Sample records for rare paracentric inversions

  1. Three unrelated cases of paracentric inversions of 1p in individuals with abnormal phenotypes

    Estop, A.M.; Karlin, S.M.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bansal, V.; Surti, U. [Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lin, A. [Franciscan Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Levinson, F. [Institute for Basic Research and Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)


    Paracentric inversions, involving a rearrangement within one chromosome arm, are rare. Although carriers of balanced paracentric inversions should theoretically not be at risk for abnormal offspring, such cases have been reported. The authors report on 2 unrelated cases of inherited paracentric inversions of 1p with breakpoints at p32 and p36.1 and p32.3 and p36.22 in individuals with abnormal phenotypes. Another case of 2 abnormal monozygotic twins with a de novo paracentric inversion of 1p with breakpoints at p22 and p34 is presented as well. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus


    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from Drosoph...

  3. Paracentric inversions in humans: A review of 446 paracentric inversions with presentation of 120 new cases

    Pettenati, M.J.; Rao, P.N. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Grss, F. [Carolina Medical Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)


    We present a large review of 446 cases of paracentric inversions (PAI), including 120 new cases, to assess their incidence, distribution, inheritance, modes of ascertainment, interchromosomal effects, viable recombinant offspring, and clinical relevance. All 23 autosomes and sex chromosomes had inversions. However, none were identified in chromosome arms 18p, 19q, 20q, and Yp. PAI were most commonly reported in chromosomes 4, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and Y. Inversions were most common in chromosome arms 6p, 7q, 11q, and 14q and observed least in chromosome arms 2p, 2q, 3q, 4q, and 6q. Frequently encountered breakpoints included 3(p13p25), 6(p12p23), 6(p12p25), 7(q11q22), and 11(q21q23). Ascertainment was primarily incidental (54.5%), mental retardation and/or congenital anomalies (22.2%), spontaneous abortions (11.4%), associations with syndromes (3.0%), and infertility (2.0%) accounted for the remainder. Ascertainment was neither related to the length of the inverted segment nor to specific inversions except for PAI of Xq which often presented with manifestations of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Sixty-six percent of PAI were inherited while 8.5% were de novo. Recombination was observed in 17 cases, 15 of which resulted in a monocentric chromosomal deletion or duplication. No common factors were identified that suggested a tendency toward recombination. The incidence of viable recombinants was estimated to be 3.8%. This review documents that PAI are perhaps more commonly identified than suggested in previous reviews. Despite the possible bias of ascertainment in some cases, there may be associated risks with PAI that require further examination. Our data suggest that PAI carriers do not appear to be free of risks of abnormalities or abnormal progeny and caution is recommended when counseling. 162 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Paracentral Corneal Dellen:A Rare Sign of Graves Ophthalmopathy

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu


    Purpose: To report a rare sign, paracentral corneal dellen that developed in a middleaged female patient with Graves ophthalmopathy.Methods:A paracentral corneal dellen developed in the left eye in a 42-year-old woman who was diagnosed as Graves ophthalmopathy. The patient had remarkable upper eyelid retraction, upper eyelid lag and upward motility restriction. The Graves ophthalmopathy was classified as Grade V according to NOSPECS classification.Results:Local artificial tear film and 0.3% Tobramycin eye drops were administered to both eyes.Twenty-four hours later, the left corneal dellen disappeared.Conclusions:Graves ophthalmopathy can lead to paracentral corneal dellen because of severe upper eyelid retraction and upward motility restriction of the eye in spite of the lack of lagophthalmos. Artificial tear drop and antibiotic eye drop therapy helped even though the patient did not have corneal exposure.

  5. A 11.7-Mb Paracentric Inversion in Chromosome 1q Detected in Prenatal Diagnosis Associated with Familial Intellectual Disability.

    Rigola, Maria A; Baena, Neus; Català, Vicenç; Lozano, Iris; Gabau, Elisabet; Guitart, Miriam; Fuster, Carmen


    Most apparent balanced chromosomal inversions are usually clinically asymptomatic; however, infertility, miscarriages, and mental retardation have been reported in inversion carriers. We present a small family with a paracentric inversion 1q42.13q43 detected in routine prenatal diagnosis. Molecular cytogenetic methods defined the size of the inversion as 11.7 Mb and excluded other unbalanced chromosomal alterations in the patients. Our findings suggest that intellectual disability is caused by dysfunction, disruption, or position effects of genes located at or near the breakpoints involved in this inversion.

  6. Male meiotic segregation analyses of peri- and paracentric inversions in the pig species.

    Massip, K; Bonnet, N; Calgaro, A; Billoux, S; Baquié, V; Mary, N; Bonnet-Garnier, A; Ducos, A; Yerle, M; Pinton, A


    Inversions are well-known structural chromosomal rearrangements in humans and pigs. Such rearrangements generally have no effect on the carriers' phenotype. However, the presence of an inversion can lead to spermatogenesis impairments and to the production of unbalanced (recombinant) gametes, responsible for early miscarriages, stillbirth, or congenital abnormalities. Sperm samples from boars heterozygote for pericentric inv(2)(p1.1;q1.1), inv(2) (p1.1;q2.1), inv(1)(p2.1;q2.10), or inv(1)(p2.4;q2.9), as well as for paracentric inv(2)(q1.3;q2.5) or inv(1)(q1.2;q2.4) were analyzed using sperm FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization on decondensed sperm heads) to determine the male meiotic segregation profiles of the rearrangements. Furthermore, the availability of sperm samples for 2 unrelated carriers of inv(2)(p1.1;q1.1) allowed us to check for the occurrence of inter-individual variability of the rates of unbalanced meiotic products for this rearrangement. The estimated proportions of recombinant gametes were very low for all the inversions studied (0.62%, 1.30%, 3.05%, 1.27%, 4.12% and 0.84%, respectively), albeit significantly higher than the control. The rearrangements should therefore have very little impact on the reproductive performance of the carriers. No difference was found between the 2 carriers of inv(2)(p1.1;q1.1), suggesting a lack of inter-individual variability for this rearrangement. Overall, no significant correlation was found between the sizes of the inverted fragments and the proportions of recombinant (unbalanced) gametes for the 6 inversions studied. This is in contradiction with most human results. Further studies (pairing and recombination analysis using immunostaining techniques) should be carried out to elucidate the origin of such an inter-species difference.

  7. Paracentric inversion of chromosome 7 (46,XX,inv(7)(q21.2q22)) in a newborn with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Kuforjii, T.A.; Pillers, D.M.; Silberbach, M. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others


    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart disease that is uniformly fatal without surgical intervention. Fetal echocardiography allows prenatal diagnosis, but this condition may not become apparent until after the mid-second trimester. We report a term baby with severe HLHS who had an 18 week fetal ultrasound that reportedly demonstrated a normal heart. There was no family history of congenital heart disease. She was phenotypically female with no dysmorphic features. Physical examination was otherwise normal. She expired at 48 hours of age. The autopsy was noncontributory. The karyotype was 46,XX, but there was an apparently balanced paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 7 (46,XX,inv(7)(q21.2q22)). The mother`s chromosome study was normal without any inversion, and the father was not available for study. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome has been associated with extracardiac anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities including 45,XO,11q-, and trisomy 18. It has also been reported in 5 members spanning 3 generations of a family with a spectrum of left heart defects suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern with high penetrance. First-degree relatives of infants with HLHS have a thirteen percent incidence of related cardiovascular malformations, a frequency higher than predicted by a multifactorial model of inheritance, suggesting that at least a portion of HLHS have a genetic basis. Karyotype analysis, including high resolution banding, may help define the etiology of this condition. Chromosome 7 has not been implicated in HLHS. This case emphasizes the need for genetic analysis, including a pedigree, of affected families. It also underscores the importance of screening by karyotype analysis to determine whether defects of the long arm of chromosome 7 are important in the pathogenesis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.


    Moacyr Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available ntroduction:There are no studies that evaluate measurements of the distances between the grooves that delimit the Paracentral Lobule (PCL in the literature. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the anatomy of the PCL, conducting an analysis of morphometric measurements in this region and its correlation with the paracentral sulcus, marginal branch of the cingulate and central sulcus. Methods:42 hemispheres were evaluated, 20 were right and 22 left. Using digital caliper Dc - 6 Western ®, measurements of the size of PCL in the sagittal axis and coronal axis were made, in addition to measures of the Central Sulcus to the Paracentral Sulcus (motor area and Central Sulcus to Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus (somesthetic area, comparing the prevalence of each of these lengths between hemispheres. Results:The average length between the Paracentral Sulcus and the Central Sulcus was 24.49 cm(14.2 to 38.6 cm in the right hemisphere and 25.50 cm(11.7 to 37.0 cm in the left. As between the Central Sulcus and the Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus was in average 10.03 cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm in the right and in the left PCL 9.17cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm. In the right hemisphere, 19 samples(86,4% presented greater motor area than somesthetic and, in the left hemisphere, 19 samples(95% had greater motor area. Conclusion:The motor area showed prevalence in relation to the sensory area in the analysis of the two hemispheres, while the comparison of other measures between the two hemispheres showed no significance.

  9. Morphometric analyses of the Paracentral Lobe.

    Moacyr Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available Introduction:There are no studies that evaluate measurements of the distances between the grooves that delimit the Paracentral Lobule (PCL in the literature. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the anatomy of the PCL, conducting an analysis of morphometric measurements in this region and its correlation with the paracentral sulcus, marginal branch of the cingulate and central sulcus.Methods:42 hemispheres were evaluated, 20 were right and 22 left. Using digital caliper Dc - 6 Western ®, measurements of the size of PCL in the sagittal axis and coronal axis were made, in addition to measures of the Central Sulcus to the Paracentral Sulcus (motor area and Central Sulcus to Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus (somesthetic area, comparing the prevalence of each of these lengths between hemispheres.Results:The average length between the Paracentral Sulcus and the Central Sulcus was 24.49 cm(14.2 to 38.6 cm in the right hemisphere and 25.50 cm(11.7 to 37.0 cm in the left. As between the Central Sulcus and the Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus was in average 10.03 cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm in the right and in the left PCL 9.17cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm. In the right hemisphere, 19 samples(86,4% presented greater motor area than somesthetic and, in the left hemisphere, 19 samples(95%  had greater motor area.Conclusion:The motor area showed prevalence in relation to the sensory area in the analysis of the two hemispheres, while the comparison of other measures between the two hemispheres showed no significance.




    Full Text Available Chronic uterine inversion is a complication of mismanaged labour. It is a life threatening complication and an obstetric emergency. Early diagnosis , prompt and aggressive management reduce the morbidity and mortality. Incomplete uterine inversion left unattended or unnoticed may lead to constriction ring formation and may require surgical intervention. We report a case of chronic uterine inversion whi ch was reduced by Haultain’s repair.

  11. Outcomes of corneal crosslinking for central and paracentral keratoconus

    Tian, Mingxia; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Weiyan; Feng, Jie; Mu, Guoying


    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to compare the therapy of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for central and paracentral keratoconus. Methods: 64 eyes of 43 central keratoconus patients whose highest power of the cornea located in the central 3 mm zone and 24 eyes of 16 paracentral keratoconus patients whose highest power located out of the central 3 mm zone received standard corneal CXL were included. Maximum keratometry (Kmax) and astigmatism according to topography, uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA) were studied preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Results: Central group: Preoperative UDVA and CDVA were 0.9 ± 0.4 and 0.5 ± 0.4 logMAR, respectively. At 2 years, UDVA and CDVA significantly improved to 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.3 logMAR(P  0.05). Preoperative Kmax and astigmatism were 50.3 ± 5.3 and 2.4 ± 1.7 D, respectively. At 2 years, Kmax significantly decreased to 48.8 ± 4.6 (P  0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that CXL was more effective for central keratoconus than paracentral keratoconus. PMID:28272223

  12. Inversion recovery RARE: Clinical application of T{sub 2}-weighted CSF-suppressed rapid sequence; Inversion-Recovery-RARE: Klinische Anwendung einer T{sub 2}-gewichteten, liquorunterdrueckten Schnellsequenz

    Goetz, G.F. [Sektion Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Hennig, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Ziyeh, S. [Sektion Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)


    Inversion-Recovery RARE is a strongly T{sub 2}-weighted fast sequence in which the CSF appears dark. This sequence was used in more than 100 patients. Retrospective analysis of 80 patients with cerebrovascular and inflammatory disease was carried out. The IR-RARE sequence proved to be particularly suitable for identifying small lesions in the neighbourhood of the subarachnoid space. We illustrate the typical contrast provided by this sequence, and describe its characteristics, exemplifying the advantages it offers for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, cerebral microangiopathy and brain infarction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Inversion-Recovery-RARE ist eine stark T{sub 2}-gewichtete Schnellsequenz mit unterdruecktem Liquorsignal (dark fluid RARE). Diese Sequenz wurde inzwischen bei ueber 100 kranialen MRT-Untersuchungen angewandt. Wir haben 80 Patienten mit entzuendlichen und zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen retrospektiv ausgewertet. IR-RARE ist bei der Darstellung kleiner liquorraumnaher Laesionen T{sub 2}-gewichteten Sequenzen ueberlegen. Wir stellen den typischen Kontrast der Inversion-Recovery-RARE-Sequenz, seine Besonderheiten und exemplarisch seine vorteilhafte Anwendung bei multipler Sklerose, zerebraler Mikroangiopathie und Hirninfarkten dar. (orig.)

  13. TaBoo SeArch Algorithm with a Modified Inverse Histogram for Reproducing Biologically Relevant Rare Events of Proteins.

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru


    The TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm [ Harada et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2015 , 36 , 763 - 772 and Harada et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2015 , 630 , 68 - 75 ] was recently proposed as an enhanced conformational sampling method for reproducing biologically relevant rare events of a given protein. In TBSA, an inverse histogram of the original distribution, mapped onto a set of reaction coordinates, is constructed from trajectories obtained by multiple short-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Rarely occurring states of a given protein are statistically selected as new initial states based on the inverse histogram, and resampling is performed by restarting the MD simulations from the new initial states to promote the conformational transition. In this process, the definition of the inverse histogram, which characterizes the rarely occurring states, is crucial for the efficiency of TBSA. In this study, we propose a simple modification of the inverse histogram to further accelerate the convergence of TBSA. As demonstrations of the modified TBSA, we applied it to (a) hydrogen bonding rearrangements of Met-enkephalin, (b) large-amplitude domain motions of Glutamine-Binding Protein, and (c) folding processes of the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A. All demonstrations numerically proved that the modified TBSA reproduced these biologically relevant rare events with nanosecond-order simulation times, although a set of microsecond-order, canonical MD simulations failed to reproduce the rare events, indicating the high efficiency of the modified TBSA.

  14. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites

    James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.


    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE

  15. A rare prenatal case with two de novo inversions and a translocation: 48, XX,t(9;12)(q32;p24.3), inv(11)(p15.1q25), inv(13)(q12.q22)

    Harrison, B.; Balaban, L.; Eldred, C. [Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others


    Ultrasound examination of a para 1, gravida 2, 26 y.o. showed severe hydrocephalus and polyhydramnios. Amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype with a 9;12 translocation, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11, and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 13. Parental chromosome studies were normal. The mother was not on medication prior to her pregnancy and there was no known exposure to radiation. Delivery was at 34 weeks gestation. The phenotype consisted of micrognathia, low set ears, hypertelorism, and hydrodcephaly. Review of the literature revealed a single report with multiple de novo aberrations consisting of a 6;14 translocation and a deleted 7. This was diagnosed in the child of a woman with systemic lupus erythematous treated with azathioprine. These types of abnormalities have been known to be induced by chemical and radiation exposure. High resolution banding combined with molecular studies presently improve our ability to detect subtle structural aberrations.

  16. Direct detection of common and rare inversion mutations in the genetic diagnosis of severe hemophilia A

    Windsor, A.S.; Lillicrap, D.P.; Taylor, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Ontario (Canada)


    Approximately 50% of the cases of severe hemophilia A (factor VIII:C < 0.01 units/ml) may be due to gross rearrangements of the factor VIII gene. The mutation involves homologous sequences upstream of the factor VIII locus and within intron 22 in an intrachromosomal recombination, inversion, event. The rearrangements can readily be detected on a Southern blot using a probe that is complementary to sequences from within intron 22. We describe here the analysis of this mutation in 71 severe hemophilia A patients. Thirty two of the patients (45%) showed evidence of a rearrangement. Five different patterns of rearrangements were seen, two of which have previously been described and account for the majority of cases (pattern 1, 70% and pattern 2, 16%). Three other abnormal patterns were observed. The inversion mechanism does not usually result in the loss or gain of any genetic material, but in one patient, in whom a unique rearrangement pattern was observed (pattern 3), we have previously documented a gross deletion which removes exons 1-22 of the factor VII gene as well as sequences 5{prime} to the gene. In another individual a fourth pattern in which an extra 19.0 kb band is present was detected. In this case it is unclear as to whether the rearrangement is responsible for the disease or is simply coincident normal variation. A fifth pattern, in which an extra 16.0 kb band was detected, was observed in a family with a new mutation causing hemophilia A. The affected individual and his mother inherited a de novo rearrangement of the factor VIII gene from his unaffected grandfather, implicating it as the cause of the disease. In conclusion, testing for the factor VIII inversion mutation was positive in approximately 45% of severe hemophiliacs, 72% of whom were isolated cases, and as such should constitute the initial stage in the genetic testing protocol for these patients` families.

  17. Absence of Neurobehavioral Disturbance in a Focal Lesion of the Left Paracentral Lobule

    T. Imamura


    Full Text Available The case of a right-handed woman with an infarcation confined to the left paracentral lobule and sparing the supplementary motor area (SMA is reported. She presented with a right leg monoplegia and displayed no mutism. The absence of any associated neurobehavioral disturbances (mutism, forced grasping, reduced spontaneous arm activity or aphasia raises the possibility that the left SMA has discrete neurobehavioral functions.

  18. Hazard Detection by Drivers with Paracentral Homonymous Field Loss: A Small Case Series.

    Matthew, Bronstad P; Bowers, Alex R; Albu, Amanda; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli


    Stroke frequently causes homonymous visual field loss. We previously found in a driving simulator that patients with complete homonymous hemianopia had difficulty detecting potential hazards on the side of the field loss. Here we measured the effects of limited paracentral homonymous field loss on detection performance. Three patients with paracentral homonymous scotomas, yet meeting vision requirements for driving in the United States, performed a pedestrian detection task while driving in a simulator. Pedestrians appeared in a variety of potentially hazardous situations on both sides of the road. Three age- and gender-matched control participants with normal vision participated for comparison purposes. Pedestrians appearing in the scotomatous side of the visual field were less likely to be detected, and when they were, reaction times were longer, frequently too late to respond safely. Although legally permitted to drive in the U.S.A., and possibly in other countries, patients with paracentral homonymous field loss may have impaired hazard detection and may benefit from education about their deficit and a fitness-to-drive evaluation.

  19. Management of a Small Paracentral Corneal Perforation Using Iatrogenic Iris Incarceration and Tissue Adhesive

    Akira Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention for corneal perforation is indicated when the anterior chamber does not reform within a short period of time. Herein, we report the successful management of a small paracentral corneal perforation using autologous iris incarceration and tissue adhesive. Case: A 41-year-old man developed a small paracentral corneal perforation (0.5 mm in size in the right eye, while the treating physician attempted to remove the residual rust ring after removal of a piece of metallic foreign body. Observations: The eye was initially managed with a bandage soft contact lens to ameliorate the aqueous leakage; however, without success. Iatrogenic iris incarceration of the wound was first induced, followed by application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to the perforated site. As a result, the anterior chamber was immediately reformed and maintained. Complete corneal epithelialization of the perforation was achieved in 2 months without visual compromises. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive with iatrogenic incarceration of the autologous iris was effective in treating this type of small corneal perforation. This technique is simple and potentially useful for small paracentral corneal perforations outside the visual axis and without good apposition.

  20. Enhanced rare earth photoluminescence in inverse opal photonic crystals and its application for pH sensing

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Cui, Shaobo; Wang, Yinhua; Liu, Mao; Lu, Cheng; Mishra, Abhinay; Xu, Wen


    Concentration quenching effects of identical rare earth (RE) activator ions and energy transfer (ET) between different RE ions often compromise the photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency in RE based luminescence materials. Here, we demonstrate that in NaGd(WO4)2:Tb3+, Eu3+ inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs), the suppression of the emission line located in the photonic stop band (PSB) and a dramatic increase of the lifetimes of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions are observed. More interestingly, the concentration quenching among Eu3+ ions and ET from Tb3+ to Eu3+ is significantly relieved owing to the periodic empty cavity structure of IOPCs. As a consequence, the luminescent quantum efficiency (QE) of the NaGd(WO4)2:Tb3+, Eu3+ IOPCs increases ˜2 times more than that of crushed NaGd(WO4)2:Tb3+, Eu3+ powder. In addition, a reusable pH sensor with good linear response (pH 5-10) has been designed based on the high surface-to-volume ratio, high connectivity, and enhanced luminescence of NaGd(WO4)2:Tb3+, Eu3+IOPCs, which could be applied to the dynamical detection of pH value.

  1. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy Diagnosed With En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Rahimi, Mansour; Iafe, Nicholas; Sarraf, David


    A 21-year-old healthy female presented with acute-onset vision loss in the left eye. Multimodal imaging, including fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, was unremarkable. En face optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) lesions in a perivenular fern-like pattern leading to the diagnosis of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). En face OCT can be an important modality to identify the distribution of abnormalities of the middle retina such as PAMM. The distribution of PAMM lesions in the posterior pole will be a critical element in the determination of the etiologic disorder. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:862-864.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Waardenburg syndrome type I in a child with de novo inversion (2)(q35q37.3).

    Ishikiriyama, S; Tonoki, H; Shibuya, Y; Chin, S; Harada, N; Abe, K; Niikawa, N


    We report on a child with Waardenburg syndrome type I and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2. This 20 month-old boy has dystopia canthorum, sensorineural deafness, heterochromia iridis, partially albinotic ocular fundi, and partial leukodermia. He does not have mental retardation or any skeletal abnormalities. Family history was unremarkable. Cytogenetic studies demonstrated that the patient has a paracentric inversion (2)(q35q37.3); his parents have normal chromosomes. These findings suggest that the locus of the gene for Waardenburg syndrome type I may be at 2q35 or 2q37.3.

  3. The optical imaging of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy in a Chinese young man and review of the literature.

    Chen, Yanyan; Hu, Yuedong


    We report a case of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 26-year-old Chinese policeman presented with a 20-day history of paracentral scotoma in the left eye after early wake-up and long-time working in front of computer the day before. He experienced sudden-onset strong flash in his left eye. Paracentral scotoma appeared in his left eye after 6hours of rest. The general history was negative. His best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 OU. Anterior segment, dilated fundus examination, papillary evaluation and intraocular pressure were normal. Fuorescein angiography and blue light fundus autofluorescence showed no significant abnormality. In multicolor photography, the lesion was visible on the monochromic infrared/blue reflectance images and not clear in green reflectance. The 10 degree visual field examination revealed superior paracentral relative scotoma. Multifocal electroretinogram revealed reduced response in central area in the left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed that hyperreflective plaque was present at the IPL/INL/OPL level with hyperreflective point at the GCL. The plaque became thinner 3 months later and diminished 6 months later with obviously atrophied INL. In the 3 months follow-up, transverse scan revealed that there was a well-demarcated hypo-refractive lesion in IPL and hyper-refractive lesion in INL. OCTA revealed the deceased flow signal intensity of focal deep capillaries. En face OCT imaging of the left eye revealed a relative well-defined, hypo-refractive lesion and non-flow area localized at the level of the deep capillary plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anopheles darlingi polytene chromosomes: revised maps including newly described inversions and evidence for population structure in Manaus

    Anthony J Cornel


    Full Text Available Salivary gland polytene chromosomes of 4th instar Anopheles darlingi Root were examined from multiple locations in the Brazilian Amazon. Minor modifications were made to existing polytene photomaps. These included changes to the breakpoint positions of several previously described paracentric inversions and descriptions of four new paracentric inversions, two on the right arm of chromosome 3 and two on the left arm of chromosome 3 that were found in multiple locations. A total of 18 inversions on the X (n = 1 chromosome, chromosome 2 (n = 7 and 3 (n = 11 were scored for 83 individuals from Manaus, Macapá and Porto Velho municipalities. The frequency of 2Ra inversion karyotypes in Manaus shows significant deficiency of heterozygotes (p < 0.0009. No significant linkage disequilibrium was found between inversions on chromosome 2 and 3. We hypothesize that at least two sympatric subpopulations exist within the An. darlingi population at Manaus based on inversion frequencies.

  5. Anopheles darlingi polytene chromosomes: revised maps including newly described inversions and evidence for population structure in Manaus

    Cornel, Anthony J; Brisco, Katherine K; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila FC; Rafael, Miriam S; Galardo, Allan KR; Medeiros, Jansen F; Pessoa, Felipe AC; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Lee, Yoosook; Pimenta, Paulo FP; Lanzaro, Gregory C


    Salivary gland polytene chromosomes of 4th instar Anopheles darlingi Root were examined from multiple locations in the Brazilian Amazon. Minor modifications were made to existing polytene photomaps. These included changes to the breakpoint positions of several previously described paracentric inversions and descriptions of four new paracentric inversions, two on the right arm of chromosome 3 and two on the left arm of chromosome 3 that were found in multiple locations. A total of 18 inversions on the X (n = 1) chromosome, chromosome 2 (n = 7) and 3 (n = 11) were scored for 83 individuals from Manaus, Macapá and Porto Velho municipalities. The frequency of 2Ra inversion karyotypes in Manaus shows significant deficiency of heterozygotes (p < 0.0009). No significant linkage disequilibrium was found between inversions on chromosome 2 and 3. We hypothesize that at least two sympatric subpopulations exist within the An. darlingi population at Manaus based on inversion frequencies. PMID:27223867

  6. Effect of inversion symmetry on the incommensurate order in multiferroic RMn2O5 ( R=rare earth)

    Harris, A. B.; Kenzelmann, M.; Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, O.


    Starting from the irreducible representations of the group of the wave vector, we construct the spin-wave functions consistent with inversion symmetry, neglected in the usual representation analysis. We obtain the relation between the basis functions of different members of the star of the wave vector. We introduce order parameters and determine their transformation properties under the operations of the space group of the paramagnetic crystal. The results are applied to construct terms in the magnetoelectric interaction, which are quadratic and quartic in the magnetic order parameters. The higher-order magnetoelectric interactions can in principle induce components of the spontaneous polarization, which are not allowed by the lowest-order magnetoelectric interaction. We also obtain the relation between the spin-wave functions of the incommensurate phase and those of the commensurate phase, which lead to analogous relations between the order parameters of these two phases.

  7. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A


    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  8. Systematic of signature inversion in $(h_{11/2})_{\\text{p}}⊗ (i_{13/2})_{\\text{n}}$ for odd–odd nuclei in rare-earth nuclei

    Kawalpreet Kalra; Alpana Goel; Sukhjeet Singh; Sushil Kumar; A K Jain


    Systematic features of the signature inversion phenomenon in $(h_{11/2})_{\\text{p}}⊗ (i_{13/2})_{\\text{n}}$ in doubly-odd rare-earth nuclei are presented. These features are generally observed in high- orbitals, mainly, in $(h_{9/2})$, $(h_{11/2})$ and $(i_{13/2})$. Calculations are carried out within the framework of the two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) to explain strong odd–even staggering and signature inversion observed in these high- orbitals. The shifting of point of inversion to lower/higher spin with the increase in neutron/proton numbers is well explained by the calculations. It is found that 1/2[541] proton orbital of $h_{9/2}$ is necessary in the lower mass region to obtain the point of inversion.

  9. Recombination dynamics of a human Y-chromosomal palindrome: rapid GC-biased gene conversion, multi-kilobase conversion tracts, and rare inversions.

    Pille Hallast

    Full Text Available The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY includes eight large inverted repeats (palindromes in which arm-to-arm similarity exceeds 99.9%, due to gene conversion activity. Here, we studied one of these palindromes, P6, in order to illuminate the dynamics of the gene conversion process. We genotyped ten paralogous sequence variants (PSVs within the arms of P6 in 378 Y chromosomes whose evolutionary relationships within the SNP-defined Y phylogeny are known. This allowed the identification of 146 historical gene conversion events involving individual PSVs, occurring at a rate of 2.9-8.4×10(-4 events per generation. A consideration of the nature of nucleotide change and the ancestral state of each PSV showed that the conversion process was significantly biased towards the fixation of G or C nucleotides (GC-biased, and also towards the ancestral state. Determination of haplotypes by long-PCR allowed likely co-conversion of PSVs to be identified, and suggested that conversion tract lengths are large, with a mean of 2068 bp, and a maximum in excess of 9 kb. Despite the frequent formation of recombination intermediates implied by the rapid observed gene conversion activity, resolution via crossover is rare: only three inversions within P6 were detected in the sample. An analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla P6 orthologs showed that the ancestral state bias has existed in all three species, and comparison of human and chimpanzee sequences with the gorilla outgroup confirmed that GC bias of the conversion process has apparently been active in both the human and chimpanzee lineages.

  10. Simulation of Electron Energy Spectra of a Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflection Analyzer as a Function of Entry Bias: Effects of Misalignments

    O. Sise


    Full Text Available The performance of a biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA, including fringing fields and their effect on focusing and energy resolution, is investigated using numerical methods. Electron energy spectra are calculated for three entry positions R0=84 mm, 100 mm, and 112 mm and compared with the recent experimental measurements. In both experiment and calculation, the two different paracentric entry positions R0=84 mm and R0=112 mm, on either side of the mean radius of 100 mm, are found to have a base energy resolution of about two times better than the conventional centric entry position R0=100 mm. In order to explain the discrepancies (6–30% between the simulated and the experimental resolutions the focusing characteristics are further investigated for different displacements of the input lens (ΔR0 with respect to the entry position R0 and the tilted input beam axis by αshift in the dispersive direction. We have found that the blame does not in fact lie with the theory and we have shown that the input lens may have been misaligned in the experiment. Slight misalignments affect both the true energy resolution measurement and the transmission of the beam.

  11. 'Inverse' temporomandibular joint dislocation.

    Alemán Navas, R M; Martínez Mendoza, M G


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation can be classified into four groups (anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior) depending on the direction of displacement and the location of the condylar head. All the groups are rare except for anterior dislocation. 'Inverse' TMJ dislocation is a bilateral anterior and superior dislocation with impaction of the mandible over the maxilla; to the authors' knowledge only two cases have previously been reported in the literature. Inverse TMJ dislocation has unique clinical and radiographic findings, which are described for this case. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient energy transfer from inserted CdTe quantum dots to YVO₄:Eu³⁺ inverse opals: a novel strategy to improve and expand visible excitation of rare earth ions.

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Xu; Xu, Wen; Zhou, Pingwei; Wang, Yunfeng; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei


    Rare earth (RE)-based phosphors demonstrate sharp emission lines, long lifetimes and high luminescence quantum yields; thus, they have been employed in various photoelectric devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar spectral converters. However, their applications are largely confined by their narrow excitation bands and small absorption cross sections of 4f-4f transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel strategy to improve and expand the visible excitation bands of Eu(3+) ions through the interface energy transfer (ET) from CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to YVO₄:Eu(3+) inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs). The significant effects observed in the CdTe QDs/YVO₄:Eu(3+) IOPCs composites were that the excitation of Eu(3+) ions was continuously extended from 450 to 590 nm and that the emission intensity of the (5)D₀-(7)FJ transitions was enhanced ∼20-fold, corresponding to the intrinsic (7)F₁-(5)D₁ excitation at 538 nm. Furthermore, in the IOPC network, the ET efficiency from the QDs to YVO₄:Eu(3+) was greatly improved because of the suppression of energy migration among the CdTe QDs, which gave an optimum ET efficiency as high as 47%. Besides, the modulation of photonic stop bands (PSBs) on the radiative transition rates of the QDs and Eu(3+) ions was studied, which showed that the decay lifetime constants for Eu(3+) ions were independent of PSBs, while those of QDs demonstrated a suppression in the PSBs. Their physical nature was explained theoretically.

  13. Inverse Limits

    Ingram, WT


    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  14. Inverse disjuncties

    Malepaard, J.


    Balansschikkingen (of negatief gebonden of-constructies) zijn volgens de in dit artikel ontwikkelde hypothese inverse disjuncties (id's). Het zijn tweeledige zinnen waarvan het eerste lid een verplichte negatieve of minimaliserende constituent bevat en het tweede lid met of begint. Evenals

  15. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis to Assess the Spectrum of Perivenular Ischemia and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Freund, K Bailey; Cunningham, Emmett T; Kalevar, Ananda; McDonald, H Richard; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Roberts, Philipp K; Tsui, Irena; Rosen, Richard; Jampol, Lee M; Sadda, Srinivas R; Sarraf, David


    To assess the spectrum of perivenular ischemia in eyes with retinal vascular obstruction (typically central or hemicentral retinal vein obstruction) using en face optical coherence tomography (OCT). Retrospective observational case series. Eyes with recent retinal vascular occlusion illustrating paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in a perivenular fern-like pattern with en face OCT were evaluated in this study. Multimodal retinal imaging including en face OCT segmentation of the inner nuclear layer was performed in all patients. Color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) images were used to create a vascular overlay of the retinal veins vs the retinal arteries to map the distribution of PAMM with en face OCT analysis. Multimodal retinal imaging was performed in 11 eyes with acute retinal vascular obstruction. While 7 eyes demonstrated obvious findings of retinal vein obstruction (5 with central and 2 with hemicentral retinal vein occlusion), 4 eyes were unremarkable at presentation. En face OCT analysis demonstrated a spectrum of perivenular PAMM illustrating a fern-like pattern with sparing of the periarteriolar area in all cases. En face OCT may illustrate a remarkable perivenular pattern of PAMM in eyes with retinal vascular obstruction even in the absence of significant funduscopic findings. Perivenular PAMM with en face OCT demonstrates a wide spectrum of variation with narrow fern-like perivenular lesions at the mildest end and more diffuse lesions with only periarterial sparing at the most severe end of the spectrum. Arterial hypoperfusion secondary to outflow obstruction from a central retinal vein obstruction appears to be the most common cause of this presentation, although primary arterial hypoperfusion may also be an etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Rare Power


    China begins to reinvigorate the rare earth industry after decades of underselling the valuable metals On May 19,the State Council released Guidelines to Promote Sustainable and Sound Development of the Rare Earth Industry,delivering a strong boost to the fragmented industry.

  17. Rare Security


    China’s regulation on rare earth accords with WTO rules Worries abound Western countries may use a recent WTO ruling on China’s exports restriction on nine raw materials to launch actions against China’s curbs on rare earth exports.

  18. Topological inverse semigroups

    ZHU Yongwen


    That the projective limit of any projective system of compact inverse semigroups is also a compact inverse semigroup,the injective limit of any injective system of inverse semigroups is also an inverse semigroup, and that a compact inverse semigroup is topologically isomorphic to a strict projective limit of compact metric inverse semigroups are proved. It is also demonstrated that Horn (S,T) is a topological inverse semigroup provided that S or T is a topological inverse semigroup with some other conditions. Being proved by means of the combination of topological semigroup theory with inverse semigroup theory,all these results generalize the corresponding ones related to topological semigroups or topological groups.

  19. Angelman syndrome associated with an inversion of chromosome 15q11.2q24.3

    Greger, V.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Lalande, M. [and others


    Angelman syndrome (AS) most frequently results from large ({ge}5 Mb) de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13. The deletions are exclusively of maternal origin, and a few cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have been reported. The latter finding indicates that AS is caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to the imprinted 15q11-q13 region. Failure to inherit a paternal 15q11-q13 contribution results in the clinically distinct disorder of Prader-Willi syndrome. Cases of AS resulting from translocations or pericentric inversions have been observed to be associated with deletions, and there have been no confirmed reports of balanced rearrangements in AS. We report the first such case involving a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint located {approximately}25 kb proximal to the reference marker D15S10. This inversion has been inherited from a phenotypically normal mother. No deletion is evident by molecular analysis in this case, by use of cloned fragments mapped to within {approximately}1 kb of the inversion breakpoint. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the relationship between the inversion and the AS phenotype. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Locally Inverse Semigroups with Inverse Transversals

    SHAO Yong; ZHAO Xian Zhong


    Let S be a locally inverse semigroup with an inverse transversal S°. In this paper, we construct an amenable partial order on S by an R-cone. Conversely, every amenable partial order on S can be constructed in this way. We give some properties of a locally inverse semigroup with a Clifford transversal. In particular, if S is a locally inverse semigroup with a Clifford transversal, then there is an order-preserving bijection from the set of all amenable partial orders on S to the set of all R-cones of S.

  1. Not so Rare, Rare Diseases

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Munter, Beverly L.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.


    A rare disease or condition is defined by federal legislation such that it: (1) affects less than 200,000 persons in the U.S.; or (2) affects more than 200,000 persons in the U.S. but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the U.S. a drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from…

  2. Inverse anticipating chaos synchronization.

    Shahverdiev, E M; Sivaprakasam, S; Shore, K A


    We derive conditions for achieving inverse anticipating synchronization where a driven time-delay chaotic system synchronizes to the inverse future state of the driver. The significance of inverse anticipating chaos in delineating synchronization regimes in time-delay systems is elucidated. The concept is extended to cascaded time-delay systems.

  3. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  4. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian


    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or r...

  5. Direct Waveform Inversion by Iterative Inverse Propagation

    Schlottmann, R B


    Seismic waves are the most sensitive probe of the Earth's interior we have. With the dense data sets available in exploration, images of subsurface structures can be obtained through processes such as migration. Unfortunately, relating these surface recordings to actual Earth properties is non-trivial. Tomographic techniques use only a small amount of the information contained in the full seismogram and result in relatively low resolution images. Other methods use a larger amount of the seismogram but are based on either linearization of the problem, an expensive statistical search over a limited range of models, or both. We present the development of a new approach to full waveform inversion, i.e., inversion which uses the complete seismogram. This new method, which falls under the general category of inverse scattering, is based on a highly non-linear Fredholm integral equation relating the Earth structure to itself and to the recorded seismograms. An iterative solution to this equation is proposed. The res...

  6. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....... suite, developed in this project and in [4]. Source code developed for this project includes the CCD method , improvements on the BFGS method and Jacobian inverse originally developed in [4]....

  7. Successful management of recurrent puerperal uterine inversion

    Bindu Nambisan


    Full Text Available The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The exact mechanisms are unclear. However, extrinsic factors such as prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction, oxytocic use etc. have been mentioned. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, different placental localizations, fundal location of a myoma or short umbilical cord have also been reported. The diagnosis of uterine inversion is mainly made on the basis of clinical symptoms which include haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. A case of 23 years old, second gravida with one previous spontaneous first trimester abortion, who had a full term normal vaginal delivery but while trying to deliver the placenta after confirmation of placental separation clinically, uterine inversion was diagnosed immediately and manual repositioning of uterus was done under general anaesthesia. On the 6 th post natal day, during the routine postnatal rounds, uterus was not palpable per abdomen and a local examination revealed a mass at the introitus. A diagnosis of grade 3 sub-acute inversion was made and she was taken up for exploratory laparotomy. Reinsertion was done according to the Huntington technique by placing clamps on the round ligament, near its insertion on the uterus, and applying traction upwards while the assistant exerted traction on the contra lateral way through the vagina. As persistent atonicity and diffuse oozing was noted multiple Cho sutures were put over the uterus. Patient had an uneventful postnatal period. This is a rare scenario where the same patient had an acute inversion initially followed by sub-acute inversion. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3619-3621

  8. Inverse periodic shadowing properties

    Osipov, Alexey V


    We consider inverse periodic shadowing properties of discrete dynamical systems generated by diffeomorphisms of closed smooth manifolds. We show that the $C^1$-interior of the set of all diffeomorphisms having so-called inverse periodic shadowing property coincides with the set of $\\Omega$-stable diffeomorphisms. The equivalence of Lipschitz inverse periodic shadowing property and hyperbolicity of the closure of all periodic points is proved. Besides, we prove that the set of all diffeomorphisms that have Lipschitz inverse periodic shadowing property and whose periodic points are dense in the nonwandering set coincides with the set of Axiom A diffeomorphisms.

  9. Dynamical inverse problems

    Gladwell, Graham ML


    The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.

  10. Inverse Symmetric Inflationary Attractors

    Odintsov, S D


    We present a class of inflationary potentials which are invariant under a special symmetry, which depends on the parameters of the models. As we show, in certain limiting cases, the inverse symmetric potentials are qualitatively similar to the $\\alpha$-attractors models, since the resulting observational indices are identical. However, there are some quantitative differences which we discuss in some detail. As we show, some inverse symmetric models always yield results compatible with observations, but this strongly depends on the asymptotic form of the potential at large $e$-folding numbers. In fact when the limiting functional form is identical to the one corresponding to the $\\alpha$-attractors models, the compatibility with the observations is guaranteed. Also we find the relation of the inverse symmetric models with the Starobinsky model and we highlight the differences. In addition, an alternative inverse symmetric model is studied and as we show, not all the inverse symmetric models are viable. Moreove...

  11. 0-Semidistributive Inverse Semigroups



    @@ For an inverse semigroup S, the set L(S) of all inverse subsemigroups (including the empty set) of S forms a lattice with respect to intersection denoted as usual by ∩ and union, where the union is the inverse subsemigroup generated by inverse subsemigroups A, B of S. The set LF(S) of all full inverse subsemigroups of S forms a complete sublattice of L(S), with Es as zero element (Es is the set of all idempotent of S)(see [3,5,6]). Note, that if S a group, then LF(S)=L(S), its lattice of all subgroups of S. If S = G0 is a group with adjoined zero, then clearly LF(S) ≌ L(G).

  12. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    Yamamoto, Masahiro


    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  14. On Generalized Inverse Transversals

    Rong Hua ZHANG; Shou Feng WANG


    Let S be a regular semigroup,S° an inverse subsemigroup of S.S° is called a generalized inverse transversal of S,if V(x) ∩N S°≠φ.In this paper,some properties of this kind of semigroups are discussed.In particular,a construction theorem is obtained which contains some recent results in the literature as its special cases.

  15. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  16. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E


    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.

  17. The evolutionary history of Drosophila buzzatii. XXXII. Linkage disequilibrium between allozymes and chromosome inversions in two colonizing populations.

    Betrán, E; Quezada-Díaz, J E; Ruiz, A; Santos, M; Fontdevila, A


    Chromosome polymorphism in Drosophila buzzatii is under selection but the genes responsible for the effect of the inversions of fitness are unknown. On the other hand, there is evidence for selection on several allozyme loci but the presence of paracentric inversions on the second chromosome, where most of the polymorphic loci are located, complicates the interpretation. Studies of the associations between allozymes and inversions are thus necessary to help understand the effect of selection at both the chromosomal and allozymic level. Until now this kind of information has only been available in D. buzzatii for two loci, Est-1 and Est-2, in Australian populations. Here we describe the genetic constitution of two Old World populations, Carboneras and Colera. Emphasis has been placed on the analysis of the linkage disequilibria between the second chromosome arrangements and three allozyme loci, Est-2, Pept-2 and Aldox, located on this chromosome. In addition, the recombination frequencies between the loci, and between the loci and the inversion breakpoints, have been estimated and a genetic map of the three loci has been produced. The two populations differ in allele and arrangement frequencies, as well as in the pattern of one-locus disequilibria. Est-2 and Aldox are associated with the second chromosome arrangements in both populations. On the other hand, Pept-2 is associated with the inversions in Colera but not in Carboneras. The gametic associations among the three loci are discussed taking into account the position of these loci on the chromosome map and the lack of recombination in the heterokaryotypes.

  18. Rare Earth Resolution

    Mei Xinyu


    BEFORE the early 1970s, China had no rare earth exports, and the world rare earth market was dominated by the United States, Europe and Japan. In the 1970s, China began to enter the world rare earth market and its share has picked up sharply in the following decades. Today, having the monopoly over global rare earth production, China must improve the benefits from rare earth production, not only from producing individual rare earth products, but also from mastering the intensive processing of rare earth products.

  19. A Simple Realization of the Inverse Seesaw Mechanism

    Dias, A G; da Silva, P S Rodrigues; Sampieri, A


    Differently from the canonical seesaw mechanism, which is grounded in grand unified theories, the inverse seesaw mechanism lacks a special framework that realizes it naturally. In this work we advocate that the 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos has such an appropriate framework to accommodate the inverse seesaw mechanism. We also provide an explanation for the smallness of the $\\mu$ parameter and estimate the branching ratio for the rare lepton flavor violation process $\\mu \\rightarrow e\\gamma$.

  20. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion.

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian


    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or reinversion is observed should be kept in mind.

  1. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;


    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes......, the results are compatible with the data and, at the same time, favor sharp transitions. The focusing strategy can also be used to constrain the 1D solutions laterally, guaranteeing that lateral sharp transitions are retrieved without losing resolution. By means of real and synthetic datasets, sharp...

  2. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    Mosegaard, Klaus


    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...

  3. Locative Inversion in English

    Broekhuis, H.


    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be morphol

  4. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Buland, Arild


    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  5. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis: Rare presentation of rare disease

    Rohan S Valsangkar


    Full Text Available Granulomatous inflammation of the prostate is a rare type of inflammation of the prostate. It is of various types, with the non-specific type of granulomatous inflammation being the most common. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a rare type of granulomatous prostatitis of which very few cases have been reported. Histologically it is characterized by the presence of pale-looking foamy macrophages. It can be an incidental finding after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP, although it may mimic prostatic malignancy clinically, biochemically, and rarely histologically. We report a rare case of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis which presented as a prostatic abscess, a presentation never reported in literature so far. The patient was managed with TURP.

  6. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    Saragiotis, Christos


    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  7. Pseudo waveform inversion

    Shin, Chang Soo; Park, Keun Pil [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Hee; Hyun, Byung Koo; Shin, Sung Ryul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The seismic reflection exploration technique which is one of the geophysical methods for oil exploration became effectively to image the subsurface structure with rapid development of computer. However, the imagining of subsurface based on the conventional data processing is almost impossible to obtain the information on physical properties of the subsurface such as velocity and density. Since seismic data are implicitly function of velocities of subsurface, it is necessary to develop the inversion method that can delineate the velocity structure using seismic topography and waveform inversion. As a tool to perform seismic inversion, seismic forward modeling program using ray tracing should be developed. In this study, we have developed the algorithm that calculate the travel time of the complex geologic structure using shooting ray tracing by subdividing the geologic model into blocky structure having the constant velocity. With the travel time calculation, the partial derivatives of travel time can be calculated efficiently without difficulties. Since the current ray tracing technique has a limitation to calculate the travel times for extremely complex geologic model, our aim in the future is to develop the powerful ray tracer using the finite element technique. After applying the pseudo waveform inversion to the seismic data of Korea offshore, we can obtain the subsurface velocity model and use the result in bring up the quality of the seismic data processing. If conventional seismic data processing and seismic interpretation are linked with this inversion technique, the high quality of seismic data processing can be expected to image the structure of the subsurface. Future research area is to develop the powerful ray tracer of ray tracing which can calculate the travel times for the extremely complex geologic model. (author). 39 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott


    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  9. Non-puerperal uterine inversion: a case report

    Anitha G.S.


    The aim was to highlight a rare condition of chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion following the extrusion of a benign fundally located submucous uterine myoma. A high index of suspicion is required to make a prompt diagnosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1223-1226

  10. Reduced Bayesian Inversion

    Himpe, Christian; Ohlberger, Mario


    Bayesian inversion of models with large state and parameter spaces proves to be computationally complex. A combined state and parameter reduction can significantly decrease the computational time and cost required for the parameter estimation. The presented technique is based on the well-known balanced truncation approach. Classically, the balancing of the controllability and observability gramians allows a truncation of discardable states. Here the underlying model, being a linear or nonline...

  11. The Fukushima Inverse Problem

    Martinez-Camara, Marta; Dokmanic, Ivan; Ranieri, Juri; Scheibler, Robin; Vetterli, Martin; STOHL Andreas


    Knowing what amount of radioactive material was released from Fukushima in March 2011 and at what time instants is crucial to assess the risk, the pollution, and to understand the scope of the consequences. Moreover, it could be used in forward simulations to obtain accurate maps of deposition. But these data are often not publicly available. We propose to estimate the emission waveforms by solving an inverse problem. Previous approaches have relied on a detailed expert guess of how the relea...

  12. [Total inversion of the uterus].

    Novachkov, V; Baltadzhieva, B; Ilieva, A; Rachev, E


    Non puerperal inversion of the uterus is very uncommon. Patients may present with pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding or hemodynamic shock. We report a fifty five old woman with uterus inversion second stage.

  13. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: New developments for Inverse Problems


    2006 has proved to be a very successful year for Inverse Problems. After an increase for the fourth successive year, we achieved our highest impact factor to date, 1.541 (Source: 2005 ISI® Journal Citation Report), and the Editorial Board is keen to build on this success by continuing to improve the service we offer to our readers and authors. The Board has observed that Inverse Problems receives very few Letters to the Editor submissions, and that moreover those that we do receive rarely conform to the requirements for Letters to the Editor set out in the journal's editorial policy. The Board has therefore decided to merge the current Letters to the Editor section into our regular Papers section, which will now accommodate all research articles that meet the journal's high quality standards. Any submissions that would previously have been Letters to the Editor are still very welcome as Papers, and can be submitted by e-mail to or online using our online submissions form at Inverse Problems' processing times are already among the fastest in the field—on average, authors receive our decision on their paper in less than three months. Thanks to our easy-to-use online refereeing system, publishing a Paper is now just as fast as publishing a Letter to the Editor, and we are striving to ensure that the journal's high standards are applied consistently to all our Papers, maintaining Inverse Problems' position as the leading journal in the field. Our highly acclaimed Topical Review section will also continue and grow; providing timely insights into the development of all topical fields within Inverse Problems. We have many exciting Topical Reviews currently in preparation for 2007 and will continue to commission articles at the cutting edge of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions and to continuing to provide the best publication service available.

  14. Analysis of rare categories

    He, Jingrui


    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  15. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus


    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  16. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi


    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  17. Chromosome Painting in Trogon s. surrucura (Aves, Trogoniformes) Reveals a Karyotype Derived by Chromosomal Fissions, Fusions, and Inversions.

    Degrandi, Tiago M; Del Valle Garnero, Analía; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Kretschmer, Rafael; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Gunski, Ricardo J


    Trogons are forest birds with a wide distribution, being found in Africa, Asia, and America, and are included in the order Trogoniformes, family Trogonidae. Phylogenetic studies using molecular data have not been able to determine the phylogenetic relationship among the different genera of trogons. So far, no cytogenetic data for these birds exist. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize the karyotype of Trogon surrucura surrucura by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 82, similar to most birds, with several derived features compared to chicken and the putative ancestral avian karyotype. T. s. surrucura showed 3 pairs of microchromosomes bearing 18S rDNA clusters. The Z and W sex chromosomes were of similar size but could readily be identified by morphological differences. Using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, we found that the chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosomes 2 and 5 correspond to 2 different pairs in T. s. surrucura and L. albicollis, due to the occurrence of centric fissions. Paracentric inversions were detected in the segment homologous to chicken chromosome 1q, and we confirmed the recurrence of breakpoints when our results were compared to other species of birds already analyzed by FISH or by in silico genome assembly. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Dark Radiative Inverse Seesaw

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah


    We present a minimal model that simultaneously accounts for neutrino masses and the origin of dark matter (DM) and where the electroweak phase transition is strong enough to allow for electroweak baryogenesis. The Standard Model is enlarged with a Majorana fermion, three generations of chiral fermion pairs, and a single complex scalar that plays a central role in DM production and phenomenology, neutrino masses, and the strength of the phase transition. All the new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group. Neutrino masses are generated via a new variant of radiative inverse seesaw where the required small mass term is generated via loops involving DM and no large hierarchy is assumed among the mass scales. The model offers all the advantage of low-scale neutrino mass models as well as a viable dark matter candidate that is testable with direct detection experiments.

  19. Inverse Queries For Multidimensional Spaces

    Bernecker, Thomas; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Mamoulis, Nikos; Renz, Matthias; Zhang, Shiming; Züfle, Andreas


    Traditional spatial queries return, for a given query object $q$, all database objects that satisfy a given predicate, such as epsilon range and $k$-nearest neighbors. This paper defines and studies {\\em inverse} spatial queries, which, given a subset of database objects $Q$ and a query predicate, return all objects which, if used as query objects with the predicate, contain $Q$ in their result. We first show a straightforward solution for answering inverse spatial queries for any query predicate. Then, we propose a filter-and-refinement framework that can be used to improve efficiency. We show how to apply this framework on a variety of inverse queries, using appropriate space pruning strategies. In particular, we propose solutions for inverse epsilon range queries, inverse $k$-nearest neighbor queries, and inverse skyline queries. Our experiments show that our framework is significantly more efficient than naive approaches.

  20. A rare opportunity beckons

    Gschneidner, K


    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the

  1. Analysis of rare categories

    He, Jingrui


    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  2. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ July 20~31 Rare earth market still went downward, which was mainly led by sluggish demand for didymium products. Weak demand by domestic NdFeB market was attributed to continuous price falling of didymium mischmetal.

  3. Approximation Theorems of Moore-Penrose Inverse by Outer Inverses

    Qianglian Huang; Zheng Fang


    Let X and Y be Hilbert spaces and T a bounded linear operator from X into Y with a separable range. In this note, we prove, without assuming the closeness of the range of T, that the Moore-Penrose inverse T+ of T can be approximated by its bounded outer inverses T#n with finite ranks.

  4. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa


    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and ...

  5. Multiples waveform inversion

    Zhang, D. L.


    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  6. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.


    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  7. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    Romanov, V G


    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  8. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    Groetsch, C. W.


    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  9. Multiscale Modelling and Inverse Problems

    Nolen, J; Stuart, A M


    The need to blend observational data and mathematical models arises in many applications and leads naturally to inverse problems. Parameters appearing in the model, such as constitutive tensors, initial conditions, boundary conditions, and forcing can be estimated on the basis of observed data. The resulting inverse problems are often ill-posed and some form of regularization is required. These notes discuss parameter estimation in situations where the unknown parameters vary across multiple scales. We illustrate the main ideas using a simple model for groundwater flow. We will highlight various approaches to regularization for inverse problems, including Tikhonov and Bayesian methods. We illustrate three ideas that arise when considering inverse problems in the multiscale context. The first idea is that the choice of space or set in which to seek the solution to the inverse problem is intimately related to whether a homogenized or full multiscale solution is required. This is a choice of regularization. The ...

  10. A rainbow inverse problem

    Calvez V.


    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  11. A rare splenic pseudocyst

    Verma, Ankit; Yadav, Amit; Sharma, Sourabh; Saini, Devender; Om, Prabha; Khoja, Hanuman; Banerjee, Kinjal; NL, Harish


    Pseudocysts of the spleen are very rare, found in <1% of the splenectomies done and usually develop secondary to trauma. Pseudocysts of spleen rarely grow to large size and most of these remain asymptomatic, they require exploration only in symptomatic cases and chances for spleen preservation in these cases are usually less. Here, we present two cases of this rare entity developing secondary to abdominal trauma in the past, both presented with complaints of pain and lump in the abdomen. After thorough investigations, laparotomy was done preserving spleen in one case and doing splenectomy in the other. On histopathological examination, diagnosis of splenic pseudocysts was confirmed by the absence of lining epithelium. We would like to report these two cases because of their rarity and as diagnostic dilemmas. PMID:24963908

  12. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  13. Rare decays at LHCb

    Lafferty, George


    We review recent results from the LHCb experiment on studies of particle decays that are forbidden or rare in the Standard Model. The studies include searches for lepton flavour violating decays of the $\\tau$ lepton and the $B$ and $D$ mesons, and of $B$ and $D$ meson decays that would be mediated by Majorana neutrinos. Results are also presented for the rare processes $B_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$, $b \\to s\\gamma$ transitions, and $B \\to K^{(*)}\\mu^+\\mu^-$.

  14. Multidimensional NMR Inversion without Kronecker Products: Multilinear Inversion

    Medellín, David; Torres-Verdín, Carlos


    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required...

  15. Givental graphs and inversion symmetry

    Dunin-Barkowski, P; Spitz, L


    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in terms of Feynman graphs and then we obtain an interpretation of the inversion symmetry in terms of the action of the Givental group. We also consider the implication of this interpretation of the inversion symmetry for the Schlesinger transformations and for the Hamiltonians of the associated principle hierarchy.

  16. Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute

    Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R


    Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  17. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.;


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  18. Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Rare earth market continued drop tendency.There was not much transaction of didymium oxide and the alloy. Affected by reduced order of NdFeB magnetic materials and inactive dealings of didymium mischmetal,price of didymium mischmetal had dropped from RMB ¥95,000~98,000/ton to RMBY 93,000~95,000/ton currently.

  19. Afganistan and rare earths

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  20. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H


    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  1. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    Page, Morgan T.


    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  2. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... is obtained by assuming that the a priori beliefs about the solution before having observed any data can be described by a prior distribution. The solution to the statistical inverse problem is then given by the posterior distribution obtained by Bayes' formula. Hence the solution of an ill-posed inverse...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation...

  3. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems


    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  4. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    ... and Conditions Back pain Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back pain, and it's not safe for everyone. Inversion therapy ...

  5. Inversion-symmetric topological insulators

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Prodan, Emil; Bernevig, B. Andrei


    We analyze translationally invariant insulators with inversion symmetry that fall outside the current established classification of topological insulators. These insulators exhibit no edge or surface modes in the energy spectrum and hence they are not edge metals when the Fermi level is in the bulk gap. However, they do exhibit protected modes in the entanglement spectrum localized on the cut between two entangled regions. Their entanglement entropy cannot be made to vanish adiabatically, and hence the insulators can be called topological. There is a direct connection between the inversion eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian band structure and the midgap states in the entanglement spectrum. The classification of protected entanglement levels is given by an integer N, which is the difference between the negative inversion eigenvalues at inversion symmetric points in the Brillouin zone, taken in sets of 2. When the Hamiltonian describes a Chern insulator or a nontrivial time-reversal invariant topological insulator, the entirety of the entanglement spectrum exhibits spectral flow. If the Chern number is zero for the former, or time reversal is broken in the latter, the entanglement spectrum does not have spectral flow, but, depending on the inversion eigenvalues, can still exhibit protected midgap bands similar to impurity bands in normal semiconductors. Although spectral flow is broken (implying the absence of real edge or surface modes in the original Hamiltonian), the midgap entanglement bands cannot be adiabatically removed, and the insulator is “topological.” We analyze the linear response of these insulators and provide proofs and examples of when the inversion eigenvalues determine a nontrivial charge polarization, a quantum Hall effect, an anisotropic three-dimensional (3D) quantum Hall effect, or a magnetoelectric polarization. In one dimension, we establish a link between the product of the inversion eigenvalues of all occupied bands at all inversion

  6. -Colour Self-Inverse Compositions

    Geetika Narang; A K Agarwal


    MacMahon’s definition of self-inverse composition is extended to -colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations, generating functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given.

  7. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M


    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  8. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface

  9. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  10. Uncertainty estimation in finite fault inversion

    Dettmer, Jan; Cummins, Phil R.; Benavente, Roberto


    This work considers uncertainty estimation for kinematic rupture models in finite fault inversion by Bayesian sampling. Since the general problem of slip estimation on an unknown fault from incomplete and noisy data is highly non-linear and currently intractable, assumptions are typically made to simplify the problem. These almost always include linearization of the time dependence of rupture by considering multiple discrete time windows, and a tessellation of the fault surface into a set of 'subfaults' whose dimensions are fixed below what is subjectively thought to be resolvable by the data. Even non-linear parameterizations are based on a fixed discretization. This results in over-parametrized models which include more parameters than resolvable by the data and require regularization criteria that stabilize the inversion. While it is increasingly common to consider slip uncertainties arising from observational error, the effects of the assumptions implicit in parameterization choices are rarely if ever considered. Here, we show that linearization and discretization assumptions can strongly affect both slip and uncertainty estimates and that therefore the selection of parametrizations should be included in the inference process. We apply Bayesian model selection to study the effect of parametrization choice on inversion results. The Bayesian sampling method which produces inversion results is based on a trans-dimensional rupture discretization which adapts the spatial and temporal parametrization complexity based on data information and does not require regularization. Slip magnitude, direction and rupture velocity are unknowns across the fault and causal first rupture times are obtained by solving the Eikonal equation for a spatially variable rupture-velocity field. The method provides automated local adaptation of rupture complexity based on data information and does not assume globally constant resolution. This is an important quality since seismic data do not

  11. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos


    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.

  12. Subadditive functions and their (pseudo-)inverses

    Østerdal, Lars Peter


    The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses......The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses...

  13. The representation and computation of generalized inverse

    Sheng, Xingping; Chen, Guoliang; Gong, Yi


    This paper presents a novel representation for the generalized inverse . Based on this, we give an algorithm to compute this generalized inverse. As an application, we use Gauss-Jordan elimination to compute the weighted Moore-Penrose inverse and the Drazin inverse Ad.

  14. Exploring the Hamiltonian inversion landscape.

    Donovan, Ashley; Rabitz, Herschel


    The identification of quantum system Hamiltonians through the use of experimental data remains an important research goal. Seeking a Hamiltonian that is consistent with experimental measurements constitutes an excursion over a Hamiltonian inversion landscape, which is the quality of reproducing the data as a function of the Hamiltonian parameters. Recent theoretical work showed that with sufficient experimental data there should be local convexity about the true Hamiltonian on the landscape. The present paper builds on this result and performs simulations to test whether such convexity is observed. A gradient-based Hamiltonian search algorithm is incorporated into an inversion routine as a means to explore the local inversion landscape. The simulations consider idealized noise-free as well as noise-ridden experimental data. The results suggest that a sizable convex domain exists about the true Hamiltonian, even with a modest amount of experimental data and in the presence of a reasonable level of noise.

  15. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.


    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  16. Japanese Rare Earth Market


    Since China cancelled export rebate in May this year,prices of magnetic materials related rare earth productscontinuously rose. Increasing production cost is largelyattributed to investment in environmental protectionequipments. Prices of Nd and Dy metals rose 20~30% over thebeginning of this year.Price of Nd was USD 11.5 - 12/Kg from USD 9/Kg at theend of 2004, up 30%. Price of Dy rose to USD 65- 70/Kg fromUSD 50/Kg early this year, up 20%. Price of Pr climbed to USD13.5 - 14/Kg from USD 11/Kg, up 30%. Pri...

  17. Rare B Decays

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.


    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  18. Inverse methods for radiation transport

    Bledsoe, Keith C.

    Implicit optimization methods for solving the inverse transport problems of interface location identification, source isotope weight fraction identification, shield material identification, and material mass density identification are explored. Among these optimization methods are the Schwinger inverse method, Levenberg-Marquardt method, and evolutionary algorithms. Inverse problems are studied in one-dimensional spherical and two-dimensional cylindrical geometries. The scalar fluxes of unscattered gamma-ray lines, leakages of neutron-induced gamma-ray lines, and/or neutron multiplication in the system are assumed to be measured. Each optimization method is studied on numerical test problems in which the measured data is simulated using the same deterministic transport code used in the optimization process (assuming perfectly consistent measurements) and using a Monte Carlo code (assuming less-consistent, more realistic measurements). The Schwinger inverse method and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are found to be successful for problems with relatively few (i.e. 4 or fewer) unknown parameters, with the former being the best for unknown isotope problems and the latter being more adept at interface location, unknown material mass density, and mixed parameter problems. A study of a variety of evolutionary algorithms indicates that the differential evolution method is the best for inverse transport problems, and outperforms the Levenberg-Marquardt method on problems with large numbers of unknowns. An algorithm created by combining different variants of the differential evolution method is shown to be highly successful on spherical problems with unscattered gamma-ray lines, while a basic differential evolution approach is more useful for problems with scattering and in cylindrical geometries. A hybrid differential evolution/Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm also was found to show promise for fast and robust solution of inverse problems.

  19. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  20. Thermoelectric properties of inverse opals

    Mahan, G. D.; Poilvert, N.; Crespi, V. H.


    Rayleigh's method [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 34, 481 (1892)] is used to solve for the classical thermoelectric equations in inverse opals. His theory predicts that in an inverse opal, with periodic holes, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit are identical to that of the bulk material. We also provide a major revision to Rayleigh's method, in using the electrochemical potential as an important variable, instead of the electrostatic potential. We also show that in some cases, the thermal boundary resistance is important in the effective thermal conductivity.

  1. Population inversion by chirped pulses

    Lu Tianshi [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260-0033 (United States)


    In this paper, we analyze the condition for complete population inversion by a chirped pulse over a finite duration. The nonadiabatic transition probability is mapped in the two-dimensional parameter space of coupling strength and detuning amplitude. Asymptotic forms of the probability are derived by the interference of nonadiabatic transitions for sinusoidal and triangular pulses. The qualitative difference between the maps for the two types of pulses is accounted for. The map is used for the design of stable inversion pulses under specific accuracy thresholds.

  2. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    Di Cristo, Michele


    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  3. Inverse methods in hydrologic optics

    Howard R. Gordon


    Full Text Available Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.

  4. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Dennett, Daniel


    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  5. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ February, 2010 Rare earth separation plants and downstream producers like NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphor materials successively ceased production due to Spring Festival, Chinese New Year. Transactions in rare earth market were few affected by public holidays.

  6. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Active demands from downstream industry drove the price rise of rare earth products in Chinese domestic marketrecently, particularly didymium and dysprosium products. Prices of other rare earth products remained stable.

  7. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market fluctuated slightly recently and the transactions remained sluggish. Environment control was strengthened in southern China and many rare earth plants had gone out of production. Some traders were considering selling commodities at low p

  8. Rare B decays at LEP

    Kluit, P M


    The results of the LEP experiments for rare B decays will be reviewed, covering hadronic final states, radiative and other rare decays and results for the inclusive charmless branching ratio. (8 refs).

  9. An analysis on the inversion of polynomials

    M. F. González-Cardel; R. Díaz-Uribe


    In this work the application and the intervals of validity of an inverse polynomial, according to the method proposed by Arfken [1] for the inversion of series, is analyzed. It is shown that, for the inverse polynomial there exists a restricted domain whose longitude depends on the magnitude of the acceptable error when the inverse polynomial is used to approximate the inverse function of the original polynomial. A method for calculating the error of the approximation and its use in determini...

  10. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved


    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  11. China Rare Earth Market Review


    September 20-30, 2011 Rare earth market remained steady recently. Quoted prices of didymium products by separation and smelting plants kept stable. Some rare earth industrial zones in Baotou, Sichuan and Ganzhou had suspended production with the intensified environmental protection control and consolidation of rare earth industry. Persons in the industry hold a positive attitude toward the rare earth market after the National Day' s holiday in China. The market will develop healthily and orderly in the future.

  12. A rare sight

    Antonella Del Rosso and The LHCb Collaboration


    Today, at the Hadron Collider Physics Symposium in Kyoto, the LHCb collaboration has presented the evidence of a very rare B decay, the rarest ever seen. The result further shrinks the region in which scientists can still look for supersymmetry.   The graph showing evidence of the Bs0 → μ+ μ- decay. The result was presented Monday 12 November at the HCP Conference in Kyoto (photo courtesy of the LHCb Collaboration). Particle decays tell us about the inner properties and functioning of Nature’s physics processes. By studying them and their occurrence, physicists infer the rules that control them. Often, it turns out that some rare decays, which are very difficult to observe, are those in which Nature could reveal the presence of new physics. This is the case of some decays of the Bs0 particle (a particle made of a bottom anti-quark bound to a strange quark), and in particular Bs0 → μ+ μ- whose...

  13. China Rare Earth Market Review


    @@ Supply of rare earth concentrate remained tight recently. Rare earth market exhibited rising tendency holistically Affected by tight supply of rare earth concentrate, many plants were operated under the capacity. Supply of didymium oxide got tighter and the price was on rising.

  14. Organizational learning in rare events

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly

    In this paper we build a theoretical framework for understanding whether and how firms learn from the rare event of litigating intellectual property cases. We draw on literature on organizational learning from rare events and examine the conditions under which firms can learn from rare events. We...

  15. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  16. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    Li, Jing


    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  17. Inverse Expander Mixing for Hypergraphs

    Cohen, Emma; Mubayi, Dhruv; Ralli, Peter; Tetali, Prasad


    We formulate and prove inverse mixing lemmas in the settings of simplicial complexes and k-uniform hypergraphs. In the hypergraph setting, we extend results of Bilu and Linial for graphs. In the simplicial complex setting, our results answer a question of Parzanchevski et al.

  18. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas


    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (, a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  19. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Hala Kanona


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  20. Rarely clicking Muller's ratchets

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob


    In populations of finite size, weakly deleterious mutations can fix by chance. This phenomenon has been termed Muller's ratchet and one click of the ratchet refers to the loss of the fittest class of individuals with the fewest mutations. Despite the simplicity of the classical mathematical model of Muller's ratchet, surprisingly little is known in the biologically relevant regime where a click of the ratchet is a rare event. Here we show numerically that in this regime the rate of the ratchet strongly depends on the applied microscopic formulation (Wiright-Fisher/Moran) of the model, thus challenging the widely used diffusion approximation. Furthermore by employing a WKB-approximation in a simplified model, we obtain analytical results for the click rate, which agree well with the click rate of the full ratchet of the corresponding microscopical model.

  1. Rare cancers are not so rare: The rare cancer burden in Europe

    Gatta, Gemma; Zwan, van der Jan Maarten; Casali, Paolo G.; Siesling, Sabine; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Kunkler, Ian; Otter, Renee; Licitra, Lisa


    Purpose: Epidemiologic information on rare cancers is scarce. The project Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe (RARECARE) provides estimates of the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare cancers in Europe based on a new and comprehensive list of these diseases. Materials and methods: RARECARE

  2. Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.


    We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.

  3. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.


    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  4. Inverse imbalance reconstruction in rotordynamics

    Ramlau, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Linz (Austria). Johann Radon Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Dicken, V. [MeVis GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Maass, P. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik; Streller, C. [Rolls-Royce Germany GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany); Rienaecker, A. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    The goal of this work is to establish and compare algorithms for inverse imbalance reconstruction in aircraft turbines. Such algorithms are based on a validated whole engine model of a turbo engine under consideration. Base on the model, the impact of an imbalance distribution on the vibration behaviour of the turbine can be described as a matrix-vector multiplication Af = g, where f is the imbalance distribution and g the vibration response. It turns out that the matrix A is very ill-conditioned. As the measured data is highly affected with noise, we have to use regularization methods in order to stabilize the inversion. Our main interest was in the use of nonlinear regularization methods, in particular nonlinear filtered singular value decomposition and conjugate gradient regularization. (orig.)

  5. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S


    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  6. Sex Inversion Operations in China


    IN July 1992, Dr. Xia Zhaoji, 58, and his assistants surprised the world by successfully completing the world’s first operation to partially replant human internal reproductive organs. BBC broadcast this 8-minute news story ten days later, followed by AP, Reuters and AFP, as well as some other domestic and international media. What is a sex inversion operation? Why should people change their sex? And how is it

  7. Inverse Gibbs-Thomson effect

    Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.


    We prove the existence of an effect inverse to the Gibbs-Thomson effect for mass transfer in systems consisting of a solid phase and the solution of the solid phase material in a certain solvent. The effect involves a change in the shape of the interface due to a variation of the equilibrium concentrations under it, which is induced by external conditions, and exists in the presence of a negative feedback for mass transfer associated with capillary effects.

  8. Action understanding as inverse planning

    Baker, Christopher Lawrence; Saxe, Rebecca R.; Joshua B Tenenbaum


    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents’ actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents’ behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. ...


    Mariela Deliverska


    Full Text Available Rare diseases are diseases with a particularly low prevalence. The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a distinctive domain of very high added value. The international reference for classification of diseases and conditions is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO. Patient registries and databases constitute key instruments for the development of clinical research in the field of rare diseases. Rare disease registries include not only diseases that are inherently rare, but also common diseases that are rare in specific populations, especially those defined by demographics. Disease registries create the possibility of assessing the long-term safety and benefit of different treatments, perhaps leading to treatment algorithms that allow more choices for patients and clinicians.

  10. Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus



    Jul 27, 2012 ... Key words: Inversion of uterus, acute puerperal inversion, shock, post partum bleeding, neglect ... anesthesia, vaginal manual reposition was attempted, which failed due to tight cervical ring. Then, O .... Int J Gynecol Cancer.

  11. China rare earth market review


    June 20-30 2012 Affected by a sustained slump in the demand from downstream industries, rare earth market remained flat recently. There were not many inquiries for rare earth products in the spot market. Consumers lacked of confidence in the future market. As for the downstream industries, the market of NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors were in the doldrums. Ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder industries maintained weak. Affected by the global economy, export market of rare earth was weak.

  12. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market remained weak recently. Dealings of light and heavy rare earth products were sluggish. Demand for didymium and dysprosium related products was soft and purchasers were not interested in replenishing their stocks. The market of NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors remained inactive. Meanwhile, ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder industries were weak. Affected by global economical recession, export market of rare earth remained weak.

  13. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market was weak recently. There was still no sign of recovery in NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphors market. The market of ceramic, catalyst and polishing powder were in the doldrums. Rare earth deep processing enterprisers hesitated to purchase rare earth products and considered that there was room for further price reduction. Global economy slowed down and there was no sign of improvement yet. The export market was sluggish and transactions were inactive.

  14. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market was relatively stable recently. There was not much change to the quotations by suppliers. Inquiries for most products increased in spot market and so did to the transactions. Recently, rare earth special invoices attracted the attention in the industry again. It is likely to result in price rise of many rare earth products if the special invoice system can put into effect in the near term.

  15. China rare earth market review


    November 1-10, 2012 Some key rare earth producers had paused production since the last ten day period of October in order to retain normal production and market order and stabilize rare earth prices. The production suspension measure by the plants together with severe cracking down on illegal mining by the government had some influence on sluggish market recently. Data showed rapid price increase of major rare earth products after sharp decline previously.

  16. Generalized Inverses of Matrices over Rings

    韩瑞珠; 陈建龙


    Let R be a ring,*be an involutory function of the set of all finite matrices over R. In this pa-per,necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a matrix to have a (1,3)-inverse,(1,4)-inverse,or Morre-Penrose inverse,relative to *.Some results about generalized inverses of matrices over division rings are generalized and improved.

  17. China rare earth market review


    October 21-31,2012 Recently, dealings of rare earth remained stagnant. Consumers hesitated to increase their stocks for the fear of further decline in rare earth prices. It was difficult for suppliers to sell products and they had reduced quotations to attract buyers. It did not show demand from end users could rebound in short terms. Dealings of rare earth products in spot market were few. The market of NdFeB magnetic materials, phosphors, catalysts, polishing powders and ceramics remained sluggish. There was no sign of picking up in world economy. Export market of rare earths maintained inactive.

  18. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market remained sluggish and quiet holistically recently. Didymium-related market was quiet and the consumers were hesitating in replenishing their inventories. Inquiries for dysprosium-related products were few and the transactions were inactive, Demand for europium oxide (99.99%) was weak and the trade was far from brisk. Baogang Rare Earth suspended production, which has a positive effect in stabilizing the whole rare earth market. But prices of rare earth products did not go up rapidly. This means there were still large inventories in the market.

  19. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence.

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe; Schattner, Ami


    Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated.

  20. Inverse Computation and the Universal Resolving Algorithm


    We survey fundamental concepts for inverse programming and thenpresent the Uni v ersal Resolving Algorithm, an algorithm for inverse computation in a first-orde r , functional programming language. We discuss the key concepts of the algorithm, including a three-step approach based on the notion of a perfect process tree, and demonstrate our implementation with several examples of inverse computation.

  1. -Colour even Self-Inverse Compositions

    Yu-hong Guo


    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  2. China's rare-earth industry

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  3. Webbed penis: a rare case.

    Agrawal, R; Chaurasia, D; Jain, M


    Webbed penis belongs to a rare and little-known defect of the external genitalia. The term denotes the penis of normal size for age hidden in the adjacent scrotal and pubic tissues. Though rare, it can be treated easily by surgery. A case of webbed penis is presented with brief review of literature.

  4. An algorithm for constructing minimal order inverses

    Patel, R. V.


    In this paper an algorithm is presented for constructing minimal order inverses of linear, time invariant, controllable and observable, multivariable systems. By means of simple matrix operations, a 'state-overdescribed' system is first constructed which is an inverse of the given multivariable system. A simple Gauss-Jordan type reduction procedure is then used to remove the redundancy in the state vector of the inverse system to obtain a minimal order inverse. When the given multivariable system is not invertible, the algorithm enables a minimal order inverse of an invertible subsystem to be constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the use of the algorithm.

  5. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    Pécseli, Thomas


    variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail......Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...

  6. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  7. Inverse Star, Borders, and Palstars

    Rampersad, Narad; Shallit, Jeffrey; Wang, Ming-Wei


    A language L is closed if L = L*. We consider an operation on closed languages, L-*, that is an inverse to Kleene closure. It is known that if L is closed and regular, then L-* is also regular. We show that the analogous result fails to hold for the context-free languages. Along the way we find a new relationship between the unbordered words and the prime palstars of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt. We use this relationship to enumerate the prime palstars, and we prove that neither the language of a...

  8. Spray formation: an inverse cascade

    Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane


    We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.

  9. Iterative optimization in inverse problems

    Byrne, Charles L


    Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more

  10. The Inverse of Banded Matrices


    of Br,n. For these sequences to be well-defined, we assume that none of the denominators kis are zero (which is equivalent to the below-defined U...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3

  11. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.


    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  12. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen


    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  13. Seismic Waveform Inversion Using the Finite-Difference Contrast Source Inversion Method

    Bo Han; Qinglong He; Yong Chen; Yixin Dou


    This paper extends the finite-difference contrast source inversion method to reconstruct the mass density for two-dimensional elastic wave inversion in the framework of the full-waveform inversion. The contrast source inversion method is a nonlinear iterative method that alternatively reconstructs contrast sources and contrast function. One of the most outstanding advantages of this inversion method is the highly computational efficiency, since it does not need to simulate a fu...


    Laipanova Z. M.


    Full Text Available In practice, there were developed and tested some mathematical models of balance relationships (balance model, economic growth, expanding economy, labour market, theories of consumption, production, competitive equilibrium models of the economy in conditions of imperfect competition and others. The basis of these models were based on linear algebra, mathematical analysis, mathematical programming, differential equations, optimization methods, optimal control theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, operations research, game theory, statistical analysis. The inverse problem in various models of mathematical Economics was considered quite rare. These tasks were sufficiently investigated in the study of physical processes. As shown by the analysis of the theoretical and applied studies of economic processes, they represent considerable interest for practice. Therefore, the considered in the study inverse problems of the mathematical model, as it is shown by the already introduced results of other mathematical models, are of considerable interest in applied and theoretical research. In this article, the authors have formulated and investigated an inverse problem for a model of economic growth. For its solution the authors propose to build a system of algebraic equations, using a reproduction model of national income; then, using methods of quadratic programming, to find the best average quadratic estimates of the model parameter

  15. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  16. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N


    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  17. Processing of rare earth concentrates

    Pamela Alex; R. C. Hubli; A.K. Suri


    The paper describes process details for extraction of rare earths from an intermediate grade concentrate of Madhya Pradesh region in India and a South African slag. The xenotime concentrate obtained from the former place was an intermediate grade (47%) rare earth phosphate containing both monazite and xenotime. The South African slag was a low-grade waste product typically containing only 4% of rare earths. The rare earth resource concentrates have been treated individually by different methods such as alkali fusion and alkali leaching to convert them into their mixed oxides. Both types of materials have been processed and greater than 98% solubilization of metal values has been achieved in the intermediate grade xenotime and 80% from the South African slag. The residue of xenotime hydroxide has been washed thoroughly to collect the sodium phosphate, as by-product and the slurry pH have been adjusted to separate rare earths from thorium effectively. Other impurities such as uranium and iron have been removed by precipitation of rare earths by oxalic acid. It has been possible to recover >95% yttrium along with other rare earth oxides.

  18. (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements


    of the desired magnetic properties of the alloys. Sensitivity analysis of the variation of concentrations of each of the alloying elements revealed ...capable of exploring yet unexplored domains of the design space. Sensitivity analysis also revealed that certain alloying elements have negligible...Principal Investigator during the previous decade and applied to design optimization of H-type steels , Ni DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for

  19. China rare earth market review


    Rare earth market remained stagnant recently. The buyers did not show willingness to replenish raw materials affected by weak demand. Most persons in rare earth circle were not confident with the short-term rare earth market. Demand for didymium mischmetal was soft recently. The market of dysprosium related products was quiet and NdFeB magnet producers were inactive in the purchase. Phosphor market was stagnant as well. Buyers were cautious on replenishing the material. There were few inquiries for europium oxide (99.9%) in spot market and transactions were difficult.

  20. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current...

  1. Sigmoid schwannoma: A rare case

    Constantine I. Fotiadis; Ilias A. Kouerinis; Ioannis Papandreou; George C. Zografos; George Agapitos


    Schwannomas are rare tumors derived from the cells of Schwann that form the neural sheath. When located in the gastrointestinal tract, they constitute together with leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, and leiomyosarcoma, the gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent 2-6% GIST with most common location, the stomach and the small intestine. Schwannomas of the colon and rectum are extremely rare and radical excision with wide margins is mandatory, due to their tendency to recur locally and become malignant, if left untreated. In the present study, we report a rare case of a sigmoid schwannoma, which was successfully treated in our department and reviewed the literature.

  2. Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes

    Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.


    Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.

  3. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Takehiko Ogawa


    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  4. Planetary dynamo energies for paleomagnetic intensity, scaling, inversions and asymmetries

    Starchenko, S. V.


    I derive, simplify and analyze integral evolutional laws of the kinetic, magnetic, and an original orientation energies in the liquid core of the Earth or another Earth's type planet. These integral laws are reduced to the rude but simplest system of three ordinary differential equations for cross-helicity Z, root-mean square averaged magnetic field Y and velocity X. This system is controlled by the relatively well-known convection power W and other parameters. Estimates are obtained for the characteristic velocities, magnetic fields, periods and scales depending on the convection power at the stable states and near the inversion/excursion where the above system has its stationary (market by s) points. It was shown that for the implementation of this short-time inversion/excursion the convection power should achieve some rare value, while a normal deviation from this value results in longer-time stable period. Here the inversion is a global process when the volume integral of the scalar product of convective velocity on the magnetic field changes sign. So, the inversions and asymmetries are due to two types of stable states. Named as "lined" is a state with the magnetic field predominantly directed along velocity, while "contra lined" state is with their opposite direction. The lined state is characterized by smaller convection power and magnetic field in contrast to the contra lined state. The duration of the lined state is likely smaller than the duration of opposite state when the geodynamo power gradually increases with time, while for decreasing power it is vice versa. Basing on the obtained results I estimate how diffusion can determine the average period between geomagnetic reversals due to turbulent, thermal, electromagnetic and critical viscositycompositional processes. Predominant in this process, in many cases, can be identified from the dependence of the reversal frequency on the magnetic field intensity from paleomagnetic data. The data available to me

  5. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald


    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  6. Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique

    Adler P. M.


    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur

  7. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current......When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... to litigate, although litigation is a relatively rare event, if they leverage what they have learned from previously successful litigations. However, learning is less likely to be applicable to contract cases than it will be in infringement cases....

  8. Bayesian multitask inverse reinforcement learning

    Dimitrakakis, Christos


    We generalise the problem of inverse reinforcement learning to multiple tasks, from a set of demonstrations. Each demonstration may represent one expert trying to solve a different task. Alternatively, one may see each demonstration as given by a different expert trying to solve the same task. Our main technical contribution is to solve the problem by formalising it as statistical preference elicitation, via a number of structured priors, whose form captures our biases about the relatedness of different tasks or expert policies. We show that our methodology allows us not only to learn to efficiently from multiple experts but to also effectively differentiate between the goals of each. Possible applications include analysing the intrinsic motivations of subjects in behavioural experiments and imitation learning from multiple teachers.

  9. Inverse Diffusion Theory of Photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume


    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photo-acoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well-studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schroedinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when $2n$ internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where $n$ is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics (CGO) solutions.

  10. Inverse Transport Theory of Photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume; Jugnon, Vincent


    We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of ...

  11. Inverse Magnetic/Shear Catalysis

    McInnes, Brett


    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ``inverse magnetic catalysis'', signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magne...

  12. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.


    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  13. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited


    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  14. Rare Gas Halide (RGH) Kinetics.


    high-energy electron distributions have been made by Elliot and Green8 , and Bretagne , et al., but these calculations were limited to pure rare gases of...model development begins by using the same basic calculation ’ ’ procedure as presented by Bretagne , et al. 9 The distribution of electron energy is...and Bretagne , et al. have proposed empirical formulas for M-shell ionization of argon gas. For other rare gases, the formulas given by Green " and

  15. China Rare Earth Market Review


    Rare earth market remained depressed after the New Year affected by the weak demand. Purchaser preferred to consume inventories rather than increase the stockpile. There was a strong wait-and-see atmosphere in the market. Driven by the intense desire to sell out the commodities, traders further decreased their quoted price for rare earth products. Most persons in the market preferred to hold commodities and waited for a rise in the market after the Spring Festival.

  16. China rare earth market review


    March 21-31,2012 Rare earth market rebounded holistically recently. Price of didymium products rose slightly after being stable for one month. There were also increases in the prices of europium oxide and terbium oxide, which led to a rush by phosphor plants. The market of yttrium-medium and europium-rich minerals remained stagnant though the rare earth market recovered. Price of the mineral was around RMB ¥210,000-250,000/ton.

  17. China Rare Earth Market Review


    November 20-30.2011 Weak demand resulted in the slack rare market. Consumers did not intend to rep earth enish inventories yet and transactions of rare earth products were stagnant. The market of didymium-related products was in the doldrums. Demand for dysprosium-related products was sluggish. Inquiries for europium oxide (99.9%) were few and dealings of the product were difficult.

  18. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    Wiak, Sławomir


    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  19. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka


    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.).

  20. Novel FIR Inversion with Only FIRS

    Chalmers, G


    The inversion of an FIR data sampling is usually stated to be possible with the use of a potentially unstable IIR, and in particular circumstances. It is possible to accomplish the same inversion with the doubling of an FIR sampling and with only FIRs for the sampling and the inversion. This note presents the configuration, which appently is not in the literature, for perfect signal reconstruction.

  1. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  2. Bayesian approach to inverse statistical mechanics.

    Habeck, Michael


    Inverse statistical mechanics aims to determine particle interactions from ensemble properties. This article looks at this inverse problem from a Bayesian perspective and discusses several statistical estimators to solve it. In addition, a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed that draws the interaction parameters from their posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability involves an intractable partition function that is estimated along with the interactions. The method is illustrated for inverse problems of varying complexity, including the estimation of a temperature, the inverse Ising problem, maximum entropy fitting, and the reconstruction of molecular interaction potentials.

  3. The structure of (L)*-inverse semigroups

    REN Xueming; SHUM Karping


    The concepts of (L)*-inverse semigroups and left wreath products of semigroups are introduced. It is shown that the (L)*-inverse semigroup can be described as the left wreath product of a type A semigroup Γ and a left regular band B together with a mapping which maps the semigroup Γ into the endomorphism semigroup End(B). This result generalizes the structure theorem of Yamada for the left inverse semigroups in the class of regular semigroups.We shall also provide a constructed example for the (L)*-inverse semigroups by using the left wreath products.

  4. Analysis of nonlinear channel friction inverse problem

    CHENG Weiping; LIU Guohua


    Based on the Backus-Gilbert inverse theory, the singular value decomposition (SVD) for general inverse matrices and the optimization algorithm are used to solve the channel friction inverse problem. The resolution and covari- ance friction inverse model in matrix form is developed to examine the reliability of solutions. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the convergence rate of the general Newton optimization algorithm is in the second-order. The Wiggins method is also incorporated into the algorithm. Using the method, noise can be suppressed effectively, and the results are close to accurate solutions with proper control parameters. Also, the numerical stability can be improved.

  5. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Amici Cinzia


    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.


    Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska


    Full Text Available Rare diseases are characterised by their low prevalence (less than 1/2,000 and their heterogeneity. They affect both children and adults anywhere in the world. From the medical perspective, rare diseases are characterised by the large number and broad diversity of disorders and symptoms that vary not only from disease to disease, but also within the same disease.Main characteristics of rare diseases include:· Rare diseases are often chronic, progressive, degenerative, and often life-threatening· Rare diseases are disabling: the quality of life of patients is often compromised by the lack or loss of autonomy· High level of pain and suffering for the patient and his/ her family · No existing effective cure· There are between 6000 and 8000 rare diseases· 75% of rare diseases affect children· 30% of rare disease patients die before the age of 5· 80% of rare diseases have identified genetic origins. Other rare diseases are the result of infections (bacterial or viral, allergies and environmental causes, or are degenerative and proliferative.Beyond the diversity of the diseases, rare disease patients and their families are confronted with the same wide range of difficulties arising directly from the rarity of these pathologies. The period between the emergence of the first symptoms and the appropriate diagnosis involves unacceptable and highly risky delays, as well as wrong diagnosis leading to inaccurate treatments. Living with a rare disease has implications in all areas of life, whether school, choice of future work, leisure time with friends, or affective life. It may lead to stigmatisation, isolation, exclusion from social community, discrimination for insurance subscription (health insurance, travel insurance, mortgage, and often reduced professional opportunities.Innovative treatments are often unevenly available in the EU because of delays in price determination and/or reimbursement decision, lack of experience of the treating




    Full Text Available Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bilateral microspherophakia and anterior dislocation of lens of right eye. visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers close to face and i n left eye 6/60.IOP with perkins applanation tonometer was 30mmHg in right eye 22mmHg in left eye , cornea was hazy due to edema , anterior chamber was shallow in both eye patient was managed with emergency lens extraction of right eye and secondary ACIOL im plantation. Left eye was managed by laser peripheral iridotomy. IOP was within normal limits postoperatively in both eyes without any antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively best corrected visual acuity in right was 6/18 and 6/9 in left eye.

  8. Bayesian analysis of rare events

    Straub, Daniel, E-mail:; Papaioannou, Iason; Betz, Wolfgang


    In many areas of engineering and science there is an interest in predicting the probability of rare events, in particular in applications related to safety and security. Increasingly, such predictions are made through computer models of physical systems in an uncertainty quantification framework. Additionally, with advances in IT, monitoring and sensor technology, an increasing amount of data on the performance of the systems is collected. This data can be used to reduce uncertainty, improve the probability estimates and consequently enhance the management of rare events and associated risks. Bayesian analysis is the ideal method to include the data into the probabilistic model. It ensures a consistent probabilistic treatment of uncertainty, which is central in the prediction of rare events, where extrapolation from the domain of observation is common. We present a framework for performing Bayesian updating of rare event probabilities, termed BUS. It is based on a reinterpretation of the classical rejection-sampling approach to Bayesian analysis, which enables the use of established methods for estimating probabilities of rare events. By drawing upon these methods, the framework makes use of their computational efficiency. These methods include the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), tailored importance sampling (IS) methods and Subset Simulation (SuS). In this contribution, we briefly review these methods in the context of the BUS framework and investigate their applicability to Bayesian analysis of rare events in different settings. We find that, for some applications, FORM can be highly efficient and is surprisingly accurate, enabling Bayesian analysis of rare events with just a few model evaluations. In a general setting, BUS implemented through IS and SuS is more robust and flexible.

  9. A Rare Presentation of a Rare Disease: Pulmonary Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis

    Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin


    Full Text Available A 70-year-old female presented with a 4-week history of dry cough and wheezing. Chest radiograph showed a 10.5 cm mass-like density in the anterior mediastinum which had not been previously visualized. Computed tomography scan (CT of the chest showed a right hilar mass encasing and narrowing right upper lobe bronchus and right mainstem bronchus and secondary atelectatic changes. Biopsy was consistent with a diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis Grade 3. She responded well clinically and radiologically to therapy. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare EBV-associated disorder which is considered a lymphoproliferative disease. The most common radiographic feature is multiple lung nodules. An isolated hilar mass is an exceptionally rare presentation of this rare disease.

  10. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others


    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  11. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst


    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  12. The structure of *-inverse semigroups

    REN; Xueming


    [1]Hall T E.Orthodox semigroups.Pacific J Math,1971,39:677-686[2]Howie J M.An Introduction to Semigroup Theory.Now York:Academic Press,1976[3]Fountain J B.Abundant semigroups.Proc Lond Math Soc,1982,44 (3):103-129[4]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Idempotent-connected abundant semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:79-90[5]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Quasi-adequate semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:91-99[6]Fountain J B.Adequate semigroups.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1979,22:113-125[7]Guo X J.Abundant C-lpp proper semigroups.Southeast Asian Bull Math,2000,24 (1):41-50[8]Guo X J,Shum K P,Guo Y Q.Perfect rpp semigroups.Communications in Algebra,2001,29(6):2447-2459[9]Ren X M,Shum K P.Structure theorems for right pp-semigroups with left central idempotents.Discussions Math General Algebra and Applications,2000,20:63-75[10]Ren X M,Shum K P.The structure of superabundant semigroups.Sci China Ser A-Math,2004,47(5):756-771[11]Shum K P,Ren X M.Abundant semigroups with left central idempotents.Pure Math Appl,1999,10(1):109-113[12]Armstrong S.The structure of type A semigroups.Semigroup Forum,1984,29:319-336[13]Lawson M V.The structure of type A semigroups.Quart J Math Oxford,1986,37(2):279-298[14]Bailes G L.Right inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1973,26:492-507[15]Venkatesan P S.Right (left) inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1974,31:209-217[16]Yamada M.Orthodox semigroups whose idempotents satisfy a certain identity.Semigroup Forum,1973,6:113-128[17]Preston G B.Semiproducts of semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1986,102A:91-102[18]Preston G B:Products of semigroups.In:Shum K P,Yuen P C,eds.Proc.of the conference"Ordered structures and algebra of computer languages",1991 (Hong Kong).Singapore:World Scientific Inc,1993.161-169[19]Lawson M V.The natural partial order on an abundant semigroup.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1987,30:169-186[20]El-Qallali A.(L)*-unipotent semigroups.J Pure and Applied Algebra,1989,62:19-23

  13. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail:


    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark–Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce “inverse magnetic catalysis”, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.

  14. Inversion based on computational simulations

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.


    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.

  15. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    Brett McInnes


    Full Text Available It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark–Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce “inverse magnetic catalysis”, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.


    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Viticchie, B. [ESA/ESTEC RSSD, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Orozco Suarez, D., E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  17. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  18. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  19. Inverse problem in Parker's dynamo

    Reshetnyak, M Yu


    The inverse solution of the 1D Parker dynamo equations is considered. The method is based on minimization of the cost-function, which characterize deviation of the model solution properties from the desired ones. The output is the latitude distribution of the magnetic field generation sources: the $\\alpha$- and $\\omega$-effects. Minimization is made using the Monte-Carlo method. The details of the method, as well as some applications, which can be interesting for the broad dynamo community, are considered: conditions when the invisible for the observer at the surface of the planet toroidal part of the magnetic field is much larger than the poloidal counterpart. It is shown that at some particular distributions of $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ the well-known thesis that sign of the dynamo-number defines equatorial symmetry of the magnetic field to the equator plane, is violated. It is also demonstrated in what circumstances magnetic field in the both hemispheres have different properties, and simple physical explanati...

  20. Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms

    Lear, W. M.


    A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.

  1. Integrative inversion of land surface component temperature

    FAN Wenjie; XU Xiru


    In this paper, the row winter wheat was selected as the example to study the component temperature inversion method of land surface target in detail. The result showed that the structural pattern of row crop can affect the inversion precision of component temperature evidently. Choosing appropriate structural pattern of row crop can improve the inversion precision significantly. The iterative method combining inverse matrix was a stable method that was fit for inversing component temperature of land surface target. The result of simulation and field experiment showed that the integrative method could remarkably improve the inversion accuracy of the lighted soil surface temperature and the top layer canopy temperature, and enhance inversion stability of components temperature. Just two parameters were sufficient for accurate atmospheric correction of multi-angle and multi-spectral thermal infrared data: atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric upwelling radiance. If the atmospheric parameters and component temperature can be inversed synchronously, the really and truly accurate atmospheric correction can be achieved. The validation using ATSRII data showed that the method was useful.

  2. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion


    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  3. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  4. Inversion in Mathematical Thinking and Learning

    Greer, Brian


    Inversion is a fundamental relational building block both within mathematics as the study of structures and within people's physical and social experience, linked to many other key elements such as equilibrium, invariance, reversal, compensation, symmetry, and balance. Within purely formal arithmetic, the inverse relationships between addition and…

  5. Normal Orthodox Semigroups with Inverse Transversals



    A normal orthodox semigroup is an orthodox semigroup whose idempotent elements form a normal band.We deal with congruces on a normal orthodox semigroup with an iverse transversal .A structure theorem for such semigroup is obtained.Munn(1966)gave a fundamental inverse semigroup Following Munn's idea ,we give a fundamental normal orthodox semigroup with an inverse transversal.

  6. Treatment of inverse psoriasis with efalizumab.

    George, Dornechia; Rosen, Ted


    Various topical and systemic treatments have shown efficacy in plaque and palmoplantar psoriasis; however, studies regarding efficacy in inverse psoriasis are few. The authors present a case of a patient with severe inverse psoriasis who was successfully treated with efalizumab, resulting in complete and sustained remission during prolonged maintenance therapy.

  7. Approximation of the Inverse -Frame Operator

    M R Abdollahpour; A Najati


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.

  8. An inversion algorithm for general tridiagonal matrix

    Rui-sheng RAN; Ting-zhu HUANG; Xing-ping LIU; Tong-xiang GU


    An algorithm for the inverse of a general tridiagonal matrix is presented. For a tridiagonal matrix having the Doolittle factorization, an inversion algorithm is established.The algorithm is then generalized to deal with a general tridiagonal matrix without any restriction. Comparison with other methods is provided, indicating low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm, and its applicability to general tridiagonal matrices.

  9. Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.


    We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic approximat

  10. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.


    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.

  11. A Construction of Weakly Inverse Semigroups

    Bing Jun YU; Yan LI


    Let S° be an inverse semigroup with semilattice biordered set E° of idempotents and E a weakly inverse biordered set with a subsemilattice Ep = { e ∈ E |(V) f ∈ E, S(f , e)(C) w(e) } isomorphic to E° by θ:Ep→E°. In this paper, it is proved that if(V)f, g∈E, f ←→ ,g(→) f°θ (ζ)s° g°θand there exists a mapping φ from Ep into the symmetric weakly inverse semigroup (ζξ)(E ∪S°) satisfying six appropriate conditions, then a weakly inverse semigroup ∑ can be constructed in (ζξ)(S°), called the weakly inverse hull of a weakly inverse system (S°, E, θ, φ) with I(∑) ≌ S°, E(∑) (≌) E. Conversely,every weakly inverse semigroup can be constructed in this way. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition for two weakly inverse hulls to be isomorphic is also given.

  12. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.


    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance. F

  13. Rare Earth Separation in China


    During the last decade, China rare earth (RE) industry has made significant progress and become one of the most important producers in the world. In this paper, the recent developments in both fundamental research and industrial application are briefly reviewed: (1) the development and application of Theory of Countercurrent Extraction, (2) the novel solvent extraction process and its application in industry for separating heavy rare earth elements (Tm, Yb, Lu), yttrium (Y), and scandium (Sc), (3) the on-line analysis and automatic control of countercurrent extraction, (4) the eco-friendly process for RE/Th separation of bastnasite in Sichuan Province and electrochemical process for Eu/RE separation, and (5) the optimized flowcharts for typical rare earth minerals in China.

  14. Ainhum - A Rare Case Report

    Prabhu, Ravi; Vinoth, Sundaresan; Praveen, Chinnappan Balasubramanian


    The term ‘AINHUM’ is derived from the African word meaning ‘to saw or cut’. True ainhum otherwise called dactylolysis spontanea is a condition involving soft tissue or digits with constricting rings commonly presenting in fifth toes, usually bilateral. It is to be differentiated from Pseudo-ainhum that occurs secondary to some hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We report a rare case of true ainhum involving the left fourth toe only. It is a very rare case and a very few were reported worldwide. The highest incidence of ainhum has been reported in South Africa and South America. It is rarely reported in India. Ainhum when diagnosed and treated in early stages can be prevented from progressing to mutilating deformities. PMID:27190888

  15. Inverse scattering: applications to nuclear physics

    Mackintosh, Raymond S


    In what follows we first set the context for inverse scattering in nuclear physics with a brief account of inverse problems in general. We then turn to inverse scattering which involves the S-matrix, which connects the interaction potential between two scattering particles with the measured scattering cross section. The term `inverse' is a reference to the fact that instead of determining the scattering S-matrix from the interaction potential between the scattering particles, we do the inverse. That is to say, we calculate the interaction potential from the S-matrix. This review explains how this can now be done reliably, but the emphasis will be upon reasons why one should wish to do this, with an account of some of the ways this can lead to understanding concerning nuclear interactions.

  16. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)


    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin


    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  18. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  19. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime


    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  20. Zebra: searching for rare diseases


    disease diagnostic hypotheses in the domain of medical IR. In this work, we build upon an existing vertical medical search engine, Zebra, that is focused on rare disease diagnosis. In previous work, Zebra has been evaluated using real-life medical cases of rare and difficult diseases, and has been found...... to be a useful and competitive tool for clinicians. In this work, we extend Zebra’s functionalities to optimise the task of medical diagnosis through search as follows: we add the option of grouping retrieved documents into clusters based on disease name occurrence, and we offer a ‘disease-ranking’ option...

  1. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report.

    Chauhan, Sapna; Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati


    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as "giant kidney worm' is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India.

  2. China Rare Earth Market Review


    August 20-31, 2011 Rare earth market did not show the sign of picking-up and remained stagnant recently. Most suppliers continued to decrease their quoted price, but leading producers in northern and southern China did not adjust their quoted price. Most rare earth plants in southern China had not yet resumed production. Quoted price of didymium products swung and the quoted prices of dysprosium-related products were slipping affected by weak demand. Inquiries for europium oxide were decreasing affected by the slow phosphor market.




    Full Text Available Puerperal uterine inversion is rare; inversion of one horn of bicornute unicollis uterus is even rarer. Uterine malformations can make the diagnosis difficult , challenging emergency treatment and could prove potentially life threatening too. In our case the patient after two months of delivery had continuous vaginal bleeding , speculum examination revealed a mass at vaginal vault , reddish colored , about 5 cm in size and cervical rim was felt all around it , but for the colour which was red , it was suspected to be a fibroid polyp as the ultrasound reports had shown a normal uterus. When polypectomy was attempted it was discovered that the mass was probably an inverted uterus. Consequently laparotomy was done which revealed a bicornuate uterus with inversion of one rig ht horn. The inverted horn was reposited with great difficulty but was unsuitable to sustain future pregnancy hence a hemihyterectomy had to be performed. Patient recovered well.

  4. Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes

    Cáceres Alejandro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions

  5. Post Stack Seismic data-impedance Inversion using Multi-Point Stochastic Inversion in Yme field, Norwegian Sea

    Inácio, Celso dos Santos Laurinda


    The Multi-Point Stochastic Inversion (MPSI) is a method based on both deterministic inversion and stochastic inversion. The deterministic inversion is used prior to the stochastic inversion and it is more general and works well for thick layers while the stochastic inversion works well for thin layers. Because of its combination, the MPSI method is one of suitable methods for reservoir characterization. Apart from being used for post-stack seismic acoustic impedance (AI) inversion, the MPSI m...

  6. Rare B decays at CDF

    Farrington, Sinead M.; /Liverpool U.


    The confidence level limits of the CDF search for the B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rare decays and the branching ratio measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -} are presented.

  7. Rare diseases and orphan drugs

    Domenica Taruscio


    Full Text Available According to the Regulation (EC N. 141/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council, rare diseases are life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions, affecting no more than 5 in 10 000 persons in the European Community. It is estimated that between 6000 to 8000 distinct rare diseases affect up to 6% of the total EU population. Therefore, these conditions can be considered rare if taken individually but they affect a significant proportion of the European population when considered as a single group. Several initiatives have been undertaken at international, European and national level to tackle public health as well as research issues related to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of these diseases. The development of innovative and effective medical products for their diagnosis and treatment is frequently hampered by several factors, including the limited knowledge of their natural history, the difficulties in setting up clinical studies due to the limited numbers of patients affected by a specific disease, the weak interest of sponsors due to the restricted market opportunities. Therefore, incentives and other facilitations have been adopted in many parts of the world, including in the EU, in order to facilitate the development and commercialization of diagnostic tools and treatments devoted to rare diseases. This paper illustrates mainly the European initiatives and will discuss the problematic and controversial aspects surrounding orphan drugs. Finally, activities and measures adopted in Italy are presented.

  8. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    van Zwieten, R.


    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  9. Rare decays of b hadrons

    Koppenburg, Patrick; Smizanska, Maria


    Rare decays of b hadrons provide a powerful way of identifying contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular from new hypothetical particles too heavy to be produced at colliders. The most relevant experimental measurements are reviewed and possible interpretations are briefly discussed.

  10. Genetic analysis of rare disorders

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob


    Twin concordance rates provide insight into the possibility of a genetic background for a disease. These concordance rates are usually estimated within a frequentistic framework. Here we take a Bayesian approach. For rare diseases, estimation methods based on asymptotic theory cannot be applied due...

  11. Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension

    Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.


    To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

  12. Spinal actinomycosis: A rare disease

    Dua Rakesh


    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by Actinomyces species. Of human actinomycosis, the spinal form is rare and actinomycosis-related spinal neurological deficit is uncommon. We report two cases with cervical and dorsal actinomycosis and one of them with spinal neurological deficit.

  13. Rare presentation of biliary ascariasis.

    Rather, Ajaz; Salati, Sajad Ahmad


    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in the world. We present a very rare manifestation of ascariasis in which the worms came out through the T-tube tract of a 36 years old patient who had undergone cholecystectomy with choledocholithotomy.

  14. Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome: A rare entity

    S Pavithra


    Full Text Available The cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC syndrome is a condition of sporadic occurrence, with patients showing multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation and characteristic dysmorphic features. We, thus, report a rare case of this syndrome in a 1-year-old child who presented with typical features of CFC syndrome.

  15. China Rare Earth Market Review


    June 20-30, 2011 Prices of heavy rare earth products remained soaring. The same happened to dysprosium and its related products due to tight supply. Separation plants held tightly of europium oxide. Refining plants took a positive attitude toward the ma

  16. Rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    Prober, A.; Tverskoy, M.


    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed.

  17. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    Wu, Zedong


    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration velocity analysis (MVA), which usually relies on extended images. However, RFWI requires a good image to represent the current reflectivity, as well as, some effort to obtain good smooth gradients. We develop a spectral implementation of RFWI where the wavefield extrapolations and gradient evaluation are performed in the wavenumber domain, obtaining clean dispersion free and fast extrapolations. The gradient, in this case, yields three terms, two of which provide us with each side of the rabbit ear kernel, and the third, often ignored, provides a normalization of the reflectivity within the kernel, which can be used to obtain a reflectivity free background update. Since the image is imperfect (it is an adjoint, not an inverse), an optimization process for the third term scaling is implemented to achieve the smoothest gradient update. A rare application of RFWI on the reflectivity infested Marmousi model shows some of the potential of the approach.

  18. Sparse CSEM inversion driven by seismic coherence

    Guo, Zhenwei; Dong, Hefeng; Kristensen, Åge


    Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data inversion for hydrocarbon exploration is often challenging due to high computational cost, physical memory requirement and low resolution of the obtained resistivity map. This paper aims to enhance both the speed and resolution of CSEM inversion by introducing structural geological information in the inversion algorithm. A coarse mesh is generated for Occam’s inversion, where the parameters are fewer than in the fine regular mesh. This sparse mesh is defined as a coherence-based irregular (IC) sparse mesh, which is based on vertices extracted from available geological information. Inversion results on synthetic data illustrate that the IC sparse mesh has a smaller inversion computational cost compared to the regular dense (RD) mesh. It also has a higher resolution than with a regular sparse (RS) mesh for the same number of estimated parameters. In order to study how the IC sparse mesh reduces the computational time, four different meshes are generated for Occam’s inversion. As a result, an IC sparse mesh can reduce the computational cost while it keeps the resolution as good as a fine regular mesh. The IC sparse mesh reduces the computational cost of the matrix operation for model updates. When the number of estimated parameters reduces to a limited value, the computational cost is independent of the number of parameters. For a testing model with two resistive layers, the inversion result using an IC sparse mesh has higher resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the model representing significant geological information in the IC mesh can improve the resolution of the resistivity models obtained from inversion of CSEM data.

  19. On the inversion-indel distance.

    Willing, Eyla; Zaccaria, Simone; Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens


    The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components.

  20. Graph inverse semigroups: their characterization and completion

    Jones, David G


    Graph inverse semigroups generalize the polycyclic inverse monoids and play an important role in the theory of C*-algebras. This paper has two main goals: first, to provide an abstract characterization of graph inverse semigroups; and second, to show how they may be completed, under suitable conditions, to form what we call the Cuntz-Krieger semigroup of the graph. This semigroup is the ample semigroup of a topological groupoid associated with the graph, and the semigroup analogue of the Leavitt path algebra of the graph.

  1. 3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem


    This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.

  2. Parallel Algorithm in Surface Wave Waveform Inversion


    In Surface wave waveform inversion, we want to reconstruct 3Dshear wav e velocity structure, which calculation beyond the capability of the powerful pr esent day personal computer or even workstation. So we designed a high parallele d algorithm and carried out the inversion on Parallel computer based on the part itioned waveform inversion (PWI). It partitions the large scale optimization pro blem into a number of independent small scale problems and reduces the computati onal effort by several orders of magnitude. We adopted surface waveform inversio n with a equal block(2°×2°) discretization.

  3. New recursive algorithm for matrix inversion

    Cao Jianshu; Wang Xuegang


    To reduce the computational complexity of matrix inversion, which is the majority of processing in many practical applications, two numerically efficient recursive algorithms (called algorithms Ⅰ and Ⅱ, respectively)are presented. Algorithm Ⅰ is used to calculate the inverse of such a matrix, whose leading principal minors are all nonzero. Algorithm Ⅱ, whereby, the inverse of an arbitrary nonsingular matrix can be evaluated is derived via improving the algorithm Ⅰ. The implementation, for algorithm Ⅱ or Ⅰ, involves matrix-vector multiplications and vector outer products. These operations are computationally fast and highly parallelizable. MATLAB simulations show that both recursive algorithms are valid.

  4. Nonlinear system compound inverse control method

    Yan ZHANG; Zengqiang CHEN; Peng YANG; Zhuzhi YUAN


    A compound neural network is utilized to identify the dynamic nonlinear system.This network is composed of two parts: one is a linear neural network,and the other is a recurrent neural network.Based on the inverse theory a compound inverse control method is proposed.The controller has also two parts:a linear controller and a nonlinear neural network controller.The stability condition of the closed-loop neural network-based compound inverse control system is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov theory.Simulation studies have shown that this scheme is simple and has good control accuracy and robustness.

  5. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;


    We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... for jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... present a voxel grid inversion routine that overcomes these problems and we discuss in detail the algorithm implementation....

  6. Teeth in Rare Locations with Rare Complications: An Overview

    Dhingra, Shruti; Gulati, Achal


    Ectopic presence of teeth within the dentate region is common in clinical practice. However, the presence of teeth in non-dentate areas such as the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus is rare. These may remain asymptomatic for years, may be misdiagnosed as foreign bodies, or may present with some serious complications involving the nose and paranasal sinuses. Complications such as nasal obstruction, epistaxis, headaches, rhinolith formation, epiphora, sinusitis and oro-antral fistula have bee...

  7. Signature effects in 2qp bands of doubly even rare-earth nuclei

    Kalra, Kawalpreet [Amity University, AUUP, Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences (AIAS), Noida (India); Goel, Alpana [Amity University, AUUP, Amity Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AINST), Noida (India); Jain, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)


    The two-quasiparticle rotational bands in deformed doubly even nuclei in the rare-earth region have been studied in detail. A number of interesting features like odd-even staggering and signature inversion have been observed. The phenomenon of signature inversion/reversal is observed experimentally in {sup 162}{sub 66}Dy, {sup 170}{sub 70}Yb and {sup 170}{sub 74}W in even-even nuclei. Two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) calculations are carried out to explain the reverse pattern of signature in {sup 170}{sub 74}W for the rotational band having configuration {(h_1_1_/_2)_p x (d_5_/_2)_p}. (orig.)

  8. Rare events: a state of the art

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.


    The study of rare events has become increasingly important in the context of nuclear safety. Some philosophical considerations, such as the framework for the definition of a rare event, rare events and science, rare events and trans-science, and rare events and public perception, are discussed. The technical work of the Task Force on problems of Rare Events in the Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Plants (1976-1978), sponsored by OECD, is reviewed. Some recent technical considerations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The appendix contains an essay written by Anne E. Beachey, under the title: A Study of Rare Events - Problems and Promises.

  9. Development Trend of Rare Earth Standardion Work

    Ma Jie; Lin Jirong; Zhao Fei; Zhang Xiuyan


    Rare earth standardization was developed along with rare earth industry.In recent decades, great advances have been made in China rare earth industry.This paper describes the status of rare earth standardization, problems existed and ways to perfect.Now the number of Chinese Rare Earth Standards has increased to 232 with expanding of the categories and covering scope of rare earth products.But the present standard system cannot be completely suited with rare earth production and trade, and not keep pace with the advance of technology.Standards are important rules in world trade and must be acted on.

  10. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei


    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  11. Tensions on rare metals; Tensions sur les metaux rares

    Rigaud, Ch.


    Rare earths that are used in the high or green technologies are facing short term shortages due to the steadily increasing demand and to the fact that some countries are reluctant to export them. For instance neodymium is used to make permanent magnets for the new generation of wind turbines. A year ago the price of neodymium was 14 dollar a kg while today it is priced at 40 dollar a kg, its production stagnates at 24000 tonnes a year which is just enough to meet the demand. The fear of shortage is high for thin layers in which tellurium, indium and germanium are involved. It is possible to act at any level of the production chain: to optimize the industrial production processes, to reduce the thickness of the thin layers, to recycle discarded equipment, to propose alternative solution: for instance the kesterite ore is studied in view of replacing indium in photovoltaic applications. The issue of rare earths or other rare metals begins to appear on government agenda. (A.C.)

  12. [Care for patients with rare diseases].

    Smetsers, Stephanie E; Takkenberg, J J M Hanneke; Bierings, Marc B


    A rare disease usually concerns only a handful of patients, but all patients with a rare disease combined represent a significant health burden. Due to limited knowledge and the absence of treatment guidelines, patients with rare diseases usually experience delayed diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. Historically, rare diseases have never been considered a major health problem. However, rare diseases have recently been receiving increased attention. In the Netherlands, a national plan for rare diseases was published in late 2013, with recommendations on how to improve the organisation of healthcare for people with rare diseases. Using the example of the rare disease Fanconi anemia, this paper describes the challenges and opportunities in organising healthcare for rare diseases. Two critical steps in optimising healthcare for rare diseases are developing multidisciplinary healthcare teams and stimulating patient empowerment. Optimal cooperation between patients, patient organisations, multidisciplinary healthcare teams and scientists is of great importance. In this respect, transition to adult healthcare requires special attention.

  13. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome


    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  14. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas

    Baring, M G; Ellison, D C; Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.


    There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at b...

  15. The Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Faton Merovci


    Full Text Available A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution the so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull distribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking the generalized inverseWeibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, and moment generating function of the new distribution are derived. We propose the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the flexibility of the transmuted version versus the generalized inverse Weibull distribution.

  16. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  17. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    Liu, Lu


    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  18. Self-Inverse Interleavers for Turbo Codes

    Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel; Eshghi, Nasim


    In this work we introduce and study a set of new interleavers based on permutation polynomials and functions with known inverses over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ for using in turbo code structures. We use Monomial, Dickson, M\\"{o}bius and R\\'edei functions in order to get new interleavers. In addition we employ Skolem sequences in order to find new interleavers with known cycle structure. As a byproduct we give an exact formula for the inverse of every R\\'edei function. The cycle structure of R\\'edei functions are also investigated. Finally, self-inverse versions of permutation functions are used to construct interleavers. These interleavers are their own de-interleavers and are useful for turbo coding and turbo decoding. Experiments carried out for self-inverse interleavers constructed using these kind of permutation polynomials and functions show excellent agreement with our theoretical results.

  19. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  20. Nonlinear Least Squares for Inverse Problems

    Chavent, Guy


    Presents an introduction into the least squares resolution of nonlinear inverse problems. This title intends to develop a geometrical theory to analyze nonlinear least square (NLS) problems with respect to their quadratic wellposedness, that is, both wellposedness and optimizability

  1. An Inverse Problem Statistical Methodology Summary


    R. Vogel, Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2002. [36] D. D. Wackerly, W. Mendenhall III, and R. L. Scheaffer , Mathematical Statistics with Applications, Duxbury Thompson Learning, USA, 2002. 56

  2. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    .... With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally...

  3. Inversion of hysteresis and creep operators

    Krejčí, Pavel; Al Janaideh, Mohammad; Deasy, Fergal


    The explicit inversion formula for rate dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii operators is extended to cases without the threshold dilation condition. This solves a problem in hysteresis and creep modeling of magnetostrictive behavior.

  4. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Gurudas Khilnani


    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  5. Neonatal hemophilia: a rare presentation

    Nuno Ferreira


    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a X-linked hereditary condition that lead to decreased factor VIII activity, occurs mainly in males. Decreased factor VIII activity leads to increased risk of bleeding events. During neonatal period, diagnosis is made after post-partum bleeding complication or unexpected bleeding after medical procedures. Subgaleal hemorrhage during neonatal period is a rare, severe extracranial bleeding with high mortality and usually related to traumatic labor or coagulation disorders. Subgaleal hemorrhage complications result from massive bleeding. We present a neonate with unremarkable family history and uneventful pregnancy with a vaginal delivery with no instrumentation, presenting with severe subgaleal bleeding at 52 hours of life. Aggressive support measures were implemented and bleeding managed. The unexpected bleeding lead to a coagulation study and the diagnosis of severe hemophilia A. There were no known sequelae. This case shows a rare hemophilia presentation reflecting the importance of coagulation studies when faced with unexplained severe bleeding.

  6. Chondroectodermal dysplasia: a rare syndrome.

    Dana Tahririan


    Full Text Available Chondroectodermal dysplasia (Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital abnormality. This syndrome is characterized by a spectrum of clinical findings, among which chondrodystrophy, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and congenital cardiac anomalies are the most common. It is imperative to not overlook the cardiac complications in patients with this syndrome during dental procedures. The case presented here, although quite rare, was detected under normal conditions and can be alarming for dental care providers. Clinical reports outline the classical and unusual oral and dental manifestations, which help health care providers diagnose chondroectodermal dysplasia, and refer patients with this syndrome to appropriate health care professionals to receive treatment to prevent further cardiac complications and bone deformities.

  7. Diphtheria rare localization in adults

    Yu. I. Liashenko


    Full Text Available Last 25 years in the country established sporadic diphtheria morbidity (less than 0.1 per 100 000 people. In this situation, the attention of medical specialists pre-hospital and hospital health care system is reduced, especially for diseases with a rare localization of pathological process. Mentioned circumstances contribute to delayed diagnosis and treatment of his patients, the major cause of complicated infection, often its unfavorable outcome and a factor of the epidemic of trouble for the infection. The authors present material evidence that the rare forms of diphtheria in the period of sporadic disease in much the same as in the epidemic, and describe the clinical manifestations and course of diphtheria of the nose, eyes, throat, genitals, mouth and gastrointestinal tract in modern conditions.

  8. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil


    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  9. Erythromelalgia: a rare microvascular disease.

    Latessa, Victoria


    Erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in intense, burning pain and redness primarily of the feet, and, even more rarely, in the hands. Most cases are idiopathic (primary EM); others occur secondary to medical conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, and neurological or hematological disorders. Symptoms are episodic and can result in severe disability. Triggers, such as exposure to warmth, pressure or exercise, become apparent to those afflicted with this condition; however, triggers may be unavoidable during the course of daily living. There are no diagnostic tests for EM. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination during symptomatic episode and the exclusion of other probable causes for the syndrome. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms as well as early treatment offer patients the best hope of remissions and improved quality of life.

  10. Rare decay searches at CDF

    Maestro, Paolo


    In the last decade the CDF experiment at the Tevatron clearly demonstrated that it is possible to study extensively heavy flavour physics in hadron collisions and achieve remarkable results, competitive and complementary to $B$-factories. In this paper we report on the indirect searches for physics beyond the standard model via measurements of rare $b$-hadron decays. The final limits, based on the analysis of the full CDF data set, on the branching fraction of the $B^0_{(s)}$ decay into a pair of muons are presented and discussed. Moreover we review the latest measurements, with 6.8 fb$^{-1}$ of collected data, of the total and differential branching fractions and angular observables of rare $b$-hadron decays proceeding via the flavour-changing neutral-current process $b \\rightarrow s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. PACS numbers: 13.20.He, 13.30.-a, 12.15.Mn

  11. Replica trick for rare samples

    Rizzo, Tommaso


    In the context of disordered systems with quenched Hamiltonians I address the problem of characterizing rare samples where the thermal average of a specific observable has a value different from the typical one. These rare samples can be selected through a variation of the replica trick which amounts to replicating the system and dividing the replicas intwo two groups containing, respectively, M and -M replicas. Replicas in the first (second) group experience a positive (negative) small field O (1/M) conjugate to the observable considered and the M →∞ limit is to be taken in the end. Applications to the random-field Ising model and to the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model are discussed.


    Fuchs, Catherine; Le Goffic, Pierre


    International audience; Chapter 4 is devoted to a linguistic analysis of the 47 examples of locative inversions which are to be found in Robbe-Grillet's novel La Jalousie. We successively consider the ordering, the internal structure, the lexical characteristics and the determiners of the three main constituents (namely the Location Phrase, the Verbal Phrase and the nominal Subject Phrase). The analysis enlightens the non prototypical way in which the author uses locative inversion structures...

  13. Study of Inverse Creep In Textile Yarns

    P.G. Patil


    Full Text Available Creep has been known and studied for textilematerials for decades. In comparison, a newlyobserved phenomenon of inverse creep seems not tohave received much attention. A new instrument hasbeen fabricated to measure creep and inverse creep intextile materials particularly yarns. Creep and Inversecreep measurements of nylon multifilament yarn,polyester multifilament yarn, cotton and wool yarn atdifferent levels of stress have been studied using thenew instrument and results are reported in the presentpaper.

  14. Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries

    Lawson, Mark V


    Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.

  15. Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation Involving Position Shading

    Li, Zhengquan; WU Yaoxiang


    Considering the shortcomings of inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation in practical applications, this study improved the IDW algorithm and put forward a new spatial interpolation method that named as adjusted inverse distance weighted (AIDW). In interpolating process, the AIDW is capable of taking into account the comprehensive influence of distance and position of sample point to interpolation point, by adding a coefficient (K) into the normal IDW formula. The coefficient (K) is used...

  16. Inverse problems in stochastic computational dynamics

    Capiez-Lernout, Evangéline; Soize, Christian


    International audience; This paper deals with robust updating of dynamical systems using stochastic computational models for which model and parameter uncertainties are taken into account by the nonparametric probabilistic approach. Such a problem is formulated as an inverse problem consisting in identifying the parameters of the mean computational model and the parameters of the probabilistic model of uncertainties. This inverse problem leads us to solve an optimization problem for which the...

  17. Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data


    uncertainties as well as parameter values, thereby quantifying the information content of the data to resolve the model parameters. Bayesian inversion...method based on deviance information criterion to determine the dominant scattering mechanism is in development. This work has been compiled in two... Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data (Special Research Award in Ocean Acoustics) Gavin A.M.W. Steininger School of Earth & Ocean


    Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó


    This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.

  19. An inverse problem in analytical dynamics

    Li Guang-Cheng; Mei-Feng-Xiang


    This paper presents an inverse problem in analytical dynamics.The inverse problem is to construct the Lagrangian when the integrals of a system are given.Firstly,the differential equations are obtained by using the time derivative of the integrals.Secondly,the differential equations can be written in the Lagrange equations under certain conditions and the Lagrangian can be obtained.Finally,two examples are given to illustrate the application of the result.

  20. Rare Mycetes of Romania III

    Denes PAZMANY


    Full Text Available New contributions to the knowledges concerning Romania's macromycetes are presented. The 208 species enlisted in the paper are grouped in classes and orders and within these groups the species are enlisted alphabetically. The data refers to species less known to Romania, collected in Transylvania, mostly around Cluj-Napoca. From these Daldinia vernicosa, Pleurotus calyptratus, Agaricus pseudopratensis, Armillariella bulbosa, Clitocybe harmajae and Tubaria hiemalis are rare in all Europe.

  1. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  2. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion


    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  3. Cutaneous actinomycosis: A rare case

    Metgud S


    Full Text Available Cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare presentation. Here we present a case of cutaneous actinomycosis with no history of trauma or systemic dissemination. The isolate was identified as Actinomyces viscosus by standard methods. The isolate was found to be penicillin resistant by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Therefore, the patient was treated with cotrimoxazole and improved. Thus, this case highlights the importance of isolation and susceptibility testing in actinomycotic infection. The sinuses have healed, and the patient has recovered.

  4. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Kristie A Robson


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  5. Rare Earths and Magnetic Refrigeration


    Magnetic refrigeration is a revolutionary, efficient, environmentally friendly cooling technology, which is on the threshold of commercialization. The magnetic rare earth materials are utilized as the magnetic refrigerants in most cooling devices, and for many cooling application the Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets are employed as the source of the magnetic field. The status of the near room temperature magnetic cooling was reviewed.

  6. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: a rare presentation

    Sushil G. Kachewar


    Full Text Available Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare congenital nonhereditary mesenchymal hamartomatous malformation resulting in localized gigantism of parts of extremities that manifests clinically as macrodactyly or megalodactyly. Radiological and Pathological hallmark is the disproportionate fibroadipose tissue proliferation in subcutaneous tissue, nerve sheaths, and periosteum that leads to soft tissue and bony enlargement. As imaging is the key to early diagnosis, findings on various modalities like plain radiographs, CT scan and MRI are highlighted here.

  7. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

    Nidecker, A.; Hartweg, H.


    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy.


    Varsha; Kanan; Chanda,, Abhra; Qazi,, S.


    TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion) sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin). This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart) is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.




    Full Text Available TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin. This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.

  10. A rare presentation of hypothyroidism

    Betsy Mathew


    Full Text Available In this case report, we have brought out a very rare presentation of hypothyroidism in the form of cataplexy and this case is of significance because there have been no similar case reports of hypothyroidism presenting as cataplexy so far. The other highlight of the case is that treatment of hypothyroidism alone resulted in complete freedom from cataplexy without the need for agrypnotic drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 328-329

  11. Rett syndrome: A rare case

    Deepika Verma


    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is rare, affects predominantly female children. It presents as a pervasive developmental disorder with a remarkable behavioral phenotype. The discovery that mutation in methyl-C-phosphate-G-binding protein 2 causes RTT has focused attention to the importance of epigenetic modifications in neuronal function. We report a case of RTT in a 7-year-old female child and use of behavioral techniques and social skill training to control the behavioral symptoms.

  12. Rare beauty decays at LHCb



    In this contribution we review the most recent measurements of the LHCb experiment in the field of rare decays of B mesons. In particular the first observation of the $B^0_s \\to µ^+ µ^-$,­ decay, the angular analysis of $B^0_d \\to K*l^+l^-$ decays and the test of lepton universality in $B^+ \\to K^+ l^+ l^-$ decays are presented.

  13. Collagenous Gastritis: A Rare Entity

    Faten Limaiem


    Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized histologically by the presence of a thick subepithelial collagen band associated with an inflammatory infiltrate of gastric mucosa. A 40-year-old male presented with a history of chronic intermittent abdominal pain for about 6 months. Physical examination was unremarkable, and biological tests were within normal range. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy which showed a nodular mucosa of the stomach. Biopsies of the duodenum and colon were unremarkable. However, biopsies of the gastric fundus revealed a mild chronic gastritis characterized by lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration of deep mucosa, without lymphoid follicle formation or active inflammation. No microorganisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin or Giemsa-stained sections. Subepithelial collagen in the gastric biopsies was thickened and showed entrapped capillaries. Subepithelial collagen was highlighted by Masson's trichrome staining and was negative for amyloid by Congo Red. In the areas containing thickened collagen, there were no intraepithelial lymphocytes. The final pathological diagnosis was collagenous gastritis. Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, but it is important to recognize its characteristic endoscopic and pathologic findings to make a correct diagnosis. Specific therapy for this rare entity has not yet been established. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 68-70

  14. Pinsker estimators for local helioseismology: inversion of travel times for mass-conserving flows

    Fournier, Damien; Gizon, Laurent; Holzke, Martin; Hohage, Thorsten


    A major goal of helioseismology is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the three velocity components of convective flows in the solar interior from sets of wave travel-time measurements. For small amplitude flows, the forward problem is described in good approximation by a large system of convolution equations. The input observations are highly noisy random vectors with a known dense covariance matrix. This leads to a large statistical linear inverse problem. Whereas for deterministic linear inverse problems several computationally efficient minimax optimal regularization methods exist, only one minimax-optimal linear estimator exists for statistical linear inverse problems: the Pinsker estimator. However, it is often computationally inefficient because it requires a singular value decomposition of the forward operator or it is not applicable because of an unknown noise covariance matrix, so it is rarely used for real-world problems. These limitations do not apply in helioseismology. We present a simplified proof of the optimality properties of the Pinsker estimator and show that it yields significantly better reconstructions than traditional inversion methods used in helioseismology, i.e. regularized least squares (Tikhonov regularization) and SOLA (approximate inverse) methods. Moreover, we discuss the incorporation of the mass conservation constraint in the Pinsker scheme using staggered grids. With this improvement we can reconstruct not only horizontal, but also vertical velocity components that are much smaller in amplitude.

  15. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  16. Geoacoustic inversion with ships as sources.

    Koch, Robert A; Knobles, David P


    Estimation of geoacoustic parameters using acoustic data from a surface ship was performed for a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were recorded from hydrophones in a bottom mounted, horizontal line array (HLA). The techniques developed to produce the geoacoustic inversion are described, and an efficient method for geoacoustic inversion with broadband beam cross-spectral data is demonstrated. The performance of cost functions that involve coherent or incoherent sums over frequency and one or multiple time segments is discussed. Successful inversions for the first sediment layer sound speed and thickness and some of the parameters for the deeper layers were obtained with the surface ship at nominal ranges of 20, 30, or 50 water depths. The data for these inversions were beam cross-spectra from four subapertures of the HLA spanning a little more than two water depths. The subaperture beams included ten frequencies equally spaced in the 120-200 Hz band. The values of the geoacoustic parameters from the inversions are validated by comparisons with geophysical observations and with the parameter values from previous inversions by other invesigators, and by comparing transmission loss (TL) measured in the experiment with modeled TL based on the inverted geoacoustic parameters.

  17. Image Fusion for Travel Time Tomography Inversion

    Liu Linan


    Full Text Available The travel time tomography technology had achieved wide application, the hinge of tomography was inversion algorithm, the ray path tracing technology had a great impact on the inversion results. In order to improve the SNR of inversion image, comprehensive utilization of inversion results with different ray tracing can be used. We presented an imaging fusion method based on improved Wilkinson iteration method. Firstly, the shortest path method and the linear travel time interpolation were used for forward calculation; then combined the improved Wilkinson iteration method with super relaxation precondition method to reduce the condition number of matrix and accelerate iterative speed, the precise integration method was used to solve the inverse matrix more precisely in tomography inversion process; finally, use wavelet transform for image fusion, obtain the final image. Therefore, the ill-conditioned linear equations were changed into iterative normal system through two times of treatment and using images with different forward algorithms for image fusion, it reduced the influence effect of measurement error on imaging. Simulation results showed that, this method can eliminate the artifacts in images effectively, it had extensive practical significance.

  18. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    Saragiotis, Christos


    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. An Efficient Pseudo-Inverse Solution to the Inverse Kinematic Problem for 6-Joint Manipulators

    Stefano Chiaverini


    Full Text Available The use of the pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix makes the solution of the inverse kinematic problem well-defined even at singular configurations of the robot arm, in the neighbourhood of a singularity, however, the computed solution often results in high joint velocities which may not be feasible to the real manipulator. Furthermore, the pseudo-inverse solution is computationally expensive, thus preventing real-time applications.

  20. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Adrian Deaconu; Eleonor Ciurea


    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to the variation of the bounds of the flow. New inverse combinatorial optimization problems are introduced and solved.

  1. Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere

    Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi


    In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.

  2. Naegleria meningitis : a rare survival.

    Jain R


    Full Text Available Acute amebic meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amebae naegleria fowleri is extremely rare and uniformly fatal with only seven survivals reported till date. An interesting case of naegleria meningitis diagnosed by wet mount cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and treated with amphoterecin B, rifampicin and ornidazole with complete recovery is presented. In cases of suspected pyogenic meningitis, if CSF staining, antigen detection or culture is negative for bacteria, a wet mount cytology of CSF for naegleria is suggested. Early treatment with amphoterecin B and rifampicin may improve survival.

  3. Retroperitoneal Schwannoma: A Rare Case

    Murat Kalaycı


    Case Presentation. A 38-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency service with the complaints of progressive abdominal pain and nausea for the last 24 hours. Abdominal examination was compatible with acute abdomen. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed by CT. During CT evaluation, a round shaped soft-tissue mass at the retroperitoneal area inferior to the right kidney was detected, The mass was resected and histology revealed schwannoma. Conclusion. Rare tumoral lesions with benign course such as schwannoma can be detected incidentally.

  4. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota


    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  5. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    Ayaaz Habib


    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  6. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  7. Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  8. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  9. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    Kompanichenko, V N


    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  10. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew


    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  11. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Klammer, D.


    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  12. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the r process

    Mumpower, M. R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.; Steiner, A. W.


    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or r process of nucleosynthesis. The solar r-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around A∼ 160, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the r process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main r process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant β-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from stability where no experimental information exists. We investigate a range of astrophysical conditions with this method and show how these lead to different predictions in the nuclear properties influential to the formation of the rare earth peak. We conclude that targeted experimental campaigns in this region will help to resolve the type of conditions responsible for the production of the rare earth nuclei, and will provide new insights into the longstanding problem of the astrophysical site(s) of the r process.

  13. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books

    Lerbæk Pedersen, Bent


    Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark......Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark...

  14. On the Block Independence in G-Inverse and Reflexive Inner Inverse of A Partitioned Matrix

    Yong Hui LIU; Mu Sheng WEI


    By applying the multiple quotient singular value decomposition QQQQQ-SVD, we study the block independence in g-inverse and reflexive inner inverse of 2×2 partitioned matrices, and prove a conjecture in [YijuWang,SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 19(2), 407-415(1998)].

  15. Inverse scattering theory: Inverse scattering series method for one dimensional non-compact support potential

    Yao, Jie, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Hussain, Fazle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bodmann, Bernhard G. [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kouri, Donald J. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)


    The reversion of the Born-Neumann series of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is one of the standard ways to solve the inverse acoustic scattering problem. One limitation of the current inversion methods based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series is that the velocity potential should have compact support. However, this assumption cannot be satisfied in certain cases, especially in seismic inversion. Based on the idea of distorted wave scattering, we explore an inverse scattering method for velocity potentials without compact support. The strategy is to decompose the actual medium as a known single interface reference medium, which has the same asymptotic form as the actual medium and a perturbative scattering potential with compact support. After introducing the method to calculate the Green’s function for the known reference potential, the inverse scattering series and Volterra inverse scattering series are derived for the perturbative potential. Analytical and numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Besides, to ensure stability of the numerical computation, the Lanczos averaging method is employed as a filter to reduce the Gibbs oscillations for the truncated discrete inverse Fourier transform of each order. Our method provides a rigorous mathematical framework for inverse acoustic scattering with a non-compact support velocity potential.

  16. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines.

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M


    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  17. Rare case of Hirayama's disease

    Rohan Bharat Gala


    Full Text Available Hirayama's disease is a rare benign neurological disorder also known as monomelic amyotrophy, Sobue disease, Juvenile Muscular Atrophy of Distal Upper Extremity (JMADUE. It mainly affects young males in their second or third decades and is most commonly seen in Asian countries like Japan, Malaysia and India. In majority of the cases the cause of the disease is unknown. An 18 year male came with weakness in his right hand and forearm since 1 year. Examination revealed weakness and wasting of muscles of forearm and hand without lower limb involvement and normal deep tendon reflexes. MRI showed focal short segment hyperintense signal in the ventral and right lateral aspect of the cervical cord at C5-C6 level with the involved segment measuring 4x3mm in size. Based on clinical and radiological features a diagnosis of focal amyotrophy was made. Patient is given a cervical collar to prevent flexion at the neck and physiotherapy in the form of hand and forearm exercises were started. Regular follow up of the patient once every 2 months is being done. Hirayama's disease is a rare, benign, self-limiting neurological disorder. Early diagnosis and management by preventing cervical flexion with the help of a cervical collar has shown to halt the progression of the disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 767-770

  18. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: the endoscopicinvestigation


    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% ofgastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies aremucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuselarge B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinaltract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as aprimary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity andthe multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classificationhas not been validated yet. This review aims to analyzethe endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinallymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up,according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype.Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologieshave been examined. In particular, we investigated thediagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic featuresof T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatouspolyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma,plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomasin immunodeficiency and Hodgkin's lymphoma ofthe gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequentgastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomasare mostly extracted from case series and casereports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism betweengastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinicaland prognostic features are different from nodal andextranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma celldisease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach shouldbe based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior andnatural history of disease.

  19. Teeth in Rare Locations with Rare Complications: An Overview.

    Dhingra, Shruti; Gulati, Achal


    Ectopic presence of teeth within the dentate region is common in clinical practice. However, the presence of teeth in non-dentate areas such as the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus is rare. These may remain asymptomatic for years, may be misdiagnosed as foreign bodies, or may present with some serious complications involving the nose and paranasal sinuses. Complications such as nasal obstruction, epistaxis, headaches, rhinolith formation, epiphora, sinusitis and oro-antral fistula have been well described in literature, however, very few cases of antro-cutaneous fistulas have been reported. We discuss three cases of ectopic eruptions of teeth, all occurring in children. The clinical and radiographic findings of the cases, possible etiology, complication, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  20. Sparse nonlinear inverse imaging for shot count reduction in inverse lithography.

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Wen; Lam, Edmund Y


    Inverse lithography technique (ILT) is significant to reduce the feature size of ArF optical lithography due to its strong ability to overcome the optical proximity effect. A critical issue for inverse lithography is the complex curvilinear patterns produced, which are very costly to write due to the large number of shots needed with the current variable shape beam (VSB) writers. In this paper, we devise an inverse lithography method to reduce the shot count by incorporating a model-based fracturing (MBF) in the optimization. The MBF is formulated as a sparse nonlinear inverse imaging problem based on representing the mask as a linear combination of shots followed by a threshold function. The problem is approached with a Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is adapted to promote sparsity of the solution, corresponding to the reduction of the shot count. Simulations of inverse lithography are performed on several test cases, and results demonstrate reduced shot count of the resulting mask.

  1. Children's Understanding of the Arithmetic Concepts of Inversion and Associativity

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Gray, Melissa L.


    Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a + b - b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e [divided by] e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well…

  2. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis


    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  3. Fast inversion of solar Ca II spectra

    Beck, C; Rezaei, R; Louis, R E


    We present a fast (<< 1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log tau ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log tau = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  4. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  5. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  6. Estimating stellar mean density through seismic inversions

    Reese, D R; Goupil, M J; Thompson, M J; Deheuvels, S


    Determining the mass of stars is crucial both to improving stellar evolution theory and to characterising exoplanetary systems. Asteroseismology offers a promising way to estimate stellar mean density. When combined with accurate radii determinations, such as is expected from GAIA, this yields accurate stellar masses. The main difficulty is finding the best way to extract the mean density from a set of observed frequencies. We seek to establish a new method for estimating stellar mean density, which combines the simplicity of a scaling law while providing the accuracy of an inversion technique. We provide a framework in which to construct and evaluate kernel-based linear inversions which yield directly the mean density of a star. We then describe three different inversion techniques (SOLA and two scaling laws) and apply them to the sun, several test cases and three stars. The SOLA approach and the scaling law based on the surface correcting technique described by Kjeldsen et al. (2008) yield comparable result...

  7. Inversion of Stokes Profiles with Systematic Effects

    Ramos, A Asensio; Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Yabar, A Pastor


    Quantitative thermodynamical, dynamical and magnetic properties of the solar and stellar plasmas are obtained by interpreting their emergent non-polarized and polarized spectrum. This inference requires the selection of a set of spectral lines particularly sensitive to the physical conditions in the plasma and a suitable parametric model of the solar/stellar atmosphere. Nonlinear inversion codes are then used to fit the model to the observations. However, the presence of systematic effects like nearby or blended spectral lines, telluric absorption or incorrect correction of the continuum, among others, can strongly affect the results. We present an extension to current inversion codes that can deal with these effects in a transparent way. The resulting algorithm is very simple and can be applied to any existing inversion code with the addition of a few lines of code as an extra step in each iteration.

  8. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William


    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory.

  9. Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition

    Chapline, G; Fu, C


    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  10. Inverse obstacle scattering for elastic waves

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Zewen; Zhao, Yue


    Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave by a rigid obstacle which is embedded in an open space filled with a homogeneous and isotropic elastic medium. An exact transparent boundary condition is introduced to reduce the scattering problem into a boundary value problem in a bounded domain. Given the incident field, the direct problem is to determine the displacement of the wave field from the known obstacle; the inverse problem is to determine the obstacle’s surface from the measurement of the displacement on an artificial boundary enclosing the obstacle. In this paper, we consider both the direct and inverse problems. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by examining its variational formulation. The domain derivative is derived for the displacement with respect to the variation of the surface. A continuation method with respect to the frequency is developed for the inverse problem. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Preference elicitation and inverse reinforcement learning

    Rothkopf, Constantin


    We state the problem of inverse reinforcement learning in terms of preference elicitation, resulting in a principled (Bayesian) statistical formulation. This generalises previous work on Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning and allows us to obtain a posterior distribution on the agent's preferences, policy and optionally, the obtained reward sequence, from observations. We examine the relation of the resulting approach to other statistical methods for inverse reinforcement learning via analysis and experimental results. We show that preferences can be determined accurately, even if the observed agent's policy is sub-optimal with respect to its own preferences. In that case, significantly improved policies with respect to the agent's preferences are obtained, compared to both other methods and to the performance of the demonstrated policy.

  12. Inverse Folding of RNA Pseudoknot Structures

    Gao, James Z M; Reidys, Christian M


    Background: RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and \\pairGU-base pairings (secondary structure) and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, {\\tt RNAinverse}, {\\tt RNA-SSD} as well as {\\tt INFO-RNA} are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv} which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results: In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv}. We give a detailed analysis of {\\tt Inv}, including pseudocodes. We show that {\\tt Inv} allows to...

  13. Rare Earths; The Fraternal Fifteen (Rev.)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. [Iowa State University; Ames Laboratory


    Rare earths are a set of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. They are not rare and not earths; they are metals and quite abundant. They are studied to develop commercial products which are beneficial to mankind, and because some rare earths are important to fission products.

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Rare Diseases

    ... page What are some examples of rare diseases? Examples of rare diseases caused by mutations in single genes include cystic fibrosis, which affects ... responsible for some rare, inherited types of cancer. Examples of these are ... which certain mutations increase the risk for hereditary breast and ovarian ...

  15. Computing rare transitions between zonal mid-latitude jets

    Simonnet, Eric; Bouchet, Freddy


    Zonal jets are known to naturally emerge from beta-plane turbulence due to the arrest of inverse energy cascade by Rossby waves.Transitions between jets of different wavenumber are indeed observed in particular regimes showing a striking example of bimodality in the context of 2-D turbulence. As the Rayleigh dissipation and stochastic forcing are decreased these transitions become more and more rare. The aim of this talk is to show that it is possible to compute large ensembles of reactive trajectories connecting the different metastable states even at very low probability regimes when direct numerical simulations are not possible. We use an adaptive version of multilevel splitting algorithms on a barotropic quasi geostrophic model of mid-latitude atmosphere. We are able to obtain a detailed statistical description of the high-dimensional phase space as well as the typical transitions. A large-deviation result is also obtained.

  16. What is inverse-geometry CT?

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat


    Inverse-geometry computed tomography (IGCT) systems are being developed to provide improved volumetric imaging. In conventional multislice CT systems, x-rays are emitted from a small area and irradiate a large-area detector. In an IGCT system, x-ray sources are distributed over a large area, with each beam irradiating a small-area detector. Therefore, in the inverse geometry, a series of narrow x-ray beams are switched on and off while the gantry rotates. In conventional CT geometry, cone-beam and scatter artifacts increase with the imaged volume thickness. An inverse geometry may be less susceptible to scatter effects, because only a fraction of the field of view is irradiated at one time. The distributed source in the inverse geometry potentially improves sampling, leading to reduced cone-beam artifacts. In the inverse geometry, the tube current may be adjusted separately for each source location, which potentially reduces dose. Multiple IGCT prototypes have been constructed and tested on phantoms. A gantry-based IGCT system with one-second gantry rotation was developed, and images of phantoms and small animals were successfully acquired. Clinical feasibility with acceptable noise levels and scan times has not yet been shown. Overall, results from prototype systems suggest that the inverse geometry will enable imaging of a thick volume (∼16 cm) while potentially reducing cone-beam artifacts, scatter effects, and radiation dose. The magnitude of these benefits will depend on the specific IGCT implementation and need to be quantified relative to comparable multislice scanners. Copyright © 2011 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful use of a Bakri Tamponade Balloon in the treatment of puerperal uterine inversion during caesarean section.

    Vivanti, A J; Furet, E; Nizard, J


    Acute puerperal inversion of the uterus is a rare life-threatening obstetric emergency, especially during caesarean section. We present the case of a 30-year-old patient with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus that occurred during placental removal. After a quick reversion of the uterus, an immediate postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) due to massive uterine atony was observed. This atony impacted the whole uterus, with a very thin uterine myometrium. The use of a Bakri Tamponade Balloon use allowed treating extreme uterine atony, immediately stop haemorrhage, and prevent a possible risk of immediate recurrence.

  18. Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.

    Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark


    The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.

  19. Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics

    Volkov, N. P.


    The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.

  20. Inverse scattering of dispersive stratified structures

    Skaar, Johannes


    We consider the inverse scattering problem of retrieving the structural parameters of a stratified medium consisting of dispersive materials, given knowledge of the complex reflection coefficient in a finite frequency range. It is shown that the inverse scattering problem does not have a unique solution in general. When the dispersion is sufficiently small, such that the time-domain Fresnel reflections have durations less than the round-trip time in the layers, the solution is unique and can be found by layer peeling. Numerical examples with dispersive and lossy media are given, demonstrating the usefulness of the method for e.g. THz technology.

  1. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd harmonic component for imaging on any ultrasound system capable of PI. PI was used to perform 3rd harmonic Bmode scans of a water-filled wire phantom on an experimental ultrasound system. The 3rd harmonic...

  2. Emergent strategies for inverse molecular design

    BERATAN; David; N.


    Molecular design is essential and ubiquitous in chemistry,physics,biology,and material science.The immense space of available candidate molecules requires novel optimization strategies and algorithms for exploring the space and achieving efficient and effective molecular design.This paper summarizes the current progress toward developing practical theoretical optimization schemes for molecular design.In particular,we emphasize emergent strategies for inverse molecular design.Several representative design examples,based on recently developed strategies,are described to demonstrate the principles of inverse molecular design.

  3. Efficient matrix inversion based on VLIW architecture

    Li Zhang,Fu Li,; Guangming Shi


    Matrix inversion is a critical part in communication, signal processing and electromagnetic system. A flexible and scal-able very long instruction word (VLIW) processor with clustered architecture is proposed for matrix inversion. A global register file (RF) is used to connect al the clusters. Two nearby clusters share a local register file. The instruction sets are also designed for the VLIW processor. Experimental results show that the proposed VLIW architecture takes only 45 latency to invert a 4 × 4 matrix when running at 150 MHz. The proposed design is roughly five times faster than the DSP solution in processing speed.

  4. Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay


    The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.

  5. 3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and

  6. Optimal Transport for Seismic Full Waveform Inversion

    Engquist, Bjorn; Yang, Yunan


    Full waveform inversion is a successful procedure for determining properties of the earth from surface measurements in seismology. This inverse problem is solved by a PDE constrained optimization where unknown coefficients in a computed wavefield are adjusted to minimize the mismatch with the measured data. We propose using the Wasserstein metric, which is related to optimal transport, for measuring this mismatch. Several advantageous properties are proved with regards to convexity of the objective function and robustness with respect to noise. The Wasserstein metric is computed by solving a Monge-Ampere equation. We describe an algorithm for computing its Frechet gradient for use in the optimization. Numerical examples are given.

  7. Reverberation Inversion Enhancements Using BASE 04 Data


    d’exploitation de modèle de RDDC Atlantique (DMOS) est une évolution de l’ensemble de programmes SWAMI (Initiative de modélisation de sonar actif en eau peu...du signal et la probabilité de détection pour un sonar actif . Un module d’inversion de réverbération, BREVER, est utilisé pour ces travaux. Le...d’inversion permet d’effectuer des études sur l’utilité des techniques de sondage au moyen de capteurs en tant qu’aides aux décisions tactiques

  8. Kelvin transformation and inverse multipoles in electrostatics

    Amaral, R L P G; Lemos, N A


    The inversion in the sphere or Kelvin transformation, which exchanges the radial coordinate for its inverse, is used as a guide to relate distinct electrostatic problems with dual features. The exact solution of some nontrivial problems are obtained through the mapping from simple highly symmetric systems. In particular, the concept of multipole expansion is revisited from a point of view opposed to the usual one: the sources are distributed in a region far from the origin while the electrostatic potential is described at points close to it.

  9. Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem

    Swendsen, Robert


    Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  10. Application of homotopy parameter inversion method in Miyun Reservoir

    LI Xin; LI Yong; CHEN Duowei


    The large-scale convergence of homotopy parametric inversion method on the water quality model parameters calculated was used, with application in parametric inversion calculation of total phosphorus of Beijing Miyun Reservoir. Through calculated and compared the error of sedimentation rate by homotopy parametric inversion method and genetic inversion calculation method, the results indicate that homotopy parametric inversion method has good stability, calculating speed, and even if the initial selection away from the objective function, the solution still has a good convergence.

  11. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  12. Direct Evidence for Inversion Formula in Multifractal Financial Volatility Measure

    JIANG Zhi-Qiang; ZHOU Wei-Xing


    The inversion formula for conservative multifractal measures was unveiled mathematically a decade ago, which is however not well tested in real complex systems. We propose to verify the inversion formula using high-frequency 1982 to 1999 and its inverse measure of exit time. Both the direct and inverse measures exhibit nice multifractal nature, whose scaling ranges are not irrelevant. Empirical investigation shows that the inversion formula holds in financial markets.

  13. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.


    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  14. Research on Rare Earth Encapsulated Luminescent Material

    Yu Zhiwei; Liu Chengdong; Qi Xiaopeng


    A new method of preparation of irradiative material by using rare earth as luminophor and inorganic powder as base nucleus was presented.Rare earth was used to make colloid, which was mixed with base nucleus solution,where deposition/attachment reaction took place and rare earth was adhered onto the surface of base nucleus, hence yielding a new rare earth encapsulated irradiative material.Fluorescent spectrum analysis shows that this material possesses two emission peaks, one within 400 ~ 500 nm and the other within 580 ~ 700 nm, reflecting the luminous characteristics of original rare earth material.

  15. Rare Decays of the $\\eta^{'}$

    Briere, R A; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Krieg, H; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Von Dombrowski, S; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lee, T; Liu, Y; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Lohner, M; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J; Brandenburg, G; Ershov, A; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Besson, D; Coppage, D; Davis, R; Kotov, S A; Kravchenko, I V; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Mahmood, A H; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lorenc, J; Schwarthoff, H; Spencer, M B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A E; Bishai, M; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Menon, N; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Kwon, Y; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Lingel, K; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Korolkov, I Ya; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Dambasuren, E; Kopp, S E; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Titov, A; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Csorna, S E; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Pomianowski, P A; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Greene, R; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Chan, S; Eigen, G; Lipeles, E; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Urheim, J; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Gronberg, J B; Hill, T S; Lange, D J; Morrison, R J; Nelson, T K; Richman, J D; Roberts, D


    We have searched for the rare decays of the eta prime meson to e+ e- eta, e+ e- pizero, e+ e- gamma, and e mu in hadronic events at the CLEO II detector. The search is conducted on 4.80 fb^-1 of e+ e- collisions at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. We find no signal in any of these modes, and set 90% confidence level upper limits on their branching fractions of 2.4 X 10^-3, 1.4 X 10^-3, 0.9 X 10^-3, and 4.7 X 10^-4, respectively. We also investigate the Dalitz plot of the common decay of the eta prime to pi+ pi- eta. We fit the matrix element with the Particle Data Group parameterization and find Re(alpha) = -0.021 +- 0.025, where alpha is a linear function of the kinetic energy of the eta.

  16. A rare epididymal mass: Leiomyoma

    Tufan Cicek


    Full Text Available Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor. It rarely rises from epididymal structures and usually is encountred in adults. The patient, who had undergone total epididymectomy for right scrotal mass at another center, was diagnosed with Epididymal Leiomyoma. He was admitted to our clinic for further evaluation and follow up. The previous eididymectomy specimens obtained and refered to our pathology department for confirmation of diagnosis. Microscopy revealed a benign neoplastic lesion, consisting of spindle cells. Which form interlacing bundels.Mitotic figures and tumor necrosis was not. Observed. The previous diagnosis is confirmed as the tumor showed immunohistochemical smooth muscule actin and Desmin posivity Whereas S-100 was not expressed with in the tumoral cells. This case report also overviews epididymal leiomyoma with recent literature findings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 399-402

  17. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim


    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914


    Vinod Kumar


    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this case report, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the philtrum with extensive peritoneal and bowel involvement is presented. A 44 year old male presented with a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss . Diagnosed to have carcinoma rectum underwent Abdominoperenial resection (APR two y ears back. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Now presented with swelling over philtrum . Fine needle aspiration (FNAC was done suggestive of adenocarcinoma. This case presented for its uncommon presentation.

  19. Rare complications of cesarean scar

    Divyesh Mahajan


    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS. As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  20. Splenic abscess: a rare presentation

    Mohit Bhatia


    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity with an incidence of 0.2-0.7% in autopsy-based studies. When untreated, splenic abscess is associated with nearly 100% mortality; in treated patients, the mortality rate is 16.6% during the first 90 days. It mostly occurs in patients with neoplasia, immunodeficiency, trauma, diabetes or splenic infarct. The incidence of splenic abscess is thought to be growing because of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients who are particularly at risk for this disease and also because of the widespread use of diagnostic modalities. However, the optimal treatment for this remains unclear. We present a case of a 42-year-old man diagnosed with multiloculated splenic abscess and was subjected to splenectomy.

  1. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Goonan, Thomas G.


    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  2. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures


    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  3. Riemann Zeros and the Inverse Phase Problem

    Tourigny, David S.


    Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centro-symmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform.

  4. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

    Sevaston, George E.


    A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

  5. Improving Inversions of the Overlap Operator

    Krieg, S. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 19, Wuppertal (Germany); Cundy, N. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 19, Wuppertal (Germany); Eshof, J. van den [Department of Mathematics, University of Duesseldorf (Germany); Frommer, A. [Department of Mathematics, Univeritaet Wuppertal (Germany); Lippert, Th. [John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich Research Centre, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Schaefer, K. [Department of Mathematics, Univeritaet Wuppertal (Germany)


    We present relaxation and preconditioning techniques which accelerate the inversion of the overlap operator by a factor of four on small lattices, with larger gains as the lattice size increases. These improvements can be used in both propagator calculations and dynamical simulations.

  6. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  7. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Treumann, R A; Narita, Y


    We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gel$'$fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory.

  8. Identification of Selective ERRγ Inverse Agonists

    Jina Kim


    Full Text Available GSK5182 (4 is currently one of the lead compounds for the development of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ inverse agonists. Here, we report the design, synthesis, pharmacological and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET properties of a series of compounds related to 4. Starting from 4, a series of analogs were structurally modified and their ERRγ inverse agonist activity was measured. A key pharmacophore feature of this novel class of ligands is the introduction of a heterocyclic group for A-ring substitution in the core scaffold. Among the tested compounds, several of them are potent ERRγ inverse agonists as determined by binding and functional assays. The most promising compound, 15g, had excellent binding selectivity over related subtypes (IC50 = 0.44, >10, >10, and 10 μM at the ERRγ, ERRα, ERRβ, and ERα subtypes, respectively. Compound 15g also resulted in 95% transcriptional repression at a concentration of 10 μM, while still maintaining an acceptable in vitro ADMET profile. This novel class of ERRγ inverse agonists shows promise in the development of drugs targeting ERRγ-related diseases.

  9. Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions

    Kontorovich, Igor'


    These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…

  10. Seismic processing in the inverse data space

    Berkhout, A.J.


    Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix




    Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centrosymmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform. PMID:24293780

  12. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    Taler, Jan


    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  13. Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver

    Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.


    We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.

  14. The inverse problem of bioelectricity: an evaluation

    Oosterom, A. van


    This invited paper presents a personal view on the current status of the solution to the inverse problem of bioelectricity. Its focus lies on applications in the field of electrocardiography. The topic discussed is also relevant in other medical domains, such as electroencephalography, electroneurog

  15. Direct and inverse problems of infrared tomography

    Sizikov, Valery S.; Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander


    The problems of infrared tomography-direct (the modeling of measured functions) and inverse (the reconstruction of gaseous medium parameters)-are considered with a laboratory burner flame as an example of an application. The two measurement modes are used: active (ON) with an external IR source...

  16. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon. It ...

  17. Air-induced inverse Chladni patterns

    Gerner, van Henk Jan; Weele, van der Ko; Hoef, van der Martin A.; Meer, van der Devaraj


    When very light particles are sprinkled on a resonating horizontal plate, inverse Chladni patterns are formed. Instead of going to the nodal lines of the plate, where they would form a standard Chladni pattern, the particles are dragged to the antinodes by the air currents induced by the vibration o

  18. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping


    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  19. General inverse problems for regular variation

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan


    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  20. On the Stewart-Lyth Inverse Problem

    Ayón-Beato, E; Mansilla, R; Terrero-Escalante, C A; Ay\\'on-Beato, Eloy; Garc\\'{\\i}a, Alberto; Mansilla, Ricardo


    In this paper the Stewart-Lyth inverse problem is rewritten using the comoving scales as the basic parameter. It is shown that some information on the inflaton potential can be obtained from observations taking into account only the scalar power spectrum.

  1. Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems

    Arridge, Simon


    This paper is a review of recent mathematical and computational advances in optical tomography. We discuss the physical foundations of forward models for light propagation on microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. We also consider direct and numerical approaches to the inverse problems that arise at each of these scales. Finally, we outline future directions and open problems in the field.

  2. Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition

    Käufl, Paul J.


    Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a

  3. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.


    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market

  4. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.


    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market ten

  5. The role of nonlinearity in inverse problems

    Snieder, Roel


    In many practical inverse problems, one aims to retrieve a model that has infinitely many degrees of freedom from a finite amount of data. It follows from a simple variable count that this cannot be done in a unique way. Therefore, inversion entails more than estimating a model: any inversion is not complete without a description of the class of models that is consistent with the data; this is called the appraisal problem. Nonlinearity makes the appraisal problem particularly difficult. The first reason for this is that nonlinear error propagation is a difficult problem. The second reason is that for some nonlinear problems the model parameters affect the way in which the model is being interrogated by the data. Two examples are given of this, and it is shown how the nonlinearity may make the problem more ill-posed. Finally, three attempts are shown to carry out the model appraisal for nonlinear inverse problems that are based on an analytical approach, a numerical approach and a common sense approach.

  6. Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition

    Käufl, Paul J.


    Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a

  7. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils;

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain ...

  8. Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations

    Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar


    This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...

  9. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  10. Unstructured discontinuous Galerkin for seismic inversion.

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ober, Curtis Curry; Collis, Samuel Scott


    This abstract explores the potential advantages of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the time-domain inversion of media parameters within the earth's interior. In particular, DG methods enable local polynomial refinement to better capture localized geological features within an area of interest while also allowing the use of unstructured meshes that can accurately capture discontinuous material interfaces. This abstract describes our initial findings when using DG methods combined with Runge-Kutta time integration and adjoint-based optimization algorithms for full-waveform inversion. Our initial results suggest that DG methods allow great flexibility in matching the media characteristics (faults, ocean bottom and salt structures) while also providing higher fidelity representations in target regions. Time-domain inversion using discontinuous Galerkin on unstructured meshes and with local polynomial refinement is shown to better capture localized geological features and accurately capture discontinuous-material interfaces. These approaches provide the ability to surgically refine representations in order to improve predicted models for specific geological features. Our future work will entail automated extensions to directly incorporate local refinement and adaptive unstructured meshes within the inversion process.

  11. Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions

    Kontorovich, Igor'


    These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…

  12. Inverse Perspective Transformation for Video Surveillance

    Schouten, Theo E.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Bouman, Charles A.; Miller, Eric L.; Pollak, Ilya


    In this research, we are considering the use of the inverse perspective transformation in video surveillance applications that observe (and possible influence) scenes consisting of moving and stationary objects; e.g., people on a parking area. In previous research, objects were detected on video str

  13. Seismic Waveform Inversion by Stochastic Optimization

    Tristan van Leeuwen


    Full Text Available We explore the use of stochastic optimization methods for seismic waveform inversion. The basic principle of such methods is to randomly draw a batch of realizations of a given misfit function and goes back to the 1950s. The ultimate goal of such an approach is to dramatically reduce the computational cost involved in evaluating the misfit. Following earlier work, we introduce the stochasticity in waveform inversion problem in a rigorous way via a technique called randomized trace estimation. We then review theoretical results that underlie recent developments in the use of stochastic methods for waveform inversion. We present numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of different types of stochastic optimization methods and investigate the sensitivity to the batch size and the noise level in the data. We find that it is possible to reproduce results that are qualitatively similar to the solution of the full problem with modest batch sizes, even on noisy data. Each iteration of the corresponding stochastic methods requires an order of magnitude fewer PDE solves than a comparable deterministic method applied to the full problem, which may lead to an order of magnitude speedup for waveform inversion in practice.

  14. An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory

    Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.


    This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.

  15. Inverse modeling for Large-Eddy simulation

    Geurts, Bernardus J.


    Approximate higher order polynomial inversion of the top-hat filter is developed with which the turbulent stress tensor in Large-Eddy Simulation can be consistently represented using the filtered field. Generalized (mixed) similarity models are proposed which improved the agreement with the kinetic

  16. Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction

    V. V. Voronin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

  17. Studies of GRACE Gravity Field Inversion Techniques

    Wang, L.; Shum, C.; Duan, J.; Schmidt, M.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M. M.


    The geophysical inverse problem using satellite observations, such as GRACE, to estimate gravity change and mass variations at the Earth's surface is a well-known ill-posed problem. Different methods using different basis function (representing the gravity field) for different purposes (global or regional inversion) have been employed to obtain a stable solution, such as Bayesian estimation with prior information, the repro-BIQUUE of variance components and iterative least-squares estimation with simultaneous updating of a prior covariance, and to achieve enhanced spatial resolutions. The gravity field representation methods include spherical harmonics, regional gridded data (including mascons), and various wavelet representations (Poisson wavelets, Blackman band-limited regional wavelets with global representation). Finally, the use of data types (KBR range, range-rate, range-rate-rate) and data-generation methods (e.g., nonlinear orbit determination and geophysical inverse approach, energy conservation principle, etc) could also reflect relative inversion accuracy and the content of signal spectra in the resulting solution. In this contribution, we present results of a simulation experiment, which used various solution techniques and data types to attempt to quantify the relative advantage and disadvantage of each of the techniques.

  18. Handling of impact forces in inverse dynamics

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.


    In the standard inverse dynamic method, joint moments are assessed from ground reaction force data and position data, where segmental accelerations are calculated by numerical differentiation of position data after low-pass filtering. This method falls short in analyzing the impact phase, e.g.

  19. An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory

    Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.


    This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.

  20. Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics

    Almasy, Andrea A


    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, als...

  1. Asymptotic inversion of the Erlang B formula

    J. van Leeuwaarden; N.M. Temme (Nico)


    textabstractThe Erlang B formula represents the steady-state blocking probability in the Erlang loss model or $M/M/s/s$ queue. We derive asymptotic expansions for the offered load that matches, for a given number of servers, a certain blocking probability. In addressing this inversion problem we mak

  2. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  3. Frame approximation of pseudo-inverse operators

    Christensen, Ole


    Let T denote an operator on a Hilbert space (H, [.,.]), and let {f(i)}(i=1)(infinity) be a frame for the orthogonal complement of the kernel NT. We construct a sequence of operators {Phi (n)} of the form Phi (n) (.) = Sigma (n)(i=1) [., g(t)(n)]f(i) which converges to the psuedo-inverse T+ of T i...

  4. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal...

  5. Auditory model inversion and its application

    ZHAO Heming; WANG Yongqi; CHEN Xueqin


    Auditory model has been applied to several aspects of speech signal processing field, and appears to be effective in performance. This paper presents the inverse transform of each stage of one widely used auditory model. First of all it is necessary to invert correlogram and reconstruct phase information by repetitious iterations in order to get auditory-nerve firing rate. The next step is to obtain the negative parts of the signal via the reverse process of the HWR (Half Wave Rectification). Finally the functions of inner hair cell/synapse model and Gammatone filters have to be inverted. Thus the whole auditory model inversion has been achieved. An application of noisy speech enhancement based on auditory model inversion algorithm is proposed. Many experiments show that this method is effective in reducing noise.Especially when SNR of noisy speech is low it is more effective than other methods. Thus this auditory model inversion method given in this paper is applicable to speech enhancement field.

  6. Frnakenstein: multiple target inverse RNA folding

    Lyngsø Rune B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA secondary structure prediction, or folding, is a classic problem in bioinformatics: given a sequence of nucleotides, the aim is to predict the base pairs formed in its three dimensional conformation. The inverse problem of designing a sequence folding into a particular target structure has only more recently received notable interest. With a growing appreciation and understanding of the functional and structural properties of RNA motifs, and a growing interest in utilising biomolecules in nano-scale designs, the interest in the inverse RNA folding problem is bound to increase. However, whereas the RNA folding problem from an algorithmic viewpoint has an elegant and efficient solution, the inverse RNA folding problem appears to be hard. Results In this paper we present a genetic algorithm approach to solve the inverse folding problem. The main aims of the development was to address the hitherto mostly ignored extension of solving the inverse folding problem, the multi-target inverse folding problem, while simultaneously designing a method with superior performance when measured on the quality of designed sequences. The genetic algorithm has been implemented as a Python program called Frnakenstein. It was benchmarked against four existing methods and several data sets totalling 769 real and predicted single structure targets, and on 292 two structure targets. It performed as well as or better at finding sequences which folded in silico into the target structure than all existing methods, without the heavy bias towards CG base pairs that was observed for all other top performing methods. On the two structure targets it also performed well, generating a perfect design for about 80% of the targets. Conclusions Our method illustrates that successful designs for the inverse RNA folding problem does not necessarily have to rely on heavy biases in base pair and unpaired base distributions. The design problem seems to become more

  7. Photoluminescence and energy transfer investigation from SiO2: Tb, Au inverse opals to rhodamine-B dyes

    Yang, Jianzhi; Yang, Zhengwen; Wang, Yida; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo


    Energy transfer has attracted extensive attention due to its widespread applications in medical diagnostics, DNA analysis and lighting devices. There are few reports on the energy transfer from rare earth ions to dyes. In the present work, the SiO2:Tb inverse opals with and without Au nanoparticles were prepared, and the organic rhodamine-B (RhB) dyes were filled into the voids of SiO2:Tb inverse opals. Non-radiative and radiative energy transfer processes from the SiO2:Tb inverse opals to the RhB were observed. The influence of Au nanoparticles and photonic band gap on the energy transfer from SiO2:Tb inverse opals to the RhB was investigated. The Au nanoparticles enhanced energy transfer was observed due to the surface plasmon resonance effects of the Au nanoparticles. When the emission peaks from the SiO2:Tb inverse opal is overlapped with the photonic band gap, the emission suppression of the SiO2:Tb inverse opal as well the emission enhancement of the RhB dyes were obtained, which is attributed to improved energy transfer caused by the photonic band gap. The steady state rate equations were used to explain enhancement of energy transfer caused by the photonic band gap.

  8. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    Afonso, Juan Carlos


    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  9. Preconditioning Strategies in Elastic Full Waveform Inversion.

    Matharu, G.; Sacchi, M. D.


    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) is inherently more non-linear than its acoustic counterpart, a property that stems from the increased model space of the problem. Whereas acoustic media can be parametrized by density and P-wave velocity, visco-elastic media are parametrized by density, attenuation and 21 independent coefficients of the elastic tensor. Imposing assumptions of isotropy and perfect elasticity to simplify the physics, reduces the number of independent parameters required to characterize a medium. Isotropic, elastic media can be parametrized in terms of density and the Lamé parameters. The different parameters can exhibit trade-off that manifest as attributes in the data. In the context of FWI, this means that certain parameters cannot be uniquely resolved. An ideal model update in full waveform inversion is equivalent to a Newton step. Explicit computation of the Hessian and its inverse is not computationally feasible in elastic FWI. The inverse Hessian scales the gradients to account for trade-off between parameters as well as compensating for inadequate illumination related to source-receiver coverage. Gradient preconditioners can be applied to mimic the action of the inverse Hessian and partially correct for inaccuracies in the gradient. In this study, we investigate the effects of model reparametrization by recasting a regularized form of the least-squares waveform misfit into a preconditioned formulation. New model parameters are obtained by applying invertible weighting matrices to the model vector. The weighting matrices are related to estimates of the prior model covariance matrix and incorporate information about spatially variant correlations of model parameters as well as correlations between independent parameters. We compare the convergence of conventional FWI to FWI after model reparametrization.

  10. The effect of phenotypic outliers and non-normality on rare-variant association testing.

    Auer, Paul L; Reiner, Alex P; Leal, Suzanne M


    Rare-variant association studies (RVAS) have made important contributions to human complex trait genetics. These studies rely on specialized statistical methods for analyzing rare-variant associations, both individually and in aggregate. We investigated the impact that phenotypic outliers and non-normality have on the performance of rare-variant association testing procedures. Ignoring outliers or non-normality can significantly inflate Type I error rates. We found that rank-based inverse normal transformation (INT) and trait winsorisation were both effective at maintaining Type I error control without sacrificing power in the presence of outliers. INT was the optimal method for non-normally distributed traits. For RVAS of quantitative traits with outliers or non-normality, we recommend using INT to transform phenotypic values before association testing.

  11. A large uterine leiomyoma leading to non-puerperal uterine inversion: A case report

    Batool Teimoori


    Full Text Available Background: Although leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic disorders, non-puerperal uterine inversion due to leiomyoma is considered as a rare clinical problem. This condition can occur as a complication of a large sub-mucous leiomyoma that leads to dilate cervix and protrude into vagina. The patient may have several symptoms such as heavy vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain and intermittent acute urinary retention. Case: We presented a 32-year-old nulliparous woman with 17 years of unexplained infertility and diagnosis of a large vaginal prolapsed non-pedunculated leiomyoma. Conclusion: Haultain’s procedure was used to reposition uterine inversion and remove leiomyoma through a posterior incision, using laparotomy

  12. A rare case of short stature: Say Meyer syndrome

    T S Karthik


    Full Text Available Introduction: Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. We are reporting a case of Say Meyer syndrome presented to our hospital for short stature and developmental delay at age 3½ years. Case Report: A 3½-year-old boy presented to our hospital for decreased growth velocity from the age of 1 year. History revealed the boy had a birth weight of 2.3 kg, had an episode of seizures in the neonatal period. He was born to non-consanguineous marriage. He had global developmental delay and there was a lack of bowel and bladder control. History did not reveal any hearing or visual impairment. No history of any chronic systemic illnesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain revealed mild diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple irregular gliotic areas in bilateral frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Diffuse thinning of corpus callosum. Diffuse periventricular hyper intensity on T2W and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Conclusion: Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. Characteristic MRI brain findings include diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple gliotic areas in frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres.

  13. Magnetic and Magnetoelectric Properties of Rare Earth Molybdates

    B. K. Ponomarev


    Full Text Available We present results on ferroelectric, magnetic, magneto-optical properties and magnetoelectric effect of rare earth molybdates (gadolinium molybdate, GMO, and terbium molybdate, TMO, and samarium molybdate, SMO, belonging to a new type of ferroelectrics predicted by Levanyuk and Sannikov. While cooling the tetragonal β-phase becomes unstable with respect to two degenerate modes of lattice vibrations. The β-β′ transition is induced by this instability. The spontaneous polarization appears as a by-product of the lattice transformation. The electric order in TMO is of antiferroelectric type. Ferroelectric and ferroelastic GMO and TMO at room temperature are paramagnets. At low temperatures GMO and TMO are antiferromagnetic with the Neel temperatures TN=0.3 K (GMO and TN=0.45 K (TMO. TMO shows the spontaneous destruction at 40 kOe magnetic field. Temperature and field dependences of the magnetization in TMO are well described by the magnetism theory of singlets at 4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 30 K. The magnetoelectric effect in SMO, GMO and TMO, the anisotropy of magnetoelectric effect in TMO at T = (1.8–4.2 K, the Zeeman effect in TMO, the inversion of the electric polarization induced by the laser beam are discussed. The correlation between the magnetic moment of rare earth ion and the magnetoelectric effect value is predicted. The giant fluctuations of the acoustic resonance peak intensity near the Curie point are observed.

  14. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  15. Sparse inversion of Stokes profiles. I. Two-dimensional Milne-Eddington inversions

    Ramos, A Asensio


    Inversion codes are numerical tools used for the inference of physical properties from the observations. Despite their success, the quality of current spectropolarimetric observations and those expected in the near future presents a challenge to current inversion codes. The pixel-by-pixel strategy of inverting spectropolarimetric data that we currently utilize needs to be surpassed and improved. The inverted physical parameters have to take into account the spatial correlation that is present in the data and that contains valuable physical information. We utilize the concept of sparsity or compressibility to develop an new generation of inversion codes for the Stokes parameters. The inversion code uses numerical optimization techniques based on the idea of proximal algorithms to impose sparsity. In so doing, we allow for the first time to exploit the presence of spatial correlation on the maps of physical parameters. Sparsity also regularizes the solution by reducing the number of unknowns. We compare the res...


    马兆丰; 马吉溥


    Let H1 and H2 be separable Hilbert spaces, and B(H1, H2) all of bounded linear operators from H1 into H2. In this note, we prove the following theorem: for any positive integer N and T ∈ B(H1, H2) with a closed range, there exists an outer inverse T#N with finite rank N such that T+y = lira T#Ny for any y ∈ H2, where T+N →∞denotes the Moore-Penrose inverse of T. Thus computing T+ is reduced to computing outer inverses T#N with finite rank N. Moreover, because of the stability of bounded outer inverse of a T ∈ B(H1,H2), this is very useful.

  17. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    De Fazio P


    knowledge of the drug, clinical vigilance, and rapid intervention can drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality related to CLZ treatment. Keywords: clozapine, rare adverse effects, schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotic

  18. Pachyonychia congenita: A rare genodermatosis

    Puneet Agarwal


    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita (PC is a rare genodermatosis with only 450 cases reported since 1906. It is of two types, type I due to mutation in genes 6a and 16, and 6b and 17 in type II with an autosomal dominant inheritance in both types. A 22 yr old female patient presented in our OPD with hypertrophy of finger and toe nails, palmoplantar keratoderma, oral punctuate leukokeratosis, hyperhidrosis in palms and soles with maceration and malodour since childhood. She had a positive family history with father and grandfather affected but less severely. Microscopy and culture of nail clippings and scrapping were done to rule out fungal infection. On biopsy acanthotic epidermis, parakeratosis, orthokeratosis were seen. No evidence of any associated malignancy was found after thorough workup. She was diagnosed as PC Type 1. She was put on topical steroids and orally on acetretin 25 mg OD. Paring of the nails was done too reduce the thickness of nails & to provide symptomatic relief. She was on a regular treatment for 3-4 months and showed some improvement in the form of reduced palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and reduced oral punctate keratosis but was later lost on followup. She showed no adverse effect to therapy during this period. This case is being reported because of its rarity.

  19. Tale of two rare diseases

    Shukla, Ravindra; Basu, Asish Kumar; Mandal, Biplab; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Maity, Animesh; Sinha, Anirban


    Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) phenotype is variable &various genes have been decribed in association with IHH. We describe association of IHH with mosaic trisomy 13. A 20 year old male presented with lack of development of secondary sexual characters, normal height, micropenis, small testes, gynaecomastia, absence of axillary and pubic hairs, hyposmia, synkinesis, bilateral horizontal nystagmus and high arched palate. Investigations showed low gonadotropin, low total testosterone, LH after stimulation with 100 mcg tryptorelin sc was 11.42 mU/mL at 40 min. MRI of hypothalamo-pituitary region showed normal olfactory bulb and tract but shallow olfactory sulcus. Karyotype showed homologous Robertsonian translocation of chromosome 13. This case fits classical IHH except for LH rise on stimulation. Features of Patau syndrome which is associated with trisomy 13 are absent in our case. Mosaic trisomy 13, which can otherwise be rare incidental finding, has not been described in association with IHH. Causal association of novel mutation on chromosome 13 leading to aforementioned phenotype cannot be rule out. PMID:24251138

  20. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin


    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  1. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina


    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  2. Tale of two rare diseases

    Ravindra Shukla


    Full Text Available Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH phenotype is variable & various genes have been decribed in association with IHH.We describe association of IHH with mosaic trisomy 13. A 20 year old male presented with lack of development of secondary sexual characters, normal height, micropenis, small testes, gynaecomastia, absence of axillary and pubic hairs, hyposmia,synkinesis, bilateral horizontal nystagmus and high arched palate. Investigations showed low gonadotropin,low total testosterone, LH after stimulation with 100 mcg tryptorelin sc was 11.42 mU/mL at 40 min. MRI of hypothalamo-pituitary region showed normal olfactory bulb and tract but shallow olfactory sulcus . Karyotype showed homologous Robertsonian translocation of chromosome 13. This case fits classical IHH except for LH rise on stimulation.Features of Patau syndrome which is associated with trisomy 13 are absent in our case. Mosaic trisomy 13, which can otherwise be rare incidental finding , has not been described in association with IHH.Causal association of novel mutation on chromosome 13 leading to aforementioned phenotype cannot be rule out.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors.

    Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R


    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.

  4. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Agullo, Y.


    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  5. On MSDT inversion with multi-angle remote sensing data


    With the wavelet transform, image of multi-angle remote sensing is decomposed into multi-resolution. With data of each resolution, we try target-based multi-stages inversion, taking the inversion result of coarse resolution as the prior information of the next inversion. The result gets finer and finer until the resolution of satellite observation. In this way, the target-based multi-stages inversion can be used in remote sensing inversion of large-scaled coverage. With MISR data, we inverse structure parameters of vegetation in semiarid grassland of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The result proves that this way is efficient.

  6. A Bayesian method for microseismic source inversion

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.


    Earthquake source inversion is highly dependent on location determination and velocity models. Uncertainties in both the model parameters and the observations need to be rigorously incorporated into an inversion approach. Here, we show a probabilistic Bayesian method that allows formal inclusion of the uncertainties in the moment tensor inversion. This method allows the combination of different sets of far-field observations, such as P-wave and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios, into one inversion. Additional observations can be included by deriving a suitable likelihood function from the uncertainties. This inversion produces samples from the source posterior probability distribution, including a best-fitting solution for the source mechanism and associated probability. The inversion can be constrained to the double-couple space or allowed to explore the gamut of moment tensor solutions, allowing volumetric and other non-double-couple components. The posterior probability of the double-couple and full moment tensor source models can be evaluated from the Bayesian evidence, using samples from the likelihood distributions for the two source models, producing an estimate of whether or not a source is double-couple. Such an approach is ideally suited to microseismic studies where there are many sources of uncertainty and it is often difficult to produce reliability estimates of the source mechanism, although this can be true of many other cases. Using full-waveform synthetic seismograms, we also show the effects of noise, location, network distribution and velocity model uncertainty on the source probability density function. The noise has the largest effect on the results, especially as it can affect other parts of the event processing. This uncertainty can lead to erroneous non-double-couple source probability distributions, even when no other uncertainties exist. Although including amplitude ratios can improve the constraint on the source probability

  7. Expert services for rare anaemias across Europe

    Beatrice Gulbis


    Full Text Available New challenges and priorities are given in the EU Health programme 2007-2013. The objectives of the programme are to improve citizens’ health security, to promote health to improve prosperity and solidarity, and to generate and disseminate health knowledge. If challenges and priorities have been defined globally for rare diseases by the European Commission, persons involved in rare anaemias have taken the opportunity to contribute to the empowerment of patients with rare anaemias. One of the ENERCA partners objectives was the mapping of existing centres that take care of patients with rare anaemias in Europe. Another goal was to obtain a directory of facilities available per centre for patients with rare anaemias. We thought that with those results it could realistically help to define a consensus regarding the criteria to be recognised as a centre of expertise for haemoglobinopathies and very rare anaemias.

  8. An inversion strategy for hydraulic tomography: Coupling travel time and amplitude inversion

    Brauchler, R.; Cheng, J.-T.; Dietrich, P.; Everett, M.; Johnson, B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.


    SummaryWe present a hydraulic tomographic inversion strategy with an emphasis on the reduction of ambiguity of hydraulic travel time inversion results and the separation of the estimated diffusivity values into hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Our tomographic inversion strategy is tested by simulated multilevel interference slug tests in which the positions of the sources (injection ports) and the receivers (observation ports) isolated with packers are varied. Simulations include the delaying effect of wellbore storage on travel times which are quantified and shown to be of increasing importance for shorter travel distances. For the reduction of ambiguity of travel time inversion, we use the full travel time data set, as well as smaller data subsets of specified source-receiver angles. The inversion results of data subsets show different resolution characteristics and improve the reliability of the interpretation. The travel time of a pressure pulse is a function of the diffusivity of the medium between the source and receiver. Thus, it is difficult to directly derive values for hydraulic conductivity and specific storage by inverting travel times. In order to overcome this limitation, we exploit the great computational efficiency of hydraulic travel time tomography to define the aquifer structure, which is then input into the underlying groundwater flow model MODFLOW-96. Finally, we perform a model calibration (amplitude inversion) using the automatic parameter estimator PEST, enabling us to separate diffusivity into its two components hydraulic conductivity and specific storage.

  9. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Yunwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  10. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming


    Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  11. Inverse probability weighting for covariate adjustment in randomized studies.

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun; Li, Lingling


    Covariate adjustment in randomized clinical trials has the potential benefit of precision gain. It also has the potential pitfall of reduced objectivity as it opens the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields strong treatment benefit estimate. Although there is a large volume of statistical literature targeting on the first aspect, realistic solutions to enforce objective inference and improve precision are rare. As a typical randomized trial needs to accommodate many implementation issues beyond statistical considerations, maintaining the objectivity is at least as important as precision gain if not more, particularly from the perspective of the regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a two-stage estimation procedure based on inverse probability weighting to achieve better precision without compromising objectivity. The procedure is designed in a way such that the covariate adjustment is performed before seeing the outcome, effectively reducing the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields a strong intervention effect. Both theoretical and numerical properties of the estimation procedure are presented. Application of the proposed method to a real data example is presented.

  12. Why some plant species are rare.

    Wieger Wamelink, G W; Wamelink, G W Weiger; Goedhart, Paul W; Frissel, Joep; Frissel, Josep Y


    Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others are not. Are they rare due to: intrinsic reasons, dispersal capacity, the effects of management or abiotic circumstances? Habitat preference of rare plant species may play an important role in determining why some species are rare. Based on an extensive data set of soil parameters we investigated if rarity is due to a narrow habitat preference for abiotic soil parameters. For 23 different abiotic soil parameters, of which the most influential were groundwater-table, soil-pH and nutrient-contents, we estimated species responses for common and rare species. Based on the responses per species we calculated the range of occurrence, the range between the 5 and 95 percentile of the response curve giving the habitat preference. Subsequently, we calculated the average response range for common and rare species. In addition, we designed a new graphic in order to provide a better means for presentation of the results. The habitat preferences of rare species for abiotic soil conditions are significantly narrower than for common species. Twenty of the twenty-three abiotic parameters showed on average significantly narrower habitat preferences for rare species than for common species; none of the abiotic parameters showed on average a narrower habitat preference for common species. The results have major implications for the conservation of rare plant species; accordingly management and nature development should be focussed on the maintenance and creation of a broad range of environmental conditions, so that the requirements of rare species are met. The conservation of (abiotic) gradients within ecosystems is particularly important for preserving rare species.

  13. Funing Rare Earths Industrial Co. Ltd


    The company covers separation with whole lines of light, medium and heavy rare earths, with annual separation volume of rare earth oxides of 4,500 tons. It also produces rare earth oxides, fluorides and salts. Products with high-purity and super-high-purity are produced according to customer's request. Under the technological guidance of domestic experts and application of modern high-pressure

  14. [Rare diseases from a life insurance perspective].

    Senn, A; Filzmaier, K


    A rare disease is defined as a disease that affects a maximum of 5 in 10,000 people. As of today there are roughly 7000 different rare diseases known. On account of this one can say that "rare diseases are rare, but people affected by them are common". For Germany this amounts to: 4 million people that are affected by a rare disease. Diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis have substantially improved for some of the rare diseases. Besides the general medical advances--especially in the area of genetics--this is also due to networking and sharing information by so-called Centres of Competence on a national and international scale. This results in a better medical care for the corresponding group of patients. Against this backdrop, the number of people applying for life assurance who are suffering from a complex or rare disease has risen steadily in the last years. Due to the scarce availability of data regarding long-term prognosis of many rare diseases, a biomathematical, medical and actuarial expertise on the part of the insurer is necessary in order to adequately assess the risk of mortality and morbidity. Furthermore there is quite a focus on the issue of rare diseases from not only politics but society as well. Therefore evidence based medical assessment by insurers is especially important in this group of applicants--thinking of legal compliance and reputational risk.

  15. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NCATS collaborates with the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to support GARD, a center designed to provide comprehensive information about rare and...

  16. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Page Content Article Body Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are bacterial infections that are ...

  17. Review on Rare Earth/Polymer Composite

    刘力; 刘美琳; 等


    The epecial properties of rare earth/polymer composite were described.More emphasis was put on the radiation shielding and magnetic properties,In the application to X-ray shielding,rare earth/polymer composite can make up the feeble absorbing area.If the rare earth content is high enough,it can demonstrate strong ability for thermal neutron absorption,The composite has strong paramagnetism.The feasibility of preparing magnetic rare earth/polymer compostite was discussed,In addition,three preparation methods were introducde:simlle polymerization,mixing and reaction processing,The effect of the rare earth/polymer composties pre-sturcture and the coordinate number of rare eatrh ions on the light property was analyzed,Rare earth/polmer compostie may have the structure and property simlar to those of the ionomer,The feasibility of the in-situ preparation of the rare earth/polymer nano structure is indicated ,Besides,the relationship between struchture and properties of the rare earth/polymer composite was discussed,The problems associated with such composite materials were also presented.

  18. Review on Rare Earth/Polymer Composite

    刘力; 张立群; 赵素合; 金日光; 刘美琳


    The special properties of rare earth/polymer composite were described. More emph asis was put on the radiation shielding and magnetic properties. In the applicat ion to X-ray shielding, rare earth/polymer composite can make up the feeble abs o rbing area. If the rare earth content is high enough, it can demonstrate strong ability for thermal neutron absorption; The composite has strong paramagnetism. The feasibility of preparing magnetic rare earth/polymer composite was discussed . In addition, three preparation methods were introduced: simple polymerization, mixing and reaction processing. The effect of the rare earth/polymer composites pre -sturcture and the coordinate number of rare earth ions on the light property w as a nalyzed. Rare earth/polymer composite may have the structure and property simlar to those of the ionomer. The feasibility of the in-situ preparation of the rare earth/polymer nano structure is indicated. Besides, the relationship betwe en structure and properties of the rare earth/polymer composite was discussed. T he problems associated with such composite materials were also presented.

  19. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E.


    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints. PMID:23685532

  20. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    Ahmed, Rania F.


    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Sparse Matrix Inversion with Scaled Lasso

    Sun, Tingni


    We propose a new method of learning a sparse nonnegative-definite target matrix. Our primary example of the target matrix is the inverse of a population covariance matrix or correlation matrix. The algorithm first estimates each column of the matrix by scaled Lasso, a joint estimation of regression coefficients and noise level, and then adjusts the matrix estimator to be symmetric. The procedure is efficient in the sense that the penalty level of the scaled Lasso for each column is completely determined by the data via convex minimization, without using cross-validation. We prove that this method guarantees the fastest proven rate of convergence in the spectrum norm under conditions of weaker form than those in the existing analyses of other $\\ell_1$ algorithms, and has faster guaranteed rate of convergence when the ratio of the $\\ell_1$ and spectrum norms of the target inverse matrix diverges to infinity. A simulation study also demonstrates the competitive performance of the proposed estimator.

  2. Double inverse stochastic resonance with dynamic synapses

    Uzuntarla, Muhammet; Torres, Joaquin J.; So, Paul; Ozer, Mahmut; Barreto, Ernest


    We investigate the behavior of a model neuron that receives a biophysically realistic noisy postsynaptic current based on uncorrelated spiking activity from a large number of afferents. We show that, with static synapses, such noise can give rise to inverse stochastic resonance (ISR) as a function of the presynaptic firing rate. We compare this to the case with dynamic synapses that feature short-term synaptic plasticity and show that the interval of presynaptic firing rate over which ISR exists can be extended or diminished. We consider both short-term depression and facilitation. Interestingly, we find that a double inverse stochastic resonance (DISR), with two distinct wells centered at different presynaptic firing rates, can appear.

  3. Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices

    Chow, E.; Saad, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.

  4. Ionogram inversion for a tilted ionosphere

    Wright, J.W. (British Antartic Survey, Cambridge (England))


    Digital ionosondes such as the Dynasonde disclose that the ionosphere is seldom horizontal even when it is plane stratified to a good approximation. The local magnetic dip does not then determine correctly the radiowave propagation angle for inversion of the ionogram to a plasma density profile. The measured echo direction of arrival can be used together with the known dip for an improved propagation angle. The effects are small for simple one-parameter laminae but become important when differential (ordinary, extraordinary) retardations are used to aid correction for valley and starting ambiguities. The resulting profile describes the plasma distribution along the direction of observation, rather than the vertical; it thus conveys information about horizontal gradients. Observations suggest that advantages in inversion methods may be practicable for application to modern ionosonde recordings, by which local lateral structure can be described in greater detail. 20 refs.

  5. Function representation with circle inversion map systems

    Boreland, Bryson; Kunze, Herb


    The fractals literature develops the now well-known concept of local iterated function systems (using affine maps) with grey-level maps (LIFSM) as an approach to function representation in terms of the associated fixed point of the so-called fractal transform. While originally explored as a method to achieve signal (and 2-D image) compression, more recent work has explored various aspects of signal and image processing using this machinery. In this paper, we develop a similar framework for function representation using circle inversion map systems. Given a circle C with centre õ and radius r, inversion with respect to C transforms the point p˜ to the point p˜', such that p˜ and p˜' lie on the same radial half-line from õ and d(õ, p˜)d(õ, p˜') = r2, where d is Euclidean distance. We demonstrate the results with an example.

  6. Lasing without inversion in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Marthaler, M; Utsumi, Y; Golubev, D S; Shnirman, A; Schön, Gerd


    We study the photon generation in a transmission line oscillator coupled to a driven qubit in the presence of a dissipative electromagnetic environment. It has been demonstrated previously that a population inversion in the qubit can lead to a lasing state of the oscillator. Here we show that the circuit can also exhibit the effect of "lasing without inversion." It arises since the coupling to the dissipative environment enhances photon emission as compared to absorption, similar to the recoil effect predicted for atomic systems. While the recoil effect is very weak, and so far elusive, the effect described here should be observable with realistic circuits. We analyze the requirements for system parameters and environment.

  7. Darwin's “strange inversion of reasoning”

    Dennett, Daniel


    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive “inversion of reasoning” (according to a 19th century critic): “to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it” [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own. PMID:19528651

  8. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    Zhang, Z.


    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  9. Optoacoustic inversion via Volterra kernel reconstruction

    Melchert, O; Roth, B


    In this letter we address the numeric inversion of optoacoustic signals to initial stress profiles. Therefore we put under scrutiny the optoacoustic kernel reconstruction problem in the paraxial approximation of the underlying wave-equation. We apply a Fourier-series expansion of the optoacoustic Volterra kernel and obtain the respective expansion coefficients for a given "apparative" setup by performing a gauge procedure using synthetic input data. The resulting effective kernel is subsequently used to solve the optoacoustic source reconstruction problem for general signals. We verify the validity of the proposed inversion protocol for synthetic signals and explore the feasibility of our approach to also account for the diffraction transformation of signals beyond the paraxial approximation.

  10. Inverse Vernier effect in coupled lasers

    Ge, Li; Türeci, Hakan E.


    In this report we study the Vernier effect in coupled laser systems consisting of two cavities. We show that depending on the nature of their coupling, not only can the "supermodes" formed at overlapping resonances of these two cavities have the lowest thresholds as previously found, leading to lasing at these overlapping resonances and a manifestation of the typical Vernier effect, but also they can have increased thresholds and are hence suppressed, which can be viewed as an inverse Vernier effect. The inverse Vernier effect can also lead to an increased free spectrum range and possibly single-mode lasing, which may explain the experimental findings in several previous studies. We illustrate this effect using two coupled micro-ring cavities and a micro-ring cavity coupled to a slab cavity, and we discuss its relation to the existence of exceptional points in coupled lasers.

  11. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  12. Recursive Inversion Of Externally Defined Linear Systems

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram


    Technical memorandum discusses mathematical technique described in "Recursive Inversion by Finite-Impulse-Response Filters" (ARC-12247). Technique is recursive algorithm yielding finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Useful in such diverse applications as medical diagnoses, identification of military targets, geophysical exploration, and nondestructive testing.

  13. Variational Bayesian Approximation methods for inverse problems

    Mohammad-Djafari, Ali


    Variational Bayesian Approximation (VBA) methods are recent tools for effective Bayesian computations. In this paper, these tools are used for inverse problems where the prior models include hidden variables and where where the estimation of the hyper parameters has also to be addressed. In particular two specific prior models (Student-t and mixture of Gaussian models) are considered and details of the algorithms are given.

  14. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...... ratio. The inclusion of mechanical robustness in combination with conventional performance characteristics favors solutions relevant for practical applications, as mechanical stability is a critical issue not often addressed in idealized models....

  15. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  16. Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures

    Li Linda YM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.

  17. Inverse Scattering in a Multipath Environment

    A. Cuccaro


    Full Text Available In this contribution an inverse scattering problem is ad- dressed in a multipath environment. In particular, multipath is created by known ”extra” point-like scatterers (passive elements expressely deployed between the scene under in- vestigation and the source/measurement domains. Through a back-projection imaging scheme, the role of the passive elements on the achievable performance is shown and com- pared to the free-space case.

  18. The Stewart-Lyth Inverse Problem

    Ayón-Beato, E; Mansilla, R; Terrero-Escalante, C A; Ay\\'on-Beato, Eloy; Garc\\'{\\i}a, Alberto; Mansilla, Ricardo


    In this paper the Stewart-Lyth inverse problem is introduced. It consists of solving two non-linear differential equations for the first slow-roll parameter and finding the inflaton potential. The equations are derived from the Stewart-Lyth equations for the scalar and tensorial perturbations produced during the inflationary period. The geometry of the phase planes transverse to the trajectories is analyzed, and conclusions about the possible behaviour for general solutions are drawn.

  19. Investigating complex networks with inverse models

    Wens, Vincent


    Recent advances in neuroscience have motivated the study of network organization in spatially distributed dynamical systems from indirect measurements. However, the associated connectivity estimation, when combined with inverse modeling, is strongly affected by spatial leakage. We formulate this problem in a general framework and develop a new approach to model spatial leakage and limit its effects. It is analytically compared to existing regression-based methods used in electrophysiology, which are shown to yield biased estimates of amplitude and phase couplings.



    The inverse scattering problems are to detect the property of obstacles from the measurements outside the obstacles. One of important research areas in this topic is the recovery of boundary property for impenetrable obstacles. In this paper, we would like to give a brief review about the recently developed singular source methods. There are three different methods in this category, namely, linear sampling method, pointsource method and probe method. We also present some recent new results about the probe method.

  1. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos


    We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  2. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Holger Frahm


    Full Text Available We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  3. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos


    We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  4. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej


    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale invariant (or F\\"ul\\H{o}p-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  5. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri


    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  6. Monte Carlo Hamiltonian:Inverse Potential

    LUO Xiang-Qian; CHENG Xiao-Ni; Helmut KR(O)GER


    The Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method developed recently allows to investigate the ground state and low-lying excited states of a quantum system,using Monte Carlo(MC)algorithm with importance sampling.However,conventional MC algorithm has some difficulties when applied to inverse potentials.We propose to use effective potential and extrapolation method to solve the problem.We present examples from the hydrogen system.

  7. Numerical linear algebra for reconstruction inverse problems

    Nachaoui, Abdeljalil


    Our goal in this paper is to discuss various issues we have encountered in trying to find and implement efficient solvers for a boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation of an iterative method for solving a reconstruction problem. We survey some methods from numerical linear algebra, which are relevant for the solution of this class of inverse problems. We motivate the use of our constructing algorithm, discuss its implementation and mention the use of preconditioned Krylov methods.

  8. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W


    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  9. Efficient Numerical Inversion for Financial Simulations

    Derflinger, Gerhard; Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef; Sak, Halis


    Generating samples from generalized hyperbolic distributions and non-central chi-square distributions by inversion has become an important task for the simulation of recent models in finance in the framework of (quasi-) Monte Carlo. However, their distribution functions are quite expensive to evaluate and thus numerical methods like root finding algorithms are extremely slow. In this paper we demonstrate how our new method based on Newton interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature can be util...

  10. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    Lu, Yang; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan


    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input ...

  11. Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties


    covariance matrix of the sampled models, and adjusts the annealing temperature adaptively to account for parameters with different sensitivities. The method...geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom, including sound speed profiles, densities , attenuations and sediment layer depths, have a significant effect on...sound propagation in shallow water . The long term goal of this work is to develop a new tomographic inversion method based on matched field processing of

  12. Differential equations inverse and direct problems

    Favini, Angelo



  13. InAR:Inverse Augmented Reality

    Hu, Hao; Cui, Hainan


    Augmented reality is the art to seamlessly fuse virtual objects into real ones. In this short note, we address the opposite problem, the inverse augmented reality, that is, given a perfectly augmented reality scene where human is unable to distinguish real objects from virtual ones, how the machine could help do the job. We show by structure from motion (SFM), a simple 3D reconstruction technique from images in computer vision, the real and virtual objects can be easily separated in the recon...

  14. Voltammetry: mathematical modelling and Inverse Problem

    Koshev, N A; Kuzina, V V


    We propose the fast semi-analytical method of modelling the polarization curves in the voltammetric experiment. The method is based on usage of the special func- tions and shows a big calculation speed and a high accuracy and stability. Low computational needs of the proposed algorithm allow us to state the set of Inverse Problems of voltammetry for the reconstruction of metal ions concentrations or the other parameters of the electrolyte under investigation.

  15. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    Beydoun, Wafik B.


    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More:

  16. About some inverse problems of nuclear physics

    Belashev, B Z


    Some inverse problems of high energy physics and NMR spectroscopy are observed. The methods of the Fourier transformation and the maximum entropy technique have been applied for their solutions. The integral images of the experimental distributions are informative for determination of the space-time characteristics of the particles generation domain and for the analysis of blurring spectra. These methods have been tested in comparison with the results which have been obtained independently

  17. Sequential Geoacoustic Filtering and Geoacoustic Inversion


    typical high-resolution beamformers. We use least squares optimization with an L1-norm regularization term, also known as the least absolute actually performs better than conventional beamforming and MVDR/ MUSIC (see Figs. 1-2). Compressive geoacoustic inversion Geoacoustic...histograms based on 100 Monte Carlo simulations, and c)(CS, exhaustive-search, CBF, MVDR, and MUSIC performance versus SNR. The true source positions



    This paper discusses the inverse center location problem restricted on a tree with different costs and bound constraints.The authors first show that the problem can be formulated as a series of combinatorial linear programs,then an O(|V|2 log |V|)time algorithm to solve the problem is presented.For the equal cost case,the authors further give an O(|V|)time algorithm.

  19. Totally inverted cervix due to a huge prolapsed cervical myoma simulating chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion.

    Turhan, Nilgun; Simavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Kasap, Burcu


    Inversion of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of the non-puerperal period and is commonly caused by benign submucous, especially fundal, leiomyomas. A case of a totally inverted cervix due to a prolapsed huge cervical leiomyoma mimicking chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion in a perimenopausal woman is presented. A 52-year-old perimenopausal woman was admitted to our clinic with an ulcerated, necrotic, infected and swollen prolapsed mass. Gynecologic history revealed that she was advised myomectomy because of her cervical myoma 2 years ago but she refused to have an operation as she believed that her positive thoughts would shrink the myoma. Presumed diagnosis before surgery was chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion. An intraoperative diagnosis was totally inverted cervix due to a huge cervical leiomyoma. Vaginal hysterectomy without adnexectomy, was performed. This is the first case in the literature which a totally inverted cervix due to a prolapsed huge cervical leiomyoma. Cervical fibroids can grow in perimenopausal period and in extremely rare cases can cause total cervical inversion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Paolo Agostinis


    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.