruit yield, weight of 20 fruits and the extract content.

  5. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

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    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus.

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    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W

    2017-06-01

    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.

  7. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

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    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Identification of Flavonoid Constituents Directly from PTP1B Inhibitive Extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-MS.

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    Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL(-1) Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3: and 4: , Compounds 6: and 7: and Compounds 15: and 16: were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8: , 9: and 10: were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11: and 12: were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2: , 8: , 9: and 10: possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported inR. idaeus for the first time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Rapid Identification of Flavonoid Constituents Directly from PTP1B Inhibitive Extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves by HPLC–ESI–QTOF–MS-MS

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    Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL−1. Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3 and 4, Compounds 6 and 7 and Compounds 15 and 16 were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8, 9 and 10 were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11 and 12 were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2, 8, 9 and 10 possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported in R. idaeus for the first time. PMID:26896347

  10. Method to reduce low temperature stress (LTS) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)

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    In Norway and other Nordic regions, the floricanes of red raspberries often suffer 20 to 30 percent injury from exposures to extremely low temperatures. We studied from 2011 to 2014 to determine the effect of bending the floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7 red raspberries close to th...

  11. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

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    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  12. Production and elicitation of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone in cell suspension cultures of Rubus idaeus.

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    Pedapudi, S; Chin, C K; Pedersen, H

    2000-01-01

    Production levels of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (benzalacetone), and p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone (raspberry ketone) were measured in raspberry cell suspension cultures to investigate metabolite dynamics in a short (two-step) pathway. Intracellular concentrations of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone fluctuated during the time course of a normal batch culture cycle but showed higher levels during periods of rapid growth. Cells elicited with the signal coupler methyl jasmonate yielded a 2- to 3-fold increase in metabolite concentrations after 24 h. The results suggest that raspberry ketone production is rapidly inducible during periods of high carbohydrate utilization. It is not an end product, however, and undergoes conversion to subsequent metabolites.

  13. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

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    Knight Victoria H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  14. Nonsense mutation inside anthocyanidin synthase gene controls pigmentation in yellow raspberry (Rubus idaeus L..

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    Muhammad Zubair Rafique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry (Anne. A 5-bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect i.e. nonsense-mRNA mediated decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  15. Nonsense Mutation Inside Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene Controls Pigmentation in Yellow Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Rafique, Muhammad Z; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase (Ans) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry ("Anne"). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  16. Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F

    2010-10-15

    Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters

  17. Bioactivity of Meeker and Willamette raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) pomace extracts.

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    Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Cetković, Gordana S; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna T; Vulić, Jelena J; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna M; Djilas, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, Meeker and Willamette, were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. Willamette pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did Meeker pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). The most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line, reaching EC50 values of 34.8 and 60.3 μg/ml for Willamette and Meeker extracts, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated favourable non-tumor/tumor cell growth ratios and potently increased the apoptosis/necrosis ratio in breast adenocarcinoma and cervix carcinoma cells. In reference and wild bacterial strains, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were achieved in a concentration range from 0.29 to 0.59 mg/ml, and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in a range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/ml. The results indicate significant antioxidant, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antibacterial activities of raspberry pomace and favour its use as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits.

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    Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.

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    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti

    2014-10-01

    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

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    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  1. EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn. [Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn. And its application in food sistem

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    Tensiska1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %. The main research was divided into three stages, which were: (1 to determine the appropriate solvent of extraction (aquadest, ethanol and etil acetate; (2 the best extract was determined its color stability in pH of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and (3 to examine the pigment solubility into some food system (aqua96%dest, 25% of acetic acid, 96% of ethanol and coconut oil. The best extract also was examined its solubility in carbonated drink (pH of 3.69, pasteurized milk (pH of 6.49 and yogurt (pH of 2.6. the results showed that the extraction using aquadest with 0.75% of tartaric acid resulted in the highest total anthocyanin and showed the best color intensity. This extract was stable at pH of 2-5 and its solubility was best in aquaeous system with low pHs, thus it can be applied for aqueous product with low pHs.

  2. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  3. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

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    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (gm ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (Tleaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of gm temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of gm with increasing Tleaf irrespective of leaf chamber O2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (gs ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of gm . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of gm and gs were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of gm under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of gm can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C

    2016-09-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A case study on toxicological aspects of the pest and disease control in the production of the high-quality raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Grodzicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The field studies on the residue levels of the fungicides and insecticides used in commercial raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantation have been performed. Starting on the first day of harvesting (on June 19), 20 laboratory samples of fruit, 10 laboratory samples of leaves and 4 samples of soil were analyzed and the residue levels were compared to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI). All analyses were carried out using extraction method and gas chromatography technique. Esfenwalerate (Sumi-alpha 050 EC) and beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 EC), the insecticides belonging to the group of synthetic pyrethroids, were not found in harvested ripe fruits, while cypermethrin residues (Cyperkill 25 EC) applied on May 24, 25 days later was still found on low levels in fruits (0.026 mg kg(-1)) and in leaves (2.58 mg kg(-1)). In turn, residues of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 EC), applied to the soil on May 15 against the cockchafers Melolontha melolontha and Otiorhynchus sp., were found at the level 0.004 mg kg(-1). The content of pesticides in ripe fruits depended mainly on the dose and on the time that has elapsed from the date of their application and were as follows: boscalid -0.950, pyrimethanil -0.917, pyraclostrobin -0.253 cypermethrin -0.026 and chlorpyrifos -0.004 mg kg(-1) while in leaves: boscalid -30.64, pyrimethanil -8.13, pyraclostrobin -15.82, cypermethrin -2.58 and chlorpyrifos -0.15 mg kg(-1). The highest average daily intake was in the case of boscalid, and in fruits and leaves reached the levels 0.205 and 6.63, in total 0.33% and 12.18% of ADI, respectively.

  6. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  7. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.)

    OpenAIRE

    Enoc Jara-Peña; Ángel Villegas; Prometeo Sánchez; Antonio Trinidad; Alfonso Muratalla; Ángel Martínez

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not) in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2) plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspber...

  8. Diuretic Activity of Rubus idaeus L (Rosaceae) in Rats | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diuretic activity of Rubus idaeus L in experimental rats. Methods: Hot-water and methanol extract of three kinds of Rubus idaeus L. fruits were administered to experimental rats orally at a dose of 2 and 5 mg/kg. Hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg) was used as positive control in study. The diuretic effect ...

  9. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  10. An oil-soluble extract of Rubus idaeus cells enhances hydration and water homeostasis in skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, A; Bimonte, M; Carola, A; De Lucia, A; Barbulova, A; Tortora, A; Colucci, G; Apone, F

    2015-12-01

    Raspberry plants, belonging to the species of Rubus idaeus, are known for their excellent therapeutic properties as they are particularly rich in compounds with strong antioxidant activity, which promote health and well-being of human cells. Besides their high content of phenolic compounds, Rubus plants are rich in oil-soluble compounds, which are also primary components of the hydrolipidic film barrier of the skin. As plant cell cultures represented a valuable system to produce interesting compounds and ingredients for cosmetic applications, we developed liquid suspension cultures from Rubus idaeus leaves and used them to obtain an active ingredient aimed at improving hydration and moisturization capacity in the skin. Rubus idaeus cells, grown in the laboratory under sterile and controlled conditions as liquid suspension cultures, were processed to obtain an oil-soluble (liposoluble) extract, containing phenolic compounds and a wide range of fatty acids. The extract was tested on cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts and then on the skin in vivo, to assess its cosmetic activities. When tested on skin cell cultures, the extract induced the genes responsible for skin hydration, such as aquaporin 3, filaggrin, involucrin and hyaluronic acid synthase, and stimulated the expression and the activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, involved in ceramide production. Moreover, the liposoluble extract increased the synthesis of the extracellular matrix components in cultured fibroblasts and showed a remarkable skin-hydrating capacity when tested on human skin in vivo. Thanks to these activities, the Rubus idaeus liposoluble extract has several potential applications in skin care cosmetics: it can be used as hydrating and moisturizing ingredient in face and body lotions, and as anti-ageing product in face creams specifically designed to fight wrinkle formation. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Judson A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation

  12. Decay resistance to Botrytis cinerea and quality characteristics during storage of raspberry genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberries are a delicate, high value crop with an extremely short shelf life exacerbated by postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is the most widely grown. Yellow (R. idaeus L.), black (R. occidentalis L.) and purple raspberries (R. ×neglectus ...

  13. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Lewers, Kim S; Staton, Margaret E; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Saski, Christopher A

    2015-10-26

    Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a source of SSRs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders. Leaf and meristem tissue from 'Heritage' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 'Bristol' black raspberry (R. occidentalis) were utilized for RNA extraction. After conversion to cDNA and library construction, ESTs were sequenced, quality verified, assembled and scanned for SSRs.  Primers flanking the SSRs were designed and a subset tested for amplification, polymorphism and transferability across species. ESTs containing SSRs were functionally annotated using the GenBank non-redundant (nr) database and further classified using the gene ontology database. To accelerate development of EST-SSRs in the genus Rubus (Rosaceae), 1149 and 2358 cDNA sequences were generated from red raspberry and black raspberry, respectively. The cDNA sequences were screened using rigorous filtering criteria which resulted in the identification of 121 and 257 SSR loci for red and black raspberry, respectively. Primers were designed from the surrounding sequences resulting in 131 and 288 primer pairs, respectively, as some sequences contained more than one SSR locus. Sequence analysis revealed that the SSR-containing genes span a diversity of functions and share more sequence identity with strawberry genes than with other Rosaceous species. This resource of Rubus-specific, gene-derived markers will facilitate the construction of linkage maps composed of transferable markers for studying and manipulating important traits in this economically important genus.

  14. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of

  15. The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of application timing of oxamyl in nonbearing raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate (active ingredient oxamyl) to non-bearing raspberry for the suppression of the root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). This is a new use pattern of this nematicide f...

  17. ‘Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  18. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  19. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  20. ‘Kokanee’ primocane-fruiting red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Kokanee' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station. 'Kokanee' is a high-yielding cultivar tha...

  1. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  2. Optimizing shoot culture media for Rubus germplasm: the effects of NH4+, NO3-, and total nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen components of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were significant factors for improved growth in our earlier study that modeled the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry(Rubus idaeus L.). In this study, a mixture component design was applie...

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) juice on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi; Bae, Seon Young; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Chung, Mi Sook

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis, causing approximately 90% of non-bacterial epidemic outbreaks around the world. Rubus coreanus is a species of black raspberry, rich in polyphenols, and known to exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. In the present study, the antiviral effects of R. coreanus juice (black raspberry [BRB] juice) on foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), were compared with those of cranberry juice, grape juice, and orange juice by plaque assays. Among the four juices tested, BRB juice was the most effective in reducing plaques formation of these viruses. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of action of BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9. The maximal antiviral effect of BRB juice against MNV-1 was observed when it was added to RAW 264.7 cells (mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line) simultaneously with the virus. Pre-treatment of either Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells or FCV-F9 with BRB juice exhibited significant antiviral activity. The inhibition of viral infection by BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9 probably occurs at the internalization of virions into the cell or the attachment of the viral surface protein to the cellular receptor. The polyphenol components in BRB (i.e., gallic acid and quercetin), however, did not show any activity against these viruses. Our data provide great promise for the utilization of BRB in the prevention of foodborne viral outbreaks.

  5. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  6. Volatile compounds of raspberry fruit: from analytical methods to biological role and sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2015-01-30

    Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.

  7. Analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry bud preparations of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Carlen, Christoph; Ançay, André; Cerutti, Alessandro K; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2016-07-01

    The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the raspberry bud extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. Rubus idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars. In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. This study developed a useful tool for R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Regulation of Primocane Apex Rooting in Raspberry (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Ming, Yuetong; Cheng, Yunqing; Zhang, Yuchu; Xing, Jiyang; Sun, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Raspberries (Rubus spp.) exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1) vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1), SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward) gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm-plant (ko04712) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus. These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop.

  10. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag(4) conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V

    2015-08-01

    We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) seed oil and its major constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lin, Qiyang; Li, Kang; Yuan, Benyao; Song, Hongbo; Peng, Hongquan; Yi, Lunzhao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Battino, Maurizio; Cespedes Acuña, Carlos L; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry seed is a massive byproduct of raspberry juice and wine but usually discarded. The present study employed a microwave-assisted method for extraction of raspberry seed oil (RSO). The results revealed that omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid) were the major constituents in RSO. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in HepG2 cells treated with RSO. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in H2O2-exposed HepG2 cells was found. RSO increased the enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx in H2O2-exposed HepG2. Furthermore, RSO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the possible mechanisms to increase antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 may through the suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Raspberry seed oil exhibited good effects on the activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the inhibition of MAPKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Characterization of raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase, catalyzing the alpha, beta-hydrogenation of phenylbutenones in raspberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Watanabe, Bunta; Suzuki, Shiro; Hiratake, Jun; Mano, Jun'ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2011-08-19

    Phenylbutanone raspberry ketone, accumulating in the mature fruits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), imparts the characteristic aroma to the fruits. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase 1 (RZS1), which catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzalacetone to raspberry ketone and zingerone (the latter not found in raspberry), respectively. Its apparent K(m) values for 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and NADPH were 88 μM and 202 μM, respectively. RZS1 preferred 4-hydroxybenzalacetone to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzalacetone as a substrate by a factor of 1.7, and showed a 6-fold preference for 4-hydroxybenzalacetone over p-coumaraldehyde, and no activity for coniferaldehyde. Expression analysis of the RZS1 gene throughout the plant revealed that its transcript level was highest in mature fruits. We conclude that RZS1 is responsible for hydrogenation of the α,β-unsaturated double bond of phenylbutenones, the final step of the raspberry ketone biosynthesis, in the raspberry fruits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R

    2014-09-01

    Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.

  15. Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L

    2013-12-11

    Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.

  16. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  17. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phenolics isolated from fruits of Himalayan yellow raspberry (Rubus ellipticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena

    2014-11-01

    Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.

  18. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

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    Ji-Hye Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1. One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  19. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  20. Gene expression analysis of enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway involved in β-cryptoxanthin accumulation in wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2017-03-18

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  2. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  3. Effect of Application Timing of Oxamyl in Nonbearing Raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A.; Walters, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans. This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans. Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington. PMID:27765991

  4. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em regiões subtropicais no Brasil Phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars in subtropical regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fenologia e a produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em condições subtropicais, no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado nos municípios de Lavras, MG, e Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. Foram avaliadas sete cultivares, com as espécies Rubus idaeus (vermelhas, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss' e 'Batum'; e amarelas, 'Golden Bliss', em Lavras, e 'Fall Gold', em Marechal Cândido Rondon e R. niveus (framboesa-negra, além de um híbrido (Boysenberry entre R. idaeus e amora-preta (R. ursinus. Foram coletados dados fenológicos (florescimento e período de colheita e produtivos de dois ciclos de produção, e analisadas características físico-químicas dos frutos (dimensão, acidez titulável e conteúdo de sólidos solúveis. As cultivares de R. idaeus e o híbrido interespecífico não se adaptaram às condições climáticas do oeste paranaense, com baixa produção de frutos. No entanto, a framboesa-negra é uma excelente opção de cultivo na região, com alta produtividade (acima de 25 Mg ha-1 e qualidade de frutos (ratio de 9,3. No Sul de Minas, as framboeseiras apresentam boa adaptação, principalmente a framboesa-negra (18,2 Mg ha-1, a framboesa amarela (5 Mg ha-1 e a framboesa vermelha 'Batum' (4,4 Mg ha-1.The objective of this work was to evaluate the phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars under subtropical conditions in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Lavras, in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, and of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the west of the state of Paraná. Seven raspberry cultivars were evaluated, from the species Rubus idaeus (red raspberries, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss', and 'Batum'; and yellow raspberries, 'Golden Bliss' in Lavras, and 'Fall Gold' in Marechal Cândido Rondon and R. niveus (black raspberry, besides a hybrid (Boysenberry between R. idaeus and blackberry (R. ursinus. Phenological traits (flowering and harvest time

  5. Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Viškelis, Pranas; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of some phytochemicals in 19 raspberry cultivars grown in Lithuania. The content of total ellagic acid measured after 20h acidic hydrolysis of investigated raspberry cultivars, varied from 119.8 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 323.5mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The content of total phenolics ranged from 278.6 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 714.7mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The total anthocyanins content varied from 2.1 (yellow cv. 'Beglianka') to 325.5mg/100g (black cv. 'Bristol'). The radical scavenging capacity of the tested raspberry cultivars highly correlating with their total phenolics and total ellagic acid content (r=0.90 and 0.92, respectively). The results of this study expand the knowledge about variation in the content of valuable bioactive compounds in raspberries and may help for the selection and validation of the most productive cultivars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluations of sustained vigor and winter hardiness of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) grown in the Southeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for fresh berry products continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial raspberry production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate and fluctuating winter temperatures, where heat degrades plant vigor and fruit quality, and chilling r...

  7. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chie; Satoh, Yurie; Hara, Mariko; Inoue, Shintaro; Tsujita, Takahiro; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2005-05-27

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to clarify whether RK helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. To test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of RK for 10 weeks; 2) mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and subsequently fed the same high-fat diet containing 1% RK for the next 5 weeks. RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes.

  8. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel.

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    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2 gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  9. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  10. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease—all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. PMID:26773014

  11. Seasonal monitoring for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in California commercial raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, K A; Bolda, M P; Sheehan, M E; Zalom, F G

    2014-08-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) prefer to oviposit on ripe fruit and have become an important pest of California raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) since their detection in Santa Cruz County, CA, in 2008. Preliminary management guidelines included D. suzukii monitoring recommendations, though there was little available information on seasonal occurrence and potential lures for use in raspberries. To address this issue, we trapped adult D. suzukii weekly for 2 yr (including both spring and fall harvests) in multiple raspberry varieties using apple cider vinegar and a yeast-sugar-water mixture as liquid lures, and measured fruit infestation when commercially ripe fruit were available. D. suzukii pressure as measured by larval infestation and adult trap captures was higher during the fall raspberry harvest season. The yeast lure captured significantly more D. suzukii during the fall harvest than the apple cider vinegar, and while both lures tended to capture more females than males, this varied by month of the year and was more pronounced for the yeast lure. Trap captures from each lure correlated well to one another, and often exhibited significant correlation to larval infestation. However, during all seasons and under both conventional and organic management, worrisome outliers were present (high larval infestation with low trap captures) that call into question the reliability of using the systems presented here as a basis for management decisions at this time.

  12. Impacts of the use of nonnative commercial bumble bees for pollinator supplementation in raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, G C; Jennings, S N; Osborne, J L; Goulson, D

    2011-02-01

    Evidence for pollinator declines has led to concern that inadequate pollination services may limit crop yields. The global trade in commercial bumble bee (Bombus spp.) colonies provides pollination services for both glasshouse and open-field crops. For example, in the United Kingdom, commercial colonies of nonnative subspecies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. imported from mainland Europe are widely used for the pollination of raspberries, Rubus idaeus L. The extent to which these commercial colonies supplement the services provided by wild pollinators has not been formally quantified and the impact of commercial bumble bees on native bees visiting the crop is unknown. Here, the impacts of allowing commercially available bumble bee colonies to forage on raspberry canes are assessed in terms of the yield of marketable fruit produced and the pollinator communities found foraging on raspberry flowers. No differences were found in the abundance, diversity, or composition of social bee species observed visiting raspberry flowers when commercial bumble bees were deployed compared with when they were absent. However, weight of marketable raspberries produced increased when commercial bees were present, indicating that wild pollinator services alone are inadequate for attaining maximum yields. The findings of the study suggests that proportional yield increases associated with deployment of commercial colonies may be small, but that nevertheless, investment in commercial colonies for raspberry pollination could produce very significant increases in net profit for the grower. Given potential environmental risks associated with the importation of nonnative bumble bees, the development of alternative solutions to the pollination deficit in raspberry crops in the United Kingdom may be beneficial.

  13. Characteristics of blackberry and raspberry seeds and oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the determination of technological quality characteristics of dried pomaces, i.e. blackberry and raspberry seeds, along with the quality parameters, content of total carotenoids and chlorophyl and transparency of crude extracted oil (using organic solvent. Blackberry seeds (Rubus fruticosus L. were obtained from a domestic variety Čačanska bestrna, while the raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus L. were of the variety Willamette. Oil content of the blackberry pomace was 13.97 and 14.34%, while the oil content of the raspberry pomace was 13.44 and 14.33% on dry basis (d.b.. In regard to technological characteristics of the pomaces, i.e. volumetric and specific weight, no considerably difference was found. However, a weight test for 1000 seeds showed a significant difference in weight: 3.5 g (d.b. for the blackberry pomace and 1.5 g for the raspberry pomace (d.b.. Proximate analysis of blackberry seed oil showed that this oil had better quality since the FFA value was 3.43% (sample B1 and 3.53% (sample B2, while the peroxide value was 8.89 and 11.16 mmol/kg, respectively. Raspberry seed oil had higher FFA (8.59 and 8.83% for sample R1 and R2 and peroxide values (13.99 and 13.84 for sample R1 and R2 than the blackberry seed oil. Crude extracted blackberry seed oil had a brown-greenish color due to the high total chlorophyll content (around 3000 mg/kg dissolved in cyclohexane. Raspberry seed oil had a dark yellowishorange color, due to lower chlorophyll content (around 200 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil, while the content of total carotenoids was slightly higher in this oil (around 40 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil (33 mg/kg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  14. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  15. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  16. Changes of hydrogen peroxide and radical-scavenging activity of raspberry during osmotic, convective, and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Miroslav M; Stevanović, Snežana M; Gorjanović, Stanislava Ž; Jovanovic, Predrag M; Tešević, Vele V; Janković, Miodrag A; Sužnjević, Desanka Ž

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of different drying treatments on antioxidant (AO) activity and phenolic content of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cultivar Willamette. Whole raspberry fruits were dried convectively (air-drying), osmotically, and freeze-dried. Acetone-water extracts of fresh and dried raspberries were assessed for total phenolic content by standard Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two AO assays were applied, a recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic assay based on decrease of anodic oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide and widely used radical scavenge against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Strong correlation has been obtained between both AO assays and total phenolic content. In addition, some individual phenolic compounds present in raspberry have been assessed using DPPH and DC polarographic assay. Comparison and evaluation of drying methods has been based on preservation of AO activity and total phenolic content. Obtained results confirmed superiority of freeze-drying; convective drying caused slight changes while osmotic dehydration showed a significant decrease of phenolic compounds and AO activity. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphenolic-Enriched Red Raspberry Extract in an Antigen Induced Arthritis Rat Model†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles, Dinorah; Li, Liya; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Chichester, Clinton O.; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    The red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit contains bioactive polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins with reported anti-inflammatory properties. Here we sought to investigate the cartilage protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents) using: 1) an in vitro bovine nasal explant cell culture model and, 2) an in vivo adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. RRE contained 20% total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalents), 5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) and 9.25% ellagitannins (as ellagic acid equivalents). In the in vitro studies, bovine nasal explants were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β to induce the release of proteoglycan and type II collagen. On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/Kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals. Also, histological analyses revealed significant inhibition of inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage damage, and bone resorption by RRE. This study suggests that red raspberry polyphenols may afford cartilage protection and/or modulate the onset and severity of arthritis. PMID:22111586

  19. Novel Microsatellite Markers Acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and Cross-Amplification in Other Rubus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-An Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3% type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%. The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry. These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  20. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  1. Molecular evaluation of aphid-resistant black raspberry germplasm for improved durability in black and red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last century, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) industry in the U.S. has undergone a slow contraction because of a lack of adapted and disease resistant cultivars. The Pacific Northwest is the major black raspberry production region in North America, with the value of $9.6 million pr...

  2. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species.

  3. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo

    2004-03-15

    The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species.

  4. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species. PMID:15113427

  5. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. STUDY OF RASPBERRY EXTRACT APPLICATIONS AS TEXTILE COLORANT ON NATURAL FIBERS

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    COMAN Diana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  7. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Diuretic Activity of Rubus idaeus L (Rosaceae) in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    291). Diuretic test. Diuretic activity was determined, following the methods of Kawashima [15], but with a minor modification. The rats (48) were fasted for 18 h with free access to drinking water, and then orally administered 30 ml/kg of bicarbonate.

  9. Raspberry Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Raspberry ketone might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking raspberry ketone along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to get ...

  10. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  11. Mistaken identity: Clarification of Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter was written to target the research communities currently studying (misidentified) native bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel). Most Korean growers and researchers are cultivating or conducting work on R. occidentalis L. (American black raspberries), not R. coreanus. We summarized fruit, pla...

  12. Enzymatic Profile of 'Willamette' Raspberry Leaf and Fruit Affected by Prohexadione-Ca and Young Canes Removal Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragišić Maksimović, Jelena J; Poledica, Milena M; Radivojević, Dragan D; Milivojević, Jasminka M

    2017-06-21

    The influence of growth regulator prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) concurrently with young canes removal on the modification of photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; polyphenol oxidase, PPO; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities in leaves and fruits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar 'Willamette' was studied. ProCa increased while canes removal decreased chlorophylls and carotenoids content compared to control. POD, CAT, and PPO activities in leaves after removal of young canes were higher compared to control (2-4 times) which was visually confirmed for POD by isoelectrofocusing. Removal of young canes slithly increased, while ProCa significantly enhanced SOD activity in leaves compared to control (475.10 and 218.38 nkat mg-1 prot, respectively). Pattern of SOD activity in fruit was similar as in leaf with substantial increase compared to control (about 15 times). Combination of implemented measures increased activity of all enzymes in the leaves and fruits. Our study could provide a better knowledge of the ProCa and canes removal influences on the action of enzymes in order to regulate their activities in fruit products.

  13. Occurrence of nepoviruses in Rubus species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, J; Kubelková, D; Honetslegrová-Fránová, J

    1997-06-01

    The occurrence of arabis mosaic virus (AMV), raspberry ringspot virus (RRV), tomato black ring virus (TBRV), strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV) and cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) in cultivated and wild plants of raspberry and blackberry has been studied in the Czech Republic in 1993-1996. Five hundred and seventy samples were collected at 51 localities and assayed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results represent the first evidence on the occurrence of AMV, RRV, TBRV and SLRV in cultivated Rubus species in the Czech Republic. Isolates AMV M20 and TBRV ML15 which were successfully transmitted by mechanical inoculation and characterized by reactions of differential host plants and by electron microscopy are the first isolates from Rubus from this territory. CLRV was not detected in either cultivated or wild Rubus species.

  14. Novel member of the Luteoviridae associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) was first reported in the 1920s, is limited to the genus Rubus and is transmitted in a persistent manner by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. It is only reported from North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and i...

  15. Inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kowalska

    Full Text Available Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract at a concentration of 100 μg/mL suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the down-regulation of PPARγ (67%, C/EBPα (72%, SREBP1 (62%, aP2 (24%, FAS (32%, LPL (40%, HSL (39%, and PLIN1 (32% gene expression. Moreover, the extract significantly increased the expression of adiponectin (4.4-fold and decreased leptin expression (90% and respectively regulated the production of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds that support long-term weight maintenance and promote the effective management of obesity.

  16. Inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Szwajgier, Dominik; Olkowicz, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract at a concentration of 100 μg/mL suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the down-regulation of PPARγ (67%), C/EBPα (72%), SREBP1 (62%), aP2 (24%), FAS (32%), LPL (40%), HSL (39%), and PLIN1 (32%) gene expression. Moreover, the extract significantly increased the expression of adiponectin (4.4-fold) and decreased leptin expression (90%) and respectively regulated the production of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds that support long-term weight maintenance and promote the effective management of obesity.

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    34Evaluation of In Vivo Versus In Vitro Test Methods for the Determination of Electromagnetic Compatibility of Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers at 450...Ledum palustre blueberry Vaccinium spp. bog blueberry Vaccinium caespitosum cranberry Oxycoccus microcarpus raspberry Rubus idaeus spirea Spiraea

  18. Ferrugem em framboesa no estado de Santa Catarina Red raspberry rust in Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas e frutos de framboesa (Rubus idaeus L. da cultivar Batum coletados de plantas do pomar do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, CAV, município de Lages-SC, apresentando pústulas de ferrugem, foram encaminhados para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do CAV. A diagnose indireta indicou a presença de pústulas com uma massa de esporos de cor amarela na face abaxial das folhas e superfície dos frutos. No exame ao microscópio, observou-se urédia e urediniósporos pequenos, obovados ou elipsoides, medindo 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm sobre a epiderme da folha e frutos, sem a presença de télias. Suspensão de urediniósporos (50.000 esporos mL-1 em água esterilizada foi pulverizada em folhas destacadas da mesma cultivar, mantidas por 24 h no escuro e 12 h de fotoperíodo em câmara úmida a 20ºC. Folhas-controle foram pulverizadas com água esterilizada. Após 10 dias detectaram-se urédias contendo urediniósporos na face abaxial das folhas, cujas características morfológicas e mensuração dos urediniósporos, sintomas e patogenicidade permitiram a identificação do agente causal como sendo Pucciniastrum americanum (Farl. Arthur pela primeira vez no Estado de Santa Catarina.Leaves and fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. of the cultivar Batum collected from the Agriculture and Life Science College - CAV orchard in Lages, SC, presenting rust pustules were analyzed in the CAV Plant Pathology Laboratory. Indirect diagnosis indicated in the abaxial side of the infected leaves and fruits surface pustules filled with masses of yellow spores. Under microscope exam, uredia and small, obovate or elliptical and averaged 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm urediniospores become evident in leaves and fruit surface. Telia were not observed. Urediniopores (50.000 esporos mL-1 were suspended in sterile water and sprayed onto same cultivar leaves that were maintained in a darkened mist chamber at 20ºC for 24 h and transferred to a 20ºC and 12 h

  19. Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji; Narimatsu, Noriko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi

    2008-08-01

    Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity.

  20. Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated Rubus species in Colombia using AFLP and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bibiana Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean blackberry belongs to the genus Rubus, the largest of the Rosaceae family and one of the mostdiverse of the plant kingdom. In Colombia Rubus glaucus Benth, known as the Andean raspberry or blackberry, is one of thenine edible of the genus out of forty-four reported species. In this study wild and cultivated genotypes, collected in the CentralAndes of Colombia were analyzed by AFLP and SSR markers. Sexual reproduction seems to play an important role inmaintaining the genetic variability in R. glaucus, and the viability of using the SSR of Rubus alceifolius to characterizeColombian Rubus species was clearly demonstrated. All species evaluated produced very specific banding patterns,differentiating them from the others. Both AFLP and SSR produced bands exclusive to each of the following species: R.robustus, R. urticifolius, R. glaucus, and R. rosifolius. The SSR markers differentiated diploid and tetraploid genotypes of R.glaucus.

  1. Black raspberry genomic and genetic resource development to enable cultivar improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project incorporates use of phenotypic, genotypic and genomic data to advance and streamline identification of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has...

  2. North American crop wild relatives of temperate berries (Fragaria L., Ribes L., Rubus L., and Vaccinium L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crop wild relatives of temperate berry species abound on the North American continent; >170 species are endemic in North America. The development and production of berry crops, such as strawberries (Fragaria L.), currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.), raspberries and blackberries (Rubus L.), blue...

  3. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  4. Risk Preferences Estimation for Small Raspberry Producers in the Bío-Bío Region, Chile Estimación de Preferencias por Riesgo para Pequeños Productores de Frambuesa de la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Toledo T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are strongly influenced by risk and risk preferences of decision makers; however, in Chile there are few studies in the agricultural sector focused on this topic. The present paper analyzes the risk preferences of small producers of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and the production function associated with their production system in the Bio-Bio Region of Chile. Under a mean-variance approach, the estimation procedure uses a flexible utility function to incorporate a variety of risk preference alternatives. Three different estimation procedures were used: Least Squares Estimation, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Full Information Maximum Likelihood, which revealed the same conclusions. Results showed that small farmers are risk averse (γ = 0.104 and present increasing relative and absolute aversion to risk (θ = 0.099 Las decisiones son fuertemente influenciadas por el riesgo y las preferencias por riesgo de los agentes que las toman, sin embargo, en Chile existen pocos estudios en el sector agrícola que se enfoquen en este tema. El presente estudio analiza las preferencias por riesgo de pequeños productores de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L., y la función de producción asociada a este sistema productivo, en la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile. Utilizando un modelo de media-varianza, se estima una función de utilidad flexible de manera de incorporar diferentes alternativas de preferencias por riesgo. Para la estimación se utilizaron tres procedimientos: Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios, Sistemas de Ecuaciones Aparentemente no Relacionadas y Máxima Verosimilitud con Información Completa, arrojando similares resultados. Los resultados revelan que los productores son aversos al riesgo (γ = 0,104 y tienen aversión absoluta y relativa creciente (θ = 0,099 < 1 y θ < γ, respectivamente. Se rechazan las hipótesis de neutralidad (γ = 0 y aversión absoluta constante al riesgo (θ = 1, con un 94% y un 99% de confianza, respectivamente. La

  5. Raspberry Pi gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Shea

    2015-01-01

    If you are someone who loves to play games and are interested in learning more about the capabilities of your Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Raspberry Pi programming is expected.

  6. The anthocyanin composition of different Vaccinium, Ribes and Rubus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Currie, Alastair; Stephens, Jo; McGhie, Tony; Alspach, Peter; Horticulture And Food Research Institute Of New Zealand Limited Hortresearch

    2008-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which give berryfruit their characteristic colour, have attracted the interest of researchers because of their putative health benefits. Over the past eight years, HortResearch has been analysing the anthocyanin content of numerous samples of different species of Vaccinium, Rubus and also Ribes nigrum. These samples were taken from different genotypes held in germplasm collections, cultivar and advanced selection trials, genetic studies and seedling populations. Averaged over all samples, Ribes had higher total anthocyanin contents (total ACY) than Vaccinium which was, in turn, higher than Rubus. However, all genera provided rich sources of anthocyanins and individual crop types within genera varied considerably. Five percent (i.e., 223) of our samples had total ACY of more than 5000 microg/g: most of these were blackcurrants, but some were black raspberries and three were ornamental blueberries. Vaccinium species generally contained the most diverse range of individual anthocyanins. In contrast, Ribes nigrum samples were dominated by cyanidin and delphinidin rutinosides which, on average, comprised almost 80% of the total ACY. For Rubus species almost all anthocyanins were cyanidins, although which ones were more prevalent varied with the species. The high degree of variation in total ACY and individual anthocyanin contents reported herein, coupled with the moderate to high heritabilities reported in the literature, indicate that good progress could be made in breeding cultivars with still higher total ACY levels.

  7. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  8. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  9. Meet the Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2012-01-01

    The essential preview guide to getting started with Raspberry Pi ʼ computing and programming Originally conceived of as a fun, easy way for kids (and curious adults) to learn computer programming, the Raspberry Pi quickly evolved into a remarkably robust, credit-card-size computer that can be used for everything from playing HD videos and hacking around with hardware to learning to program! Co-authored by one of the creators of the Raspberry Pi, this special preview eBook fills you in on everything you need to know to get up and running on your Raspberry Pi in no time, including how to:

  10. Raspberry Pi reaaliaikaiseen kuvantunnistukseen

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Verneri

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyöraportissa käsitellään kuinka Raspberry Pi:tä saadaan hyödynnettyä kuvantunnistussovelluksissa. Työn tavoitteena oli tutustua itse Raspberry Pi -tietokoneeseen, kuvantunnistukseen ja ohjelmointiin Linux-ympäristössä. Työn lopullinen tavoite oli saada aikaiseksi jokin reaaliaikainen kuvantunnistussovellus Raspberry Pi:llä. Työ aloitettiin tutustumalla Raspberry Pi:n ja sen Raspbian-käyttöjärjestelmän käyttöön sekä erilaisiin reaaliaikaisiin kuvantunnistussovelluksiin mitä...

  11. Raspberry Pi -pohjainen verkkokelloradio

    OpenAIRE

    Virtaniemi, Aleksanteri

    2017-01-01

    Raspberry Pi on Linux-pohjainen sulautettu järjestelmä, jolle on ominaista pieni koko ja monipuoliset liitännät. Tässä työssä käytettiin Raspberry Pistä Mallia Raspberry Pi 1 Model B, johon liitettiin lisälaitteena 3,5 tuuman kosketusnäyttö. Ohjelmistokehitys tapahtui käyttämällä Pythonia, jota laajennettiin erikseen ladattavilla kolmannen osapuolen kirjastoilla. Työssä tutkittiin Raspberry Pin ohjelmistokehitystä toteuttamalla verkkopohjainen kelloradio. Ohjelmistolle asetettiin tavoitte...

  12. Environ: E00826 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [CPD:C10788], Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] [DR:D00018] Rubus idaeus [TAX:32247] Rosaceae Raspberry leaf leaves Med...icinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) E00826 Raspberry leaf ...

  13. Mistaken Identity: Clarification of Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been on Rubus occidentalis L., not R. coreanus Miquel. The importance of accurate recognition of all starting material is multiplied for research downstream, including genetics/genomics, plant breeding, phenolic identification, food processing improvements and pharmacokinetic investigations. An overview of distinguishing characteristics separating R. coreanus from R. occidentalis will be presented. Research conducted on correctly identified fruit will also be summarized to aid future studies that might showcase the unique qualities that bokbunja can offer.

  14. Raspberry Pi for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Embrace the exciting new technology of Raspberry Pi! With the invention of the unique credit-card sized single-board computer, the Raspberry Pi, comes a new wave of hardware geeks, hackers, and hobbyists who are excited about the possibilities of the Raspberry Pi, and this is the perfect guide to get you started in this exhilarating new arena. With this fun and friendly book, you'll quickly discover why the supply for the Pi cannot keep up with the demand! Veteran tech authors Sean McManus and Mike Cook show you how to download and install the operating system, use the installe

  15. Raspberry Pi projects

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn to build software and hardware projects featuring the Raspberry Pi! Raspberry Pi represents a new generation of computers that encourages the user to play and to learn and this unique book is aimed at the beginner Raspberry Pi user who is eager to get started creating real-world projects. Taking you on a journey of creating 15 practical projects, this fun and informative resource introduces you to the skills you need to have in order to make the most of the Pi. The book begins with a quick look at how to get the Pi up and running and then encourages you to dive into the array of exciti

  16. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  17. Raspberry Pi hardware projects 1

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn how to take full advantage of all of Raspberry Pi's amazing features and functions-and have a blast doing it! Congratulations on becoming a proud owner of a Raspberry Pi, the credit-card-sized computer! If you're ready to dive in and start finding out what this amazing little gizmo is really capable of, this ebook is for you. Taken from the forthcoming Raspberry Pi Projects, Raspberry Pi Hardware Projects 1 contains three cool hardware projects that let you have fun with the Raspberry Pi while developing your Raspberry Pi skills. The authors - PiFace inventor, Andrew Robinson and Rasp

  18. Raspberry Pi robotics projects

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for enthusiasts who want to use the Raspberry Pi to build complex robotics projects. With the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex robotics projects that can move, talk, listen, see, swim, or fly. No previous Raspberry Pi robotics experience is assumed, but even experts will find unexpected and interesting information in this invaluable guide.

  19. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  20. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  1. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-04-01

    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  2. Anatomical study of Rubus subgenus Rubus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Kasalkheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubus L. genus from Rosaceae has about 750 species, from which 8 species and 5 hybrids from Iran. In this study stem, leaflet, petiole, stipule and pedicle anatomy of 7 species of the genus Rubus subgenus. Rubus is invesgitated. These species include R. sanctus, R. persicus, R. hyrcanus, R. hirtus, R. dilichocarpus, R. discolor and R. caesius. Plant samples were collected and then fixed and handmade cross-section of leave were prepared and stained with methyl green and carmine. Several slides were studies and photographed with light microscope (LM. Among studied character, five quantitative features such as shape of transvers cross section, type of glandular and non-glandular trichome, presence or absence of stalk glandular trichome, distribution of calcium oxalate crystal and thickness of cuticle were studied in separation of species. Also, five quantitative features such as number of vascular bundles, number of collenchyma layer (in stem and petiole, number of palisade and spongy paranchymatous layer (in leaflet and presence or absence palisade paranchymatous in stipule are valuable and can be used in distinguishing species.

  3. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  4. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Raspberry Pi projects for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Mike; Craft, Brock

    2015-01-01

    Join the Raspberry revolution with these fun and easy Pi projects The Raspberry Pi has opened up a whole new world of innovation for everyone from hardware hackers and programmers to students, hobbyists, engineers, and beyond. Featuring a variety of hands-on projects, this easy-to-understand guide walks you through every step of the design process and will have you creating like a Raspberry Pi pro in no time. You'll learn how to prepare your workspace, assemble the necessary tools, work with test equipment, and find your way around the Raspberry Pi before moving on to a series of fun, livel

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  7. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance and Literature Search of Cultural Resources within the Pembina River Project, Pembina and Cavalier Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Wild gooseberry Amelanchier alnifolia June berry Amelanchier sanguinea Dwarf June berry Crataegus succulenta Hawthorn Rubus idaeus Red raspberry Rosa...plasticity and fired to orange -red, red-brown and dark brown. Data about water requirements for processing, air shrinkage and tensile strength were

  8. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.). J. Food Sci. 76: 585-593. Hao G, Du X, Zho F, Shi R, Wang J (2009). Role of nitric oxide in UV-B- induced activation of PAL and stimulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in. Ginkgo biloba callus. Plant Cell Tiss.

  9. Learning Python with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Bradbury, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The must-have companion guide to the Raspberry Pi User Guide! Raspberry Pi chose Python as its teaching language of choice to encourage a new generation of programmers to learn how to program. This approachable book serves as an ideal resource for anyone wanting to use Raspberry Pi to learn to program and helps you get started with the Python programming language. Aimed at first-time developers with no prior programming language assumed, this beginner book gets you up and running.Covers variables, loops, and functionsAddresses 3D graphics programmingWalks you through programming MinecraftZero

  10. Raspberry Pi mechatronics projects hotshot

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanoor, Sai

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted towards beginners and intermediate designers of mechatronic systems and embedded system design. Some familiarity with the Raspberry Pi and Python programming is preferred but not required.

  11. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... In this paper, the bacteriostatic action of purified raspberry flavonoid was explored. A study was conducted on the effect of raspberry flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best.

  12. Raspberry Pi in oddaljeni laboratorij

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorščak, Mihael

    2017-01-01

    Diplomsko delo je namenjeno učiteljem Tehnike v osnovnih šolah in študentom Tehnike pri načrtovanju inovativnih, drugačnih učnih ur ob uporabi informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij in induktivnih metod poučevanja. V diplomskem delu je predstavljena okvirna postavitev oddaljenega laboratorija za izobraževalne namene na podlagi računalnika Raspberry Pi. Predstavljene so uporabljene strojne komponente, računalnik Raspberry Pi, pogosto uporabljene periferne naprave in čutilniki ter povezava...

  13. Raspberry Pi projects for kids

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains all-important information about how to use your Raspberry Pi to develop any application you like. It is broken down into several action-packed projects, each containing easy-to-follow steps, just to show you how easy and fun computer programming can be!If you are someone with a big imagination and would like to dive straight into the realm of technology and computers, then this is the book for you. With only a Raspberry Pi and no prior experience required, you will be shown how to translate your ideas into computer programs, creating any game, tool, or animation you can

  14. Rubus pharmacology: antiquity to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschylus, Hippocrates, Krataeus, Dioscorides, and Galen; Romans: Cato, Ovid, and Pliny the Elder; Asian medicinal traditions, such as the Unani Tibb, traditional Chinese medicine, and the Ayurvedic tradition of India. Folk traditions of native peoples throughout the world have also applied Rubus fo...

  15. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  16. Connecting peripheral devices to Raspberry P

    OpenAIRE

    Fabčič, Simon

    2014-01-01

    My thesis deals with connecting peripheral devices to the Raspberry Pi. At first I presents the equipment I needed for programming. For the general hardware I used the single-board Raspberry Pi (model B) and installed the Raspbian operating system. There was a development environment for the Python programming language already installed on the computer, which I used. In the subsequent passages I presented how to connect the Raspberry Pi with peripheral devices and digital sensors using differ...

  17. Revision of Rubus (Rosaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Yih Huang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rubus L. in Taiwan is taxonomically revised based on morphological and phytogeographical patterns. Forty taxa (34 species, 3 varieties, and 3 hybrids of the genus are recognized, including two new hybrid species R. croceacanthus × corchorifolius and R. rosifolius × fraxinifolius. Among the Rubus taxa in Taiwan, R. croceacanthus H. Lév. exhibits tremendous variation and we do believe that more investigations are needed in the future. Several taxa described in the Flora of Taiwan, 2nd ed. are treated as synonyms of other species, and several taxa in Taiwan are revised. The existence of R. howii Merr. & Chun, R. linearifoliolus Hayata, and R. parvifraxinifolius Hayata in Taiwan are reconfirmed, we described R. howii fruit information which was absent in original literature; and the third taxon is treated as a natural hydrid R. × parvifraxinifolius Hayata which putatively derived from R. rosifolius Sm. and R. linearifoliolus based on intermediate morphology and the scarcity of fruit set. Rubus pseudoacer Makino ssp. flexuosus (Y.-C. Liu & F.-Y. Lu H. Ohashi & C.-F. Hsieh is treated as synonym of R. pseudoacer Makino and is excluded in Taiwan. A key to the taxa, synonyms and taxonomic descriptions of each taxon are presented. Moreover, information about phenology, chromosome number, distribution and specimens examined for each taxon are also provided.

  18. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M.; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D.; Hall, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is

  19. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  20. IoT con Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    García Muelas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de diferentes plataformas software y hardware del internet de las cosas. Aplicación real con Raspberry Pi. Estudi de diferents plataformes programari i maquinari de l'internet de les coses. Aplicació real amb Raspberry Pi. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  1. OpenDomo en Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Herrero, David

    2013-01-01

    Portabilidad del sistema de control domótico OpenDomo a la arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Portabilitat del sistema de control domòtic OpenDomo a l'arquitectura ARM (Raspberry Pi). Master thesis for the Free software program.

  2. Raspberry Pi home automation with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to the Raspberry Pi, the Arduino, or home automation and wish to develop some amazing projects using these tools, then this book is for you. Any experience in using the Raspberry Pi would be an added advantage.

  3. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  4. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković Ivona Z.; Grujić Slavica M.; Marin Petar D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC) varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC) was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro ...

  5. Priklop perifernih naprav na Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Fabčič, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Moje diplomsko delo obravnava povezovanje perifernih naprav na Raspberry Pi. Najprej je predstavljena oprema, ki sem jo potreboval pri pisanju. Kot glavno strojno opremo sem uporabil enoploščni računalnik Raspberry Pi (model B) in nanj namestil operacijski sistem Raspbian. Na njem je bilo že pred naloženo razvojno okolje za programski jezik Python, ki sem ga tudi uporabljal. Nato sem prikazal, kako na Raspberry Pi na različne načine in prek raznih protokolov povežemo periferne naprave ter dig...

  6. RASPBERRY PI 2 MODEL B : Mediakeskus

    OpenAIRE

    Erkkilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutustua toisen sukupolven luottokortin kokoiseen Raspberry Pi -pienoistietokoneeseen, sen käyttöönottoon sekä siihen, kuinka sen avulla voidaan rakentaa kattava mediakeskusympäristö. Raspberry Pi 2 Model B -pienoistietokoneen on kehittänyt englantilainen Raspberry Pi Foundation. Laite on kehitetty auttamaan pääasiassa nuoria tietotekniikassa ja ohjelmoinnissa. Laitteen erityisominaisuuksia ovat tehokkuus, pieni koko sekä vähäinen virrankulutus. Käytetty lähdema...

  7. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  8. Raspberry Pi programming day | 12 April

    CERN Multimedia

    William Bell

    2014-01-01

    CERN is hosting a Raspberry Pi programming day on 12 April 2014 (see here).   The event includes a hands-on workshop and a series of presentations of different projects with the Raspberry Pi. The presentations and workshop provide an ideal introduction for beginners and information for those with more advanced computer programming skills. Basic programming techniques will be discussed using Scratch, Python and C, through a set of worked examples and additional electronics. The electronics examples will include a LEGO NXT interface, other expansion boards and a variety of basic I/O components and sensors. This event is free, but it is necessary to sign up to be able to attend. If you would like to present a project or bring your Raspberry Pi project to discuss in the tutorial session, please also email raspberry.pi@cern.ch with the details of your presentation or project.

  9. Proceedings of the XI international Rubus and Ribes symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceedings book summarizes the latest internationial research concerning Rubus, Ribes and their wild relatives. This proceedings includes 82 scientific reports from international scientists concerning the genetics and germplasm, pests and diseases, physiology and production systems, post harve...

  10. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-02

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  11. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D; Hall, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extremely expensive. Consequently, there is a remaining desire to better understand how raspberry ketone is synthesized in vivo, and which genes and enzymes are involved. With this information we will then be in a better position to design alternative production strategies such as microbial fermentation. This article focuses on the identification and application of genes potentially linked to raspberry ketone synthesis. We have isolated candidate genes from both raspberry and other plants, and these have been introduced into bacterial and yeast expression systems. Conditions have been determined that result in significant levels of raspberry ketone, up to 5 mg/L. These results therefore lay a strong foundation for a potentially renewable source of "natural" flavour compounds making use of plant genes.

  12. Kelayakan Raspberry Pi sebagai Web Server: Perbandingan Kinerja Nginx, Apache, dan Lighttpd pada Platform Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Dawood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a small-sized computer, but it can function like an ordinary computer. Because it can function like a regular PC then it is also possible to run a web server application on the Raspberry Pi. This paper will report results from testing the feasibility and performance of running a web server on the Raspberry Pi. The test was conducted on the current top three most popular web servers, which are: Apache, Nginx, and Lighttpd. The parameters used to evaluate the feasibility and performance of these web servers were: maximum request and reply time. The results from the test showed that it is feasible to run all three web servers on the Raspberry Pi but Nginx gave the best performance followed by Lighttpd and Apache.Keywords: Raspberry Pi, web server, Apache, Lighttpd, Nginx, web server performance

  13. Environ: E00837 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00837 Raspberry Rubus chingii, Rubus crataegifolius, Rubus [TAX:23216] Rosaceae (r...ose family) Rubus aggregate fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) E00837 Raspberry ...

  14. Molecular characterization of aphid resistance in black raspberry germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a minor but lucrative crop with most of the acreage in the U.S. found in Oregon. Rapid decline of plantings results from virus infection vectored by the North American large raspberry aphid and is the most limiting factor for growing black raspberry. Existing cultivars are suscept...

  15. Establecimiento in vitro y pruebas preliminares de micropropagación en medio semisólido y líquido de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Jones Castro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La propagación de la frambuesa se realiza tradicionalmente de forma vegetativa por separación de corona o brote etiolado; sin embargo, en vista de la demanda masiva de material sano y vigoroso, se ha generado un gran interés por el uso de la técnica de cultivo de tejidos. Para el establecimiento in vitro de la frambuesa, se realizaron tres tratamientos, la mayor supervivencia (45% se obtuvo con una desinfección superficial de 6gL-1 Agri-mycin® y Bisolex® y 5gL-1 Ferbam® durante 60 min, seguida de una exposición a CaClO2 3,5% por 15 min en bomba al vacío.Se probaron dos sistemas para la micropropagación, el medio semisólido y el medio líquido en inmersión temporal, utilizando el medio de cultivo M&S complementado con BAP, AG3 y ácidoascórbico, con un pH de 5,5. Los resultados obtenidos para ambos sistemas fueron estadísticamente similares. Los dos presentaron buena brotación y crecimiento; sin embargo las vitroplantas en inmersión temporal se observaron más vigorosas.

  16. Contenido de N, P, K y rendimiento de frambuesa roja (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn bliss’ orgánico asociada con lupino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de la frambuesa ‘Autumn Bliss’ productora de otoño a la aplicación de un biofertilizante (vermicomposta asociada con lupino, en condiciones de invernadero en Montecillo, México. En el ensayo se estudiaron 5 niveles de vermicomposta (0, 30, 60, 90 y 120 g maceta–1 y 2 niveles de asociación (con o sin lupino totalizando 10 tratamientos y un tratamiento adicional que consistió de fertilización química (N100 P80 K80 . Como material vegetal se utilizaron brotes adventicios de frambuesa tratadas con frío durante 60 días a 5 °C. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas a los niveles de vermicomposta incorporada al sustrato, y niveles de 60 hasta 90 g maceta–1 favorecieron las mayores concentraciones de N y K en frambuesa. Cuando la frambuesa se asoció con lupino, permitió una mayor acumulación de P, lo que indica una interacción positiva entre estos elementos. El mayor rendimiento en peso y en número de frutos se obtuvo con la aplicación de 90 g maceta–1 de vermicomposta. Sin embargo, cuando la frambuesa se asoció con lupino el mayor rendimiento en peso y en número de frutos se obtuvo con aplicación de 120 g maceta–1 de vermicomposta.

  17. Contenido de N, P, K y rendimiento de frambuesa roja (Rubus idaeus L.) ‘Autumn bliss’ orgánico asociada con lupino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.)

    OpenAIRE

    Enoc Jara-Peña; Angel Villegas M.; Prometeo Sánchez G.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de la frambuesa ‘Autumn Bliss’ productora de otoño a la aplicación de un biofertilizante (vermicomposta) asociada con lupino, en condiciones de invernadero en Montecillo, México. En el ensayo se estudiaron 5 niveles de vermicomposta (0, 30, 60, 90 y 120 g maceta–1) y 2 niveles de asociación (con o sin lupino) totalizando 10 tratamientos y un tratamiento adicional que consistió de fertilización química (N100 P80 K80) . Como ma...

  18. Establecimiento in vitro y pruebas preliminares de micropropagación en medio semisólido y líquido de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Castro, Fiorella; Flores Mora, Dora

    2007-01-01

    La propagación de la frambuesa se realiza tradicionalmente de forma vegetativa por separación de corona o brote etiolado; sin embargo, en vista de la demanda masiva de material sano y vigoroso, se ha generado un gran interés por el uso de la técnica de cultivo de tejidos. Para el establecimiento in vitro de la frambuesa, se realizaron tres tratamientos, la mayor supervivencia (45%) se obtuvo con una desinfección superficial de 6gL-1 Agri-mycin® y Bisolex® y 5gL-1 Ferbam® durante 60 min, segui...

  19. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  20. RASPBERRY PI -POHJAINEN INFONÄYTTÖ

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstedt, Arto

    2017-01-01

    Raspberry Pi on tehokas ja vähän virtaa syövä minitietokone, jonka on kehittänyt englantilainen Raspberry Pi Foundation. Laite on suunniteltu alunperin opetuskäyttöön opettamaan ja innostamaan nuoria ohjelmointiin ja ymmärtämään tietotekniikkaa elektroniikan näkökulmasta. Myöhemmin se on otettu enemmän käyttöön pienissä projekteissa, joihin pöytätietokone on epäkäytännöllinen. Raspber-ry Piistä on useita eri versioita, ja tässä työssä tutustutaan erityisesti sen uusimman sukupolven versi-oon ...

  1. Educational Programming on the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Kölling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The original aim when creating the Raspberry Pi was to encourage “kids”—pre-university learners—to engage with programming, and to develop an interest in and understanding of programming and computer science concepts. The method to achieve this was to give them their own, low cost computer that they could use to program on, as a replacement for a family PC that often did not allow this option. With the original release, the Raspberry Pi included two programming environments in the standard di...

  2. Biological performance of the predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus (Phytoseiidae): a candidate for the control of tetranychid mites in Brazilian soybean crops

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Reichert; Toldi,M.; Rode, P. A.; Ferla, J. J.; Ferla, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The soybean (Glycine max (L.): Fabaceae) is considered the most important agricultural crop in Brazil. Phytophagous tetranychid mites as Mononychellus planki McGregor, Tetranychus ludeni Zacher and T. urticae Koch have been considered pest in soybean crops. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma (Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite of T. ludeni and T. urticae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological performance of N. idaeus when fed on T. urticae, T. ludeni and M. planki,...

  3. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Ivona Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radical scavenging procedures and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Aqueous extracts were the most effective through all antioxidant tests. The total phenol content highly correlated with antioxidant activity of extracts. Moreover, weak correlation was established between total phenol and total flavonoid content. The results presented in this work indicate that phenol compounds contribute to antioxidant ability of extracts. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis.

  5. Gastroprotective Value of Berries: Evidences from Methanolic Extracts of Morus nigra and Rubus niveus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Angela Nottar Nesello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the gastroprotective value of the methanol extracts from fruits of Morus nigra L. (black mulberry (MEMN and Rubus niveus Thunb (raspberry (MERN. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured, as well as the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenger activity. The gastroprotective effects of the extracts against 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl were evaluated in mice. After that, the lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels at ulcerated tissue were determined. The effects of extracts on H+/K+-ATPase activity were also verified. The extracts exhibited high contents of polyphenols; however, MERN presented 1.5-fold higher levels. The presence of flavonoids also was confirmed. In addition, MEMN (IC50 = 13.74 μg/mL and MERN (IC50 = 14.97 μg/mL scavenged DPPH radical. The MEMN reduced the ulcer area only at 300 mg/kg (p.o. by 64.06%. Interestingly, MERN decreased the ulcer area in a superior potency (ED50 = 20.88 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 81.86% at 300 mg/kg, and increased the gastric mucin levels. The antioxidant effects of extracts were evidenced by reduced lipoperoxides and increased reduction of glutathione amount in the gastric mucosa. However, MEMN or MERN did not change the H+/K+-ATPase activity. These results confirm that M. nigra and R. niveus are berries with a gastroprotective value by strengthening of gastric protective factors.

  6. Power Monitoring Using the Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Raspberry Pi is a credit card size low powered compute board with Ethernet connection, HDMI video output, audio, full Linux operating system run from an SD card, and more, all for $45. With cables, SD card, etc., the cost is about $70. Originally designed to help teach computer science principles to low income children and students, the Pi has…

  7. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-0021] Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and... approved information collection National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. OMB...

  8. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim
    To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by statistically derived character species.

    Location
    North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,

  9. Rubus: A compiler for seamless and extensible parallelism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a typical processor may have multiple processing cores on a single chip. Furthermore, a special purpose processing unit called Graphic Processing Unit (GPU, originally designed for 2D/3D games, is now available for general purpose use in computers and mobile devices. However, the traditional programming languages which were designed to work with machines having single core CPUs, cannot utilize the parallelism available on multi-core processors efficiently. Therefore, to exploit the extraordinary processing power of multi-core processors, researchers are working on new tools and techniques to facilitate parallel programming. To this end, languages like CUDA and OpenCL have been introduced, which can be used to write code with parallelism. The main shortcoming of these languages is that programmer needs to specify all the complex details manually in order to parallelize the code across multiple cores. Therefore, the code written in these languages is difficult to understand, debug and maintain. Furthermore, to parallelize legacy code can require rewriting a significant portion of code in CUDA or OpenCL, which can consume significant time and resources. Thus, the amount of parallelism achieved is proportional to the skills of the programmer and the time spent in code optimizations. This paper proposes a new open source compiler, Rubus, to achieve seamless parallelism. The Rubus compiler relieves the programmer from manually specifying the low-level details. It analyses and transforms a sequential program into a parallel program automatically, without any user intervention. This achieves massive speedup and better utilization of the underlying hardware without a programmer's expertise in parallel programming. For five different benchmarks, on average a speedup of 34.54 times has been achieved by Rubus as compared to Java on a basic GPU having only 96 cores. Whereas, for a matrix multiplication benchmark the average execution speedup of 84

  10. Rubus: A compiler for seamless and extensible parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Aslam, Faisal; Nawaz, Zubair; Sarwar, Syed Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, a typical processor may have multiple processing cores on a single chip. Furthermore, a special purpose processing unit called Graphic Processing Unit (GPU), originally designed for 2D/3D games, is now available for general purpose use in computers and mobile devices. However, the traditional programming languages which were designed to work with machines having single core CPUs, cannot utilize the parallelism available on multi-core processors efficiently. Therefore, to exploit the extraordinary processing power of multi-core processors, researchers are working on new tools and techniques to facilitate parallel programming. To this end, languages like CUDA and OpenCL have been introduced, which can be used to write code with parallelism. The main shortcoming of these languages is that programmer needs to specify all the complex details manually in order to parallelize the code across multiple cores. Therefore, the code written in these languages is difficult to understand, debug and maintain. Furthermore, to parallelize legacy code can require rewriting a significant portion of code in CUDA or OpenCL, which can consume significant time and resources. Thus, the amount of parallelism achieved is proportional to the skills of the programmer and the time spent in code optimizations. This paper proposes a new open source compiler, Rubus, to achieve seamless parallelism. The Rubus compiler relieves the programmer from manually specifying the low-level details. It analyses and transforms a sequential program into a parallel program automatically, without any user intervention. This achieves massive speedup and better utilization of the underlying hardware without a programmer's expertise in parallel programming. For five different benchmarks, on average a speedup of 34.54 times has been achieved by Rubus as compared to Java on a basic GPU having only 96 cores. Whereas, for a matrix multiplication benchmark the average execution speedup of 84 times has been

  11. Reading data from a digital multimeter using a Raspberry pi

    OpenAIRE

    Alee, Ranjam

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis was to read the data signal from a digital multimeter on a Raspberry Pi. This thesis aims to analyze how a communication process takes place between two devices. This thesis was conducted using a Raspberry Pi and a Fluke digital multimeter. The digital multimeter was connected with the Raspberry Pi using an USB-Serial cable that comes with the multimeter. To access the data from the multimeter, the Python programming language was used. The data obtai...

  12. The family house control system based on Raspberry Pi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sysala Tomas; Fogl David; Neumann Petr

    2017-01-01

    .... That all together composes a control system based on Raspberry Pi, which manages indoor and outdoor temperature measurement, the lighting control, RF transmitter, jalousie, motion sensor control etc...

  13. Raspberry Pi -tietokoneen käyttöönotto

    OpenAIRE

    Tokalic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa pientietokoneen, nimeltään Raspberry Pi Model B, käyttöönotto. Tavoite oli tutustua tietokoneeseen ja periaatteeseen, jolla se toimii. Samoin tarkoituksena oli liittää pientietokoneeseen ulkoisia laitteita ja testata sen toimintaa, ja lopuksi dokumentoida työ ope-tuskäyttöön. Raspberry Pi, myös tunnettu nimellä RasPi, on Raspberry Pi Foundationin kehittämä tietokone, joka on toteutettu yhdellä piirilevyllä. Raspberry Pi julkaistiin 29....

  14. A Raspberry Pi-Based Attitude Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mohan, Rekhesh; Nayak, Akshata; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    We have developed a lightweight low-cost attitude sensor, based on a Raspberry Pi, built with readily available commercial components. It can be used in experiments where weight and power are constrained, such as in high-altitude lightweight balloon flights. This attitude sensor will be used as a major building block in a closed-loop control system with driver motors to stabilize and point cameras and telescopes for astronomical observations from a balloon-borne payload.

  15. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  16. Growth Characteristics and Fruit Qualities of Interspecific Hybrid between ‘Indian Summer’ Raspberry and Rubus parvifolius L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saki Toshima; Rie Okamoto-Nakamura; Kenichi Abe; Ushio Sakazaki; Haruki Komatsu; Hisato Kunitake

    2017-01-01

    ...) analysis revealed that ‘07RUBIXP01’ was an interspecific hybrid. Although ‘07RUBIXP01’ had small thorns, it showed vigorous growth in the warm environment and had a significantly larger fruit compared with the parents. Also, ‘07RUBIXP01...

  17. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed S...

  18. Antioxidant activity of raspberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves extract and its effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2015-08-01

    Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil.

  19. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  20. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. The raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidants such as anthocyanin pigments linked to potential health protection against several human diseases. The aim of this study was to.

  1. Miniature Fourier Ptychography Microscope using Raspberry Pi Camera and Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Konda, Pavan Chandra; Aidukas, Tomas; Taylor, Jonathan; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    We report a Fourier ptychography setup using a raspberry pi camera sensor and its lens in reversed configuration. In this work data acquisition was performed by means of a raspberry pi board which eliminates the requirement of a computer for data acquisition thus allowing a miniaturized system for remote data acquisition costing around £100.

  2. 76 FR 25618 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research... raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries to determine whether they favor the establishment of an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for processed raspberries. The...

  3. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry... delays indefinitely the referendum to determine whether producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries approve the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion...

  4. Adaptation of eight American blackberry (Rubus fructicosus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... desserts, jams, seedless jellies and wine. It is known to contain naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants that can regulate certain beneficial metabolic ..... 348-352. Crandall PC (1995). Bramble Production. The management Marketing of Raspberries and Blackberries, New York. London Norwood.

  5. Raspberry Pi cookbook for Python programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Tim

    2014-01-01

    ""Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers"" is written in a Cookbook format, presenting examples in the style of recipes.This allows you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain a thorough in-depth knowledge.The aim of this book is to bring you a broad range of Python 3 examples and practical ideas which you can develop to suit your own requirements. By modifying and combining the examples to create your own projects you learn far more effectively with a much greater understanding. Each chapter is designed to become a foundation for further e

  6. Elektronisen portin ohjaus Raspberry Pi:llä

    OpenAIRE

    Virtala, Tero

    2014-01-01

    Tutkimuksen toimeksiantajana oli TJK Tietolaite OY. Työssä on tarkoituksena toteuttaa laite, jolla voidaan ohjata porttia. Tämän lisäksi laitteen on pystyttävä tunnistamaan, onko kävijällä oikeus kulkea portista. Toteutuksessa käytettiin Raspberry Pi:tä keskeisenä laitteena. Raspberry Pi:n lisäksi työssä käytettiin rfid –lukijaa. Ohjelmointikielenä on Python. Koodit kirjoitettiin Raspberry Pi:llä. Tietokantaohjelmana toimi MySQL. Testaus toteutettiin erillisen virtalähteen, moottorin sekä Pi...

  7. Biological performance of the predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus (Phytoseiidae: a candidate for the control of tetranychid mites in Brazilian soybean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Reichert

    Full Text Available Abstract The soybean (Glycine max (L.: Fabaceae is considered the most important agricultural crop in Brazil. Phytophagous tetranychid mites as Mononychellus planki McGregor, Tetranychus ludeni Zacher and T. urticae Koch have been considered pest in soybean crops. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma (Phytoseiidae is a predatory mite of T. ludeni and T. urticae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological performance of N. idaeus when fed on T. urticae, T. ludeni and M. planki, coming from the Northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The study was conducted in the laboratory with individual predators supplied with different preys. The mean duration (days of N. idaeus egg-adult development was similar independently of supplied prey (T. ludeni - 5.29±0.03; M. planki - 5.34±0.05 and T. urticae - 5.23±0.03 days. Female viability was 90% when fed on M. planki and 100% when fed on T. ludeni and T. urticae. Mean fecundity of N. idaeus was lower when fed on M. planki (4.6±1.58 eggs/female and higher when fed on T. ludeni (21.8±3.22 and T. urticae (26.2±2.41. The mean generation time (T was lower when N. idaeus fed on M. planki than when fed on T. ludeni and T. urticae. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 4.42±0.49 on M. planki, 17.77±0.55 on T. ludeni and 20.59±0.48 on T. urticae. The innate capacity for increase (rm was lower when N. idaeus was fed on M. planki (0.09 and higher when such predator was fed on T. ludeni (0.20 and T. urticae (0.22 females/females/day. These results demonstrated that N. idaeus is able to reach the complete development feeding on all the three tetranychid species. Mononychellus planki demonstrated to provide a sub-optimal diet if compared to T. ludeni and T. urticae.

  8. Upon a Home Assistant Solution Based on Raspberry Pi Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandru Florentin Iftimie; Claudiu Vințe

    2017-01-01

    ... to take care and execute the respective commands in a safe and secure manner. This paper presents our current research results upon a personal home assistant solution designed and built around Raspberry Pi V3 platform...

  9. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... almost $361 million. California's crop is predominately delivered to the fresh market, while Oregon and... growing region in Canada. Exports of processed frozen raspberries from British Colombia to the United...

  10. Raspberry Leaf and Hypoglycemia in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I; Nguyen, Thanh T; Karjane, Nicole W; Salley, Kelsey E S

    2016-12-01

    Raspberry leaf is commonly consumed by pregnant women. Hypoglycemic effects have been documented with other species within the plant family. Whether raspberry leaf affects glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. A 38-year-old nulliparous woman with GDM developed hypoglycemia requiring lowered insulin dose after consuming raspberry leaf tea at 32 weeks of gestation. The temporal relationship was confirmed by the patient's self-withdrawal and reintroduction of the herb. Fetal surveillance and growth were reassuring. A cesarean delivery was performed at 39 weeks of gestation. The neonate did not experience hypoglycemia or other complications. Placental biopsy revealed normal findings. Consumption of raspberry leaf may lead to reduced insulin requirements in GDM. Women with GDM should be cautioned about its use and their glucose levels more closely monitored.

  11. A survey of the Rubus species (Rosaceae described from the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matzke-Hajek, Günter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy, nomenclatura and distribution of the bramble species (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus described from the Canary Islands are studied. Apart from the widespread Mediterranean R. ulmifolius Schott two species occur: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes and R. palmensis A. Hansen. The latter is not an endemic of La Palma as assumed by its discoverer, but is recorded for the first time also in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Complete descriptions are provided, and illustrations of distinctive features often lacking in herbarium specimens are presented. Problems concerning the typification are discussed. Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H. E. Weber nothospec. nov., the frequent hybrid between Rubus bollei and R. ulmifolius is described as new to science. Rubus bornmuelleri Focke from Gran Canaria is based on a specimen dubium and has to be deleted from the list of Canarían species.Se han estudiado la taxonomía, la nomenclatura y la distribución de las especies de zarzas (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus descritas de las Islas Canarias. Junto a Rubus ulmifolius Schott, especie muy frecuente en el Mediterráneo, se encontraron dos especies: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes y R. palmensis A. Hansen. Se incluyen descripciones completas e ilustraciones de algunas características relevantes y que no siempre se han observado en especímenes de herbario revisados. Además, se discuten problemas de tipificación y se describe como nuevo para la ciencia Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H.E. Weber nothospec. nov., híbrido frecuente entre R. bollei y R. ulmifolius. R. bornmuelleri Focke de Gran Canaria debe ser excluido de la lista de las especies canarias, al estar basada su descripción en un specimen dubium.

  12. Raspberry Pi: käyttöönotto ja sovellustestaus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarja, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua Raspberry Pi:n, luottokortin kokoisen Linux-tietokoneen käyttöönottoon ja sovellustestaukseen. Raspberry Pi -tietokone esiteltiin Linux Format -lehdessä syksyllä 2012, josta opinnäytetyön aihe on löydetty. Raspberry Pi -tietokone on kehitetty Englannissa Raspberry Pi -säätiön toimesta tietokoneista kiinnostuneille nuorille. Raspberry Pi:n erityisominaisuuksia ovat pieni koko, keveys ja vähäinen sähkönkulutus. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin Raspberry Pi -...

  13. Teaching children how to program using Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Lužnik Žnidaršič, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a lightweight and inexpensive computer the size of a credit card. It is an excellent tool for encouraging computer curiosity in children and teaching them to program. We have created educational activities using Raspberry Pi aimed for learning the basics of programming for children aged between 8 and 13. We used the programming language and environment ScratchGPIO that is based on the programming language and environment Scratch created for teaching programming to elementary s...

  14. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry......A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labelled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products labelled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed...

  15. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  16. A new virus in Luteoviridae is associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the etiology of Raspberry Leaf Curl Disease (RLCD), which causes leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf chlorosis, shoot dwarfing, shoot proliferation in raspberries and can kill plants within three years, a next generation sequences approach was applied. Two red raspberry plants collected...

  17. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... in conducting a referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order) is favored by producers of raspberries for...

  18. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone are needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietar...

  19. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.; Moraes, C.

    and C. rubus. Sexwise, iron content was high in male and manganese in female oysters. In T. angulata male specimens showed maximum zinc content. Stationwise, difference in copper and iron was significant in C. rubus. In general, copper and zinc...

  20. Structure of Amphiphilic Terpolymer Raspberry Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymer raspberry vesicles contain domains of different chemical affinities. They are potential candidates as multi-compartment cargo carriers. Their efficacy depends on their stability and load capacity. Using a model star terpolymer system in an aqueous solution, a dissipative particle dynamic (DPD simulation is employed to investigate how equilibrium aggregate structures are affected by polymer concentration and pairwise interaction energy in a solution. It is shown that a critical mass of polymer is necessary for vesicle formation. The free energy of the equilibrium aggregates are calculated and the results show that the transition from micelles to vesicles is governed by the interactions between the longest solvophobic block and the solvent. In addition, the ability of vesicles to encapsulate solvent is assessed. It is found that reducing the interaction energy favours solvent encapsulation, although solvent molecules can permeate through the vesicle’s shell when repulsive interactions among monomers are low. Thus, one can optimize the loading capacity and the release rate of the vesicles by turning pairwise interaction energies of the polymer and the solvent. The ability to predict and control these aspects of the vesicles is an essential step towards designing vesicles for specific purposes.

  1. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  2. Raspberry ketone from submerged cultured cells of the basidiomycete Nidula niveo-tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, A; Fischer, M; Berger, R G

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycete Nidula niveo-tomentosa produced 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butan-2-one (raspberry ketone), one of the character impact components of raspberry flavor, and its corresponding alcohol. A systematic attempt was made to improve the productivity of this fungus. Variation of nutrient medium composition, precursor amount, time of supplementation, and cultivation period yielded a 50-fold increase in metabolite concentrations. Raspberry ketone and alcohol were easily isolated from the culture medium by solvent extraction. Glycosidically bound forms or accumulation of raspberry compounds in fungal cells were not detected. This microbial process offers an alternative for the production of natural raspberry flavor.

  3. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  4. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus – a Grapevine Pathogen in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Jevremović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During a field survey in 2005 in vineyards and grapevine nurseries at localities in central Serbia, a few plants with unusual virus-like symptoms were observed. Leaf samples were analyzed by DAS-ELISA for the presence of nine viruses. Besides other viruses frequently occurring on grapevine, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV was detected in two samples. Results were confirmed by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of the fragment in 5’ part of RNA-1. Obtained sequence shared at least 93% of nucleotide identity with the compared RBDV sequence originating from raspberry. The finding of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus on grapevine in Serbia is a second finding of this pathogen on grapevine worldwide. The first natural infection of grapevine with this virus was reported in Slovenia in 2003.

  5. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  6. Quantitative farm-to-fork human norovirus exposure assessment of individually quick frozen raspberries and raspberry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Stals, A; De Keuckelaere, A; Deliens, B; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-02-02

    A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV. The model was built simulating that a collection center received berries from ten farms with a total of 245 food handlers picking soft red fruits during a 10-hour day shift. Given 0, 5 and 20 out of 245 berries' pickers were shedding NoV, these conditions were calculated to result in a mean NoV contamination of respectively 0.47, 14.1 and 36.2 NoV particles per kg raspberries in case all raspberries are mixed to one day-batch of 11tons. The NoV contamination of the fruits was mainly driven by the route of NoV shedding food pickers (95.8%) rather than by spraying contaminated pesticide water (4.2%) (baseline scenario with 5 shedding pickers and contaminated pesticide water). Inclusion of appropriate hand washing procedures or hand washing followed by hand disinfection resulted in estimated reductions of the mean NoV levels from 14.1 to 0.16 and 0.17 NoV particles per kg raspberries, respectively, for the baseline scenario with 5 out of 245 food pickers shedding NoV. The use of a mild heat treatment (30s at 75°C) during further processing of berries to purees was noted to reduce mean NoV levels substantially from 14.1 to 0.2 NoV particles per kg raspberry puree. For IQF raspberries, the NoV contamination is heterogeneously distributed and resulted in a mean contamination of 3.1 NoV particles per 250g

  7. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Sørensen, Chres; Hernandez Marcano, Nestor Javier; Cabrera Guerrero, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications...

  8. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  9. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaokar, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  10. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  11. Perancangan Papan Informasi Digital Berbasis Web pada Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Panuntun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital signage is information boards migrate from conventional forms to digital form. Form of digital signage used in computer by connecting to monitor to display the information. Digital notice board (digital signage puts a digital-based information services in one direction. Many digital signage applications appear with the development of information technology. Unfortunately, if used as a digital signage devices, the implementation of existing digital signage applications using a desktop computer is unefficient. Signage applications that developed to be implemented on a single board computers such as raspberry-pi is still rare. In that case, there are any idea to implement a mini computer raspberry-pi as digital signage devices. Mini computer raspberry-Pi was chosen because of its small size and power saving. so it can be efficient and flexible than a regular desktop computer. Forming of this thesis includes designing web server using PHP and MySQL and raspberry pi configuration. The results of this research is to implement digital signage in raspbeery pi that produce a web-based digital information boards that efficient and power saving.

  12. Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flavonoid on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Raspberry flavonoid had the best inhibition effect on S. aureus, followed by B. subtilis, E. coli and Penicillium. However, it cannot inhibit the growth of S. cerevisiae, Rhizopus and Mucor.

  13. Rapid Detection of Human Norovirus in Frozen Raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Maija; Maunula, Leena

    2017-10-10

    Raspberries have lately caused several human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we developed and evaluated for HuNoV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection in frozen raspberries extraction methods that have equal sensitivity but are less time-consuming than widely used methods based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. One method was applied to stored frozen raspberries linked to previous HuNoV outbreaks and berries on sale. In the virus elution-based Method 1, sparkling water eluted viruses most efficiently from the berries. Method 2, based on direct nucleic acid extraction with minor PEG supplement, yielded the highest number of positive findings (4 out of 9) at low virus concentration level of 100 genome copies HuNoV genogroup II per 25 g raspberries. Both methods showed approximately equal sensitivity to a method including PEG precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. Two naturally contaminated berry samples linked to HuNoV outbreaks in 2006 and 2009 were still positive for HuNoV genogroup I, but all berry products purchased from a local store remained negative for HuNoV. In conclusion, this study presents two efficient and rapid methods which can be used in urgent HuNoV outbreak investigations, since the results of the virus analysis are available in a few hours.

  14. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  15. Verticillium survey results: Is it in red raspberry production fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results of the survey for Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, in the Washington Red Raspberry industry were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Verticillium was found in many field soils, but was rarely isolated from plants and was just as likely to ...

  16. Compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta (Rubus spp. Bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus spp. grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta (Rubus spp., pequena fruta de clima temperado, possui coloração atraente, variando do vermelho púrpura ao azul, devido ao elevado teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas, juntamente com os carotenoides, compõem os pigmentos naturais, majoritários encontrados em diversas frutas. Diversos estudos têm relatado a importância destes pigmentos naturais como protetores e/ou inibidores de doenças degenerativas, porém são escassos os estudos sobre compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta cultivada no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram identificar as antocianinas e os carotenoides presentes em amora-preta, determinar os conteúdos totais de compostos fenólicos, carotenoides, flavonoides, antocianinas totais, monoméricas, poliméricas e copigmentadas, e a capacidade antioxidante frente aos radicais livres ABTS e DPPH. O teor total de carotenoides foi baixo (86,5 ± 0,2 µg/100 g, com all-trans-β-caroteno (39,6 % e all-trans-luteína (28,2 % como os majoritários. As amoras-pretas apresentaram elevado potencial antioxidante principalmente pelo teor representativo de antocianinas monoméricas (104,1 ± 1,8 mg/100 g de fruto, presença de antocianinas poliméricas (22,9 ± 0,4 %, baixa porcentagem de antocianinas copigmentadas (1,6 ± 0,1 % e altos teores de compostos fenólicos (241,7 ± 0,8 mg equivalente de ácido gálico/100 g e de flavonoides totais (173,7 ± 0,7 mg equivalente de catequina/100 g. Cianidina 3-glucosídeo foi a antocianina majoritária (92,9 %. Diante destes resultados, a amora-preta pode ser considerada uma fonte natural rica em antioxidantes e pigmentos.The blackberry (Rubus spp., a small fruit grown in temperate climate, shows an attractive color ranging from purple red to blue, due to the high content of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, along with carotenoids, are the major natural pigments found in several fruits. Many studies have reported the importance of these natural pigments as protectors

  17. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  18. Different antimicrobial effects of raspberry depending on the method of active components isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Tamara P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry fruit exhibits numerous beneficial effects for veterinary and human medicine. One of those effects is antimicrobial activity, because of its diverse chemical composition. Adequate processing of plant material is the most important part of examining their activities. Processing conditions affect the separation of chemical substances in the test sample i.e. different methods can lead to separation of different active principles. Raspberry juice was produced by filtration. Raspberry pomace, the residue from the pressing of raspberries for juice production was extracted with ethanol and ether. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable extraction procedure in order to obtain extract with the highest antimicrobial potential. The results of well diffusion method indicate that raspberry juice and ethanol extract of raspberry pomace have shown higher antimicrobial potential in comparison to ether extract.

  19. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility that they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietary supplements. Currently, the amount of raspberry ketone in dietary supplements (currently sold in the US is well above the maximum concentration recommended for food and fragrance products, so additional toxicology work is needed to ensure that such concentrations of raspberry ketone are safe. In addition to safety data, clinical studies are also needed to validate any health benefits. Without research on the effects of consuming high concentrations of raspberry ketone, consumers should be wary of unsubstantiated claims and mindful of potential harm to their health.

  20. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapes, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-02-06

    Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  1. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sapes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  2. Laiteohjaus web-selaimen kautta koneautomaatiossa : Raspberry pi & WebIOPi

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda internetissä toimivan langattoman laitteen ohjaus Raspberry Pi luottokorttikokoisen tietokoneen avulla. Ohjauksen toteutta- miseksi käytettiin ranskalaisen ohjelmoijan Eric Ptakin kirjoittamaa WebIOPi- ohjelmistoa ja 3G- modeemia. Lopputuloksena saatiin toimiva järjestelmä, jossa Raspberry Pi toimii palvelimena webhallintasivulle. Raspberry Pi GPIO-liityntöjen ohjaus onnistuu helppokäyttöi- sestä hallintasivusta internetin yli. The objective of this pr...

  3. The Bacteriostasis Study of Nisin for the Raspberry Health Draft Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinxu; Zhu, Hui xia; Guo, Jiping; Xiao, Dong Guang

    The raspberry healthy draft beer was obtained by adding the extracting of raspberry into the raw fermentation materials of beer, in order to prolong the shelf life, the different concentrations nisin were added to the the raspberry healthy draft beer, the result shown that nisin could have obvious influence on the shelf life, the shelf life prolonged with nisin concentrations adding, the shelf life raspberry healthy draft beer was 44d after adding 0.02 nisin mg/mL, the shelf life prolonged 36d than blank.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION RASPBERRY PI USING PRIVATE CLOUD FOR ACCESSING PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued development and widespread use of current technology so that accessing and managing data from a personal computer to make private users become inflexible due to the personal computer requires a power source directly and storage areas are static, therefore, the author plans to implement a service private cloud that uses raspberry pi as a server and will be tested by the test Blackbox. Our research by collecting data that we did put a literature study, experiments, and observations. The design method using UML use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and sequence diagrams. This application is built using Django, Python, Raspberry Pi, MySQL. Hopefully the benefit of this implementation can help a person in terms of managing data from a wide variety of resources (resource quickly and anywhere.

  5. Iris movement based wheel chair control using raspberry pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jatin; Anbarasu, M.; Chakraborty, Chandan; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    Paralysis is considered as a major curse in this world. The number of persons who are paralyzed and therefore dependent on others due to loss of self-mobility is growing with the population. Quadriplegia is a form of Paralysis in which you can only move your eyes. Much work has been done to help disabled persons to live independently. Various methods are used for the same and this paper enlists some of the already existing methods along with some add-ons to improve the existing system. Add-ons include a system, which will be designed using Raspberry Pi and IR Camera Module. OpenCV will be used for image processing and Python is used for programming the Raspberry Pi.

  6. A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schlobohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ m .

  7. Raspberry Pi: programming by means of Matlab/Simulink

    OpenAIRE

    Holoubek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Táto diplomová práca sa zaoberá programovaním v prostredí Matlab pre platformu Raspberry Pi 3. Za účelom predvedenia sú spracované dve úlohy pre Raspberry Pi, ktoré využívajú dostupný hardware, kameru. Prvou je detegovanie farebného objektu a možnosti presného track-ovania využitím kalibrácie kamery. Druhou je detekcia a rozpoznávanie tváre. V práci je pre každú úlohu vytvorená aplikácia, v ktorej sú implementované moderné metódy a poznatky počítačového videnia. Presnosť track-ovania objektov...

  8. Nitrogen fertilization interacts with light to increase Rubus spp. cover in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Walter; Devon T. Raiff; Mark B. Burnham; Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen additions have caused species composition changes in many ecosystems by facilitating the growth of nitrophilic species. After 24 years of nitrogen fertilization in a 40 year-old stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in Central Appalachia, USA, the cover of Rubus spp. has increased from 1 to 19 % of total herbaceous-layer cover....

  9. Fennel and raspberry leaf as possible inhibitors of acetaminophen oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Astrid Jordet; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2014-10-01

    In addition to CYP2E1, several CYP isoenzymes, notably CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4, are suggested to contribute in acetaminophen oxidation and formation of the hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). The in vitro CYP2E1 inhibitory potentials of fennel and raspberry leaf, herbs previously found to inhibit CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 activities in vitro, were investigated. Extracts from commercially available herbal products were incubated with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP2E1. A validated LC/MS/MS methodology was applied for determination of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formation with disulfiram used as a positive inhibitory control. CYP2E1 IC50 inhibition constants were found to be 23 ± 4 and 27 ± 5 µg/ml for fennel and raspberry leaf, respectively, constants significantly lower than those presented in the literature for other herbal extracts. Together with previous findings, the presented in vitro data for CYP2E1 inhibition suggest that fennel and raspberry leaf have a significant potential of inhibiting all the major metabolic pathways for acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Both herbs should be further investigated for their in vivo ability of inhibiting acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  11. Forget About Busing--Concentrate on Education; A Response to Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, William; Meyers, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Raspberry argues that there is no persuasive evidence that racial balancing is worth the effort in terms of increased educational opportunity for the children; Meyers asserts that Raspberry's objections are based on several misconceptions about the goals of integrationists. (Author/JM)

  12. Modeling the effects of mineral nutrition for improving growth and development of micropropagated red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for rapid multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberries. The genetic variation of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to use one growth medium for all. Although some cultivars grow well on Murashige and Skoog (1962) mediu...

  13. Effects of three novel resistant black raspberry selections on Amphorophora agathonica feeding behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a practical and cost-effective approach for growers to manage insect pests. Recently, three new sources of resistance in black raspberry (selections ORUS 3778-1, ORUS 3817-1, and ORUS 4109-1) against the large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica, were identified. We stu...

  14. Winter Hardiness of Annual-Fruiting Raspberries in the South of the Irkutsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachenko, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The winter hardiness of different varieties of annual-fruiting raspberries in field and laboratory conditions was studied. The hardiness of annual-fruiting raspberry, mow culture and two-year shoots was assessed. We select the most winter-hardy genotypes promising for cultivation in the South of the Irkutsk region.

  15. Programiranje v Pythonu 3 na platformi Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Utroša, Mitja

    2014-01-01

    V diplomskem delu sem predstavil računalnik Raspberry Pi, njegove tehnične podatke, periferne naprave, potrebne za pripravo delovnega okolja in namestitev operacijskega sistema Rasbian Wheezy. Predstavil sem tudi nameščanje programske opreme za oddaljen dostop, deljenje datotek, IR upravljanje in zajem zaslonskih slik. Opisal sem dodatno periferijo, ki se v praktičnem delu uporabi za lažjo in hitrejšo izvedbo pripravljenih nalog. Predstavil sem programski jezik Python, osnove dela z tolmačem ...

  16. Laitetilan Etäseuranta : Raspberry Pi & SNMP

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu. Toimeksiantajalla oli tarve seurata laitetilan ilmastoa, keskeytymättömän virransyötön tilannetietoja sekä näiden muutoksia. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa järjestelmä, jolla seurattavat kohteet saadaan luettavaksi käyttäen SNMP-ohjelmistoa sekä graafinen käyttöliittymä, jolla ilmaston tilaa ja muutoksia voidaan monitoroida. Työn alustaksi määritettiin Raspberry Pi 2 -pientietokone. Järjestelmä rakentui avoimen lähdekoodin ohj...

  17. Testing Three Types of Raspberry Pi People Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Cintron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hudson County Community College (HCCC Library tested three different types of Raspberry Pi based people counters between 6/14/2017 and 7/9/2017. This article will describe how we created each type of counter, will compare the accuracy of each sensor, and will compare them to the college’s existing 3M 3501 gate counters. It will also describe why and how our team decided to make this project, discuss lessons learned, and provide instructions for how other libraries can create their own gate counters.

  18. Sistem Monitoring Parkir Mobil menggunakan Sensor Infrared berbasis RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DECY NATALIANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masalah yang selalu timbul dalam sistem perparkiran adalah kurangnya informasi mengenai status ketersediaan lahan parkir, untuk itu diperlukan sebuah sistem monitoring parkir. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan merealisasikan model sistem monitoring perparkiran dengan fasilitas pemilihan area parkir dengan berbasiskan Raspberry Pi serta pemanfaatan infrared sebagai sensor. Sistem ini mampu menampilkan status ketersediaan dari area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display serta dilengkapi dengan perhitungan tarif parkir. Pada sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi dengan tombol untuk memilih area parkir, 2 buah sensor pada masing-masing area parkir untuk mendeteksi kendaraan, kamera untuk kemanan dan lampu LED sebagai indikator ketersediaan area parkir. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada sistem ini dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa Python 2 dan untuk sistem database digunakan SQLite3. Pengujian dilakukan secara simulasi pada miniatur perparkiran. Hasil pengujian model sistem perparkiran dapat menampilkan kondisi dari masing-masing area parkir yang ditampilkan pada display. Kedua buah LED berhasil menjadi indikator ada tidaknya lahan parkir yang masih kosong. Untuk sistem perhitungan tarif parkir telah sesuai dengan perhitungan lamanya parkir. Kata kunci : Parkir, Raspberry Pi , Infrared, Python 2, Monitoring. ABSTRACT The problem which always happens in parking system is the lack of information about the parking area. That’s why we need parking monitoring system. The purposes of this project are to devise and create parking monitoring system which has fitur for ordering parking area. The system based on Raspberry Pi. The system use infra red as sensor. Beside show the availability status of parking area in a display, this system also calculates the price of using the parking area. The System equipped with button for ordering parking area, 2 infrared sensors for each area, web camera for security and 2 LED lamps for availability

  19. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae in South Africa. IV. Natural hybridiza­ tion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Rubus L. is represented in southern Africa by the subgenera  Eubatus Focke and  Idaeobatus Focke. A combination o f morphological data, data on the reproductive systems of some collections and meiotic chromosome behaviour indicates that a hybrid swarm in the eastern Transvaal was formed subsequent to the hybridization between R. cuneifolius Pursh. taxon B (subgenus Eubatus and R. longepedicellatus (C. E. Gust. C. H. Stirton (subgenus Idaeobatus. Other examples of intra- and intersubgeneric hybridization were found during this study of the South African material. These instances, with examples found in the literature, indicate that the subgeneric subdivisions of Rubus are artificial. Three different methods were used to analyse the meiotic chromosome configurations. The genome relationship system of Alonso & Kimber (1981 and Kimber & Alonso (1981 and the modification of the binomial system of Jackson & Casey (1980 by Spies (1984 proved to be the most sensitive for distinguishing between alio-, segmental alio- and autoploids.

  20. Quantitative and fingerprint analyses of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus Suavissimus S. Lee)

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Guixin; Xu, Shun-Jun; Liu, Dong; Koh, Gar Yee; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    Quality of botanical food is increasingly assessed by the content of multiple bioactive compounds. In this study we report, for the first time, an HPLC fingerprinting method for the quality evaluation of Rubus suavissimus leaves possessing multiple bioactivities. Five constituents, gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, rubusoside, and steviol monoside were quantified and used in developing qualitative chromatographic fingerprints. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.29 μg/mL ...

  1. Enhanced Immunomodulatory Activity of Gelatin-Encapsulated Rubus coreanus Miquel Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Hyeon Yong Lee; Jin-Chul Kim; Young Ock Kim; Seon Woo Cha; Yong Chang Seo; Woon Yong Choi; Choon Geun Lee

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measuremen...

  2. A blackberry (Rubus L.) expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lewers, Kim S; Saski, Chris A; Cuthbertson, Brandon J; Henry, David C; Staton, Meg E; Main, Dorrie S; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Rowland, Lisa J; Tomkins, Jeff P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L.) cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by ge...

  3. Molecular genetics and genomics of the Rosoideae: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Giongo, Lara; Buti, Matteo; Surbanovski, Nada; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Ward, Judson A; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The Rosoideae is a subfamily of the Rosaceae that contains a number of species of economic importance, including the soft fruit species strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), red (Rubus idaeus) and black (Rubus occidentalis) raspberries, blackberries (Rubus spp.) and one of the most economically important cut flower genera, the roses (Rosa spp.). Molecular genetics and genomics resources for the Rosoideae have developed rapidly over the past two decades, beginning with the development and application of a number of molecular marker types including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites, and culminating in the recent publication of the genome sequence of the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, and the development of high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping resources for Fragaria, Rosa and Rubus. These tools have been used to identify genes and other functional elements that control traits of economic importance, to study the evolution of plant genome structure within the subfamily, and are beginning to facilitate genomic-assisted breeding through the development and deployment of markers linked to traits such as aspects of fruit quality, disease resistance and the timing of flowering. In this review, we report on the developments that have been made over the last 20 years in the field of molecular genetics and structural genomics within the Rosoideae, comment on how the knowledge gained will improve the efficiency of cultivar development and discuss how these advances will enhance our understanding of the biological processes determining agronomically important traits in all Rosoideae species.

  4. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Human disease outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) following consumption of contaminated raspberries are an increasing problem. An efficient method to decontaminate the fragile raspberries and the equipment used for processing would be an important step in ensuring food safety. A potential surface...... treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts...

  5. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.

  6. Natural Abundance (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of the Origin of Raspberry Ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronza; Fuganti; Guillou; Reniero; Joulain

    1998-01-19

    The site-specific natural abundance deuterium distribution of raspberry ketone 3 obtained through a variety of methods has been determined through (2)H NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided a means of distinguishing between "natural" raspberry ketones biogenerated from 4-hydroxybenzalacetone (2), obtained from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde of extractive botanical origin and acetone produced by sugar fermentation by reduction using baker's yeast and other microorganisms, and other raspberry ketone samples obtained in different "non-natural" ways. Of natural origin is also a commercial sample obtained in an unspecified manner. A mechanistic interpretation has been proposed to explain the difference of site-specific deuterium content between the examined samples.

  7. The impact of pulsed light on decontamination, quality, and bacterial attachment of fresh raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Wu, Changqing

    2016-08-01

    Raspberries have served as vehicles for transmission of foodborne pathogens through fecal-oral route and have resulted in 11 outbreaks in the United States from 1983 through 2013. However, because of its dedicated structures and perishability, water based sanitizer washing cannot be used for raspberry decontamination. As a non-thermal technique, pulsed light (PL) may have the potential to maintain both safety and quality of fresh raspberries. The first objective of our study was to investigate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation efficacy of pulsed light (PL) on fresh raspberries during 10 days storage at 4 °C. The qualities of raspberries after PL treatment, including color, texture, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total bacteria count (TBC) as well as total yeast and mold count (TYMC), have also been evaluated during the 10 days storage. Compared with the untreated control, all the PL treatments (5 s, 15 s and 30 s) maintained lower pathogen survival population during 10 days refrigerated storage. At day 10, all PL treated raspberries maintained significantly lower TBC and TYMC than the control. Although PL treatment for 30 s (with fluence of 28.2 J/cm(2)) reduced most Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 right after treatment, by 4.5 and 3.9 log 10 CFU/g respectively, it failed to maintain its advantage during storage. In addition, color and texture of these raspberries changed negatively after 10 days storage. PL 30 s provided the lowest TBC and TYMC at day 0, but failed to maintain its advantage during storage. To consider both safety and quality of fresh raspberries as well as the treatment feasibility, 5 s PL treatment with fluence of 5.0 J/cm(2) was recommended for decontamination. The second objective was to study attachment of bacteria as well as decontamination effect of PL on raspberries. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), PL showed severe damage to the cell membrane on smooth surface

  8. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  9. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap [B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn, E-mail: Dr.N.L@ieee.org [Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  10. First Report of Tumorigenic Agrobacterium radiobacter on Raspberry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the spring of 2003, gall symptoms on the roots and crowns of young raspberry plants cv. Vilamette were observed near Valjevo. Phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased plant samples. Based on the pathogenic, morphological, differential biochemicaland physiological characteristics, the isolated strains were identified as tumorigenic Agrobacterium radiobacter (biovar 1 Agrobacterium. In order to confirm the identity of isolated strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers complementary to tms2 genelocated on the Ti plasmid were used. In the first PCR protocol using a tms2F1 + tms2R2 primer pair, 617 bp products specific for tumorigenic Agrobacterium strains were amplified. The second PCR protocol, using a tms2F1 + tms2B primer pair, amplified the expected 458 bp products. On the basis of multiplex PCR with primers complementary to chromosomal gene coding for 23S rRNA, the isolated strains were classified as biovar 1 Agrobacterium (A. radiobacter. This is the first report of tumorigenic A. radiobacter on raspberry in Serbia.

  11. Does the Slow-Growth, High-Mortality Hypothesis Apply Below Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourston, James E; Bennett, Alison E; Johnson, Scott N; Gange, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed.

  12. Does the Slow-Growth, High-Mortality Hypothesis Apply Below Ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Hourston

    Full Text Available Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed.

  13. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sapes, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard...

  14. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Marcano, Nestor Javier; W. Sørensen, Chres; Cabrera, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...... consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less...

  15. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, raspberries have emerged as high risk foods for norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. However, the lack of robust and standardized methods has limited our understanding of the level of NoV contamination of raspberries correlated to public health risk. We present an optimized and quality...... controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... in Denmark from 2009-2011. To minimize false negative results, mengovirus and murine norovirus were evaluated as sample process control viruses (SPCVs). Using the median RT-qPCR recovery for either SPCV±2 SD as quality criteria for successful extraction, 98% of samples were approved. The 50% limit...

  16. 75 FR 6131 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... utilized, at a value of almost $267 million. California's crop is predominately delivered to the fresh... raspberries from British Colombia to the United States ranged from 2.9 million metric tons to 5.7 million...

  17. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xiaoyang; Liang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    ...). This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi...

  18. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Zhong; Yao Liang

    2016-01-01

    The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and...

  19. Profitability of raspberry production on holdings in the territory of Arilje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is the most important kind of berries and specific in many of its characteristics - biological properties, economic importance, agro-ecological, technological and organizational requirements, the market value of the product, as well as very high interdependence and correlation between the individual phases of the reproductive cycle. Due to its extremely pleasant smell and taste and high nutritional value, raspberry represents a very esteemed and sought fruit which has a high price in the world market and is very suitable for processing. In addition to financial effect, the cultivation of raspberries enables recruitment of labour force, which is in our economic situation of great socio-economic importance, especially in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Based on real data examples, this paper analyzes the economic profitability of this production. Investments in the establishment and cultivation of a raspberry plantation under irrigation amount to 12.140 €/ha. In the production of raspberries a very favourable annual financial result (profit in the amount of 9300 €/ha is achieved, production is very cost-effective, accumulation is significant (about 77% and return on equity is in the second year of exploitation. The established economic and financial results show that the production of raspberries is very profitable.

  20. Transitioning EEG experiments away from the laboratory using a Raspberry Pi 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziek, Jonathan W P; Shienh, Axita; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) experiments are typically performed in controlled laboratory settings to minimise noise and produce reliable measurements. These controlled conditions also reduce the applicability of the obtained results to more varied environments and may limit their relevance to everyday situations. Advances in computer portability may increase the mobility and applicability of EEG results while decreasing costs. In this experiment we show that stimulus presentation using a Raspberry Pi 2 computer provides a low cost, reliable alternative to a traditional desktop PC in the administration of EEG experimental tasks. Significant and reliable MMN and P3 activity, typical event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with an auditory oddball paradigm, were measured while experiments were administered using the Raspberry Pi 2. While latency differences in ERP triggering were observed between systems, these differences reduced power only marginally, likely due to the reduced processing power of the Raspberry Pi 2. An auditory oddball task administered using the Raspberry Pi 2 produced similar ERPs to those derived from a desktop PC in a laboratory setting. Despite temporal differences and slight increases in trials needed for similar statistical power, the Raspberry Pi 2 can be used to design and present auditory experiments comparable to a PC. Our results show that the Raspberry Pi 2 is a low cost alternative to the desktop PC when administering EEG experiments and, due to its small size and low power consumption, will enable mobile EEG experiments unconstrained by a traditional laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The White Noise Generator programed on the Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ken; Ham, Katie; Schock, Kris; Dowling, Patrick; Kuzell, Chaz

    2014-03-01

    A Raspberry Pi computer, running a Linux based operating system, was programmed for use as a white noise generator. The program was written to output sine waves at a specific frequency with a randomly generated phase. This function generator was programmed specifically for an ongoing undergraduate research project. This research project involves the calculation of the speed of flow through a cylindrical pipe with 128 transducers equally spaced by 0.4 inches down the length of the pipe. The inputted white noise generated serves as an effective technique to induce multiple sine waves of a given frequency to the pipe, as the sine waves are generated at a random phase. Our research group would like to thank Dr. Ken McGill for all of his help, guidance, and time with this research project. We would also like to thank Georgia College and State University for providing the materials used in this experiment.

  2. Upon a Home Assistant Solution Based on Raspberry Pi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florentin IFTIMIE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ongoing research on Internet of Things (IoT has been focused on a project aiming to creating a proof of concept for a distributed system capable of controlling common devices found in a house such as TVs, air conditioning units, and other electrical devices. In order to automate these devices, the system integrates various sensors and actuators and, depending of user’s needs and creativity in conceiving and implementing new commands, the system is able to take care and execute the respective commands in a safe and secure manner. This paper presents our current research results upon a personal home assistant solution designed and built around Raspberry Pi V3 platform. The distributed, client-server approach enables users to control home electric and electronic devices from an Android based mobile application.

  3. The family house control system based on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design and implementation of a smart household based on simple wireless modules, which are monitoring (collecting data and controlling smart household supporting devices. The central unit processes measured parameters, and in relation to resulting values, a pre-set action is performed. Those actions variety can be configured by user via the user interface so that a set of smart rules for reaction on by household devices generated stimuli or problems can be created. That all together composes a control system based on Raspberry Pi, which manages indoor and outdoor temperature measurement, the lighting control, RF transmitter, jalousie, motion sensor control etc. There is a GUI for a PC and for a mobile phone as a part of that system.

  4. Sistem Informasi Lalu Lintas Berbasis Raspberry Pi PC Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmadina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing routine society in the era of globalization, the growth rate of the road and the vehicle becomes unbalanced so that cause traffic jams. Utilization of mini computers can help in the monitor of traffic density. This system implements Raspberry Pi equipped cameras to take pictures of the density of highways. The system is placed in a certain angle and height so that it can monitor the state of traffic. This research aims to build information systems using computer vision with background subtraction model. Image processed to produce data from calculation of contour feature such as traffic density which will be sent to the server. So in the end with this system information data traffic density directly can be known with accuracy of 87,6%.

  5. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  6. Enhanced Immunomodulatory Activity of Gelatin-Encapsulated Rubus coreanus Miquel Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2–3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2–3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in

  7. Enhanced immunomodulatory activity of gelatin-encapsulated Rubus coreanus Miquel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Choon Geun; Cha, Seon Woo; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Jin-Chul; Drummen, Gregor P C; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2-3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2-3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune cell

  8. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  9. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de Rubus fruticosus tratadas com AIB Rooting of stems and root cuttings of Rubus fruticosus using IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Hellen Tadeu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de Rubus fruticosus, tratadas com AIB. Estacas radiculares e caulinares dessa espécie foram coletadas em março, tendo posteriormente suas bases tratadas com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg L-1 por 10 segundos. O tratamento controle foi baseado somente no uso da água. As estacas caulinares foram enterradas a 2/3 de seu comprimento, em posição vertical, e as radiculares foram totalmente enterradas, na horizontal, utilizando-se a vermiculitaï como substrato, em telado com sombreamento de 50%. Após 60 dias, pôde-se concluir que as estacas caulinares apresentaram melhores resultados para formação das mudas, não se devendo tratá-las com AIB.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the rizogenic potential for stems and root cuttings of Rubus fruticosus treated with indolbutyric acid. Roots and stems cuttings of this specie were collected in March, and had their basal portions treated with different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 for 10 seconds. The control treatment used only water. The stem cuttings were planted with 2/3 of their length in the vertical position and the root cuttings were totally covered in the horizontal position, using vermiculite as substrate, in screenhouse with 50% of shade. After 60 days, the stem cuttings presented better results for seedling formation, without IBA.

  10. Comparative RNA-seq for the investigation of tolerance to Verticillium wilt in black raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb., a cause of verticillium wilt, is a wide-spread, soil-borne fungal pathogen with a wide host range that includes many fruit and vegetable crops. Verticillium dahliae has been isolated from Rubus species showing symptoms of the disease. Very little is known about the intera...

  11. Dietary black raspberry anthocyanins or processed black raspberry products do not alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) from various foods have been shown to minimize the development of obesity in some animal models. The objectives of the current study were: 1) to compare the effects of feeding purified black raspberry (BRB) ACNs or the freeze dried whole BRB on development of obesity and 2) to de...

  12. Em busca da sustentabilidade: células solares sensibilizadas por extratos naturais Toward sustainability: solar cells sensitized by natural extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Otávio T. Patrocínio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the use of anthocyanins extracted from mulberry (Morus Alba L., raspberry (Rubus Idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. The conversion efficiency of these devices is dependent on the extracts employed and can be rationalized in terms of their composition and spectral properties. Solar cells sensitized by the mulberry extract showed the highest efficiency among the fruits investigated. Moreover, a 16 cm² active area solar cell with the mulberry extract has presented fair good efficiency of conversion for natural dye-based solar cells, besides stability over twenty weeks, showing perspectives for developing these low cost devices with a commercial viability.

  13. Black raspberry fruit composition over two years from seedling populations grown at four U.S. geographic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a caneberry fruit recognized as a source of several phytoactive compounds. Fruit are most often used for processed products. As a specialty crop, black raspberry production is limited by its susceptibility to viruses, which reduce fruit size and yield and can kill the plant in a...

  14. Uptake and partitioning of nutrients in blackberry and raspberry and evaluating plant nutrient status for accurate assessment of fertilizer requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry and blackberry plantings have a relatively low nutrient requirement compared to many other perennial fruit crops. Annual total N accumulation ranged from 62-110 lb/a in red raspberry and 33-39 lb/a in blackberry. Primocanes rely primarily on fertilizer N for growth, whereas floricane growt...

  15. Expanding the scope of a single pathogen survey to solve the mystery of the ailing red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington state produces almost 60% of the processed raspberries ($79 M value) in the U.S. Production is severely limited by Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV) and the soilborne pathogens Phytophthora rubi and Pratylenchus penetrans. However, in 2012, growers began noticing plants with unusual symp...

  16. Bioconversion to raspberry ketone is achieved by several non-related plant cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Tuulikki Häkkinen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion, i.e. the use of biological systems to perform chemical changes in synthetic or natural compounds in mild conditions, is an attractive tool for the production of novel active or high-value compounds. Plant cells exhibit a vast biochemical potential, being able to transform a range of substances, including pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial by-products, via enzymatic processes. The use of plant cell cultures offers possibilities for contained and optimized production processes which can be applied in industrial scale. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenylbutan-2-one is among the most interesting natural flavour compounds, due to its high demand and significant market value. The biosynthesis of this industrially relevant flavour compound is relatively well characterised, involving the condensation of 4-coumaryl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by Type III polyketide synthase to form a diketide, and the subsequent reduction catalysed by an NADPH-dependent reductase. Raspberry ketone has been successfully produced by bioconversion using different hosts and precursors to establish more efficient and economical processes. In this work, we studied the effect of overexpressed RiZS1 in tobacco on precursor bioconversion to raspberry ketone. In addition, various wild type plant cell cultures were studied for their capacity to carry out the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using either 4-hydroxybenzalacetone or betuligenol as a substrate. Apparently plant cells possess rather widely distributed reductase activity capable of performing the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using cheap and readily available precursors.

  17. Bioconversion to Raspberry Ketone is Achieved by Several Non-related Plant Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi T.; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion, i.e., the use of biological systems to perform chemical changes in synthetic or natural compounds in mild conditions, is an attractive tool for the production of novel active or high-value compounds. Plant cells exhibit a vast biochemical potential, being able to transform a range of substances, including pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial by-products, via enzymatic processes. The use of plant cell cultures offers possibilities for contained and optimized production processes which can be applied in industrial scale. Raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one] is among the most interesting natural flavor compounds, due to its high demand and significant market value. The biosynthesis of this industrially relevant flavor compound is relatively well characterized, involving the condensation of 4-coumaryl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by Type III polyketide synthase to form a diketide, and the subsequent reduction catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent reductase. Raspberry ketone has been successfully produced by bioconversion using different hosts and precursors to establish more efficient and economical processes. In this work, we studied the effect of overexpressed RiZS1 in tobacco on precursor bioconversion to raspberry ketone. In addition, various wild type plant cell cultures were studied for their capacity to carry out the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using either 4-hydroxybenzalacetone or betuligenol as a substrate. Apparently plant cells possess rather widely distributed reductase activity capable of performing the bioconversion to raspberry ketone using cheap and readily available precursors. PMID:26635853

  18. The nutritional value of leaves of selected berry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Biel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although the medicinal properties of berry fruit are well known, there is relatively little information available concerning the applications of other parts of berry plants. Thus, in this study we determined the nutritional value of the leaves of selected berry species and their possible application in health promoting diets. The levels of nutrients, and macro- and microelements in the leaves of four species collected from allotment gardens in the city of Szczecin, Poland (53°26′17″ N, 14°32′32″ E; altitude 7 m a.s.l. were identified: raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L., chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L., and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Sea buckthorn leaves were the richest source of protein, raspberry leaves had the highest levels of lipids, and the leaves of all four species studied were a rich source of crude fibre and dietary fibre fractions. Desirable Ca:P and Na:K ratios indicated their potential as a good source of minerals essential to bone formation and the treatment of hypertension. Sea buckthorn leaves contained high but also safe Fe levels (within recommended WHO limits and, therefore, may become an alternative rich source of this element.

  19. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS...... effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry...

  20. RANCANGBANGUN DAN ANALISA CCTV ONLINE BERBASIS RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Adriansyah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available CCTV adalah camera video digital yang digunakan untuk mengirim sinyal gambar dari suatu tempat. Itu bertujuan memonitor situasi dan kondisi dari suatu tempat, sehingga mencegah terjadinya kriminalitas atau sebagai alat bukti suatu kriminalitas yang sudah terjadi. Ada dua pilihan dalam penggunaan kamera, menggunakan webcam atau IP camera. Pada paper ini menggunakan IP webcam karena lebih murah dari IP camera. Sistem  bekerja dengan  USB webcam yang dihubungkan dengan USB port Rasberry Pi, Raspberry Ethernet/LAN/RJ-45 port dihubungkan dengan modem/router ASDL. Ini terkoneksi dengan internet kemudian monitor situasi dan kondisi lokasi lewat smartphone secara streaming. Kecepatan tranfer video image dari server komputer menuju client tergantung dar ukuran dari resolusi, frame rate, bit rate dan speck kompuer clien serta posisi komputer network server  dan tempat client. Semakin tinggi resolusi video image maka  pengaturan delay yang terjadi semakin bagus. Objek display image video dari komputer clien selalu dari delay diesebabkan dari proses data diencoder dan decoder.

  1. Synthesis engineering of iron oxide raspberry-shaped nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, O; Pichon, B P; Ihiawakrim, D; Florea, I; Moldovan, S; Ersen, O; Begin, D; Grenèche, J-M; Lemonnier, S; Barraud, E; Begin-Colin, S

    2017-01-07

    Magnetic porous nanostructures consisting of oriented aggregates of iron oxide nanocrystals display very interesting properties such as a lower oxidation state of magnetite, and enhanced saturation magnetization in comparison with individual nanoparticles of similar sizes and porosity. However, the formation mechanism of these promising nanostructures is not well understood, which hampers the fine tuning of their magnetic properties, for instance by doping them with other elements. Therefore the formation mechanism of porous raspberry shaped nanostructures (RSNs) synthesized by a one-pot polyol solvothermal method has been investigated in detail from the early stages by using a wide panel of characterization techniques, and especially by performing original in situ HR-TEM studies in temperature. A time-resolved study showed the intermediate formation of an amorphous iron alkoxide phase with a plate-like lamellar structure (PLS). Then, the fine investigation of PLS transformation upon heating up to 500 °C confirmed that the synthesis of RSNs involves two iron precursors: the starting one (hydrated iron chlorides) and the in situ formed iron alkoxide precursor which decomposes with time and heating and contributes to the growth step of nanostructures. Such an understanding of the formation mechanism of RSNs is necessary to envision efficient and rational enhancement of their magnetic properties.

  2. Sistem Keamanan pada Lingkungan Pondok Pesantren Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ahmad Syahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu pelanggaran kedisiplinan yang sering dilakukan oleh para santri ialah keluar dari pondok pesantren pada saat jam belajar pondok maupun saat tidak ada kegiatan pondok, oleh karena itu diperlukan alat bantu modern untuk membantu para ustad mengawasi lingkungan pondok pesantren. Dimana alat tersebut diimplementasikan dengan  Raspberry Pi dan sensor PIR (passive infrared serta modul kamera yang digunakan untuk mengawasi santri. Sensor PIR digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya gerakan. Setelah terdeteksi sebuah gerakan, modul kamera akan diaktifkan kemudian akan melihat dan mendeteksi objek menggunakan histogram oriented of gradient (HOG. Ketika objek terdeteksi adalah manusia maka objek itu difoto kemudian pesan pemberitahuan pelanggaran yang berisi gambar hasil foto dan pesan singkat akan dikirim melalui email ke email ustad.Dari Uji coba sistem yang dibuat didapatkan hasil pendeteksian gerakan oleh sensor PIR dengan maksimal jarak 6 meter dan jarak pendeteksian oleh HOG berikisar antara 2 meter hingga 6 meter dan idealnya alat ini diletakkan 3 meter dari objek sehingga alat ini tepat digunakan untuk membantu meningkatkan penerapan ilmu kedisiplinan di lingkungan pondok pesantren.

  3. Raspberry Pi camera with intervalometer used as crescograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Surducan, Vasile

    2017-12-01

    The intervalometer is an attachment or facility on a photo-camera that operates the shutter regularly at set intervals over a period. Professional cameras with built in intervalometers are expensive and quite difficult to find. The Canon CHDK open source operating system allows intervalometer implementation on Canon cameras only. However finding a Canon camera with near infra-red (NIR) photographic lens at affordable price is impossible. On experiments requiring several cameras (used to measure growth in plants - the crescographs, but also for coarse evaluation of the water content of leaves), the costs of the equipment are often over budget. Using two Raspberry Pi modules each equipped with a low cost NIR camera and a WIFI adapter (for downloading pictures stored on the SD card) and some freely available software, we have implemented two low budget intervalometer cameras. The shutting interval, the number of pictures to be taken, image resolution and some other parameters can be fully programmed. Cameras have been in use continuously for three months (July-October 2017) in a relevant environment (outside), proving the concept functionality.

  4. Black raspberries in cancer clinical trials: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Stoner, Gary D

    Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including in vivo models of oral, esophageal, colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or patients at increased risk for cancer development. To summarize clinical investigations targeting cancer or precancerous lesions with BRB and discuss future directions. A thorough literature search was conducted through December 1, 2015 to identify all published studies evaluating BRB in cancer focused clinical trials. Research investigating BRB in clinical settings report positive effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and colon. BRB treatment resulted in: histologic regression of oral intraepithelial neoplasia associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, modulated genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling; in the colon, BRB inhibited FAP-associated polyp progression, demethylated tumor suppressor genes and improved plasma cytokine profiles; in Barrett's patients, BRB consumption increased tissue levels of GST-pi and decreased 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress. The precise dose, duration and optimum mode of BRB delivery for cancer inhibition remains to be fully elucidated. Common themes across studies support that BRB are anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory, reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity. Future directions are included in the conclusions section.

  5. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chres W. Sørensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, upcoming communications and storage networks are expected to tolerate major difficulties produced by huge amounts of data being generated from the Internet of Things (IoT. For these types of networks, strategies and mechanisms based on network coding have appeared as an alternative to overcome these difficulties in a holistic manner, e.g., without sacrificing the benefit of a given network metric when improving another. There has been recurrent issues on: (i making large-scale deployments akin to the Internet of Things; (ii assessing and (iii replicating the obtained results in preliminary studies. Therefore, finding testbeds that can deal with large-scale deployments and not lose historic data in order to evaluate these mechanisms are greatly needed and desirable from a research perspective. However, this can be hard to manage, not only due to the inherent costs of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications requiring results replicability.

  6. Heterologous production of raspberry ketone in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae via pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danna; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Pretorius, Isak S; Borneman, Anthony R

    2016-03-04

    Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in raspberries and naturally derived raspberry ketone is a valuable flavoring agent. The economic incentives for the production of raspberry ketone, combined with the very poor yields from plant tissue, therefore make this compound an excellent target for heterologous production in synthetically engineered microbial strains. A de novo pathway for the production of raspberry ketone was assembled using four heterologous genes, encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxlase, coumarate-CoA ligase and benzalacetone synthase, in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic protein fusions were also explored as a means of increasing yields of the final product. The highest raspberry ketone concentration achieved in minimal media exceeded 7.5 mg/L when strains were fed with 3 mM p-coumaric acid; or 2.8 mg/L for complete de novo synthesis, both of which utilized a coumarate-CoA ligase, benzalacetone synthase synthetic fusion protein that increased yields over fivefold compared to the native enzymes. In addition, this strain was shown to be able to produce significant amounts of raspberry ketone in wine, with a raspberry ketone titer of 3.5 mg/L achieved after aerobic fermentation of Chardonnay juice or 0.68 mg/L under anaerobic winemaking conditions. We have shown that it is possible to produce sensorially-relevant quantities of raspberry ketone in an industrial heterologous host. This paves the way for further pathway optimization to provide an economical alternative to raspberry ketone derived from plant sources.

  7. Dormancy and Germination of Castilla Blackberry Seeds (Rubus glaucus Benth / Latencia y Germinación de Semillas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackberry, harvested during the dry and rainy seasons. The seeds were germinated under light and dark conditions. The highest germination counts were obtained with the dry-season-collected seeds incubated in darkness and with the rainy-season seeds incubated under light conditions. Differential germination responses were also independently determined by genotype, incubation conditions (light or darkness and collecting season. / Se categorizaron la latencia y la germinación ensemillas de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth, provenientes del Sistema de Bancos de Germoplasma para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de la Nación Colombiana. La prueba del tetrazolio demostró que las semillas tenían la capacidad para dar origen a una plántula normal; sin embargo, al contacto con el agua la imbibición fue restringida por la impermeabilidad de la testa, lo que se considera como una expresión de latencia exógena. Ésta pudo ser removida con la inmersión de las semillas durante 16 a 21 horas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%. El tratamiento fue aplicado a 10 accesiones de mora de Castila cosechadas en épocas seca y lluviosa; las semillas se germinaron bajo condiciones deluz y oscuridad, con una mayor germinación al incubar lasprovenientes de tiempo seco en condiciones de oscuridad y en aquellas de época lluviosa al ser germinadas con luz. También al aplicar el procedimiento de remoción de latencia exógena se observaron respuestas germinativas diferenciales

  8. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante; Gabriel Roveda-Hoyos; Marcela Franco-Correa; María Margarita Ramírez-Gómez; Urley Adrian Pérez-Moncada

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) Glomus sp (GEV02). We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of...

  9. Formation of raspberry like cobalt particles with hydrazine reduction in a polyol route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, Cheng Seong; Aziz, Azizan; Lockman, Zainovia; Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Merican, Zulkifli; Vasant, Pandian

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of hydrazine hydrate on the formation of the raspberry-like morphology of the cobalt nanomaterials in a polyol route. In the synthesis, the molar ratio of N2H4 to Co2+was varied from 2.5 to 10. At the beginning with low molar ratio, spherical microspheres were formed. When the molar ratio was increased to 5 and above, final morphology of the cobalt nanomaterials became raspberry-like. This might be attributed to the absorption of the hydrazine complex of cobalt nanoparticles at certain facets during their growth stage and later self-assembled into the raspberry shaped microparticles. The plausible formation mechanism were proposed.

  10. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  11. Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT.

  12. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  13. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šustek Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  14. Applying the mini computer Raspberry Pi for introductory teaching of robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Černelič, Rok

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the mini computer Raspberry Pi, based on the Linux operating system. Through the basic and advanced examples it shows the use of components for capturing data and interfacing with the physical world. It explains the Python code for each example in detail. The examples are useful for teachers, who want to start using Raspberry Pi in their robotics class and Python programming. It is as well useful for enthusiasts in the filed of hoby robotics and programming with mini comp...

  15. Stability of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage: in relation to glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Sablani, Shyam S; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-08-01

    Anthocyanins, natural plant pigments in the flavonoid group, are responsible for the red color and some of the nutraceutical benefits of raspberries. This study explores anthocyanin degradation in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during storage in relation to glass transition temperatures. Frozen raspberries were stored at -80, -35, and -20 °C, while freeze-dried raspberries were stored at selected water activity (a(w)) values ranging from 0.05 to 0.75 at room temperature (23 °C) for more than a year. The characteristic glass transition temperatures (T'(g)) of raspberries with high water content and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of raspberries with small water content were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The pH differential method was used to determine the quantity of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries at selected time intervals. The total anthocyanins in raspberries fluctuated during 378 d of storage at -20 and -35, and -80 °C. Anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries ranged from 27% to 32% and 78% to 89% at a(w) values of 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.11 to 0.43, respectively, after 1 y. Anthocyanins were not detectable in freeze-dried raspberries stored at a(w) values of 0.53 to 0.75 after 270 d. First order and Weibull equations were used to fit the anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries. The 1(st)-order rate constant (k) of anthocyanin degradation ranged from 0.003 to 0.023 days⁻¹ at the selected water activities. Significant anthocyanin degradation occurred in both the glassy and rubbery states of freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage. However, the rate of anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries stored in the glassy state was significantly smaller than the rate of anthocyanin degradation in the rubbery state. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  17. Phytochemicals in blackberry/ Fitoquímicos em amora-preta (Rubus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carlos Zambiazi

    Full Text Available Among the options for fruit species with market prospects, the blackberry (Rubus spp stands out as one of the most promising. This is a species that has shown an increase of cultivated area in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (main Brazilian producer. Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with low risk of incidence and mortality from cancer and heart disease due to the presence of compounds derived from secondary metabolism, especially flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have great capacity to react with free radicals that cause oxidative stress, and therefore contribute to the prevention of these diseases. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were identificated in the group of phenolic compounds in blackberry. Among the flavonoids, stands out the anthocyanins, which vary in concentration according to the stage of maturation of fruits. Based on the antocyanin content related in literature and the great variation between different genetic materials, there is great potential in the production of blackberry and its utilization as a natural colorant in the food and pharmaceuticals industry. In addition to these compounds, the blackberry also has other phytochemicals such as vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. This paper aims to review literature of the main phytochemicals in blackberry (Rubus spp.Dentre as opções de espécies frutíferas com perspectivas de comercialização, a amoreira-preta (Rubus spp se destaca como uma das mais promissoras. Esta é uma das espécies que tem apresentado um crescimento de área cultivada nos últimos anos no Rio Grande do Sul (principal produtor brasileiro. O consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças está associado com o baixo risco de incidência e mortalidade por câncer e doenças cardíacas, devido à presença de compostos oriundos do metabolismo secundário, especialmente flavonóides e antocianinas, os quais apresentam grande capacidade de reagir com radicais livres que causam estresse

  18. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  19. Chiral resolution and bioactivity of enantiomeric benzofuran neolignans from the fruit of Rubus ideaus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Xi, Yu-Fei; Wang, Wei; Lin, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2018-01-31

    Rubus ideaus L., a member of the Rosaceae family, is popular for its distinctive flavor and attractive red color. In order to explore the functional factors possibly presented in the fruit, seven new benzofuran neolignans (1a/1b-3a/3b and 4b), together with one known neolignan 4a, were isolated from the fruit of R. ideaus. Compounds 1a/1b-4a/4b as four pairs of enantiomers were separated on a chiral chromatographic column. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses, including UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR, and comparing their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with calculated ECD spectra. Additionally, all these enantiomeric compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-Aβ 1-42 aggregation activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

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    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  1. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of freeze-dried raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, i.e. the total content of bioactive compounds (phenolics 2209.86 ± 70.32 mg GAE/100g FDR, flavonoids 831.87 ± 12.61 mg R/100g FDR and anthocyanins 144.55 ± 0.39 mg CGE/100g FDR, in freeze-dried raspberry (FDR was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Vitamin C content was determined by HPLC analysis (88.81 ± 4.38 mg vit C/100g FDR. Antioxidant activities of FDR extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically on stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR method on hydroxyl radicals (•OH. EC50 values were evaluated. EC50 DPPH• was 0.127 ± 0.013 mg/ml, while EC50 •OH was 1.366 ± 0.026 mg/ml. Antiproliferative activity of the FDR extract was evaluated in vitro in three human cell lines by colorimetric sulphorhodamine B (SRB assay. The most pronounced effects were obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7. EC50 value was 395.07 ± 96.38 μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity was determined by disk diffusion method. The FDR extract produced a clear inhibition zone (without visible colonies only toward Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal bactericidal (MBC concentrations of FDR extract were evaluated. The values MIC were in the range of 4.7 - 100 mg/ml, and of MBC in the range of 6.3 - > 100 mg/ml.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  2. Ellagic acid derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and improve response to antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections.This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2 rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae, a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50-200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530-1040 µg/mL. This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects.These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  3. Traditional herbal drugs of southern Uganda. Part III: isolation and methods for physical characterization of bioactive alkanols from Rubus apetalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, F A; Apio, S; Mubiru, N K; Mosango, M; Bukenya-Ziraba, R; Maganyi, O W; Soejarto, D D

    2003-07-01

    The East African plant Rubus apetalus Poir. was collected as a component of an ethnobotanical survey in southern Uganda. No phytochemical investigations of this plant have been found in the literature. Preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed in Uganda indicated biological activity against several bacterial and one fungal human pathogen. Bulk re-collection of Rubus apetalus was accomplished and crude extraction performed in preparation for further testing. Two chemical fractions of the crude extract were active in the antimicrobial susceptibility assay. Fractionation of one of the active crude fractions led to the isolation and elucidation of a mixture of related compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=62 microg/ml), Streptococcus faecalis (16 microg/ml) and Candida albicans (32 microg/ml).

  4. (+)-methyl jasmonate-induced bioformation of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in red raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Ruiz del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2010-11-24

    The effect of postharvest treatment with enantiomers of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in conjunction with ethanol on bioformation of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in red raspberry was studied. For comparison, postharvest treatment with the commercial stereoisomeric mixture of MJ in conjunction with ethanol was simultaneously accomplished. The levels obtained were contrasted with those determined in untreated (control) samples. Exogenous (+)-MJ induced an enhancement in the levels of myricetin, quercetin and, particularly, kaempferol whereas the exposition to (-)-MJ exhibited the opposite effect. Enzymatic assays were carried out in presence and absence of (-)-MJ and (+)-MJ to evaluate possible changes in the activity of the enzymes regulating the bioformation of flavonols in red raspberries as a consequence of the treatments. From the results of the assays both (-)-MJ and (+)-MJ inhibited the activity of flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (FHT) and flavonol synthase (FLS), which are directly involved in the formation of flavonols from (-/+)-naringenin. From these results, it is speculated that the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) regulating the formation of (-/+)-naringenin from l-phenylalanine by (+)-MJ in conjunction with ethanol is promoted. Postharvest treatment of red raspberry with (+)-MJ in ethanol is proposed as a mean to increase flavonol content in red raspberries.

  5. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  6. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  7. Method for Reduction of Pesticide Residue Levels in Raspberry and Blackcurrant Based on Utilization of Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balawejder Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method for the reduction of pesticide residues in soft fruits based on utilization of ozone was proposed. The procedure allows for effective reduction of boscalid residues by 38% in raspberries, and about 58% thiram in blackcurrants. Furthermore, it can be used on an industrial scale.

  8. ‘Razz’ highbush blueberry: A specialty cultivar with raspberry-flavored fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Razz’ represents a distinct a...

  9. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo

    2016-09-01

    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  10. A Low-Cost Wireless Multi-Presentation on Single Screen in Classroom Using Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Layona, Rita; Dewi, Lusiana Citra

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone has become a daily necessity in supporting the mobility of users, including teachers and students. The need of users to make multi-presentation via a smartphone wirelessly does not fit with the cost and multiplatform support. This study aims to produce a solution by using Raspberry Pi as a wireless digital media player that will be…

  11. Uav Photogrammetric Solution Using a Raspberry pi Camera Module and Smart Devices: Test and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M.; Grasso, N.; Jabbar, A. Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, smart technologies are an important part of our action and life, both in indoor and outdoor environment. There are several smart devices very friendly to be setting, where they can be integrated and embedded with other sensors, having a very low cost. Raspberry allows to install an internal camera called Raspberry Pi Camera Module, both in RGB band and NIR band. The advantage of this system is the limited cost (Raspberry Pi with the Camera Module was installed onto a UAV hexacopter based on arducopter system, with purpose to collect pictures for photogrammetry issue. Firstly, the system was tested with aim to verify the performance of RPi camera in terms of frame per second/resolution and the power requirement. Moreover, a GNSS receiver Ublox M8T was installed and connected to the Raspberry platform in order to collect real time position and the raw data, for data processing and to define the time reference. IMU was also tested to see the impact of UAV rotors noise on different sensors like accelerometer, Gyroscope and Magnetometer. A comparison of the achieved results (accuracy) on some check points of the point clouds obtained by the camera will be reported as well in order to analyse in deeper the main discrepancy on the generated point cloud and the potentiality of these proposed approach. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be analysed.

  12. Real-time ground motions monitoring system developed by Raspberry Pi 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Jang, J. P.; Chang, H.; Lin, C. R.; Lin, P. P.; Wang, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-motions seismic stations are usually installed in the special geological area, like high possibility landslide area, active volcanoes, or nearby faults, to real-time monitor the possible geo-hazards. Base on the demands, three main issues needs to be considered: size, low-power consumption and real-time data transmission. Raspberry Pi 3 has the suitable characteristics to fit our requests. Thus, we develop a real-time ground motions monitoring system by Raspberry Pi 3. The Raspberry Pi has the credit-card-sized with single-board computers. The operating system is based on the programmable Linux system.The volume is only 85.6 by 53.98 by 17 mm with USB and Ethernet interfaces. The power supply is only needed 5 Volts and 2.1 A. It is easy to get power by using solar power and transmit the real-time data through Ethernet or by the mobile signal through USB adapter. As Raspberry Pi still a kind of small computer, the service, software or GUI can be very flexibly developed, such as the basic web server, ftp server, SSH connection, and real-time visualization interface tool etc. Until now, we have developed ten instruments with on-line/ real-time data transmission and have installed in the Taiping Mountain in Taiwan to motor the geohazard like mudslide.

  13. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  14. Distribution and longevity of Pratylenchus penetrans in the red raspberry production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major production constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on pre-plant soil fumigation, however regulations have made the practice more d...

  15. Mapping and expression of genes associated with raspberry fruit ripening and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Craig G; Cullen, Danny W; Hackett, Christine A; Smith, Kay; Hallett, Paul D; McNicol, Jim; Woodhead, Mary; Graham, Julie

    2017-03-01

    QTL mapping identifies a range of underlying and unrelated genes with apparent roles in raspberry fruit ripening and softening that show characteristic developing fruit expression profiles. Fruit softening is an important agronomical trait that involves a complex interaction of plant cell processes. We have used both qualitative and quantitative scoring of fruit firmness, length, mass, and resistance to applied force to identify QTL in a raspberry mapping population. QTLs were located primarily on linkage group (LG) 3 with other significant loci on LG 1 and LG 5 and showed mostly additive effects between the two parents. The expression of key genes that underlie these QTLs with roles in cell-wall solubility, water uptake, polyamine synthesis, transcription, and cell respiration was tested across five stages of fruit development, from immature green to red ripe fruit, using real-time RT-qPCR. Gene expression patterns showed variable expression patterns across fruit development with a highly significant positive and negative correlation between genes, supporting precise regulation of expression of different cell processes throughout raspberry fruit development. Variable timing in expression was also found in some genes at different fruit development stages between soft and firm cultivars. Multiple processes have a role to play in fruit softening and this will require development of multiple marker combinations to genes that characterise raspberry fruit softening.

  16. Novel colon-available triterpenoids identified in raspberry fruits exhibit antigenotoxic activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Latimer, Cheryl; McMullan, Geoff; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2017-02-01

    Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into digestion of food, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites important to gut health. We previously reported the consistent increase of components in ileal fluids of ileostomates after consumption of raspberries with use of nontargeted LC-MSn techniques and data deconvolution software highlighting two major unknown components (m/z 355 and 679). In-depth LC-MSn analyses suggested that the ileal m/z 355 components were p-coumaroyl glucarates. These compounds have not been identified previously and were confirmed in raspberry extracts after partial purification. The major ileal component with m/z 679 was a glycoside with an aglycone of m/z 517 and was present as two peaks in extracts of whole puree, unseeded puree, and isolated seeds. These components were purified using Sephadex LH20 and C18 SPE units and identified as major, novel raspberry triterpenoid glycosides. This triterpenoid-enriched fraction (100 nM) protected against H2 O2 -induced DNA damage in both colon cancer and normal cell lines and altered expression of cytoprotective genes. The presence of these novel raspberry triterpenoid components in ileal fluids indicates that they would be colon-available in vivo, so confirmation of their anticancer bioactivities is of key physiological relevance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  18. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2014-06-01

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n = 19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powders), were purchased and analyzed for their anthocyanin composition and concentration. Seven of the 19 samples contained no anthocyanins from black raspberry fruit, while three of those seven (without black raspberry fruit) had no anthocyanins of any kind. There was a wide range of anthocyanin concentration within the remaining products (18.1-2,904.8 mg/100 g; n = 12). When expressed as per capsule or per ∼1 teaspoon, concentration ranged from 0.1 to 145.2 mg (average 28 mg; n = 12). Until US dietary supplement labeling comes under regulatory oversight similar to food guidelines, foods are a more dependable source for dietary phenolics than supplements.

  19. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  20. Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightle, D M; Quito-Avila, D; Martin, R R; Lee, J C

    2014-04-01

    Amphorophora agathonica (Hottes) is the primary vector of aphid-transmitted viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the lower developmental threshold and studied the seasonal activity of A. agathonica in commercial fields in northern Washington state. In addition, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (raspberry latent virus and raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was estimated to be 2.7°C. In the field, apterous and alate aphid populations began rapidly increasing at ≍800 growing degree-days and peaked at 1,050 growing degree-days. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30-60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible relationship between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

  1. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of non-active polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect ...

  2. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  3. Red Raspberry Phenols Inhibit Angiogenesis: A Morphological and Subcellular Analysis Upon Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M; Machado, V; Costa, R; Figueira, M E; Sepodes, B; Barata, P; Ribeiro, L; Soares, R

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols are a class of natural compounds whose potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenesis has been reported in many pathological conditions. Red raspberry extract, rich in polyphenols, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects and prevent cell proliferation in distinct animal models. However, the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Herein, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to determine the influence of red raspberry phenolic compound extract concentrations, ranging from 10 to 250 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL, on endothelium viability (MTS assay), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), migration (injury assay), and capillary-like structures formation (Matrigel assay). Protein expression in cell lysates was determined by Western blot analysis. We showed that red raspberry extracts reduced cell viability (GI50  = 87,64 ± 6,59 μg GAE/mL) and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant abrogation of cells ability to migrate to injured areas, even at low concentrations, was observed by injury assay. Cell assembly into capillary-like structures on Matrigel also decreased in a dose dependent-manner for higher extract concentrations, as well as the number of branching points per unit of area. Protein expression analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Phospho-VEGFR2 expression, implying abrogation of VEGF signaling activity. We also showed for the first time that red raspberry phenolic compounds induce the rearrangement of filamentous actin cytoskeleton, with an isotropy increase found for higher testing concentrations. Taken together, our findings corroborate the anti-angiogenic potential of red raspberry phenolic compounds and provide new insights into their mode of action upon endothelium. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1604-1612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  5. Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Schultz, A C; Fonager, J; Jensen, T; Lisby, M; Hindsdal, K; Krusell, L; Eshøj, A; Møller, L T; Porsbo, L J; Böttiger, B E; Kuhn, K; Engberg, J; Ethelberg, S

    2015-08-01

    Norovirus outbreaks occur frequently in Denmark and it can be difficult to establish whether apparently independent outbreaks have the same origin. Here we report on six outbreaks linked to frozen raspberries, investigated separately over a period of 3 months. Norovirus from stools were sequence-typed; including extended sequencing of 1138 bp encompassing the hypervariable P2 region of the capsid gene. Norovirus was detected in 27 stool samples. Genotyping showed genotype GI.Pb_GI.6 (polymerase/capsid) with 100% identical sequences. Samples from five outbreaks were furthermore identical over the variable capsid P2 region. In one outbreak at a hospital canteen, frozen raspberries was associated with illness by cohort investigation (relative risk 6·1, 95% confidence interval 3·2-11). Bags of raspberries suspected to be the source were positive for genogroup I and II noroviruses, one typable virus was genotype GI.6 (capsid). These molecular investigations showed that the apparently independent outbreaks were the result of one contamination event of frozen raspberries. The contaminated raspberries originated from a single producer in Serbia and were originally not considered to belong to the same batch. The outbreaks led to consultations and mutual visits between producers, investigators and authorities. Further, Danish legislation was changed to make heat-treatment of frozen raspberries compulsory in professional catering establishments.

  6. Raspberry ketone in food supplements--High intake, few toxicity data--A cause for safety concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS) based on a NOAEL of 280 mg/kg bw/day for lower weight gain in rats is 165 at 100 mg and 12 at 1400 mg. The recommended doses are a concern taking into account the TTC and MOS. Investigations of raspberry ketone in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated potential cardiotoxic effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of a glucan from the roots of Rubus crataegifolius Bge. and its immunological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Zhang, Xu; Bi, Hongtao; Iteku, Jeff; Ji, Li; Sun, Chengxin; Fang, Jinbo; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Zhao, Jimin

    2009-12-14

    A water-soluble glucan (RCP-1) was prepared from the roots of Rubus crataegifolius Bge. by extraction with hot-water, deproteination by Sevag reagent, alpha-amylase treatment and ultrafiltration. RCP-1 consisted of only glucose, and its molecular weight was determined to be approximately 7KD by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), methylation and periodate oxidation analyses indicated that RCP-1 was an alpha-d-glucan. Its main chains were composed of (1-->4)- and (1-->6)-linked alpha-glucopyranosyls, and side chains were single alpha-glucopyranosyl residues attached to the O-6 of glucosyls in the main chains. RCP-1 could increase both cytotoxic activity against B16 melanoma cells and the production of nitric oxide (NO) of macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo bioassay tests indicated that RCP-1 could remarkably enhance T and B lymphocyte proliferations, augment the phagocytosis of macrophages and increase the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in serum.

  8. Quantitative and fingerprint analyses of Chinese sweet tea plant ( Rubus suavissimus S. Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Guixin; Xu, Shun-Jun; Liu, Dong; Koh, Gar Yee; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-02-11

    The quality of botanical food is increasingly assessed by the content of multiple bioactive compounds. This study reports, for the first time, an HPLC fingerprinting method for the quality evaluation of Rubus suavissimus leaves possessing multiple bioactivities. Five constituents, gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, rubusoside, and steviol monoside, were quantified and used in developing qualitative chromatographic fingerprints. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.29 to 37.86 mug/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and interday precisions were no more than 3.14 and 3.01%, respectively. The average recoveries were between 93.1 and 97.5%. The developed method was validated in the analysis 14 leaf samples with satisfactory results. The contents of the five marker compounds accounted for an average of about 6% w/w with a variability of 16% among the 14 samples collected from a single site and year. Gallic acid was the least, whereas steviol monoside the most, variable compound among the 14 leaf samples. The characteristic compound rubusoside that is responsible for the sweet taste accounted for 5% of leaf weight. The validated method can now be used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the quality of R. suavissimus leaves as traditional beverage or potential medicines.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Rubus pungens var. oldhamii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaojie; Chen, Jiajing; Wang, Lizhi; Cao, Jingjing; Xu, Lishan

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a study on chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties of the essential oil from leaves of Rubus pungens var. oldhamii (REO). The major component of the REO is sesquiterpenes (36.04%), which consists of 1,5-Cyclooctadiene,3-(1-me thylallyl)-(8CI)(17.66%), 5,6-Diethenyl-1-methylcyclohexene (12%), (+) - γ-Elemene (10.48%) and β-Caryophyllene (8.39%).The REO is shown to be moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium glaucum, and has weak antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, tyrosinase inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (L-tyrosine). IC 50 values of REO and arbutin were found 0.923 and 0.657 mg/mL, respectively. The REO exerted potential antityrosinase activity. Our test results indicated that the REO was rich in sesquiterpenes, and also exhibited good antityrosinase activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms. The REO can be used as a natural source of promising antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibiting agent.

  10. Quality baseline of the castilla blackberry (Rubus glaucus in its food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Iza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for improvement in the performance of the food chain of castilla blackberry (Rubus glaucus in order to potentiate their productivity can only start from a baseline or situational diagnosis of the quality of the fruit and hence identify the main points of improvement. The food chain of the fruit identifies three stages, harvest, post-harvest (storage and transport and marketing or sale. The diagnosis in each stage began with reverse mode. It was identified the most representative producer and the supplying for traders to the point of sale. The quality evaluation of the fruit was performed through chemical and physical characterization in the four stages. Weight loss or losses were evident in all stages, light no significant changes of color from bright red bluish hue in the collection stage until opaque bluish red or off, at the stage of sale due to the short cycle time and the characteristics non-climacteric fruit. However, at all stages of collection, storage, transportation and sale, they presented significant changes in the indices of maturity which meant an increase of sugars, decreased of pH, and increase acidity. The results indicate that the fruit changed its physicochemical characteristics during the stages of the food chain affecting its productivity.

  11. Phenolic extracts of Rubus ulmifolius Schott flowers: characterization, microencapsulation and incorporation into yogurts as nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Fernandes, Isabel P; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-06-01

    Rubus ulmifolius Schott (Rosaceae), known as wild blackberry, is a perennial shrub found in wild and cultivated habitats in Europe, Asia and North Africa. Traditionally, it is used for homemade remedies because of its medicinal properties, including antioxidant activity. In the present work, phenolic extracts of R. ulmifolius flower buds obtained by decoction and hydroalcoholic extraction were chemically and biologically characterized. Several phenolic compounds were identified in both decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of flowers, ellagitannin derivatives being the most abundant ones, namely the sanguiin H-10 isomer and lambertianin. Additionally, comparing with the decoction form, the hydroalcoholic extract presented both higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The hydroalcoholic extract was thereafter microencapsulated in an alginate-based matrix and incorporated into a yogurt to achieve antioxidant benefits. In what concerns the performed incorporation tests, the obtained results pointed out that, among the tested samples, the yoghurt containing the microencapsulated extract presented a slightly higher antioxidant activity, and that both forms (free and microencapsulated extracts) gave rise to products with higher activity than the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antioxidant potential of the R. ulmifolius hydroalcoholic extract and the effectiveness of the microencapsulation technique used for its preservation, thus opening new prospects for the exploitation of these natural phenolic extracts in food applications.

  12. A blackberry (Rubus L.) expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewers, Kim S; Saski, Chris A; Cuthbertson, Brandon J; Henry, David C; Staton, Meg E; Main, Dorrie S; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Rowland, Lisa J; Tomkins, Jeff P

    2008-06-20

    The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L.) cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST) library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR), and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry.

  13. Rubus rosaefolius extract as a natural preservative candidate in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Elissa Arantes; Marcondes, Elda Maria Cecilio; Nishikawa, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Varca, Gustavo Henrique Costa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli; Consiglieri, T Vladi Olga; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2011-06-01

    Even though the synthetic preservatives may offer a high antimicrobial efficacy, they are commonly related to adverse reactions and regarded as having potentially harmful effects caused by chronic consumption. The development of natural preservatives provides a way of reducing the amount of synthetic preservatives normally used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In addition, these agents have less toxic effects and represent a possible natural and safer alternative of the preservatives. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the Rubus rosaefolius Smith extract efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. Of the extract, 0.2% (w/w) was assayed for its effectiveness of antimicrobial protection in two different base formulations (emulsion and gel). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standard procedures proposed by The United States Pharmacopoeia 33nd, European Pharmacopoeia 6th, Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th, and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association using standardized microorganisms. The results demonstrated that R. rosaefolius extract at the studied concentration reduced the bacterial inocula, satisfying the criterion in all formulations, even though it was not able to present an effective preservative behavior against fungi. Thus, the investigation of new natural substances with preservative properties that could be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products is relevant due to the possibility of substituting or decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives, providing a way for the development of safer formulas for the use of consumers.

  14. Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP Pada Jaringan Nirkabel Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Handayani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan satu teknologi telekomunikasi yang mampu melewatkan layanan komunikasi dalam jaringan Internet Protocol sehingga memungkinkan antar pengguna berkomunikasi suara dalam jaringan IP. Kelebihan dari VoIP ini mampu melakukan efisiensi bandwith dan biaya pengelolaan dengan memanfaatkan Raspberry Pi sebagai server VoIP. Dalam penelitian ini, VoIP dibangun pada Sistem Operasi Linux dengan aplikasi Asterisk dan RasPBX yang diintegrasikan pada Raspberry Pi dengan menggunakan jaringan nirkabel lokal sebagai media transmisi. Sistem ini diujikan dengan menggunakan dua tipe client, yaitu PC dan smartphone dengan mengukur QoS dengan rata-rata delay 0.4463ms, rata-rata throughput 16.36KBps, rata-rata packet loss 0.889% dan jitter 1.102ms.

  16. PROTOTIPE SISTEM KONTROL JARAK JAUH BEBERAPA ALAT PENDINGIN RUANGAN BERBASIS RASPBERRY PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mochamad subianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini pengendalian on/off berbagai piranti listrik kebanyakan masih dikendalikan dengan menekan tombol saklar atau remote yang penggunaannya dengan jarak yang dekat. Untuk menjawab kebutuhan masyarakat tentang sistem kontrol yang cepat dan dinamis diperlukan suatu teknologi sistem kontrol jarak jauh yang memungkinkan proses secara cepat agar dapat menghemat waktu dan tenaga khususnya pengendalian beberapa alat pendingin ruangan yang berada di beberapa ruangan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian lanjutan dari peneliti terdahulu dan menggunakan perangkat yang mempunyai teknolgi terbaru yaitu Raspberry Pi sebagai pengendali untuk membuat suatu sistem kontrol beberapa AC (Air Conditioning pada ruangan yang berbeda secara jarak jauh. Diharapkan dapat sebagai salah satu solusi untuk perkembangan gaya hidup dan dinamika sosial saat ini yang semakin mementingkan kepraktisan dan efisiensi. Metodologi penelitian yang akan digunakan menggunakan metodologi waterfall dengan tahap-tahapannya yaitu tinjauan pustaka, analisa kebutuhan pengguna, analisis sistem, perancangan sistem, implementasi dan pengujian. Hasil akhir dari penelitian adalah prototipe pengendali jarak jauh beberapa perangkat AC Raspberry Pi.

  17. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  18. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

  19. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  20. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... a popular network node choice due to its reduced size, processing capabilities, low cost and its support by widely-used operating systems. For information transport, network coding is a new paradigm for fast and reliable data processing in networking and storage systems which overcomes various limitations...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...

  1. Estudios preliminares para la propagación clonal "in vitro" de mora (Rubus glaucus L. Preliminary studies on In Vitro clonal propagation of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez del Castillo Amparo

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de obtener in vitro plántulas de mora (Rubus glaucus L. que permitan adelantar la micropropagación de la especie, se obtuvieron yemas axilares activas de plantas de mora cultivadas en invernadero. Dichos explantes fueron llevados a" tubo de ensayo, despuésde eliminar primordios
    foliares más'externos. Se encontró que una inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% por cinco minutos dio el mejor resultado para desinfección: concentraciones y tiempos mayores no promueven supervivencia del explante. En segundotérmino sedefinió el uso del mejor antioxidante, ya que se detectó un proceso de oxidación generalizado desde el inicio del cultivo in vitro. Al probar varios antioxidantes y clases de sustratos se determinó como el mejor antioxidante el ácido ascórbico (100 ppm adicionado a la solución nutritiva y como mejor sustrato el líquido sobre papel. Se realizaron ensayos con el objeto de obtener un balance hormonal óptimo. Se probó el efecto de Kinetina y la BAP en diferentes concentraciones adicionadas a un medio básico MS suplementado con ANA (0,1 ppm; calificando desarrollo de ptántula, número de follolos y presenciade callo; se determinó la BAP (2ppm como responsable del mejor resultado. En el siguiente ensayo se probó interacción citoqulninagiberelina; los mejores resultados se obtuvieron
    con AG3 (1ppm y BAP (2ppm. Posteriormente se planteó un ensayo con el objeto de obtener tallos verdaderos y brotes múltiples, para lo cual se quiso probar AlA en interacción con las hormonas anteriormente probadas, con concentraciones de AlA de 0.1 ppm, BAP (2ppm y AG3 (1ppm obteniendo como resultado de esta interacción plántulas óptimas para micropropagación. Los datos de la valoración de desarrollo de las plántulas, brotes múltiples, tallo verdadero, número de folíolos, presencia o no de callos, presencia o ausencia de raíces, fueron analizados estadísticamente con base en un diseño completamente al

  2. Botrytis cinerea in raspberry in Serbia I: Morphological and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and molecular characterisation of 130 isolates of Botrytis cinerea, derived from raspberry fruit originating from six commercial fields in a raspberry growing region of Serbia (locations: Požega, Prilike, Arilje, Ivanjica, Šabac and Valjevo was performed. The results showed that all isolates formed white, uniform, aerial mycelia with entire margin on PDA medium. First morphological differences among the isolates appeared after six days of incubation. Three-week old isolates were grouped into eight distinct morphological types – four mycelial and four sclerotial. Mostly, they were of sclerotial type (81.5% and the most frequently found was an S3 type, which formed large irregularly placed sclerotia. This type was dominant in five of six investigated locations and represented 45-65% of the isolates. The least frequent was the mycelial type M3 (0.7% of the isolates characterized by mycelial masses. The presence of Boty and/or Flipper transposons was detected in isolates originating from all investigated locations. It was discovered that the B. cinerea population in raspberry in Serbia, besides the well-described genetically isolated sympatric species transposa (43.1% and vacuma (10.8%, contains also another two, boty (44.6% and flipper (1.5% species with only one transposon (either Boty or Flipper in the genome. In addition, it was revealed that all isolates from raspberry collected in Serbia, transposa, vacuma, boty or flipper, are sensitive or weakly resistant to fenhexamid and therefore belong to the B. cinerea genetical Group II.

  3. Development and Application of a Wireless, Networked Raspberry Pi Controlled Head Mounted Tactile Display (HMTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    other. 3.2.4.2 Network Communication We used a TCP/IP client– server protocol over wireless ad hoc mode for network communication. Two Wi-Fi capable...became an ideal replacement. The RPi’s size and weight support HMTD portability; the ad hoc wireless-networking mode allows a network of them to move...Raspberry Pi, wireless ad hoc networking, head-mounted tactile display, tactile communication, HMTD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  4. Design and Implementation of Smart Attendance System Based On Raspberry pi

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder Fadhil Abdulsada

    2017-01-01

    The attendance system proposed is used to manage attendance system in large and branched factory or university from central unit. It consists of terminal units and a central unit. Each terminal unit consists of Raspberry pi, screen GUI, RFID, transponder card with each user (like student) and GSM board. The central unit consists of Arduino, GSM board and a computer. Each unit has a special program to achieve its purpose. The terminal unit is responsible of making a connection with a transpond...

  5. Experimental model of Low Power NAS and Cloud drive based on Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Kandov, I.

    2015-01-01

    — Mobile technologies and in particular the use of cloud space are successfully integrated on the web and their users are increasing every day. The idea of cloud is that each user has his own place to store information that can be access from anywhere. Much of the cost of the service depends on the amount of space used. The idea is to use the Raspberry PI as a network storage, that later can be used as cloud server

  6. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  7. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tivnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications.

  8. The raspberry model for protein-like particles: Ellipsoids and confinement in cylindrical pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustach, Vincent D.; Faller, Roland

    2016-10-01

    The study of protein mass transport via atomistic simulation requires time and length scales beyond the computational capabilities of modern computer systems. The raspberry model for colloidal particles in combination with the mesoscopic hydrodynamic method of lattice Boltzmann facilitates coarse-grained simulations that are on the order of microseconds and hundreds of nanometers for the study of diffusive transport of protein-like colloid particles. The raspberry model reproduces linearity in resistance to motion versus particle size and correct enhanced drag within cylindrical pores at off-center coordinates for spherical particles. Owing to the high aspect ratio of many proteins, ellipsoidal raspberry colloid particles were constructed and reproduced the geometric resistance factors of Perrin and of Happel and Brenner in the laboratory-frame and in the moving body-frame. Accurate body-frame rotations during diffusive motion have been captured for the first time using projections of displacements. The spatial discretization of the fluid leads to a renormalization of the hydrodynamic radius, however, the data describes a self-consistent hydrodynamic frame within this renormalized system.

  9. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivnan, Matthew; Gurjar, Rajan; Wolf, David E; Vishwanath, Karthik

    2015-08-12

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications.

  10. Otomatisasi Pelayanan Binatu Berbasis Raspberry Pi Untuk Meningkatkan Efektivitas Dan Efisiensi Kegiatan Operasional Dan Pelayanan Binatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Habsyi Yesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisnis binatu (laundry atau bisnis jasa cuci pakaian merupakan bisnis yang menggiurkan saat sekarang ini. Proses layanan binatu umumnya terdiri dari pendaftaran, pengolahan, dan pengambilan pakaian. Proses ini memiliki banyak kekurangan yaitu pendaftaran manual tidak efektif dan efisien, pengolahan pakaian hanya diketahui oleh penyedia layanan binatu, dan pelanggan tidak mengetahui pakaian telah selesai. Ditengah persaingan bisnis yang begitu ketat, pelayanan konsumen merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting. Penyedia jasa dituntut untuk berinovasi untuk menyediakan layanan jasa yang efektif dan efisien. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan otomatisasi pelayanan binatu berbasis raspberry pi. Sistem ini menggunakan timbangan digital berbasis load cell, teknologi radio frequency identification (RFID sebagai masukan data otomatis, Raspberry Pi sebagai pusat dari pengolahan basis data (database, dan webserver sebagai pusat informasi bagi pelanggan. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan beberapa kesimpulan. Timbangan digital memiliki eror rata-rata 0,88 %, metode RFID dapat memasukan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan metode pengambilan nomor identitas jenis hex 8 digit, Raspberry Pi dapat mengakomodasi aplikasi yang efektif dan efisien untuk menyimpan data pelanggan secara otomatis dengan pemakaian CPU rata-rata 5%, dan webserver yang digunakan dapat menyediakan informasi layanan binatu bagi pelanggan.

  11. Evaluation of the Possibility of Shaking Off Raspberry Fruits with a Pulsating Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of harvesting raspberries with a pulsating air stream that causes the shoots of plants to vibrate. Two tractor-driven test devices were developed under this specific objective. The first one was a high capacity compressor, and the stream of air produced by it was directed onto one side of a row of plants. The second one was a device producing two counter-flowing air streams colliding in the middle of a row of plants. The frequency of the air pulses was adjusted steplessly by varying the rotational velocity of the shutters closing and opening the outlets of the fans. In the field trials with the device based on a compressor-generated air stream, two air pulse frequencies were used: 500 and 540 pulses per minute (8.3 and 9 Hz. The mean detachment force was 0.727 N. About 50% of ripe raspberries were removed from the bushes. The results achieved during harvesting with the device operating on the principle of colliding two pulsating air streams were markedly better and put the harvesting effectiveness within the range achieved in the trials with combine harvesters with mechanical finger shakers conducted by other researchers. For two pulse frequencies (8 and 9 Hz, almost 62% of fruits were harvested. Increasing the pulse frequency of the counter-flowing air streams above 9 Hz did not improve the effectiveness of detaching raspberry fruits from shoots.

  12. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 105 CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  13. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-05-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (Praspberry ketone was an effective intervention for NASH in rats. It was believed that raspberry ketone had a dual effect of liver protection and fat reduction, and the mechanism was probably

  14. Increased CaCl2, MgS04 and KH2P04 improve the growth of micropropagated red raspberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of genetic variation in red raspberries makes it difficult to successfully apply a standard in vitro growth medium to all cultivars and selections. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) is commonly used for commercial red raspberry cultivar micropropagation. However, many cultivars grown on MS ...

  15. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  16. Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xu; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wu, Xinye; Yi, Jianyong; Zhou, Linyan; Li, Zhaolu

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration has been considered as one of the traditional but most effective techniques for perishable fruits. Raspberry powders obtained after dehydration can be added as ingredients into food formulations such as bakery and dairy products. In this study, raspberry powders obtained by hot air drying (HAD), infrared radiation drying (IRD), hot air and explosion puffing drying (HA-EPD), infrared radiation and microwave vacuum drying (IR-MVD) and freeze drying (FD) were compared on physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Drying techniques affected the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders greatly. FD led to significantly higher (P raspberry powder compared with other drying methods. However, thermal drying techniques, especially combined drying methods, were superior to FD in final total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, showed the highest total polyphenol content (123.22 g GAE kg(-1) dw) and total flavonoid content (0.30 g CAE kg(-1) dw). Additionally, IR-MVD performed better in antioxidant activity retention. Overall, combined drying methods, especially IR-MVD, were found to result in better quality of raspberry powders among the thermal drying techniques. IR-MVD could be recommended for use in the drying industry because of its advantages in time saving and nutrient retention. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Synergistic interaction of sumac and raspberry mixtures in their antioxidant capacities and selective cytotoxicity against cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Marcone, Massimo F

    2015-03-01

    Previous works on staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) were mostly dedicated to its phytochemical profiles, antioxidant properties, and antidiabetic potentials. This study explored the potential of staghorn-sumac-derived functional ingredients for food and pharmacological applications. Sumac may have other biological functions, such as inhibitory effect on cancerous cells independent of its antioxidant properties. We characterized sumac and raspberry interactions, and their antioxidant capacities (ACs) and their inhibitory effect on both normal and cancerous cells. Mixing sumac and raspberry extracts yielded significantly higher ACs than the sum of sumac and raspberry as evaluated by three in vitro AC assays. However, the potential use of staghorn sumac as a natural source of dietary antioxidant supplement for oxidative-stress-related disorders might be challenged by its cytotoxicity in culturing normal cells. Remarkably, mixing sumac and raspberry showed maximal inhibition of the growth of both rat colon and human breast cancer cells with relatively low cytotoxicity toward normal rat colon and human breast epithelial cells, as compared with sumac or raspberry treatment alone. Sumac-derived products and their synergistic interactions with other food ingredients have great promise as functional food or nutraceutical products that would target cancer cells with minimal toxic effects to normal cells.

  18. A blackberry (Rubus L. expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main Dorrie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L. cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR, and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. Results A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. Conclusion This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry.

  19. Chemical composition of defatted strawberry and raspberry seeds and the effect of these dietary ingredients on polyphenol metabolites, intestinal function, and selected serum parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Karlińska, Elżbieta; Macierzyński, Jakub; Jańczak, Rafał; Rój, Edward

    2015-03-25

    Strawberry and raspberry seeds were chemically analyzed and added as dietary ingredients to investigate the physiological response of rats. In both cases the main component was dietary fiber and the main polyphenols were ellagitannins (ET). The strawberry ET were mainly constituted by monomers and a dimer, agrimoniin, whereas raspberry ET were mainly constituted by a dimer, sanguiin-H-6, and a trimer, lambertianin-C. The lower content and the less polymerized structure of strawberry ET resulted in a higher cecal metabolites concentration (mainly nasutin and urolithin-A) in comparison to rats fed diet containing raspberry seeds. Dietary raspberry seeds, a source of dietary fiber, despite being richer in polyphenol compounds, were better utilized in fermentation processes, resulting in enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids. As opposed to strawberry seeds, the treatment with raspberry seeds beneficially improved the atherogenic index of a diet, mainly due to reduced triacylglycerol concentration in the serum.

  20. Antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori strains and antioxidant properties of blackberry leaves (Rubus ulmifolius) and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; D'Addario, Claudia; Colacevich, Andrea; Focardi, Silvia; Borghini, Francesca; Santucci, Annalisa; Figura, Natale; Rossi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    Rubus spp. (Rosaceae) provide extracts used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and radical scavenging agents. Resistance to antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection as well as their poor availability in developing countries prompted us to test the antimicrobial activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaves and isolated polyphenols against two H. pylori strains with different virulence (CagA+ strain 10K and CagA(-) strain G21). The antioxidant activity (TEAC values) of the tested compounds ranged from 4.88 (gallic acid) to 1.60 (kaempferol), whilst the leaf extract gave a value of 0.12. All the isolated polyphenols as well as the leaf extract showed antibacterial activity against both of the H. pylori strains. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extract for H. pylori strains G21 and 10K, respectively, were 1200 microg/mL and 1500 microg/mL after 24h of exposure and 134 microg/mL and 270 microg/mL after 48 h exposure. Ellagic acid showed very low MBC values towards both of the H. pylori strains after 48 h (2 microg/mL and 10 microg/mL for strains G21 and 10K, respectively) and kaempferol toward G21 strain (MBC=6 microg/mL). A relationship between antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity was found only for H. pylori strain G21 CagA(-) strain.

  1. Content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of fruits of selected orchard shrub species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Najda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study involved fruits of eight common orchard shrub species: black currant (Ribes nigrumL. cv. ‘Titania’, red currant (Ribes rubrumL. cv. ‘Heros’, white currants (Ribes gracile Michx. cv. ‘Blanca’, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Michx. Elliott cv. ‘Nero’, red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia L. Pers cv. ‘Brilliant’, raspberry (Rubus idaeusL. cv. ‘Polana’, blackberry (Rubus fruticosusL. cv. ‘Polar’, and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosumL. cv. ‘Bluecrop’. The fresh fruits were subject to determinations of total polyphenols content recalculated onto gallic acid, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. In addition, parameters of antioxidant activity in raw materials were determined using three methods: DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. High concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant activity were recorded for extracts from chokeberry fruits (respectively 1540.01 mg ∙100 g -1 and 498.98 mg ∙100 g -1 , 199.4 μM TE ∙ g -1 FM DPPH and 112.5 μM TE ∙g -1 FM FRAP. Regardless of the species, analyzed fruits are an abundant source of antioxidant compounds.

  2. Influence of Sugars, Modified Starches and Hydrocolloids Addition on Colour and Thermal Properties of Raspberry Cream Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler Anita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of the addition of sugars (sucrose, fructose and trehalose, modified starches (tapioca or waxy maize starch and hydrocolloids (karaya or guar gum on colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings. In addition, the influence of the above-mentioned additives on the colour and thermal properties of raspberry cream fillings stored at room temperature over a period of 8 and 16 months was investigated. Results showed that the highest anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were detected in raspberry cream filling prepared with sucrose and trehalose in combination with guar gum. During storage, after 8 and 16 months at room temperature, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content decreased. Results also showed that the kind of sugar and added modified starches or hydrocolloids influenced the thermal properties of cream fillings. During storage, a decrease was observed in both freezing temperature as well as enthalpy of cream fillings.

  3. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  4. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  5. Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, L.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Fonager, J.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus outbreaks occur frequently in Denmark and it can be difficult to establish whether apparently independent outbreaks have the same origin. Here we report on six outbreaks linked to frozen raspberries, investigated separately over a period of 3 months. Norovirus from stools were sequence......-typed; including extended sequencing of 1138 bp encompassing the hypervariable P2 region of the capsid gene. Norovirus was detected in 27 stool samples. Genotyping showed genotype GI.Pb_GI.6 (polymerase/capsid) with 100% identical sequences. Samples from five outbreaks were furthermore identical over the variable...... capsid P2 region. In one outbreak at a hospital canteen, frozen raspberries was associated with illness by cohort investigation (relative risk 6·1, 95% confidence interval 3·2–11). Bags of raspberries suspected to be the source were positive for genogroup I and II noroviruses, one typable virus...

  6. Environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry flavour volatiles and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Alistair; Kassim, Angzzas; McCallum, Susan; Woodhead, Mary; Smith, Kay; Zait, Dzeti; Graham, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Raspberry volatiles are important for perceptions of sensory quality, mould resistance and some have nutraceutical activities. Twelve raspberry character volatiles were quantified, 11 of them in fruit from two seasons, from plants from the Glen Moy × Latham mapping population growing in both open field and under cover (polytunnels). Effects of season and environment were examined for their impact on the content of α-ionone, α-ionol, β-ionone, β-damascenone, linalool, geraniol, benzyl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexenol, acetoin, acetic and hexanoic acids, whilst raspberry ketone was measured in one season. A significant variation was observed in fruit volatiles in all progeny between seasons and method of cultivation. Quantitative trait loci were determined and mapped to six of the seven linkage groups, as were candidate genes in the volatiles pathways.

  7. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  8. Differences in the binding of human norovirus to and from romaine lettuce and raspberries by water and electrolyzed waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Food contamination by human norovirus (hNoV) is a major cause of gastrointestinal disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of removing inoculated hNoV from the surfaces of raspberries and romaine lettuce by a simple wash in tap water and in different forms of electrolyzed water (EW), including acidic EW (AEW), neutral EW (NEW), and basic EW (BEW). A simple rinsing or soaking in water was able to remove >95% of hNoV from surface-inoculated raspberries. In contrast, only 75% of hNoV was removed from surface-inoculated romaine lettuce by rinsing in tap water. An AEW wash enhanced the binding of hNoV to raspberries and lettuce. Only 7.5% (±10%) and 4% (±3.1%) of hNoV were removed by AEW wash from surface-inoculated raspberries and lettuce, respectively. When raspberries and lettuce were prewashed with NEW or BEW prior to surface inoculation, an AEW wash likewise resulted in significantly less removal of hNoV compared with untreated samples. A prewash with AEW significantly decreased the removal of hNoV from raspberries and lettuce when they were washed with NEW, from 90.6 to 51% and from 76 to 51.3% , respectively. There are minimal or no improvements gained by use of any of the EWs instead of a regular tap water wash in removal of hNoV from produce. However, use of AEW shows a significant decrease in the removal of hNoV from contaminated produce compared with other water rinses. The ability to remove hNoV from different types of produce varies, possibly due to differences among types of ligand-like molecules that bind hNoV. The distribution of hNoV on raspberries and lettuce was studied using recombinant Norwalk-like particles (rNVLP). By immunofluorescence microscopy, we were able to observe binding of rNVLP only to vein areas of romaine lettuce, suggesting that the virus was binding to specific molecules in these areas. Random binding of rNVLP occurred only with raspberries prewashed with AEW or washed with AEW.

  9. Analisis Kelayakan Sistem Monitoring dan Kontrol Lampu Menggunakan Web Server Berbasis Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslan - Maslan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As technology develops progressively over time, system developers continue to strive to create more efficient monitoring systems. The problem that often happens is the control room and light control is currently not utilize an integrated system based web server. Room control systems still utilize large equipment such as televisions and large computers, so that every problem occurs in the room is difficult to control. From these problems then the purpose of this study to create an efficient control system that utilizes super mini-based Raspberry Pi. To create a system based on Raspberry P microcontroller then required an initial observation to perform the feasibility test on the system to be developed. The feasibility test system is the successful monitoring of the room using CCTV (Closed Circuit Television equipment and control the lamp automatically by using prototyping method. The CCTV feasibility test is viewed from the resolution while the control of room light control is seen from the success of controlling the life of the lights on the test. Based on the testing concluded that the monitoring of the room using Raspberry Pi-based web server is feasible to use, seen the test results when the light control goes smoothly, because the lights controlled through the webserver managed to live and die. Similarly, when monitoring the room with live CCTV also runs well. And while conducting Room monitoring experiments with Webcam at 800 x 600 resolution there is a lot of variation value of frame rate sometimes up and down. The up and down frame is caused by an unstable network connection.

  10. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z. Lendvai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  11. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Akçay, Çağlar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  12. On the Application of the Raspberry Pi as an Advanced Acoustic Sensor Network for Noise Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Noriega-Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Cities and the monitoring of environmental parameters is an area of research that has attracted scientific attention during the last decade. These environmental parameters are well-known as important factors in their affection towards people. Massive monitoring of this kind of parameters in cities is an expensive and complex task. Recent technologies of low-cost computing and low-power devices have opened researchers to a wide and more accessible research field, developing monitoring devices for deploying Wireless Sensor Networks. Gathering information from them, improved urban plans could be carried out and the information could help citizens. In this work, the prototyping of a low-cost acoustic sensor based on the Raspberry Pi platform for its use in the analysis of the sound field is described. The device is also connected to the cloud to share results in real time. The computation resources of the Raspberry Pi allow treating high quality audio for calculating acoustic parameters. A pilot test was carried out with the installation of two acoustic devices in the refurbishment works of a neighbourhood. In this deployment, the evaluation of these devices through long-term measurements was carried out, obtaining several acoustic parameters in real time for its broadcasting and study. This test has shown the Raspberry Pi as a powerful and affordable computing core of a low-cost device, but also the pilot test has served as a query tool for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood to be more aware about the noise in their own place of residence.

  13. Understanding the Performance of Low Power Raspberry Pi Cloud for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdi Hajji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet-of-Things (IoT devices generate data at high speed and large volume. Often the data require real-time processing to support high system responsiveness which can be supported by localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. However, there are considerably large deployments of IoT such as sensor networks in remote areas where Internet connectivity is sparse, challenging the localised Cloud and/or Fog computing paradigms. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi, a credit card-sized single board computer, there is a great opportunity to construct low-cost, low-power portable cloud to support real-time data processing next to IoT deployments. In this paper, we extend our previous work on constructing Raspberry Pi Cloud to study its feasibility for real-time big data analytics under realistic application-level workload in both native and virtualised environments. We have extensively tested the performance of a single node Raspberry Pi 2 Model B with httperf and a cluster of 12 nodes with Apache Spark and HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System. Our results have demonstrated that our portable cloud is useful for supporting real-time big data analytics. On the other hand, our results have also unveiled that overhead for CPU-bound workload in virtualised environment is surprisingly high, at 67.2%. We have found that, for big data applications, the virtualisation overhead is fractional for small jobs but becomes more significant for large jobs, up to 28.6%.

  14. PAPAN INFORMASI DIGITAL BERBASIS RASPBERRY-PI MENGGUNAKAN JARINGAN WIRELESS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan informasi digital adalah media digital untuk menampilkan informasi dalam bentuk visual yang dapat dinikmati oleh orang-orang disekitarnya. Media digital bisa menjadi sarana informasi, promosi produk, dan juga sebagai sarana berita terbaru. Papan informasi digital yang ada di kantor atau sekolah biasanya menggunakan layar LED TV dilengkapi 1 unit komputer (CPU dan menggunakan media transmisi kabel. Banyaknya jumlah TV dan CPU yang digunakan menimbulkan masalah biaya dan tempat. Disamping itu manajemen konten informasi yang ditampilkan menjadi tidak praktis karena dilakukan langsung satu persatu di setiap CPU. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi terpadu berbasis web yang ditanam pada mini komputer berupa raspberry pi menggunakan jaringan wireless distribution system (WDS. Perangkat digital berupa LED TV dipasang raspberry-pi sebagai interface, yang dapat menghemat daya, biaya dan tempat. Manajemen konten informasi terintegrasi dengan komputer server yang menyediakan layanan edit fitur dan update informasi video streaming dan live streaming. Dari hasil pengukuran Quality of Service (QOS menggunakan Transmission Control Protocol (TCP untuk layanan video dan live streaming dengan kondisi Line of Sight (LOS dan Non Line of Sight (NLOS direkomendasikan menggunakan kondisi LOS dengan nilai Throughput sebesar 585 KBps dan 230 KBps, delay sebesar 1.7 ms dan 3.3 ms, dan Jitter sebesar 2.5 ms dan 6.19 ms. Nilai parameter tersebut memenuhi standar Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON. Cakupan WDS dari server ke raspberry-pi client mencapai 70 meter dengan kondisi LOS maupun NLOS. Pengujian Mean Opinion Score (MOS didapatkan nilai rata-rata sebesar 4 atau dalam kategori puas dengan sistem yang dibuat.

  15. Effect of ultrasound frequency on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of red raspberry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohamadi, Amir; Möller, Gregory; Powers, Joseph; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound in the 20-1000 kHz range show unique propagation characteristics in fluid media and possess energy that can break down fruit matrices to facilitate the extraction of valuable bioactive compounds. Red raspberries carry significant amounts of specific antioxidants, including ellagitannins and anthocyanins that are important for human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound frequencies associated with cavitation (20 kHz) and microstreaming (490 and 986 kHz) on total antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics content (TPC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (ACY) of red raspberry puree prepared from crushed berries. The pureed fruit was subjected to high-intensity (20 kHz) and higher frequency-low intensity (490 and 986 kHz) ultrasound for 30 min. The temperature of treated purees increased to a maximum of 56 °C with 986 kHz. Sonication at 20 and 490 kHz significantly (ppuree, while 986 kHz had no significant effect on ACY and AOA (p<0.05). In all cases, ultrasound treatment had significant and positive effect on at least one of the measured parameters up to 30 min. Sonication beyond 10 min (and up to 30 min) using 20 kHz either produced no change or caused a drop in AOA and ACY. However, for 986 and 20 kHz, TPC, increased by 10% and 9.5%, respectively after 30 min (p<0.05) compared to the control. At 20 kHz, AOA and ACY increased by 17.3% and 12.6% after 10 min. It was demonstrated that 20 kHz ultrasound treatment, when limited to 10 min, was the most effective for extraction of bioactive compounds in red raspberry compared to 490 and 986 kHz although the effect could be similar at the higher frequencies if different amplitudes are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Caracterização química e avaliação da atividade biológica da framboesa (Rubus idaeus L.) : contribuição para o desenvolvimento de uma alegação de saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Madalena Morais Bettencourt da Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Farmácia (Bromatologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2016 As doenças crónicas, atualmente a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo, têm aumentado dramaticamente consequência das modificações de estilos de vida, nomeadamente sedentarismo, níveis elevados de stresse e alterações na dieta. Segundo a OMS estas mortes prematuras podem ser prevenidas. A promoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis, tais como o aumento da ingestão de frutas e produtos hortí...

  17. Reprogrammable Logic Gate and Logic Circuit Based on Multistimuli-Responsive Raspberry-like Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved.

  18. Hollow mesoporous raspberry-like colloids with removable caps as photoresponsive nanocontainers

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chi; West, Kevin R.; Scherman, Oren A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the Royal Society of Chemistry via https://doi.org/10.1039/C6NR01016D The fabrication, characterisation and controlled cargo release of hollow mesoporous raspberry-like colloids (HMRCs), which are assembled by utilising host-guest complexation of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) are described. CB[8] is employed as a supramolecular linker to ‘stick’ the viologen functionalised paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto an az...

  19. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is

  20. Effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during processing of muffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Soto, Maria U; Powers, Joseph R; Alldredge, J Richard

    2012-05-01

    Consumption of baked products constitutes an important part of a daily breakfast considering that people are continually grabbing meals on the go. Among baked products, muffins rank third in breakfast products and attract a broad range of consumers. Incorporation of red raspberry juice into muffins can add value to the product while preserving health benefits to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on the phenolic and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during the preparation of muffins. Freeze-drying of raspberry batters reduced their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity regardless of mixing time. Non-freeze-dried raspberry batter mixed for 5 min had the highest phenolic content (0.88 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry matter (DM)). Non-freeze-dried raspberry muffins had the highest antioxidant capacity (0.041 µmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) DM). Freeze-dried raspberry batters mixed for 5 and 10 min had the highest anthocyanin content (0.065 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside g(-1) DM). Baking reduced the anthocyanin content of both non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried raspberry muffins. Despite the reduction in valuable compounds, muffin is a vehicle for the delivery of these compounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. An evaluation of the rust fungus Gymnoconia nitensas a potential biological control agent for alien Rubus species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.; Hodges, C.S.; Killgore, E.; Anderson, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The rust fungus Gymnoconia nitens infects blackberry (Rubus argutus) systemically in regions of the continental United States, producing bright yellow–orange masses of spores on newly developing floricanes during springtime. In tests to determine the suitability of this rust as a biological control agent for R. penetransin Hawaii, a species now thought to be conspecific with R. argutus,rooted cuttings of the Hawaiian plants were grown at North Carolina State University, inoculated, and observed. Other introduced weedy Rubus spp. in Hawaii, including R. ellipticus, R. rosifolius, and R. glaucus,as well as the two endemic species R. hawaiensis and R. macraei,also were inoculated. No species of Rubusare of commercial importance in Hawaii, but the protection of the native species, of which R. macraei is rare, was of utmost concern. The native Hawaiian species did not survive well in North Carolina in this study, however. Later availability of a plant pathogen containment laboratory in Hawaii enabled similar tests to be conducted at that facility. In addition to the above species, R. spectabilis (salmonberry), a species native to the Pacific Northwest with which the Hawaiian Rubus spp. are thought to share a common ancestor, was inoculated in Hawaii. Infection with G. nitens under natural field conditions becomes apparent only when sporulation occurs on floricanes the second year following infection. However, experimental inoculation led to early responses of chlorotic leaf flecking and puckering, leaf and stem contortion, and stem gall formation, indicating the sensitivity of R. penetrans (=R. argutus), R. hawaiensis, and R. macraei to this rust. Apparent systemic infection also resulted in sporulation on one plant of R. macraei. Ability to attack the endemic species suggests that G. nitens would not be suitable for release in Hawaii as a biological control agent, at least on the islands with populations of the native species.

  2. Low Delay Video Streaming on the Internet of Things Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jennehag

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.

  3. Biotransformation of raspberry ketone and zingerone by cultured cells of Phytolacca americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Kei; Harada, Toshio; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hiroki

    2007-02-01

    The biotransformation of raspberry ketone and zingerone were individually investigated using cultured cells of Phytolacca americana. In addition to (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (2%), (2S)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (5%), 4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2-butanone (19%), 4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (23%), and (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-2-yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (20%), two biotransformation products, i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (12%) and 2-hydroxy-5-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (11%), were isolated from suspension cells after incubation with raspberry ketone for three days. On the other hand, two compounds, i.e., (2S)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)but-2-yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (17%) and (2S)-2-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]butane (16%), together with (2S)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanol (15%), 4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-butanone (21%), and 4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]-2-methoxyphenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (24%) were obtained upon addition of zingerone. Cultured cells of P. americana can reduce, and regioselectively hydroxylate and glucosylate, these food ingredients to their beta-glycosides.

  4. Microbial production of 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, the direct precursor of raspberry ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, G; Mauvais, G; Martin, F; Sémon, E; Blin-Perrin, C

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the enzymatic aldol reaction between acetone as a donor and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde as a receptor to generate 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-but-3-ene-2-one or 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, the direct precursor of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butan-2-one or raspberry ketone, using different species of filamentous fungi and bacteria. Different classes of micro-organisms were tested in a medium containing mainly acetone and 4-hydoxybenzaldehyde. Of the micro-organisms tested, only bacteria were able to synthesize significant amounts of 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, ranging from 15 to 160 mg l(-1) after 21 h of bioconversion, as a function of the bacteria tested. The biological production of 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone has been described with bacteria possessing 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA, EC 4.1.2.4). This result suggests that DERA is involved in the catalytic aldolization of precursors for the production of 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone. Raspberry ketone or frambinone represents a total market value of between euro6 million and euro10 million. The possibility of producing its direct precursor through a simple process using bacteria is of considerable interest to the flavour market and the food industry as a whole. This paper broadens the spectrum for the use of aldolase to achieve the biological synthesis of compounds of interest.

  5. Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2010-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry. The dietary administration of RK to male mice has been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes. To elucidate a possible mechanism for the antiobesity action of RK, its effects on the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 were investigated. Treatment with 10 µM of RK increased lipolysis significantly in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. An immunoassay showed that RK increased both the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, an adipocytokine mainly expressed and secreted by adipose tissue. In addition, treatment with 10 µM of RK increased the fatty acid oxidation and suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest that RK holds great promise as an herbal medicine since its biological activities alter the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Microbial community, and biochemical and physiological properties of Korean traditional black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture-independent methods. During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L(-1) until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL(-1) . After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL(-1) until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L(-1) . In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  8. Solubility Determination and Modeling and Dissolution Thermodynamic Properties of Raspberry Ketone in Binary Solvent Mixtures of Ethanol and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Yan-fei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Liyu; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Du, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solubility and dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in a set of binary solvent mixtures (ethanol + water) with different compositions were experimentally determined by static gravimetrical method in the temperature range of 283.15-313.15 K at 0.10 MPa. The solubility of raspberry ketone in this series of ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures was found to increase with a rise in temperature and the rising mole fraction of ethanol in binary solvent mixtures. The van't Hoff, modified Apelblat and 3D Jouyban-Acree-van't Hoff equations were increasingly applied to correlate the solubility in ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures. The former two models could reach better fitting results with the solubility data, while the 3D model can be comprehensively used to estimate the solubility data in all the ratios of ethanol and water in binary solvent mixtures at random temperature. Furthermore, the changes of dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water solvent mixtures were obtained by van't Hoff equation. For all the above experiments, these dissolution processes of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures were estimated to be endothermic and enthalpy-driven.

  9. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  10. Evaluation of four virus recovery methods for detecting noroviruses on fresh lettuce, sliced ham, and frozen raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Maija; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-08-01

    Although noroviruses play a significant role in causing foodborne illness in developed countries, no standardised method for detecting noroviruses in foodstuffs is currently available. This study compared four virus recovery methods based on ultrafiltration, immunomagnetic separation, ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation techniques using identical real-time RT-PCR protocols for detection of RNA in eluates from lettuce, sliced ham and raspberries inoculated artificially with genogroup II norovirus. Noroviruses in all the food source matrices were successfully detected by all four methods. Ultracentrifugation yielded the highest recovery efficiencies in lettuce and ham, whereas PEG precipitation recovered the highest yield of noroviruses from raspberries. The repeatability of the results and the applicability of the methods to all food matrices were best with PEG precipitation, which had average virus recoveries of 19%, 47% and 28% for lettuce, ham and raspberries (viral RNA in dilution 1:10), respectively. In each case, a tenfold dilution of the extracted RNA clearly reduced the level of PCR inhibitors, which were released from raspberries in particular. The results of this study show that the detection of noroviruses in food is challenging, and more efforts to develop sensitive methods are still needed to detect noroviruses in food containing viruses in low numbers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N

    2017-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Possible impacts of the invasive plant Rubus niveus on the native vegetation of the Scalesia forest in the Galapagos islands.

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    Jorge Luis Rentería

    Full Text Available Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure and abiotic (light and soil properties parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target.

  14. Possible Impacts of the Invasive Plant Rubus niveus on the Native Vegetation of the Scalesia Forest in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R.; Panetta, F. Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J.

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934

  15. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

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    McDougall Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  16. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth

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    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF Glomus sp (GEV02. We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of sporesproduced, the length of the extraradical mycelium as well as the percentage of colonization of the AMF. Additionally, we measuredthe shoot and root length, and the fresh and dry weight of the leaf and root parts to determine the plant development. Results. Theautotrophic culture system was successful for blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth; an optimal shoot and root growth was observed.Additionally, we obtained a system that allowed the development of Glomus sp. in in vitro conditions, with the formation of structurestypical of the symbiosis as well as a good intraradical colonization, with the production of arbuscules and vesicles, development ofextraradical mycelium with branched hyphae, and formation of new spores. Conclusion. For the first time, micropropagated blackberryplants associated successfully with an AMF under in vitro conditions, enabling the development of the symbiotic system AMF Glomussp. associated to roots of micropropagated blackberry plantlets.

  17. Volatile composition in raspberry cultivars grown in the Pacific Northwest determined by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malowicki, Sarah M M; Martin, Robert; Qian, Michael C

    2008-06-11

    Twenty-nine volatile compounds in 'Chilliwack', 'Tulameen', 'Willamette', 'Yellow Meeker', and 'Meeker' raspberries were quantified using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) paired with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Good correlation coefficients were obtained with most aroma-active compounds in raspberry, with quantification limits of 1 microg/kg. However, poor recoveries were observed for raspberry ketone and zingerone. Quantitative data showed that volatile concentrations varied for different cultivars. Large variations for alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, geraniol, linalool, and ( Z)-3-hexenol were observed in different raspberry cultivars. In addition, the volatile compositions in 'Meeker' raspberry grown at different locations also varied. The chiral isomeric ratios of raspberry ketone, alpha-ionone, alpha-pinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol were studied using a CyclosilB column. alpha-Ionone, alpha-pinene, delta-octalactone, and delta-decalactone had strong chiral isomeric preference, with more than 96% for one isomeric form. Much weaker chiral isomeric preference was observed for terpinen-4-ol, while linalool was almost a racemic mixture. Both growing locations and cultivars affect the isomeric ratio of linalool with a range of 37-51% for ( R)-linalool.

  18. Raspberry-like Nanostructured Silicon Composite Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shan; Tong, Zhenkun; Nie, Ping; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-07

    Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers is a promising method to hold the volume expansion of Si for its practical application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize raspberry-like hollow silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance; a high reversible specific capacity of 886.2 mAh g -1 at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 after 200 cycles is achieved. Moreover, even after 500 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g -1 , a stable capacity of 516.7 mAh g -1 still can be obtained.

  19. Design and Implementation of Smart Attendance System Based On Raspberry pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Fadhil Abdulsada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The attendance system proposed is used to manage attendance system in large and branched factory or university from central unit. It consists of terminal units and a central unit. Each terminal unit consists of Raspberry pi, screen GUI, RFID, transponder card with each user (like student and GSM board. The central unit consists of Arduino, GSM board and a computer. Each unit has a special program to achieve its purpose. The terminal unit is responsible of making a connection with a transponder card to bring its ID's and make a comparison with the names listed in the database of SQL server to get the names of the absent students and send their serial numbers by using GSM message. The central unit is considered as a heart of system where it is responsible of collecting all the information from the terminal units, displaying them and making special processing to take a decision about persons whose absence exceed the threshold line.

  20. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  1. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

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    Zhaozhuo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  2. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  3. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

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    Michael F. Cloutier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  4. Developing an Affordable and Portable Control Systems Laboratory Kit with a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Reck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional laboratories are common in engineering programs. Instructional laboratories should evolve with technology and support the changes in higher education, like the increased popularity of online courses. In this study, an affordable and portable laboratory kit was designed to replace the expensive on-campus equipment for two control systems courses. The complete kit costs under $135 and weighs under 0.68 kilograms. It is comprised of off-the-shelf components (e.g., Raspberry Pi, DC motor and 3D printed parts. The kit has two different configurations. The first (base configuration is a DC motor system with a position and speed sensor. The second configuration adds a Furuta inverted pendulum attachment with another position sensor. These configurations replicate most of the student learning outcomes for the two control systems courses for which they were designed.

  5. Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi

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    Vittorio Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms. The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate.

  6. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo depigmenting activity of raspberry ketone from Rheum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang Victor; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Kuo, Shiou-Yi; Chin, Ling-Wei; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry.

  7. Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  8. Building IoT Applications with Raspberry Pi and Low Power IQRF Communication Modules

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    Isidro Calvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Typical Internet of Things (IoT applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1 good computing power/cost ratio; (2 high availability; it has become a de facto hardware standard; and (3 ease of use; it is based on operating systems with a big community of users. In IoT applications, data are frequently carried by means of wireless sensor networks in which energy consumption is a key issue. Energy consumption is especially relevant for smart sensors that are scattered over wide geographical areas and may need to work unattended on batteries for long intervals of time. In this scenario, it is convenient to ease the construction of IoT applications while keeping energy consumption to a minimum at the sensors. This work proposes a possible gateway implementation with specific technologies. It solves the following research question: how to build gateways for IoT applications with Raspberry Pi and low power IQRF communication modules. The following contributions are presented: (1 one architecture for IoT gateways that integrates data from sensor nodes into a higher level application based on low-cost/low-energy technologies; (2 bindings in Java and C that ease the construction of IoT applications; (3 an empirical model that describes the consumption of the communications at the nodes (smart sensors and allows scaling their batteries; and (4 validation of the proposed energy model at the battery-operated nodes.

  9. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hollow mesoporous raspberry-like colloids with removable caps as photoresponsive nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chi; West, Kevin R.; Scherman, Oren A.

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication, characterisation and controlled cargo release of hollow mesoporous raspberry-like colloids (HMRCs), which are assembled by utilising host-guest complexation of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) are described. CB[8] is employed as a supramolecular linker to `stick' the viologen functionalised paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto an azobenzene functionalised hollow mesoporous silica core. The formed HMRCs are photoresponsive and can be reversibly disassembled upon light irradiation, endowing them with an ability to release loaded cargo under photocontrol. While the assembled HMRCs retain cargo inside their cavity, disassembled particles with their iron oxide nanoparticle `caps' removed will release the loaded cargo through the mesoporous shell of the hollow silica colloids. A model system using a boronic acid derivative as the cargo in the HMRCs and Alizarin Red salt as a sensor for the released boronic acid is demonstrated.The fabrication, characterisation and controlled cargo release of hollow mesoporous raspberry-like colloids (HMRCs), which are assembled by utilising host-guest complexation of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) are described. CB[8] is employed as a supramolecular linker to `stick' the viologen functionalised paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto an azobenzene functionalised hollow mesoporous silica core. The formed HMRCs are photoresponsive and can be reversibly disassembled upon light irradiation, endowing them with an ability to release loaded cargo under photocontrol. While the assembled HMRCs retain cargo inside their cavity, disassembled particles with their iron oxide nanoparticle `caps' removed will release the loaded cargo through the mesoporous shell of the hollow silica colloids. A model system using a boronic acid derivative as the cargo in the HMRCs and Alizarin Red salt as a sensor for the released boronic acid is demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR01016D

  11. Photosynthesis of boreal ground vegetation after a forest clear-cut

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    P. Hari

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heather (Calluna vulgaris, rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium, wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa and raspberry (Rubus idaeus are typical species at boreal clear-cut sites. In this study, we measured their photosynthesis separately in the growing season of 2005 using a manual chamber. All measured species showed clear and species-specific seasonal cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax. The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as August. A simple model of photosynthetic activity is presented, addressing the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was mainly explained by temperature history when the soil moisture is high. The activity of deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike the activities of E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed similar reactions between individuals. We also observed that the comparison of the whole-plant Pmax or respiration of different-sized individuals were less scattered than the results based on full-grown leaf mass, implying that species-specific rates of photosynthesis at ground level are rather similar regardless of the plant size. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation for the entire 2005 growing season. The photosynthetic production per surface area of soil was 760 g C m−2 y−1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m−2 y−1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April–21 November, the above ground parts of measured species released 75 g C m−2 y−1 at the

  12. The metabolism of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one (raspberry ketone) in rats, guinea-pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporstøl, S; Scheline, R R

    1982-04-01

    1. The metabolism of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one(raspberry ketone) was studied in rats, guinea-pigs and rabbits. 2. Following intragastric dosage (1 mmol/kg) urinary metabolite excretion was nearly complete within 24 h, amounting to roughly 90% of the dose in all species. 3. The most prominent urinary metabolites were raspberry ketone and its corresponding carbinol, both largely conjugated with glucuronic acid and/or sulphate. The extent of ketone reduction was greatest in rabbits. 4. Oxidative metabolism included ring hydroxylation and side-chain oxidation. The latter pathway led to 1,2- and 2,3-diol derivatives. It is proposed that the latter undergo cleavage to furnish the C6-C3 and C6-C2 derivatives detected.

  13. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo J.; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters...

  14. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Excretion of Anthocyanins, and Microbial Diversity in Rats Fed Blackcurrants, Blackberries, and Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Berries contain high amounts of dietary fibre and flavonoids and have been associated with improved metabolic health. The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important. The potent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of flavonoids could also be a factor, but little is known about their fate in the gastrointestinal tract. Aim. To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids. Results and Conclusions. Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries. However, the microbial diversity of the gut microbiota was higher in rats fed raspberries. The high content of soluble fibre in blackcurrants and the high proportion of mannose-containing polymers might explain these effects. Anthocyanins could only be detected in urine of rats fed blackcurrants, and the excretion was lower with HEAL19. No anthocyanins or anthocyanidins were detected in caecal content or blood. This may indicate uptake in the stomach or small intestine.

  15. Laying the foundation to use Raspberry Pi 3 V2 camera module imagery for scientific and engineering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Cazenavette, George; Gold, Maxwell; Harlan, Ryan; Leggett, Edward; Pagnutti, James

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive radiometric characterization of raw-data format imagery acquired with the Raspberry Pi 3 and V2.1 camera module is presented. The Raspberry Pi is a high-performance single-board computer designed to educate and solve real-world problems. This small computer supports a camera module that uses a Sony IMX219 8 megapixel CMOS sensor. This paper shows that scientific and engineering-grade imagery can be produced with the Raspberry Pi 3 and its V2.1 camera module. Raw imagery is shown to be linear with exposure and gain (ISO), which is essential for scientific and engineering applications. Dark frame, noise, and exposure stability assessments along with flat fielding results, spectral response measurements, and absolute radiometric calibration results are described. This low-cost imaging sensor, when calibrated to produce scientific quality data, can be used in computer vision, biophotonics, remote sensing, astronomy, high dynamic range imaging, and security applications, to name a few.

  16. Behavior of pyrimethanil, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos residues on raspberry fruit and leaves of Laszka variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Stawarczyk, Michał; Piechowicz, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research conducted was to investigate and evaluate the behavior of pyrimethanil, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, the active ingredients of selected fungicides and insecticides, on ripe fruit and in fully developed leaves of raspberry of the Laszka variety. The field trial was carried out in the period of one month starting from the first fruit picking. The results obtained indicated that residue levels on the day of the first crop picking did not even approximate the corresponding EU-MRLs (http://ec.europa.eu/sanco_pesticides). Individual substances in raspberry fruits and leaves disappeared at a similar rate. As a result of chlorpyrifos application to the soil, its residue in fruits and leaves occurred for the whole period of fruit bearing, though in fruit they dropped successively. To produce raspberries with residues below or equal to 0.01 μg g(-1), the application of pesticides should be stopped at least 2-3 weeks before the first crop picking, and on condition that an appropriate preparation (active in low doses) is applied to the last treatments.

  17. Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T; Miranda-Garcia, O; Sasaki, G; Shay, N F

    2017-11-15

    Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.

  18. The addition of raspberries and blueberries to a starch-based food does not alter the glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam E; Pratt, Megan; Meade, Ciara M; Henry, C Jeya K

    2011-08-01

    It is now known that health benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables may be partly derived from intake of polyphenols. Berry polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism and absorption and hence postprandial glycaemia. To date, studies related to polyphenol effects on the glycaemic response have been completed only in liquids using either monosaccharides or disaccharides. It remains to be determined whether berries known to be rich in polyphenols can reduce the glycaemic response (GR) to a solid polysaccharide meal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether berries alter postprandial hyperglycaemia and consequently the GR to a starchy food. Blood glucose was tested on seven occasions, on three occasions using a reference food and on four occasions using pancakes supplemented with either raspberries or blueberries or control pancakes containing similar amounts of fructose and glucose. Results showed that there were no differences in GR (blueberry 51·3 (SEM 5·7); raspberry 54·7 (SEM 5·6); blueberry control 43·9 (SEM 4·2); raspberry control 41·8 (SEM 6·4)), GR area under the curve or satiety index between any of the tests. The present study indicates that the ability of berries to reduce blood glucose from starch-based foods is unsubstantiated.

  19. The Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Raspberry Fruit on Ovarian follicles and serum parameters in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat

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    mohamad Nabiuni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is an endocrine disorder leading to lack of ovulation and has inflammatory aspects. Raspberry extract, with possession of bioactive compounds such as Anthocyanins and polyphenols, have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract on the development process of ovarian follicles and hormones level of pituitary, ovarian, and liver in rats suffering from PCOS were examined. Methods: In the present experimental study, 120 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, PCOS, and treated with raspberry. The induction of syndrome was done by 2mg Estradiol valerate. After a period of 60 days, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW raspberry extract was injected intraperitoneally. Control group received no injection. Ten days after the last injection, all groups were anesthetized by chloroform and the serum and ovary of all groups were collected in order to investigate the histological and serologic changes. Data obtained were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Raspberry-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hormones rate of testosterone, estradiol, LH, and CRP compared with PCOS (p<0.05, whereas a significant increase was observed in the serum level of Progesterone and FSH (p<0.05. A significant increase was observed in the number of corpus luteum and granulosa layer thickness in the raspberry-treated group compared with PCOS (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract was effective on regulating the hormones, CRPand improving of cysts which led to the initiation of ovulation.

  20. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. Juice

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    José de Jesús Manríquez-Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice, pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L, anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L; antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L. The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.

  1. Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae) extract and pure compound niga-ichigoside F1: wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Talita Dacroce; Thiesen, Liliani Carolini; de Oliveira Nunes, Maria Luisa; Broering, Milena Fronza; Donato, Marcos Paulo; Goss, Marina Jagielski; Petreanu, Marcel; Niero, Rivaldo; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Here, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects of methanolic crude extract obtained from aerial parts (leaves and branches) of Rubus imperialis Chum. Schl. (Rosaceae) and the pure compound niga-ichigoside F1. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in vivo and in vitro, and the healing effect was evaluated in surgical lesions in mice skin. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced oxidative stress were used to determine antioxidant activity. The efferocytosis activity was also determined. The data obtained show that the extract of R. imperialis promote reduction in the inflammatory process induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carrageenan in the air pouch model; the effects could be reinforced by nitric oxide reduction in LPS-stimulated neutrophils, and an increase in the efferocytosis. The extract showed wound healing property in vitro and in vivo, scavenging activity for DPPH, and cytoprotection in the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells. In addition, the compound niga-ichigoside F1 was able to reduce the NO secretion; however, it did not present wound-healing activity in vitro. Together, the data obtained point out the modulatory actions of R. imperialis extract on leukocyte migration to the inflamed tissue, the antioxidant, and the pro-resolutive activity. However, the R. imperialis anti-inflammatory activity may be mediated in parts by niga-ichigoside F1, and on wound healing do not correlated with niga-ichigoside F1.

  2. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-06-10

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.

  3. Further study on the 1,4-alpha-transglucosylation of rubusoside, a sweet steviol-bisglucoside from Rubus suavissimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, K; Aikawa, Y; Ishikawa, H; Kasai, R; Kitahata, S; Mizutani, K; Doi, S; Nakaura, M; Tanaka, O

    1991-02-01

    Rubusoside (the beta-D-glucosyl ester of 13-O-beta-D-glucosyl-steviol), which is the major sweet principle of leaves of Rubus suavissimus S. Lee, was subjected to 1,4-alpha-transglucosylation by the cyclodextringlucanotransferase-starch system (the CGTase system). The tri- and tetra-glucosylated products were isolated together with the mono- and di-glucosylated products, which had already been isolated. A prominent increase in intensity of the sweetness was observed for the compounds which were di- and tri-glucosylated at the 13-O-glucosyl moiety. This result further substantiated the structure-sweetness relationship for 1,4-alpha-glucosylated compounds of steviol-glycosides reported previously. For protection of the 19-COO-glucosyl moiety against glucosylation by the CGTase system, the 4-hydroxyl group of the 19-COO-glucosyl moiety was beta-galactosylated by the beta-galactosidase-lactose system. This galactosylated compound was subjected to a regio-selective glucosylation of the 13-O-glucosyl moiety by the CGTase system, which was followed by enzymic elimination of the galactosyl group to furnish an exclusive preparation of the improved sweeteners just mentioned.

  4. Characterization of the antibacterial activity and the chemical components of the volatile oil of the leaves of Rubus parvifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqing; Hu, Xiaogang; Huang, Mingchun; Sun, Fengjun; Yang, Bo; He, Juying; Wang, Xianfeng; Xia, Peiyuan; Chen, Jianhong

    2012-06-25

    Rubus parvifolius L. (Rp) is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (w/w) of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Bacillus cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10%) and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (2%). Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity.

  5. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Singh, Digar; Yeo, Soo Hwan; Baek, Seong Yeol; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-26

    The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC) vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX) rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV)-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV)-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN)-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model

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    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. [Characteristics of the composition of Caucasian blackberry (Rubus caucasicus L.) leaves as a raw material for tea production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, R G; Chichkovani, N Sh; Kakhniashvili, E Z

    2008-01-01

    The composition of Caucasian blackberry (Rubus caucasicus L.) six-leaf shoot was studied. The weight of the stem reached 50% of the total weight of the shoot. The content of moisture, extractive substances, and phenolic compounds was minimal at the beginning and end of the vegetation season. Phenolic compounds were represented by catechins, leukoanthocyanidins, and flavonols. The most abundant phenolic compounds in all parts of the blackberry shoot were leukoanthocyanidins, which accounted for approximately 50% of all compounds of this class. Phenolic compounds accumulated most actively in July and August. The average content of free amino acids in the blackberry leaf during the vegetation season was 26.68 mg/g. Among the total free amino acids, eleven have been identified, five of which proved to be essential (His, Arg, Met, Leu, Val) and accounted for 40% of the total amount of amino acids. The oxidability of acetone extract of the blackberry leaf was compared to the oxidability of total phenolic compounds and tea tannin. The tea product obtained from the blackberry leaf had good organoleptic parameters and a saturated extractive complex.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of dewberry (Rubus caesius L. var. aquáticus Weihe. & Nees. leaf extracts

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    Veličković Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Rubus caesius L. var. aquáticus Weihe & Nees leaf extracts were examined. The radical scavenging capacity of four leaf extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and aqueous was estimated against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. Total antioxidant capacity was tested by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total reducing capacity (TRC procedures. Total contents of phenols and flavonoids were also determined. Total phenol content in the extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and amounts ranged between 263.74 for ethanol to 366.27 mg gallic acid (GA/g for acetone extracts. The amounts of flavonoids varied from 10.73 mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g for aqueous to 75.83 mg QE/g for acetone extract. The highest antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS●+ radicals was that of the acetone extract. Values for FRAP varied between 3.00 μmol Fe+2/mg for the ethanol extract and 5.31 μmol Fe+2/mg for the methanol extract. The results obtained for total reducing capacity indicate that the acetone extract has the highest antioxidant potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  9. Adaptation in Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Phenolic Transport with Chronic Exposure to Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redan, Benjamin W; Albaugh, George P; Charron, Craig S; Novotny, Janet A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2017-04-05

    As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0 to 4 h. Additionally, differences in gene expression of transport and phase II metabolizing systems including ABC transporters, organic anion transporters (OATs), and uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP) glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were probed. After 4 h, 1 μM pretreated monolayers showed a significant (P transport including less epicatechin (42.1 ± 0.53), kaempferol glucoside (23.5 ± 0.29), and dicaffeoylquinic acid (31.9 ± 0.20) compared to control. Finally, significant (P transport proteins were observed with treatment. Therefore, adaptation to blackberry extract exposure may impact intestinal transport and metabolism of phenolics.

  10. Local Ecological Knowledge and Importance of Bakeapple (Rubus chamaemorus L. in a Southeast Labrador Métis Community

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    Amanda L. Karst

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bakeapple, or cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.; Rosaceae is a circumpolar perennial with orange aggregate fruits, which has been a vital food resource for many northern peoples including those of the Subarctic and Arctic areas of North America. This study documented the importance and local knowledge of bakeapple in the predominantly Métis community of Charlottetown, Labrador. The cultural importance of bakeapple is evidenced by the social customs surrounding its picking, by its prevalence in people’s homes and at community events, and by its formal and informal economic exchange, within and outside the community. The local ecological knowledge of bakeapple that residents of Charlottetown possessed also illustrates its importance. Local knowledge of interviewees included different habitat types associated with various bakeapple densities and fruit sizes, bakeapple development/phenology (e.g., “turned in” stage and variations in the berry (e.g. in color and size. Bakeapple remains a culturally important species with a high profile in Charlottetown, although lack of interest in bakeapple picking by younger people may affect future use.

  11. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    strain, cellular and molecular targets, and relative carcinogenic potency, our animal model may offer a more realistic platform to study oral carcinogenesis. In this perspective, we also discuss our preclinical studies to demonstrate the potential of black raspberry extracts on the prevention of OSCC. Specifically, we were the first to demonstrate that black raspberry inhibited DB[a,l]P-DNA binding and of particular importance its capacity to enhance the repair of DB[a,l]P-induced bulky lesions in DNA. We believe that the information presented in this perspective will stimulate further research on the impact of environmental carcinogens in the development of oral cancer and may lead to novel strategies toward the control and prevention of this disease.

  12. Comportamento fenológico e produtivo de cultivares de amora-preta (Rubus sp.) em região subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrar Hussain

    2015-01-01

    O cultivo da amora-preta (Rubus sp.) tem despertado o interesse de muitos produtores do mundo, como as plantas entram em produção em um ano após o plantio, e a demanda para as indústrias também aumentaram. No entanto, o cultivo desta árvore frutífera em condições subtropicais, com inverno ameno ainda é desconhecido. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cultivares de amora. Tupy e Xavante cresceram em uma área subtropical. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação ...

  13. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Rubus rosaefolius Sm. - Rosaceae

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    Claudia Mauro

    Full Text Available Rubus rosaefolius Sm., Rosaceae, is a shrub with compound leaves, recurvate prickles, white flowers and aggregate fruit, popularly known as sylvan strawberry. The present research concerns its botany (macroscopic and microscopic studies, phytochemistry and antimicrobial properties. The presence of antraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins on stem, root and leaves, were confirmed by specific phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalchoolic fractions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The hydroalchoolic fraction revealed antimicrobial activity against all species tested and the aqueous fraction inhibited the growth of S. aureus and C. albicans.

  14. RESPUESTA FISIOLÓGICA Y CAPACIDAD ANTAGONISTA DE AISLAMIENTOS FILOSFÉRICOS DE LEVADURAS OBTENIDOS EN CULTIVOS DE MORA (Rubus glaucus Physiological Responses And Antagonistic Capacity Of Yeast Phyllospheric Isolates Obtained In Blackberry Crops (Rubus glaucus

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    CLAUDIA M MEDINA

    Full Text Available La filósfera es un ecosistema complejo que a pesar de contar con un gran número de microorganismos asociados, presenta pocos estudios diseñados para entender las características ecofisiológicas de los microorganismos que lo habitan. Las levaduras, como elemento importante de este hábitat, están expuestas a un ambiente variable afectado por la planta hospedera, edad y posición de la hoja, disponibilidad y calidad de nutrientes, temperatura, pH, radiación y actividad del agua. Estos factores producen una presión de selección para el establecimiento de poblaciones naturales o introducidas de levaduras que puedan desplazar otras poblaciones de hongos fitopatógenos. En este estudio se obtuvieron 80 aislamientos de levaduras filosféricas de dos cultivos de mora (Rubus glaucus, a las que se les determinó su nicho potencial en términos de su capacidad para crecer a diferentes condiciones de temperatura, pH, estrés osmótico y tolerancia a radiación UV. El estrés osmótico fue la condición evaluada más restrictiva para las levaduras obtenidas, ya que únicamente seis aislamientos presentaron un crecimiento superior a 0,3 unidades de DO a 405 nm, cuando fueron crecidas a 50% y 60% de glucosa. Este estudio permitió seleccionar diez aislamientos filosféricos de levaduras, destacados por su capacidad para crecer en un amplio rango de condiciones. De estos, cuatro aislamientos LvF 34, LvF 43, LvF 44 y LvF 50 se destacaron por su capacidad de antagonismo contra el hongo fitopatógeno Botritys cinérea. Su determinación taxonómica permitió reportar por primera vez las especies Candida kunwinensis y Rhodotorula colostri con potencial biocontrolador.The phyllosphere is a complex ecosystem in which despite of having a great number of associated microorganisms, few studies have been designed to understand the ecophysiological characteristics of the microorganism’s inhabitant. Yeasts, as an important element of this habitat, are exposed to

  15. Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale

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    Te-Sheng Chang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry.

  16. Development and characterization of different black raspberry confection matrices designed for delivery of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H; Vodovotz, Yael

    2015-03-01

    Three forms of confections containing black raspberries (BRB) powder were developed to provide controlled release of phytochemicals for oral disease prevention. Our objective was to investigate the impact of varying confection matrices on the release rate of BRB phytochemicals. Confections were developed and prepared. Textural properties of confections were analyzed, compared and correlated with the release rate of phytochemicals from BRB confections with in vitro dissolution test. In the results, BRB content reached 22% in hard candy and pectin-based confections and 40% in starch-based confections, respectively. Pectin- and starch-based confections retained >93% of its original anthocyanins after processing while hard candy had 59%. Starch confections showed higher G' in rheological analysis and higher hardness but lower cohesiveness and springiness in textural profile analysis than pectin confections (P confection types showed different microstructure with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Corresponding to their physicochemical properties, confections showed fast (hard candy), intermediate (pectin confections), and slow (starch confections) release rates with a final releasing time of 90, 150, and 540 min in dissolution studies. Three confections were rated between neither like nor dislike to like slightly (n = 60). Pectin confections had the highest overall acceptance (like slightly) and 62% of subjects rated this type of confection as the most liked ones. These results indicate that delivery matrix could modulate the phytochemical release rate from BRB confection and also influence sensory preference. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Raspberry ketone supplement promotes early sexual maturation in male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Mendez, Vivian; Morelli, Renata; Pérez, Jeanneth; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-08-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is highly attractive to sexually mature, but not immature, males of many Bactrocera species, including Queensland fruit fly ('Qfly', Bactrocera tryoni), and acts as a metabolic enhancer in a wide diversity of animals. We considered the possibility that, as a metabolic enhancer, RK in adult diet might accelerate sexual maturation of male Qflies. Recently emerged adult Qfly males (0-24 h old) were exposed to RK-treated food for 48 h and were then provided only sugar and water. Four doses of RK (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) along with control (0%) were tested with two types of food: sugar alone and sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate (3:1). For flies tested when 4-10 days old all RK doses increased mating probability of flies fed sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate but did not show any effect on mating probability of flies fed only sugar. No effects of RK were found for flies tested when 10-30 days old for either diet group. There was no evidence that RK affected longevity at any of the doses tested. Feeding of RK together with yeast hydrolysate to immature Qfly increases mating propensity at young ages and accordingly shows significant potential as a pre-release supplement that might increase the proportion of released flies that attain sexual maturation in Sterile Insect Technique programmes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Genetic parameters of yield components and pomologic properties in raspberry seedlings

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    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period yield components and pomologic properties were studied in 20 raspberry seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker`s yellow clone. The primary goals of this research were to determine its variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense. The analysis of the components of total variance evidenced that higher proportion of genotypic variance was found with fruit shape index (30.84% and sucrose content (35.61%. The results revealed that genotypic coefficient of variation were less than its corresponding estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation for all traits which indicated significant role of environment in the expression of these characters. The values of heritability coefficients, in a broader sense, were high except for number of flowers per inflorescens (9.47%, titratable acidity (6.38% and inverted sugar content (28.88%. Nine characters had h2 in interval from 50 to 80% but for fruit weight and fruit length was greater than 80% which implies the high potential of genetic improvement in those traits.

  19. Identifikasi Jumlah dan Tingkat Aktivitas Orang Berbasis Pengolahan Citra Menggunakan Raspberry Pi

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    Daniel Krisrenanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioner (AC merupakan suatu perangkat yang paling banyak digunakan sebagai pendingin ruangan. Walaupun AC saat ini sudah menggunakan teknologi hemat energi, namun apabila tidak digunakan dengan baik maka penggunaan AC hanya menjadi suatu pemborosan listrik saja. Untuk mengurangi pemborosan listrik pada AC, maka pengaturan suhu harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi ruangan. Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kondisi ruangan antara lain adalah jumlah orang serta tingkat aktivitas dalam ruangan. Sebagai upaya penghematan konsumsi listrik pada AC, maka dalam penelitian ini dilakukan rancang bangun suatu sistem identifikasi jumlah orang dan tingkat aktivitas. Pada sistem ini digunakan kamera USB sebagai perangkat pengambil citra. Pada pengolahan citra menggunakan metode Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG sebagai penghitung jumlah orang, sedangkan metode background subtraction digunakan sebagai penghitung tingkat aktivitas. Sistem ini diimplementasikan ke dalam Raspberry Pi 3 sebagai mikrokontroler. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem dapat mendeteksi orang dari jarak 3 m sampai 9 m dan membedakan 2 orang dengan jarak antara 30 cm sampai 150 cm. Sistem juga dapat membedakan tingkat aktivitas sedikit, sedang dan tinggi.

  20. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bailey Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm × 91mm × 45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  1. Erica the Rhino: A Case Study in Using Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers for Interactive Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Basford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erica the Rhino is an interactive art exhibit created by the University of Southampton, UK. Erica was created as part of a city wide art trail in 2013 called “Go! Rhinos”, curated by Marwell Wildlife, to raise awareness of Rhino conservation. Erica arrived as a white fibreglass shell which was then painted and equipped with five Raspberry Pi Single Board Computers (SBC. These computers allowed the audience to interact with Erica through a range of sensors and actuators. In particular, the audience could feed and stroke her to prompt reactions, as well as send her Tweets to change her behaviour. Pi SBCs were chosen because of their ready availability and their educational pedigree. During the deployment, ‘coding clubs’ were run in the shopping centre where Erica was located, and these allowed children to experiment with and program the same components used in Erica. The experience gained through numerous deployments around the country has enabled Erica to be upgraded to increase reliability and ease of maintenance, whilst the release of the Pi 2 has allowed her responsiveness to be improved.

  2. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  3. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  4. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, Crystal

    2016-03-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  5. RANCANG BANGUN DATABASE DUA ARAH DENGAN KENDALI RASPBERRY PI PADA INTEGRASI SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS PENYAKIT MENULAR

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    Angga Prasetyo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puskesmas sebagai unit kesehatan tingkat pertama memiliki tugas pokok yaitu pengobatan, perawatan kesehatan, kesehatan lingkungan, membina kesehatan ibu dan anak, pencegahan penyakit menular, pencatatan dan pelaporan. Dari keseluruhan tugas tampaknya tidak seluruhnya digarap oleh puskesmas terutama pencatatan dan pelaporan untuk pencegahan penyakit menular serta pola penyebarannya. untuk mengawasi dan mengendalikan perencananan program kesehatan termasuk penekanan penyebaran penyakit menular, puskesmas belum memiliki alat bantu yang terintegrasi satu atap secara real time dengan dinas kesehatan, untuk itu dibutuhkan sistem informasi geografis (SIG untuk memvisualisasikan data penyakit menular, hal ini juga perlu ditunjang perangkat yang optimal dengan biaya yang murah dengan menggunakan raspberry pi sebagai kendali otomasi server data dalam replikasi. Proses memanfaatkan replikasi database dua arah menggunakan dua server dengan server satu sebagai master sedangkan server lainnya berfungsi sebagai slave. Hasil pengujian replikasi pada transaction rate untuk meminimalkan antrian data node 1 pada nilai 1,99/detik setiap transaksi data, node 2 nilai 2,02/detik, sedangkan balancer dengan nilai 1,91/detik, sedangkan response time atau kecepatan replikasi database dalam menangkap dan mengirimkan data sangat efektif, pada node 1 0,33/s untuk kecepatan proses, node 2 dengan waktu 0,01/s, dan balancer 0,13/s. Kata kunci: puskesmas, replikasi database dua arah, penyakit menular, dinas kesehatan, sistem informasi geografis (SIG.

  6. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Donno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98% followed by monoterpenes (14.05%, while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06% and organic acids (27.34%. Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural

  8. In vitro conservation of two plant species (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Rubus fruticosus L. shoot tips by encapsulation dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Đurđina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro grown shoot tips of cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and blackberry ‘Cacanska Bestrna’ (Rubus fruticosus L. were tested for regrowth after cryopreservation using encapsulation dehydration method. Apical, 2-3 mm long shoot tips, were encapsulated in alginate beads composed of 3, 5 and 10% (w/v alginic acid sodium salt in calcium-free liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 benzyladenine, 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 0.1 mg l-1 gibberellic acid. Polymerization was done in liquid MS medium with 100 mM CaCl2 for 30 min at room temperature. Encapsulated shoot tips were pre-treated in liquid MS medium with 0.75 or 1 M sucrose for 24 h in growth room and dehydrated for 4 and 8 h (29% and 20% moisture content respectively before rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing which involved placing the cryovials in the air current of the laminar airflow cabinet for 2 min, the beads were directly transferred to regrowth medium. In cherry plum, osmotic dehydration in 0.75 M sucrose followed by 8-hour desiccation gave the highest regrowth (60% of explants encapsulated in 3% and 5% alginate beads. However, in comparison with cherry plum, blackberry displayed significantly lower capacity for regrowth after cryopreservation under described experimental conditions. In this genotype, osmotic dehydration in 1 M sucrose followed by 8-hour desiccation resulted in the highest regrowth (16.7% of explants encapsulated in 5% alginate beads. Cryopreserved shoot tips of both genotypes multiplied in the three subcultures had normal morphology and similar multiplication capacity in comparison with non-cryopreserved shoots. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-20013 i br. TR-31064

  9. Germinación in vitro e inducción de callo en Rubus adenotrichus Schltdl.

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    N.S. Martínez-Cruz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa para resolver problemas de dormancia, obtención masiva de plantas y biomoléculas de interés es el cultivo in vitro, el objetivo de este trabajo fue inducir la germinación y establecer el cultivo de callo deRubus adenotrichus. Se probaron tres métodos de escarificación: 1 inmersión en ácido sulfúrico (30 y 60 min, 2 inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio (72 h y 3 remoción de la cubierta de la semilla, este último tratamiento fue el mejor, generando un 68% de porcentaje de germinación, en medio Murashige Skoog (MS sin reguladores. Las plántulas obtenidas tuvieron un desarrollo similar al de las plantas silvestres. Para la inducción de callo, se emplearon hojas de plantas silvestres como explantes y fueron colocadas en dos tipos de medio: MS, con 1 mg/L de ácido naftalenacético y 0.5 mg/L cinetina y Woody Plant Medium (WPM con 0.5 mg/L de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético y 0.75 mg/L de cinetina. En ambos medios se desarrolló un callo friable y pigmentado. El proceso de escarifi cación es fundamental para la germinación de esta especie. El empleo de los medios MS y WPM, con los reguladores adicionados son promotores de la producción de callos friables.

  10. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Diez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days. These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  11. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  12. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-02-05

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  13. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  14. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Chuanshu

    2008-04-01

    The chemopreventive properties of edible berries have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, however, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects are largely unknown. Our previous studies have shown that a methanol extract fraction of freeze-dried black raspberries inhibits benzoapyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. This fraction also blocks activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by benzoapyrene diol-epoxide (BaPDE) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl 41 cells. To determine if different berry types exhibit specific mechanisms for their anti-cancer effects, we compared the effects of extract fractions from both black raspberries and strawberries on BaPDE-induced activation of various signaling pathways in Cl 41 cells. Black raspberry fractions inhibited the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by BaPDE as well as their upstream PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, strawberry fractions inhibited NFAT activation, but did not inhibit the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB or the PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Consistent with the effects on NFAT activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction by BaPDE was blocked by extract fractions of both black raspberries and strawberries, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which depends on AP-1 activation, was suppressed by black raspberry fractions but not strawberry fractions. These results suggest that black raspberry and strawberry components may target different signaling pathways in exerting their anti-carcinogenic effects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Caracterización fenotípica de accesiones de especies de Rubus L. de los municipios de Pamplona y Chitagá, región Nororiental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo-García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypical characterization of Rubus L. species accessions in the provinces of Pamplona and Chitagá, northeastern region ofColombia. Objective. Determine the cultivated and wild species of Rubus in 53 commercial farms of Rubus glaucus Benth, owned byfour blackberry growers association in the provinces of Pamplona and Chitagá (North of Santander, Colombia. Materials and methods.Three to five specimens were collected from each farm and along the roadside. Plants aged 9 to 12 months established in the commercialfarms and wild materials with characteristics of Rubus were selected. Twenty two descriptors (fourteen quantitative and eight qualitativewere assessed. We considered the seventh and eighth branch buds both male and female (with five repetitions and fruits and flowersof each material. Principal component analysis was done with the fourteen quantitative variables, to identify the descriptors that mostcontribute to the morphological differentiation of accessions. A conglomerate analysis was used for grouping accessions accordingto their similarity and dissimilarity. Results. Among the 147 accessions analyzed from the different farms, our study determined the presence of 6 different taxa: R. glaucus Benth (with and without spines, R. alpinus Macfad, R. adenotrichos Schltdl, R. rosifolius Sm.,R. bogotensis Kunth and R. floribundus Kunth Conclusions. The descriptors that differentiated the species and discriminated them bygroups by providing 77% of the information with the use of principal component analysis, were: length and width of central and lateralleaflets, length of flower and leaf structures, apex shape and number of secondary veins.

  16. Comparison of the protein-coding gene content of Chlamydia trachomatis and Protochlamydia amoebophila using a Raspberry Pi computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, James F; Barker, Daniel

    2015-10-13

    To demonstrate the bioinformatics capabilities of a low-cost computer, the Raspberry Pi, we present a comparison of the protein-coding gene content of two species in phylum Chlamydiae: Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted infection of humans, and Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila, a recently discovered amoebal endosymbiont. Identifying species-specific proteins and differences in protein families could provide insights into the unique phenotypes of the two species. Using a Raspberry Pi computer, sequence similarity-based protein families were predicted across the two species, C. trachomatis and P. amoebophila, and their members counted. Examples include nine multi-protein families unique to C. trachomatis, 132 multi-protein families unique to P. amoebophila and one family with multiple copies in both. Most families unique to C. trachomatis were polymorphic outer-membrane proteins. Additionally, multiple protein families lacking functional annotation were found. Predicted functional interactions suggest one of these families is involved with the exodeoxyribonuclease V complex. The Raspberry Pi computer is adequate for a comparative genomics project of this scope. The protein families unique to P. amoebophila may provide a basis for investigating the host-endosymbiont interaction. However, additional species should be included; and further laboratory research is required to identify the functions of unknown or putative proteins. Multiple outer membrane proteins were found in C. trachomatis, suggesting importance for host evasion. The tyrosine transport protein family is shared between both species, with four proteins in C. trachomatis and two in P. amoebophila. Shared protein families could provide a starting point for discovery of wide-spectrum drugs against Chlamydiae.

  17. Quantitative metabolic profiling of grape, apple and raspberry volatile compounds (VOCs) using a GC/MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovsek, Urska; Lotti, Cesare; Masuero, Domenico; Carlin, Silvia; Weingart, Georg; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays the trend in analytical chemistry is clearly towards the creation of multiple methods with extended coverage, enabling the determination of many different classes of compounds in a single analysis in which virtually all classes of different compounds are included in a single run. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a versatile and selective GC/MS/MS method for metabolite profiling of volatile compounds in apples, raspberries and grapes. Validation of the method was performed in terms of the limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity range, and inter and intraday precision. Confirmation of the identity of the compounds in samples was carried out by checking compliance of the q/Q ratio of samples and reference standards. The multiple reaction monitoring with selection of two transition ions, one for quantification and one for confirmation, provided excellent selectivity and sensitivity, using the q/Q ratio as a confirmatory parameter. A multi target method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 160 volatile compounds of raspberries, apples and grapes. The main classes were esters (42), alcohols (32), monoterpenes (31), aldehydes (17), ketones (12), norisoprenoids (8), acids (8), sesquiterpenes (7), pyrazines (3) and ethers (1) allowing the detection and quantification of 69 compounds in apples, 122 in grapes and 42 in raspberries. Moreover, the method developed can be easily extended to volatile compounds in other fruits and can therefore be widely used for quantification/profiling studies in the field of fruit aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

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    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  19. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Akter

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT, whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT, whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly' to raspberry ketone (RK mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  20. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly') to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  1. Automated touch sensing in the mouse tapered beam test using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardesch, Dirk Jan; Balbi, Matilde; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-11-01

    Rodent models of neurological disease such as stroke are often characterized by motor deficits. One of the tests that are used to assess these motor deficits is the tapered beam test, which provides a sensitive measure of bilateral motor function based on foot faults (slips) made by a rodent traversing a gradually narrowing beam. However, manual frame-by-frame scoring of video recordings is necessary to obtain test results, which is time-consuming and prone to human rater bias. We present a cost-effective method for automated touch sensing in the tapered beam test. Capacitive touch sensors detect foot faults onto the beam through a layer of conductive paint, and results are processed and stored on a Raspberry Pi computer. Automated touch sensing using this method achieved high sensitivity (96.2%) as compared to 'gold standard' manual video scoring. Furthermore, it provided a reliable measure of lateralized motor deficits in mice with unilateral photothrombotic stroke: results indicated an increased number of contralesional foot faults for up to 6days after ischemia. The automated adaptation of the tapered beam test produces results immediately after each trial, without the need for labor-intensive post-hoc video scoring. It also increases objectivity of the data as it requires less experimenter involvement during analysis. Automated touch sensing may provide a useful adaptation to the existing tapered beam test in mice, while the simplicity of the hardware lends itself to potential further adaptations to related behavioral tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Automating mouse weighing in group homecages with Raspberry Pi micro-computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorshams, Omid; Boyd, Jamie D; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-06-15

    Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell. Each mouse was identified using an RFID tag placed under the skin of the neck. A single-board computer (Raspberry Pi; RPi) controls the task, logging RFID tag, load cell weights, and time stamps from each RFID detection until the animal leaves the chamber. Collected data were statistically analyzed to estimate mouse weights. We anticipate integration with tasks where automated imaging or behaviour is assessed in homecages. Mice frequently move between the two cages, an average of 42+-16 times/day/mouse at which time we obtained weights. We report accurate determination of mouse weight and long term monitoring over 53days. Comparison with existing methods Although commercial systems are available for automatically weighing rodents, they only work with single animals, or are not open source nor cost effective for specific custom application. This automated system permits automated weighing of mice ∼40 times per day. The system employs inexpensive hardware and open-source Python code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  4. Dietary Black Raspberry Seed Oil Ameliorates Inflammatory Activities in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jae; Jung, Hana; Cho, Hyunnho; Lee, Kiuk; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of the markers related to inflammation in db/db mice fed black raspberry seed (BRS) oil, which is rich in α-linolenic acid. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) C57BL/6 mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (normal CON); (2) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (CON); (3) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 8 % calories from soybean and 8 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 50 %); and (4) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 100 %). After 10 weeks, n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the livers and epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % mice than in the CON. Serum TNFα and IL-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Serum IL-10 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the BRS 100 % than the CON. In the liver and epididymal adipose tissue, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % were lower than in the CON. Anti-inflammatory markers were higher in the epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. In the epididymal adipose tissue, macrophage infiltration markers (F4/80 and CD68) and leptin mRNA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Results of this study suggest that BRS oil may have anti-inflammatory effects in obese diabetic mice by ameliorating inflammatory responses.

  5. Raspberry seed flour attenuates high-sucrose diet-mediated hepatic stress and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inhae; Espín, Juan Carlos; Carr, Timothy P; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Chung, Soonkyu

    2016-06-01

    Chronic intake of high sucrose (HS) diet exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Previously, we have demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA), an abundant polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, exerts distinct lipid-lowering characteristics in hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that EA supplementation inhibits HS diet-mediated hepatic toxicity and its accompanied metabolic dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to three isocaloric HF diets (41% calories from fat) containing either no-sucrose (HF), high-sucrose (HFHS), or high-sucrose plus EA (HFHS-R) from raspberry seed flour (RSF, equivalent to 0.03% of EA), and fed for 12weeks. The inclusion of EA from RSF significantly improved HFHS diet-mediated dyslipidemia and restored glucose homeostasis levels similar to the HF diet-fed mice. Despite marginal difference in hepatic triglyceride content, the addition of EA substantially reversed the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative damage triggered by HFHS diet in the liver. These effects of EA were further confirmed in human hepatoma cells by reducing ER stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HFHS-R diet significantly decreased visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation evidenced by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage infiltration. In summary, EA supplementation from RSF was effective in reducing HFHS diet-mediated metabolic complication by attenuating hepatic ER and oxidative stresses as well as adipocyte inflammation. Our results suggest that the inclusion of EA in diets may normalize metabolic insults triggered by HS consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  7. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  8. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  9. A method for automatic segmentation and splitting of hyperspectral images of raspberry plants collected in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Williams

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperspectral imaging is a technology that can be used to monitor plant responses to stress. Hyperspectral images have a full spectrum for each pixel in the image, 400–2500 nm in this case, giving detailed information about the spectral reflectance of the plant. Although this technology has been used in laboratory-based controlled lighting conditions for early detection of plant disease, the transfer of such technology to imaging plants in field conditions presents a number of challenges. These include problems caused by varying light levels and difficulties of separating the target plant from its background. Here we present an automated method that has been developed to segment raspberry plants from the background using a selected spectral ratio combined with edge detection. Graph theory was used to minimise a cost function to detect the continuous boundary between uninteresting plants and the area of interest. The method includes automatic detection of a known reflectance tile which was kept constantly within the field of view for all image scans. A method to split images containing rows of multiple raspberry plants into individual plants was also developed. Validation was carried out by comparison of plant height and density measurements with manually scored values. A reasonable correlation was found between these manual scores and measurements taken from the images (r2 = 0.75 for plant height. These preliminary steps are an essential requirement before detailed spectral analysis of the plants can be achieved.

  10. "The Other"--A Threat or a Resource? Polar Interpretations of Two Children's Stories: "The Ugly Duckling" by H. C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenhav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Liora

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational work towards tolerance by analyzing two opposed social views in children's stories: "The ugly duckling" by H.C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenav. "The ugly duckling" depicts a social state based on the evolutional ladder, where the white entity is at the top, and the black one is at the bottom,…

  11. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  12. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  13. The reduction of murine norovirus 1, B. fragilis HSP40 infecting phage B40-8 and E. coli after a mild thermal pasteurization process of raspberry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, L; Uyttendaele, M; Van Coillie, E; Debevere, J

    2008-10-01

    Pasteurization processes of raspberry puree are nowadays limited to short times and rather low temperatures to maintain flavor and nutritional quality. Norovirus (NoV) outbreaks associated with raspberries highlight the need to determine the survival of NoV on this type of soft fruit. Therefore, resistance of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human NoV, B. fragilis HSP40 infecting phage B40-8, and E. coli towards mild pasteurization was tested. Raspberry puree heat treated at 65 degrees C for 30s showed a 1.86, 2.77, and 3.89 log reduction of, respectively, MNV-1, E. coli, and B40-8. Heating at 75 degrees C for 15s established a 2.81 log reduction of MNV-1 while a 3.44 and 3.61 log reduction of B40-8 and E. coli was observed. No supplementary lethal effect of holding the heat-treated raspberry puree at 4 degrees C overnight was noticed. B40-8 failed to be useful as a tool to monitor NoV inactivation during mild pasteurization processes. Moreover, puree.

  14. Deshidratación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus bajo régimen convectivo con aire forzado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez C Carlos Julio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Moras de castilla (Rubus glaucus calibre B con un índice de color de 5 y 6, según norma técnica colombiana (NTC-4106, fueron deshidratadas por convección forzada a temperaturas de 35, 50 y 65°C utilizando un deshidratador de bandejas de flujo paralelo. La deshidratación fue llevada a cabo en dos tamaños de partícula: mora triturada y pulpa de mora. La mora triturada fue obtenida por trituración mecánica y la pulpa por licuado. La granulometría fue hecha siguiendo la norma S319.2 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE (1994, realizada para los dos tamaños de partículas de mora, una vez finalizado el proceso de deshidratación, a las temperaturas consideradas. Se encontró que la deshidratación con moras licuadas (pulpa de mora es más rápida que las moras trituradas mecánicamente, alcanzándose una humedad de equilibrio menor, en menos tiempo, para todas las temperaturas evaluadas: a 35ºC la humedad de equilibrio fue de 28,06% b.s para mora triturada y de 17,40% b.s para mora licuada; a 50ºC fue de 20,64% b.s para mora triturada y de 15,04% b.s en mora licuada y para 65ºC la humedad de equilibrio fueron de 16,60% b.s y 11,02% b.s, para moras trituradas y licuadas respectivamente. La mora licuada deshidratada o harina de mora, presentó una mayor cantidad de material fino, con un módulo de fineza de 2,386, índice de uniformidad 0:4:6 y un diámetro promedio de partícula de 0,55 mm. En moras trituradas, se encontró un módulo de fineza de 4,93, índice de uniformidad de 7:3:0 y un diámetro promedio de partícula de 3,175 mm, la mora licuada presentó una mayor capacidad de transferencia de calor y masa haciendo más acelerado el proceso de evaporación del agua.

  15. Rubus crataegifolius Bunge regulates adipogenesis through Akt and inhibits high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Sup; Lee, Soo-Jung; Song, Yuno; Jang, Sun-Hee; Min, Wongi; Won, Chung-Kil; Kim, Hong-Duck; Kim, Tae Hoon; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems and major risk factors for serious metabolic diseases and significantly increases the risk of premature death. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Rubus crataegifolius Bunge (RCB) on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells and its anti-obesity properties in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats were treated with RCB, and its effect on gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting experiments. RCB treatment significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ in the 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Subsequently, the expression of the PPARγ target genes aP2 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased following RCB treatment during adipocyte differentiation. In uncovering the specific mechanism that mediates the effects of RCB, we demonstrated that the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt strongly decreased and that its downstream substrate phospho-GSK3β was downregulated following RCB treatment in the 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, exerted stronger inhibitory effects on RCB-mediated suppression of adipocyte differentiation, leading to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation through the downregulation of Akt signaling. An HFD-induced obesity rat model was used to determine the inhibitory effects of RCB on obesity. Body weight gain and fat accumulation in adipose tissue were significantly reduced by the supplementation of RCB. Moreover, RCB treatment caused a significant decrease in adipocyte size, associated with a decrease in epididymal fat weight. The serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased in response to RCB treatment, whereas HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) increased, indicating that RCB attenuated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese rats. Our results demonstrate an

  16. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Synomone or kairomone?--Bulbophyllum apertum flower releases raspberry ketone to attract Bactrocera fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng-Hong, Tan; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2005-03-01

    Bulbophyllum apertum flower (Orchidaceae) releases raspberry ketone (RK) in its fragrance, which attracts males of several fruit fly species belonging to the genus Bactrocera. Besides RK as a major component, the flower contains smaller amounts of 4-(4-hydroxylphenyl)-2-butanol, plus two minor volatile components, veratryl alcohol and vanillyl alcohol. Within the flower, the lip (labellum) had the highest concentration of RK with much smaller quantities present in petals; other flower parts had no detectable RK. Male fruit flies attracted to the flower belong to RK-sensitive species--such as Bactrocera albistragata, B. caudatus, B. cucurbitae (melon fly), and B. tau. Removal and attachment of the pollinarium to a fly's thoracic dorsum occurred when a male of B. albistragata was toppled into the floral column cavity, due to an imbalance caused by it shifting its body weight while feeding on the see-saw lip, and then freeing itself after being momentarily trapped between the lip and column. During this process, the stiff hamulus (the pollinia stalk protruding prominently towards the lip) acted as a crowbar when it was brushed downwards by the toppled fly and lifted the pollinia out of the anther. If the fly was big or long for the small triangular lip, it would not be toppled into the column cavity and would just walk across the column, during which time the pollinarium could be accidentally removed by the fly's leg, resulting in a failed transport of the pollinarium. This suggests an unstable situation, where the orchid relies only on a particular pollinator species in the complex ecosystem where many RK-sensitive species inhabit. Wild males of B. caudatus (most common visitors) captured on Bulbophyllum apertum flowers were found to sequester RK in their bodies as a potential pheromonal and allomonal ingredient. Thus, RK can act either as a floral synomone (pollinarium transported) or kairomone (accidental removal of pollinarium leading to total pollen wastage

  18. DJODJOUWIN 1.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    Light-dependent development of two competitive species (Rubus idaeus, Cytisus scoparius) colonizing gaps in temperate forest. Annals of Forest Science, 65 : 104 - 108. Hardtle W., von Oheimb G. and C. Westphal. 2003. The effects of light and soil conditions on the species richness of the ground vegetation of deciduous ...

  19. Combined thermotherapy and cryotherapy for efficient virus eradication: relation of virus distribution, subcellular changes, cell survival and viral RNA degradation in shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Cuellar, Wilmer J; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Hirata, Yukimasa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-03-01

    Accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. Therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. In previous studies, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. As shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues except the least differentiated cells of the apical dome. Subjecting plants to thermotherapy prior to meristem tip culture heavily reduced viral RNA2, RNA3 and the coat protein in the shoot tips, but no virus-free plants were obtained. Therefore, a novel method including thermotherapy followed by cryotherapy was developed for efficient virus eradication. Heat treatment caused subcellular alterations such as enlargement of vacuoles in the more developed, virus-infected cells, which were largely eliminated following subsequent cryotherapy. Using this protocol, 20-36% of the treated shoot tips survived, 30-40% regenerated and up to 35% of the regenerated plants were virus-free, as tested by ELISA and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Novel cellular and molecular insights into RBDV-host interactions and the factors influencing virus eradication were obtained, including invasion of shoot tips and meristematic tissues by RBDV, enhanced viral RNA degradation and increased sensitivity to freezing caused by thermotherapy, and subcellular changes and subsequent death of cells caused by cryotherapy. This novel procedure should be helpful with many virus-host combinations in which virus eradication by conventional means has proven difficult.

  20. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wilkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  1. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Thomas C; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Pering, Tom D; Taggart, Angus J; White, Benjamin S; Bryant, Robert G; Willmott, Jon R

    2016-10-06

    Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV) camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  2. A combination of Raspberry Pi and SoftEther VPN for controlling research devices via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu

    2017-11-01

    Remote control over devices for experiments may increase the efficiency of operant research and expand the area where behavior can be studied. This article introduces a combination of Raspberry Pi ® (Pi) and SoftEther VPN ® that allows for such remote control via the Internet. The Pi is a small Linux computer with a great degree of flexibility for customization. Test results indicate that a Pi-based interface meets the requirement for conducting operant research. SoftEther VPN ® allows for establishing an extensive private network on the Internet using a single private Wi-Fi router. Step-by-step instructions are provided in the present article for setting up the Pi along with SoftEther VPN ® . Their potential for improving the way of conducting research is discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Carbon nanotube/raspberry hollow Pd nanosphere hybrids for methanol, ethanol, and formic acid electro-oxidation in alkaline media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhelin; Zhao, Bo; Guo, Cunlan; Sun, Yujing; Shi, Yan; Yang, Haibin; Li, Zhuang

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, raspberry hollow Pd nanospheres (HPNs)-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) was developed for electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid in alkaline media. The electrocatalyst was fabricated simply by attaching HPNs onto the surface of CNT which had been functionalized by polymer wrapping. The as-prepared HPN-CNTs (CHPNs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing interest and intensive research on fuel cell inspire us to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of the prepared nanostructures. Besides that, previous reports about alkaline other than acidic media could supply a more active environment guide us to examine the electrocatalytic properties in alkaline electrolyte. It is found that this novel hybrid electrocatalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic properties and can be further applied in fuel cells, catalysts, and sensors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma cytokines as potential response indicators to dietary freeze-dried black raspberries in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor-Marcel, Roycelynn A; Bobe, Gerd; Sardo, Christine; Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Stoner, Gary; Colburn, Nancy H

    2012-08-01

    Oral consumption of freeze-dried black raspberries attenuated neoplastic changes in colorectal tissue markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. To determine whether plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were associated with berry treatment and changes in colorectal tissue markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis, plasma and biopsy samples of adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal-appearing colorectal tissue were collected before and during berry treatment from 24 CRC patients who had not received prior therapy and drank a slurry of black raspberry powder (20 g in 100 ml drinking water) 3 times a day for 1 to 9 wk. Plasma concentrations of GM-CSF (+0.12 ± 0.04 pg/mL; P = 0.01) and IL-8 (-1.61 ± 0.71 pg/mL; P = 0.04) changed in patients receiving berries for more than 10 days. These changes were correlated with beneficial changes in markers of proliferation (r(ΔGM-CSF, ΔKi67 carcinoma - normal) = -0.51) and apoptosis (r(ΔIL-8, ΔTUNEL carcinoma - normal) = -0.52) observed in colorectal tissue taken within the same week. Plasma concentrations of GM-CSF and IL-8 may serve as noninvasive indicators to monitor tissue response to berry-based interventions for CRC.

  5. Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-06-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. The dietary intake of RK has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies. To elucidate a possible mechanism for anti-obese actions of RK, the effects of RK on the adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated from day 2 to day 8 of differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24 h on day 12 with 1, 10, 20, and 50 μM of RK. Triacylglycerols were assessed by spectrophotometry and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10 μM of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B). These findings suggest that RK holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates anti-adipogenesis effect of raspberry ketone in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Yang, Bo-Cheng; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Yen-Mei; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. However, its mechanisms are unclear. Adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity and, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of RK on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Adipocyte lipid contents were determined using oil-red O staining while adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were determined using western blotting. RK (300-400µM) strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. RK reduced the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Wnt10b, and β-catenin expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, RK inhibited lipid accumulation, and adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were all decreased by inhibiting HO-1 or β-catenin using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) or β-catenin short-interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively. Furthermore, Wnt10b and β-catenin expressions were negatively regulation by SnPP. RK may exert anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of the HO-1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Raspberry ketone promotes the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tomoyo; Morimoto, Chie

    2014-03-01

    The decrease in the bone mass associated with osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy, aging, and other conditions is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. The balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is influenced by a reciprocal relationship. The development of modalities to promote local/systemic bone formation by inhibiting bone marrow adipose tissue is important in the treatment of fractures or metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we examined whether raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one; RK], which is one of the major aromatic compounds of red raspberry and exhibits anti-obesity action, could promote osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 stem cells. Confluent C3H10T1/2 stem cells were treated for 6 days with 10-100 μg/mL of RK in culture medium containing 10 nM all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 300 ng/mL recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 protein as an osteoblast-differentiating agent. RK in the presence of ATRA increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. RK in the presence of rhBMP-2 also increased ALP activity. RK in the presence of ATRA also increased the levels of mRNAs of osteocalcin, α1(I) collagen, and TGF-βs (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) compared with ATRA only. RK promoted the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts. However, RK did not affect the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that RK enhances the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts, and it may promote bone formation by an action unrelated to adipocyte differentiation.

  8. Effect of essential oils, such as raspberry ketone and its derivatives, on antiandrogenic activity based on in vitro reporter gene assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Akamatsu, Miki; Hotta, Yudai; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-04-01

    The effect of essential oils, such as raspberry ketone, on androgen (AR) receptor was investigated using a MDA-kb2 human breast cancer cell line for predicting potential AR activity. Among them, eugenol had the highest AR antagonistic activity with its IC(50) value of 19 microM. Raspberry ketone, which has threefold higher anti-obese activity than that of capsaicin, also had AR antagonist activity with its IC(50) value of 252 microM. Based on these findings, a more precise CoMFA model was proposed as follows: pIC(50) [log (1/IC(50))]=3.77+[CoMFA field terms] (n=39, s=0.249, r(2)=0.834, s(cv)=0.507, q(2)=0.311 (three components). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of feasibility of running RSNA's MIRC on a Raspberry Pi: a cost-effective solution for teaching files in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa; Rogalla, Patrik; Huynh, Thien; O'Malley, Martin E

    2015-11-01

    The value of a teaching case repository in radiology training programs is immense. The allocation of resources for putting one together is a complex issue, given the factors that have to be coordinated: hardware, software, infrastructure, administration, and ethics. Costs may be significant and cost-effective solutions are desirable. We chose Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) to build our teaching file. It is offered by RSNA for free. For the hardware, we chose the Raspberry Pi, developed by the Raspberry Foundation: a small control board developed as a low cost computer for schools also used in alternative projects such as robotics and environmental data collection. Its performance and reliability as a file server were unknown to us. For the operational system, we chose Raspbian, a variant of Debian Linux, along with Apache (web server), MySql (database server) and PHP, which enhance the functionality of the server. A USB hub and an external hard drive completed the setup. Installation of software was smooth. The Raspberry Pi was able to handle very well the task of hosting the teaching file repository for our division. Uptime was logged at 100 %, and loading times were similar to other MIRC sites available online. We setup two servers (one for backup), each costing just below $200.00 including external storage and USB hub. It is feasible to run RSNA's MIRC off a low-cost control board (Raspberry Pi). Performance and reliability are comparable to full-size servers for the intended purpose of hosting a teaching file within an intranet environment.

  10. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Nontargeted LC-MSn Profiling of Compounds in Ileal Fluids That Decrease after Raspberry Intake Identifies Consistent Alterations in Bile Acid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Ternan, Nigel; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2016-10-28

    Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into the digestion of foods, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites that are important to gut health. We previously reported an increase of components, including novel triterpenoids, in ileal fluids of 11 ileostomates following consumption of raspberries using nontargeted LC-MSn techniques in combination with data deconvolution software. The current study focused on components that consistently decreased postsupplementation. After data deconvolution, 32 components were identified that met exclusion parameters of m/z signals and which decreased significantly in ileal fluids from eight of 11 participants post-raspberry supplementation. Two-thirds of these components were identified putatively from their MS properties. Consistent decreases were observed in components that possibly reflected "washing out" of presupplementation intake of common foods/drinks including (poly)phenol metabolites. Metabolites associated with fat metabolism such as hydroxylated fatty acids and cholate-type bile acids were specifically reduced. However, more directed re-examination of the data revealed that although some cholates were consistently reduced, the more polar glyco- and tauro-linked bile acid derivatives increased consistently, by as much as 100-fold over presupplementation levels. The possible reasons for these substantial alterations in bile acid composition in ileal fluids in response to raspberry intake are discussed.

  12. 文系大学生を対象とした Raspberry Pi 活用事例

    OpenAIRE

    山﨑, 智子

    2017-01-01

    近年は、私たちの日常生活の隅々へのICT の導入と実用化が進む中で、理系大学生や専門学生に限らず、文系大学生も大学卒業後にICT に関する知識や活用する力が求められるようになってきている。本稿は、これまでICT 分野に触れる機会が少なかった文系大学生を対象とし、Raspberry Pi を活用したものづくり体験をとおしてICT 分野への興味関心をもたせることを試行した事例報告である。ものづくり体験では、コンピュータや情報通信の基本的な原理を自分の手を動かしながら学び、「自分のアイデアを形にする」という目標を設定することにより、主体的かつ楽しみながら学習に取り組むことができた。その結果、学生はICT 分野への興味関心と理解をより深め、日常生活においてICT がより身近なものだと感じることができた。以上のことから、ICT 分野に抵抗感を抱きがちな文系大学生にとってRaspberry Pi を教材として活用することは効果的であると考えられる。...

  13. Evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of human norovirus on strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and in their purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runze; Ye, Mu; Li, Xinhui; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2016-04-16

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) has been an increasing concern of foodborne illness related to fresh and frozen berries. In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of HuNoV on fresh strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries and in their purees was investigated. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM)-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were utilized for infectious HuNoV discrimination and quantification. Strawberry puree inoculated with HuNoV genogroup I.1 (GI.1) strain was HHP-treated at 450, 500 and 550 MPa for 2 min each at initial sample temperatures of 0, 4 and 20 °C. HuNoV GI.1 strain became more sensitive to HHP treatment as the temperature decreased from 20 to 0 °C. HuNoV GI.1 or genogroup II.4 (GII.4) strains were inoculated into three types of berries and their purees and treated at pressure levels from 250 to 650 MPa for 2 min at initial sample temperature of 0 °C. For the purees, the HHP condition needed to achieve >2.9 log reduction of HuNoV GI.1 strain and >4.0 log reduction of HuNoV GII.4 strain was found to be ≥ 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C. HHP treatment showed better inactivation effect of HuNoV on blueberries than on strawberry quarters and raspberries. HuNoV GI.1 strain was more resistant to HHP treatment than HuNoV GII.4 strain under different temperatures and environment. The physical properties and sensory qualities of HHP-treated and untreated blueberries and the three types of berry purees were evaluated. Color, pH and viscosity of blueberries and three berry purees showed no or slight changes after HHP treatment. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C did not significantly reduced the sensory qualities of three berry purees. The results demonstrated that the HHP treatment of 550 MPa for 2 min at 0 °C could be a potential nonthermal intervention for HuNoV in berry purees without adversely affecting their sensory qualities

  14. Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity and the Chemical Components of the Volatile Oil of the Leaves of Rubus parvifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubus parvifolius L. (Rp is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (w/w of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Bacillus cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10% and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (2%. Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity.

  15. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of three flavonoid glycosides in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS after oral administration of Rubus chingii Hu extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Tao; Piao, Li; Wei, Yuntao; Gu, Yue; Liu, Baohua; Jiang, Daqing

    2018-03-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside in rat plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol and separated on a Hypersil Gold C 18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.0 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed with negative ion electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode. All analytes showed good linearity over their investigated concentration ranges (r 2  > 0.99). The lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL for isoquercitrin and 2.0 ng/mL for kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were 80.4%. The assay was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of the three ingredients after oral administration of Rubus chingii Hu to rats. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Novel ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Rubus corchorifolius L. f. Inhibits Human Colon Cancer Cell Growth via Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexiang; Wu, Xian; Ouyang, Wen; Gu, Min; Gao, Zili; Song, Mingyue; Chen, Yunjiao; Lin, Yanyin; Cao, Yong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-03-01

    The tender leaves of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. have been consumed as tea for drinking in China since ancient times. In this study, a novel ent-kaurane diterpenoid was isolated and identified from R. corchorifolius L. f. leaves as ent-kaur-2-one-16β,17-dihydroxy-acetone-ketal (DEK). DEK suppressed the growth of HCT116 human colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 40 ± 0.21 μM, while it did not cause significant growth inhibition on CCD-18Co human colonic myofibroblasts at up to100 μM. Moreover, DEK induced extensive apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in the colon cancer cells. Accordingly, DEK caused profound effects on multiple signaling proteins associated with cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. DEK significantly upregulated the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP, p53, Bax, and tumor suppressor p21Cip1/Waf1, downregulated the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins such as cyclinD1, CDK2, and CDK4 and carcinogenic proteins such as EGFR and COX-2, and suppressed the activation of Akt. Overall, our results provide a basis for using DEK as a potential chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Black Raspberries and Their Anthocyanin and Fiber Fractions Alter the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota in F-344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Lam, Vy; Salzman, Nita; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Li-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed. We observed distinct patterns of microbiota from different diet groups. Beta diversity analysis suggested that all diet groups exerted time-dependent changes in the bacterial diversity. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that post-diet fecal microbiota was segregated from baseline fecal microbiota within each diet. It is interesting to note that fractions of BRBs induced different changes in gut bacteria compared to whole BRBs. The abundance of specific microbial species known to have anti-inflammatory effects, such as Akkermansia and Desulfovibrio, was increased by whole BRBs and their residue. Further, butyrate-producing bacteria, e.g., Anaerostipes, were increased by whole BRBs. Our results suggest that whole BRBs and their fractions alter the gut microbiota in ways that could significantly influence human health.

  18. Isolation of the four methyl jasmonate stereoisomers and their effects on selected chiral volatile compounds in red raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Ruiz del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2013-12-01

    The four stereoisomers present in a commercial sample of methyl jasmonate (MJ) were isolated at semi-preparative scale by HPLC, using a permethylated β-cyclodextrin column. This allowed the baseline resolution and collection of both major (methyl jasmonates) and minor (epi-methyl jasmonates) stereoisomers. When 1.5 mL of a 5mg per mL MJ solution were injected, isolated amounts were 3.56 mg for (-) and (+)-methyl jasmonates, with respective purities of 96.1% and 99.9%, and 0.18 mg for (-)- and (+)-epi-methyl jasmonates, with 98.6% and 91.6% respective purities. The post-harvest treatment of red raspberry fruits with the pure methyl jasmonate stereoisomers isolated proved that (-)-epi-MJ either promotes the bioformation of (+)-limonene or inhibits that of (-)-limonene to a greater extent than the other three MJ stereoisomers, while the biosynthesis of the (+)-enantiomer of α-ionone is favoured equally, whichever MJ stereoisomer used. The results obtained in the present study might be used to obtain food products with improved sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  20. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.