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Sample records for rare orchid species

  1. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car.

  2. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car. Photos were taken on the late mowing zone adjacent to route Einstein opposite building 57 on 4 June 2005.

  3. Genomic diversity guides conservation strategies among rare terrestrial orchid species when taxonomy remains uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Supple, Megan A; Aitken, Nicola C; Cantrill, David J; Borevitz, Justin O; James, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia. Four putative species were sampled from a total of 16 populations in the Victorian Volcanic Plain (VVP) bioregion and one population of a sub-alpine outgroup in south-eastern Australia. Morphological measurements were taken in situ along with leaf material for genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and microsatellite analyses. Species could not be differentiated using morphological measurements. Microsatellite and GBS markers confirmed the outgroup as distinct, but only GBS markers provided resolution of population genetic structure. The nationally endangered Diuris basaltica was indistinguishable from two related species ( D. chryseopsis and D. behrii ), while the state-protected D. gregaria showed genomic differentiation. Genomic diversity identified among the four Diuris species suggests that conservation of this taxonomically complex group will be best served by considering them as one ESU rather than separately aligned with species as currently recognized. This approach will maximize evolutionary potential among all species during increased isolation and environmental change. The methods used here can be applied generally to conserve evolutionary processes for groups where taxonomic uncertainty hinders the use of species as conservation units. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

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    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  5. Fusarium species as pathogen on orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y

    2018-03-01

    The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Restoring the rare Kentucky lady's slipper orchid to the Kisatchie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Kevin Allen; David Moore

    2012-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed [Orchidaceae]) is a spectacular orchid native to the southeastern US. Although its range includes much of the Southeast, it is rare due to loss of appropriate edaphic and climatic habitats. Efforts to restore this species to the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana were initiated by a high school student...

  7. Among the species of rare orchids found in abondance on the CERN Meyrin site is the bee-imitating "orphys apifera"

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    While many corners of the world are lamenting the disappearance of local flora and fauna, CERN is home to some of the rarest and most beautiful European orchids. While no simple explanation has been found for the orchid's proliferation - over 2000 were flowering in spring, estimated to be more than the total in the rest of Switzerland - they may benefit from growing in soil which is undisturbed by machines or chemicals.

  8. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

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    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  9. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  10. Some Orchid Species Fungi Isolated by Different Methods

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    Arzu ÇIĞ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very small seeds that do not contain endosperm, many terrestrial orchid species require the presence of fungi in order to germinate and maintain their lives; and symbiotic culture studies are being carried out on this topic. For the purpose of determining the orchid species on which the fungus to be used as inoculants in the symbiotic culture will be effective, fungi isolated through several isolation methods are cultured with orchid species. In this study a total of four different isolation methods were applied as one on the tubers and rhizomes and three on the soil of eleven orchid species from the Anacamptis, Cephalanthera, Dactylorhiza and Orchis genera. Three different culture media were used in the methods. At the end of the study Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Rhizoctonia, Trichoderma and Verticillium fungi were isolated. In the study that was conducted with the aimed to isolate particularly Rhizoctania spp. fungi, the fungi was isolated from the tubers of Dactylorhiza umbrosa and Orchis palustris species and the soil of the Orchis simia species. Fusarium and Aspergillus species were isolated the most in all implemented methods and from all species.

  11. Chelonistele laetitia-reginae, a new orchid species from Sarawak

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    Vogel, de E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The revision of the genus Chelonistele in Orchid Monographs 1 (1986) 23-40 lists 11 species and 4 variations. All occur in Borneo, which is evidently the centre of speciation of this genus; only Chelonistele sulphurea var. sulphurea occurs in addition in Java, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. During

  12. Elleanthus ortizianus a new orchid species from southern Colombia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Baranow, P.; Rykaczewski, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 2 (2017), s. 155-158 ISSN 2381-8107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Andean orchids * neotropics * biodiversity * new species * Putumayo Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  13. The Ultrastructure Of Pollinia Of Ten Species Of Orchid In Substribe Aeridinae (ORCHIDACEAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistyono; Purbaningsih, Susiani; Pujoarianto, Agus

    2000-01-01

    Orchid taxonimy lags several decades behind the taxonomy of most other large interisting groups of plants. New methods and techiniques, like scanning and transmission electron microscope are rarely applied in orchid's taxonomy. It would be most benefical to orchid taxonomy if a better understanding of the pollinia could be obtained. The main purpose of this research is to study the ultrastructure pollinia of ten species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the pollinia of ten species of orchids in the substribe Aeridina. This work shows that the ultrastructure of the pollinias are different. Regarding at the number and the surface of pollinia in one flowe, the ten species of Aeridinae can be devided mto three main group: (1) the first group is the flowe with two pollinia with it surface porate : Ascocentrum miniatum; (2) the second group has the same number of pollinia, but with surface cleft : Phalaenopsis. Ph. amboinensis, Ph.cornu-cervi, Ph. Fuscata, Ph. Venosa, Rhychostylis retusa, Vanda limbota, and Vanda insignis: and the third (3)is the flower with four pollinia, unequel : Kingidium deliciosum

  14. Symbiotic germination of three species of epiphytic orchids susceptible to genetic erosion, from Soconusco (Chiapas, Mexico

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    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soconusco region of southeast Mexico has almost a quarter of the orchid species registered in Mexico and 37 threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001, many with severely reduced and non-viable populations. We chose two of the most threatened species, Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay and G. C. Kenn. and Cuitlauzina convallarioides (Schltr. Dressler and N. H. Williams and a rare species recently discovered in the region, Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman Soto Arenas and Salazar, to study the mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots, isolate them and use them to induce seed germination and promote development in asymbiotically produced protocorms, in the laboratory. We isolated ten strains of Rhizoctonia-like orchid mycorrhizal fungi from Rossioglossum grande and three from Cuitlauzina convallarioides. Using selected fungal strains from the same species, we tested for the promotion of further development of asymbiotically pre-germinated protocorms of R. grande and the promotion of seed germination of C. convallarioides. In the case of R. bictoniensis, we studied the effects on seed germination of nine strains of Rhizoctonia-like fungi isolated from other orchid species. For R. grande, after 10 months, one strain of Rhizoctonia promoted development of the pre-germinated protocorms, and almost 90% of the protocorms produced rhizoids. For C. convallarioides, after 3 months, one fungal strain promoted protocorm development to the stage where they produced green tissue under illumination, suggesting the onset of photosynthesis. For R. bictoniensis three of the fungal strains (from other orchid species promoted germination and, after 4 months, autotrophic protocorms.

  15. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

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    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  16. Seasonality and mycorrhizal colonization in three species of epiphytic orchids in southeast Mexico

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    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchids establish symbiosis with Rhizoctonia mycorrhizal fungi, forming the characteristic pelotons within the cells of the root cortex. Under natural conditions, terrestrial and epiphytic orchids have different levels of dependence upon the fungal symbiont, although various authors have mentioned that once orchid plants reach maturity the interaction becomes weaker and intermittent. Recent evidence shows that in some epiphytic orchid species mycorrhization is constant and systematic. In three species of wild orchids from southeast Mexico, we show that mycorrhization is systematically present in roots of different ages, in the wet and dry seasons. We demonstrate that the volume of the root that is colonized depends upon the quantity of rainfall and the diameter of the root, and that rainfall also determines the presence of fresh, undigested pelotons. In very thin roots, mycorrhizal colonization occupies a considerable proportion of the cortex, whereas in thicker roots the proportion of the volume of the root cortex colonized is lower.

  17. NEW AND RARE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE IN THE FLORA OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS

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    L. V. Averyanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.

  18. Two reported cytotypes of the emergent orchid model species Erycina pusilla are two different species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeh, Hsuan Yu; Lin, Choun Sea; Jong, de Hans; Chang, Song-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Each species is characterized by a specific set of chromosomes, which is described as the chromosome portrait or karyotype. In general, such a karyotype is the same for all individuals in the population. An exception to that rule has recently been found in the orchid Erycina pusilla, which has

  19. Seed dispersal in six species of terrestrial orchids in Biebrza National Park (NE Poland

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    Emilia Brzosko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about seed dispersal is required to explain problems in ecology, phylogeography, and conservation biology. Even though seed dispersal is a fundamental mechanism to understand problems at different levels of biological organization (individual, population, species, landscape, it remains one of the least recognized processes. Similar to other groups of plants, very little is known regarding patterns and distances of seed dispersal in orchids. Orchid seeds are generally assumed to be widely dispersed by wind because of their small size and low weight. Between 2006 and 2008, we conducted a field study of the distances at which orchid seeds are dispersed, and determined factors affecting dispersal. Investigations included 13 populations of six terrestrial orchid species – Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Neottia ovata, and Platanthera bifolia. To evaluate seed dispersal in orchid populations, 8.5-cm Petri dishes (traps with self-adhesive paper were placed along transects, starting from a group of fruiting plants, which were considered to be the dispersal source. Seeds of the investigated orchid species were dispersed over relatively short distances. There were statistically significant negative correlations between seed density and distance from the fruiting plants. Seeds of species with taller fruiting shoots were dispersed farther than those with shorter ones (R = 0.68, p < 0.05. We discuss the causes and consequences of the dispersal patterns of orchid seeds.

  20. The Complete Plastome Sequences of Four Orchid Species: Insights into the Evolution of the Orchidaceae and the Utility of Plastomic Mutational Hotspots

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    Zhitao Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae (orchids is the largest family in the monocots, including about 25,000 species in 880 genera and five subfamilies. Many orchids are highly valued for their beautiful and long-lasting flowers. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the five orchid subfamilies remain unresolved. The major dispute centers on whether the three one-stamened subfamilies, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae, and Vanilloideae, are monophyletic or paraphyletic. Moreover, structural changes in the plastid genome (plastome and the effective genetic loci at the species-level phylogenetics of orchids have rarely been documented. In this study, we compared 53 orchid plastomes, including four newly sequenced ones, that represent four remote genera: Dendrobium, Goodyera, Paphiopedilum, and Vanilla. These differ from one another not only in their lengths of inverted repeats and small single copy regions but also in their retention of ndh genes. Comparative analyses of the plastomes revealed that the expansion of inverted repeats in Paphiopedilum and Vanilla is associated with a loss of ndh genes. In orchid plastomes, mutational hotspots are genus specific. After having carefully examined the data, we propose that the three loci 5′trnK-rps16, trnS-trnG, and rps16-trnQ might be powerful markers for genera within Epidendroideae, and clpP-psbB and rps16-trnQ might be markers for genera within Cypripedioideae. After analyses of a partitioned dataset, we found that our plastid phylogenomic trees were congruent in a topology where two one-stamened subfamilies (i.e., Epidendroideae and Orchidoideae were sisters to a multi-stamened subfamily (i.e., Cypripedioideae rather than to the other one-stamened subfamily (Vanilloideae, suggesting that the living one-stamened orchids are paraphyletic.

  1. Cytogenetics and cytotaxonomy of some Brazilian species of Cymbidioid orchids

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    Leonardo Pessoa Félix

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cymbidioid phylad presents the widest chromosome number variation among orchids, with records varying from 2n = 10 in Psygmorchis pusilla to 2n = 168 in two species of Oncidium. In the present work, a total of 44 species were studied belonging to 20 Cymbidioid genera, as a contribution to clarifying the karyological evolution of the group. All the plants investigated were collected in Brazil, mainly in the northeast region. The chromosome variation found was similar to that previously registered in the literature. Chromosome numbers observed were: 2n = 54 (subtribe Eulophiinae, 2n = 44, 46, 92 (subtribe Cyrtopodiinae, 2n = 54, ca. 108 (subtribe Catasetinae, 2n = 52, ca. 96 (subtribe Zygopetalinae, 2n = 40, 80 (subtribe Lycastinae, 2n = 40, 42 (subtribe Maxillariinae, 2n = 40 (subtribe Stanhopeinae, 2n = 56 (subtribe Ornithocephalinae, and 2n = 12, 20, 30, 36, 42, 44, 56, 112, ca. 168 (subtribe Oncidiinae. Interphase nuclei varied widely from simple chromocenter to complex chromocenter types, with no apparent cytotaxonomic value. In the genera Catasetum and Oncidium, the terrestrial and lithophytic species presented higher ploidy levels than the epiphytic species, suggesting a higher adaptability of the polyploids to those habitats. The primary base number x = 7 seems to be associated to the haploid chromosome numbers of most Cymbidioid groups, although n = 7 was observed only in two extant genera of Oncidiinae. For each tribe, subtribe and genus the probable base numbers were discussed along with the possible relationships to the primary base number x1 = 7 admitted for the whole phylad.O clado Cymbidioid apresenta a mais ampla variação cromossômica numérica entre as orquidáceas, com registros desde 2n = 10 em Psygmorchis pusilla, até 2n = 168 em duas espécies de Oncidium. No presente trabalho, foram estudadas um total de 44 espécies pertencentes a 20 gêneros deste grupo, visando contribuir para esclarecer a evolução cariol

  2. Germination failure is not a critical stage of reproductive isolation between three congeneric orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Koen; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2012-11-01

    In food-deceptive orchid species, postmating reproductive barriers (fruit set and embryo mortality) have been shown to be more important for reproductive isolation than premating barriers (pollinator isolation). However, currently there is very little knowledge about whether germination failure acts as a reproductive barrier in hybridizing orchid species. In this study, we investigated germination and protocorm development of pure and hybrid seeds of three species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza. To test the hypothesis that germination failure contributed to total reproductive isolation, reproductive barriers based on germination were combined with already available data on early acting barriers (fruit set and embryo mortality) to calculate the relative and absolute contributions of these barriers to reproductive isolation. Protocorms were formed in all crosses, indicating that both hybrid and pure seeds were able to germinate and grow into protocorms. Also, the number of protocorms per seed packet was not significantly different between hybrid and pure seeds. High fruit set, high seed viability, and substantial seed germination resulted in very low reproductive isolation (average RI = 0.05). In two of six interspecific crosses, hybrids performed even better than the intraspecific crosses. Very weak postmating reproductive barriers were observed between our study species and may explain the frequent occurrence of first-generation hybrids in mixed Dactylorhiza populations. Germination failure, which is regarded as one of the most important bottlenecks in the orchid life cycle, was not important for reproductive isolation.

  3. Recurrent polymorphic mating type variation in Madagascan Bulbophyllum species (Orchidaceae) exemplifies a high incidence of auto-pollination in tropical orchids

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    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter A; Comes, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary changes in angiosperms. The orchid family exemplifies this evolutionary trend but, because of a general lack of large-scale surveys on auto-pollination in orchid taxa, the incidence and modes of auto-pollination among (sub)tropical orchids remain poorly known. In the present study, we assessed the frequency and mode of auto-pollination within and among species of a largely monophyletic group of Madagascan Bulbophyllum. The capacity for autonomous fruit set was investigated by bagging experiments in the greenhouse and the field, complemented with detailed floral micromorphological studies of the gynostemium. Our survey comprises 393 accessions, representing at least 78 species, and thus approximately 37% of the species diversity of the genus in the Madagascan region. Our studies revealed that mating type is directly related to gynostemium structure, most often involving the presence or absence of a physical barrier termed ‘rostellum’. As a novel and unexpected finding, we identified eight species of a single lineage of Madagascan Bulbophyllum (termed ‘clade C’), in which auto-pollinating morphs (selfers), either lacking a rostellum or (rarely) possessing a stigmatic rostellum, co-exist with their pollinator-dependent conspecifics (outcrossers). We hypothesize that auto-pollination via rostellum abortion has a simple genetic basis, and probably evolved rapidly and recurrently by subtle changes in the timing of rostellum development (heterochrony). Thus, species of clade C may have an intrinsic genetic and developmental lability toward auto-pollination, allowing rapid evolutionary response under environmental, perhaps human-disturbed conditions favouring reproductive assurance. Overall, these findings should stimulate further research on the incidence, evolution, and maintenance of mating type variation in tropical orchids, as well as how they adapt(ed) to changing

  4. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  5. Determinants of orchid species diversity in Latin America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štípková, Zuzana; Traxmandlová, Iva; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2016), s. 293-297 ISSN 1409-3871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : altitude * habitat diversity * species-area relationship Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Determinants of orchid species diversity in world islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Traxmandlová, Iva; Ackerman, J. D.; Tremblay, R. L.; Roberts, D.L.; Štípková, Zuzana; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 1 (2018), s. 12-15 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : habitat diversity * island biogeography * latitude * Orchidaceae * species richness * species–area relationship Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  7. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Pollination Response in Endangered Orchid Species Dendrobium Chrysanthum

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    Wei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC and self-incompatibility (SI mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The sexual reproduction in D. chrysanthum relies on the compatibility of pollination. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of pollination, the differentially expressed proteins (DEP between the self-pollination (SP and cross-pollination (CP pistil of D. chrysanthum were investigated using proteomic approaches—two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. A total of 54 DEP spots were identified in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE maps between the SP and CP. Gene ontology analysis revealed an array of proteins belonging to following different functional categories: metabolic process (8.94%, response to stimulus (5.69%, biosynthetic process (4.07%, protein folding (3.25% and transport (3.25%. Identification of these DEPs at the early response stage of pollination will hopefully provide new insights in the mechanism of pollination response and help for the conservation of the orchid species.

  8. The impact on orchid species abundance of gathering their edible tubers by HIV/AIDS orphans : a case of three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the gathering of wild orchids and its effect on orchid species diversity and abundance in rural communities with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and high numbers of orphans. The study was conducted in three villages in the Makete District of Tanzania. The study used a triangulation

  9. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  10. Long-term ecology of euglossine orchid-bees (Apidae: Euglossini) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubik, D W; Ackerman, J D

    1987-09-01

    Abundance patterns during 6-7 years and orchid visitation were determined for 51 species of the 57 local euglossine bees. Male bees were counted at 3 chemical attractants presented in the same manner each month. Sites were separated by 75 km but included wet Atlantic forest at 500 m elevation, moist forest at 180 m near Barro Colorado Island, and cloud forest at 900 m near the Pacific ocean. 1. From 15 to 30 euglossine species of 4 genera were active in each month and site; monthly species number and general bee abundance were positively correlated. Many species had 3 annual abundance peaks (range 1-4) and were active throughout the year, but peak annual abundances rarely occurred during late wet or early dry seasons. In contrast, Eufriesea generally were present as adults only 1-2 months in a year. 2. Euglossine populations were exceptionally stable. Species at each site were more stable than any known insect population, and stability and abundance were positively associated. However, year-to-year population stability and the degree of seasonality were not correlated. Among the three sites, the more diverse (species rich) bee assemblages displayed lower stability; these were the wetter and upland sites. 3. The most abundant bees visited more orchid species. Eg. and El. each visited and average of 4 orchid species (range 0-13); Ex. and Ef. visited 0-3. Stable populations did not visit more or fewer orchid species than did unstable populations. 4. Less than 68% of species at each site visited orchid flowers; less than a few dozen of the 100-800 bees counted in a day carried orchid pollinaria. Over 20% of the euglossine species never were seen with pollinaria at any site and probably seldom visit orchids in central Panama. 5. Most bee species visited 1 or no fragrance orchids in a given habitat. Orchids tended to utilize common pollinators that seldom included more than 1 species, and they utilized stable or unstable, seasonal or aseasonal bees. However, the most

  11. Is floral divergence sufficient to maintain species boundaries upon secondary contact in Mediterranean food-deceptive orchids?

    OpenAIRE

    Zitari, A; Scopece, G; Helal, A N; Widmer, A; Cozzolino, S

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the processes that determine whether species boundaries are maintained on secondary contact may shed light on the early phase of speciation. In Anacamptis morio and Anacamptis longicornu, two Mediterranean orchid sister-species, we used molecular and morphological analyses, together with estimates of pollination success and experimental crosses, to assess whether floral isolation can shelter the species' genomes from genetic admixture on secondary contact. We found substantial genet...

  12. Asymbiotic germination in vitro in seeds of four species of Cuban orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loexis Rodríguez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available About the most of 300 species of Cuban native orchids is have few reference of the micropropagation in the science literature. However, the biotechnical techniques fulfill an important acting in the rescue of threatened species. By that in the laboratory of Vegetable Biotechnology of the Mountain Development Center in Guantanamo, aspects related with the germination were studied in vitro of Campylocentrum micrantrum, Encyclia cochleata, Epidendrum difforme and Oceoclade maculata using the salts of the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Knudson (1946, increasing with activate charcoal (0; 1; 2 g.l-1, Agar tachnical No. 3 6 g.l-1 and the adjusted pH at 5.6. The seeds was incubated under conditions of 16 hours light to intensity of 27 uMol.m².s-¹ and 24 ± 1 °C. The reached results showed that the germination of the studied species was obtained under different times and conditions of the medium of cultivation where it stood out for the smallest time used for the germination Encyclia cochleata to the eight weeks in the salts of Murashige and Skoog (1962 and without the addition of activated charcoal, as long as Oceoclade maculata needed 24 weeks to germinate. Key words: antioxidante, biotechnology, flowers, micropropagación, native species

  13. First Guatemalan record of natural hybridisation between Neotropical species of the Lady's Slipper orchid (Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Kolanowska, Marta; Muller, Fred; Vannini, Jay; Rojek, Joanna; Górniak, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum . Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum . A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands ( C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum ) and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre ( C. molle and C. irapeanum ). Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle .

  14. Why some plant species are rare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieger Wamelink, G W; Wamelink, G W Weiger; Goedhart, Paul W; Frissel, Joep; Frissel, Josep Y

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others are not. Are they rare due to: intrinsic reasons, dispersal capacity, the effects of management or abiotic circumstances? Habitat preference of rare plant species may play an important role in determining why some species are rare. Based on an extensive data set of soil parameters we investigated if rarity is due to a narrow habitat preference for abiotic soil parameters. For 23 different abiotic soil parameters, of which the most influential were groundwater-table, soil-pH and nutrient-contents, we estimated species responses for common and rare species. Based on the responses per species we calculated the range of occurrence, the range between the 5 and 95 percentile of the response curve giving the habitat preference. Subsequently, we calculated the average response range for common and rare species. In addition, we designed a new graphic in order to provide a better means for presentation of the results. The habitat preferences of rare species for abiotic soil conditions are significantly narrower than for common species. Twenty of the twenty-three abiotic parameters showed on average significantly narrower habitat preferences for rare species than for common species; none of the abiotic parameters showed on average a narrower habitat preference for common species. The results have major implications for the conservation of rare plant species; accordingly management and nature development should be focussed on the maintenance and creation of a broad range of environmental conditions, so that the requirements of rare species are met. The conservation of (abiotic) gradients within ecosystems is particularly important for preserving rare species.

  15. Holzbecker's Orchids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn N.

    2013-01-01

    : one that concerns some of the depictions of orchids. Out of the 22 orchids depicted, 11 have been caricatured to exaggerate their resemblance to small birds, men and insects. The article considers this strange phenomenon in light of the historical meaning of the orchids....

  16. An olfactory shift is associated with male perfume differentiation and species divergence in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Pfeiffer, Carolin; Pech, Jorge Ramirez; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Quezada-Euan, J Javier G; Lunau, Klaus

    2008-12-09

    Saltational changes may underlie the diversification of pheromone communication systems in insects, which are normally under stabilizing selection favoring high specificity in signals and signal perception. In orchid bees (Euglossini), the production of male signals depends on the sense of smell: males collect complex blends of volatiles (perfumes) from their environment, which are later emitted as pheromone analogs at mating sites. We analyzed the behavioral and antennal response to perfume components in two male morphotypes of Euglossa cf. viridissima from Mexico, which differ in the number of mandibular teeth. Tridentate males collected 2-hydroxy-6-nona-1,3-dienyl-benzaldehyde (HNDB) as the dominant component of their perfume. In bidentate males, blends were broadly similar but lacked HNDB. Population genetic analysis revealed that tri- and bidentate males belong to two reproductively isolated lineages. Electroantennogram tests (EAG and GC-EAD) showed substantially lower antennal responses to HNDB in bidentate versus tridentate males, revealing for the first time a mechanism by which closely related species acquire different chemical compounds from their habitat. The component-specific differences in perfume perception and collection in males of two sibling species are in agreement with a saltational, olfaction-driven mode of signal perfume evolution. However, the response of females to the diverged signals remains unknown.

  17. Rapid evolution of chemosensory receptor genes in a pair of sibling species of orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Philipp; Ramírez, Santiago R; Leese, Florian; Quezada-Euan, J Javier G; Tollrian, Ralph; Eltz, Thomas

    2015-08-28

    Insects rely more on chemical signals (semiochemicals) than on any other sensory modality to find, identify, and choose mates. In most insects, pheromone production is typically regulated through biosynthetic pathways, whereas pheromone sensory detection is controlled by the olfactory system. Orchid bees are exceptional in that their semiochemicals are not produced metabolically, but instead male bees collect odoriferous compounds (perfumes) from the environment and store them in specialized hind-leg pockets to subsequently expose during courtship display. Thus, the olfactory sensory system of orchid bees simultaneously controls male perfume traits (sender components) and female preferences (receiver components). This functional linkage increases the opportunities for parallel evolution of male traits and female preferences, particularly in response to genetic changes of chemosensory detection (e.g. Odorant Receptor genes). To identify whether shifts in pheromone composition among related lineages of orchid bees are associated with divergence in chemosensory genes of the olfactory periphery, we searched for patterns of divergent selection across the antennal transcriptomes of two recently diverged sibling species Euglossa dilemma and E. viridissima. We identified 3185 orthologous genes including 94 chemosensory loci from five different gene families (Odorant Receptors, Ionotropic Receptors, Gustatory Receptors, Odorant Binding Proteins, and Chemosensory Proteins). Our results revealed that orthologs with signatures of divergent selection between E. dilemma and E. viridissima were significantly enriched for chemosensory genes. Notably, elevated signals of divergent selection were almost exclusively observed among chemosensory receptors (i.e. Odorant Receptors). Our results suggest that rapid changes in the chemosensory gene family occurred among closely related species of orchid bees. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that strong divergent selection

  18. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  19. Global warming not so harmful for all plants - response of holomycotrophic orchid species for the future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanowska, Marta; Kras, Marta; Lipińska, Monika; Mystkowska, Katarzyna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Naczk, Aleksandra M

    2017-10-05

    Current and expected changes in global climate are major threat for biological diversity affecting individuals, communities and ecosystems. However, there is no general trend in the plants response to the climate change. The aim of present study was to evaluate impact of the future climate changes on the distribution of holomycotrophic orchid species using ecological niche modeling approach. Three different scenarios of future climate changes were tested to obtain the most comprehensive insight in the possible habitat loss of 16 holomycotrophic orchids. The extinction of Cephalanthera austiniae was predicted in all analyses. The coverage of suitable niches of Pogoniopsis schenckii will decrease to 1-30% of its current extent. The reduction of at least 50% of climatic niche of Erythrorchis cassythoides and Limodorum abortivum will be observed. In turn, the coverage of suitable niches of Hexalectris spicata, Uleiorchis ulaei and Wullschlaegelia calcarata may be even 16-74 times larger than in the present time. The conducted niche modeling and analysis of the similarity of their climatic tolerance showed instead that the future modification of the coverage of their suitable niches will not be unified and the future climate changes may be not so harmful for holomycotrophic orchids as expected.

  20. Is floral divergence sufficient to maintain species boundaries upon secondary contact in Mediterranean food-deceptive orchids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitari, A; Scopece, G; Helal, A N; Widmer, A; Cozzolino, S

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the processes that determine whether species boundaries are maintained on secondary contact may shed light on the early phase of speciation. In Anacamptis morio and Anacamptis longicornu, two Mediterranean orchid sister-species, we used molecular and morphological analyses, together with estimates of pollination success and experimental crosses, to assess whether floral isolation can shelter the species' genomes from genetic admixture on secondary contact. We found substantial genetic and morphological homogenization in sympatric populations in combination with an apparent lack of postmating isolation. We further detected asymmetric introgression in the sympatric populations and an imbalance in cytotype representation, which may be due either to a difference in flowering phenology or else be a consequence of cytonuclear incompatibilities. Estimates of genetic clines for markers across sympatric zones revealed markers that significantly deviated from neutral expectations. We observed a significant correlation between spur length and reproductive success in sympatric populations, which may suggest that directional selection is the main cause of morphological differentiation in this species pair. Our results suggest that allopatric divergence has not led to the evolution of sufficient reproductive isolation to prevent genomic admixture on secondary contact in this orchid species pair. PMID:21792224

  1. Collectors on illicit collecting: Higher loyalties and other techniques of neutralization in the unlawful collecting of rare and precious orchids and antiquities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Simon; Yates, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be 'wildlife crime' while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on 'illicit art and antiquities'. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets. However, the trafficking routines, the types and levels of harm involved, and the supply-demand dynamics in the trafficking of orchids and antiquities are actually quite similar, and in this study we find those structural similarities reflected in substantial common ground in the way collectors talk about their role in each market. Collectors of rare and precious orchids and antiquities valorize their participation in markets that are known to be in quite considerable degree illicit, appealing to 'higher loyalties' such as preservation, appreciation of aesthetic beauty and cultural edification. These higher loyalties, along with other techniques of neutralization, deplete the force of law as a guide to appropriate action. We propose that the appeal to higher loyalties is difficult to categorize as a technique of neutralization in this study as it appears to be a motivational explanation for the collectors involved. The other classic techniques of neutralization are deflective, guilt and critique reducing narrative mechanisms, while higher loyalties drives illicit behaviour in collecting markets for orchids and antiquities in ways that go significantly beyond the normal definition of neutralization.

  2. Fatal attraction: rare species in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Elena; Deves, Anne-Laure; Saint Jalmes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2009-04-07

    The exploitation of rare and endangered species can end in the species's extinction because the increased value people associate with rarity increases the economic incentive to exploit the last individuals, creating a positive feedback loop. This recently proposed concept, called the anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE), relies on the assumption that people do value rarity, but this remains to be established. Moreover, it also remains to be determined whether attraction to rarity is a trait confined to a minority of hobbyists (e.g. wildlife collectors, exotic pet owners) or characteristic of the general public. We estimated how much the general public valued rare species compared with common ones, using five different metrics related to personal investment: time spent, physical effort, unpleasantness, economic investment and risk. We surveyed the visitors of a zoo. To see the rare species, the visitors to the zoo invested more time in searching and contemplation, they were ready to expend more physical effort, they tolerated more unpleasant conditions, they were willing to pay more and, finally, they risked more to obtain (steal) a rare species. Our results provide substantial evidence of how the general public places more value on rare species, compared with common species. This confirms the AAE as an actual process, which in addition concerns a large part of the population. This has important consequences for the conservation of species that are rare now, or that could become so in the future.

  3. Note on the rare terrestrial orchid Apostasia elliptica found in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Apostasia elliptica J.J. Smith has only been collected twice before, in Sumatra and on the Malay Peninsula. The species has now been found in Borneo. The collection by Bünnemeijer (107) from Sumatra, Westcoast Reserve, Ophir District, N of Talu represents the type and is deposited in BO. The Malay

  4. Rare species are valued big time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been postulated that the value humans place on rarity could cause the extinction of rare species. This is because people are willing to pay the high costs of exploiting the last individuals. Many hobbies, such as ecotourism or the keeping of exotic pets may cause this effect--known as the anthropogenic Allee effect. However, the entire theory relies on the insofar undemonstrated assumption that people do value rarity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to quantify how much people valued rare species relative to common ones, we created online slideshows of photographs of either rare or common species on an Internet web site. The slideshow with photographs of rare species attracted more visitors, and visitors spent, in general, more time waiting to view it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide evidence that people value rare more than common species. As we did not target consumers of a specific market, this finding suggests that the anthropogenic Allee effect is likely be driven by a large part of the population. Given the substantial participation in our online experiment, we highlight the potential of the world wide web resource as a tool for conservation action. However, the evidence presented here that the general public value rare species, combined with the assumption that anthropogenic Allee effect is operating, implies that conservationists should be prudent when using rarity to promote conservation.

  5. First Guatemalan record of natural hybridisation between Neotropical species of the Lady's Slipper orchid (Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szlachetko, D. L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Müller, F.; Vannini, J.; Rojek, J.; Gorniak, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), č. článku e4162. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : in-vitro * reproductive isolation * seed-germination * hybrid orchid * sample-size * dna * performance * nuclear * models * distributions * Cypripedium * Cypripediaceae * Hybridization * ENM analysis * Nuclear markers * Taxonomy * Irapeana Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  6. Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.A.; Tapic, R.T.; Aurigue, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S.kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S.tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effect of dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also, it sought to determine the lethal dose and optimum dose of gamma radiation on the three species. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose level of gamma radiation. The three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. Results showed that as the dose level and ministered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases whereas, the seedlings height, number of roots and root length decreased. However, there was an increase in the number of leaves at 10 and 20 Gy dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreased the number of leaves. Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma irradiation

  8. First Guatemalan record of natural hybridisation between Neotropical species of the Lady’s Slipper orchid (Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum. Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum. A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands (C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre (C. molle and C. irapeanum. Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle.

  9. First Guatemalan record of natural hybridisation between Neotropical species of the Lady’s Slipper orchid (Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Muller, Fred; Vannini, Jay; Rojek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum. Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum. A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands (C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum) and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre (C. molle and C. irapeanum). Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle. PMID:29302391

  10. Orchid Classification Disease Identification And Healthiness Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. V Sanjaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Floriculture has become one of Sri Lankas major foreign exchange ventures and it has grown substantially during the last few years. Currently we can find three major types of growers in floriculture. They are Large Commercial Ventures Middle Level growers and Village Level growers. Both Middle Level and Village level growers usually go for low cost cultivation with minimum advanced techniques sticking to conventional methods. Orchid cultivation is more pleasurable and profitable than any other floriculture ventures. As the orchid cultivation is so pleasurable we can introduce another group of growers who cultivate orchid in their home gardens for making their home gardens beautiful. But the problem is that most of these growers may not have the knowledge to identify the specie of the plants as there are a number of similar looking plants which are in different species. And also they may not have the knowledge about the orchid diseases. Because of that they may not be able to get the maximum outcome from their cultivations. So the aim of our project is to address the above mentioned issues by introducing a system which can identify orchid species amp diseases and predict the healthiness of the orchid plants. The only input to this system is an image of an orchid leaf and the system will provide the orchid specie name diseases if there any healthiness of the orchid plant and suggestions to overcome the issues associated with the orchid plant as the output. We identify the orchid species and diseases by extracting the features of orchid plant leaf in the input image using image processing technics and with the use of data mining technics we predict the healthiness of the orchid plant. So this system will be a great help for the people who love to grow orchids but dont have knowledge about the orchid species and diseases. And also they will be able to find the healthiness of their orchid plants.

  11. Orchid Inventory and the Host in Meru Betiri National Park – East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park is located in southern part of East Java Province. Inventory of orchid species was conducted to study orchid diversity in Meru Betiri National Park, especially in Bandealit coastal area. Observation of orchid within host trees was also done to study the preference host trees for orchid growth. It was recorded that there were 25 orchid species belonging to 20 genera. Twenty species of which are epiphyte and 5 species are terrestrial. The most common epiphyte orchids were Pomatocalpa latifolia, Pomatocalpa spicata, Rhynchostylis retusa, Micropera pallida and Grosourdya appendiculata. While terrestrial orchid was only found in a small number, with common terrestrial orchids were Corymborkis veratrifolia and Goodyera rubicunda. The most preference host trees for epiphyte orchid were Tectona grandis (Teak, Clausena indica, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mangifera indica (Mango, but there is no specific relationship between host trees and epiphyte orchid.

  12. Partitioning of habitat effects casts light on the decline of the fen orchid, Liparis loeselii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Minter, Martine Olesen

    2015-01-01

    Liparis loeselii is a rare and declining orchid species restricted to rich fens in the northern hemisphere. Suggested reasons for the decline are habitat destruction, eutrophication, altered hydrology and scrub encroachment after termination of traditional management such as grazing and hay making...

  13. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  14. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-15

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  15. The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2013-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.

  16. Carpology of orchids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn N.; Johansen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Orchid fruits have been largely neglected in orchid research. More variable than generally imagined, orchid fruits have a basic structure that remains inadequately described and understood. Yet structure and function of orchid fruits are important for many aspects of orchid conservation and may...... contribute significantly to the understanding of orchid phylogeny. Carpological studies of orchids are part of the ongoing research of the monocot phylogeny research group at the University of Copenhagen. A model of the orchidaceous ovary explaining the pattern of six valves is presented here...

  17. Changes in Orchid Bee Communities Across Forest-Agroecosystem Boundaries in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aguiar, Willian Moura; Sofia, Silvia H; Melo, Gabriel A R; Gaglianone, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Are winter-active species vulnerable to climate warming? A case study with the wintergreen terrestrial orchid, Tipularia discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchin, Renée M; Dunn, Robert R; Hoffmann, William A

    2014-12-01

    In the eastern United States, winter temperature has been increasing nearly twice as fast as summer temperature, but studies of warming effects on plants have focused on species that are photosynthetically active in summer. The terrestrial orchid Tipularia discolor is leafless in summer and acquires C primarily in winter. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis in T. discolor is higher than the maximum temperature throughout most of its growing season, and therefore growth can be expected to increase with warming. Contrary to this hypothesis, experimental warming negatively affected reproductive fitness (number of flowering stalks, flowers, fruits) and growth (change in leaf area from 2010 to 2012) in T. discolor. Temperature in June-July was critical for flowering, and mean July temperature greater than 29 °C (i.e., 2.5 °C above ambient) eliminated reproduction. Warming of 1.2 °C delayed flowering by an average of 10 days and fruiting by an average of 5 days. Warming of 4.4 °C reduced relative growth rates by about 60%, which may have been partially caused by the direct effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration. Warming indirectly increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD) by 0.2-0.5 kPa, and leaf-to-air VPD over 1.3 kPa restricted stomatal conductance of T. discolor to 10-40% of maximum conductance. These results highlight the need to account for changes in VPD when estimating temperature responses of plant species under future warming scenarios. Increasing temperature in the future will likely be an important limiting factor to the distribution of T. discolor, especially along the southern edge of its range.

  19. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker reveals genetic diversity of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2013-10-15

    Genetic variability in the wild genotypes of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. collected from different parts of Northeast India, was analyzed using a Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system. A total of sixty individuals comprising of six natural populations were investigated for the existing natural genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty two (132) amplicons were produced by SCoT marker generating 96.21% polymorphism. The PIC value of the SCoT marker system was 0.78 and the Rp values of the primers ranged between 4.43 and 7.50. The percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 25% to 56.82%, Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.08 to 0.15 with mean Nei's gene diversity of 0.28, and Shannon's information index (I) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.24 with an average value of 0.43 were recorded. The gene flow value (0.37) and the diversity among populations (0.57) demonstrated higher genetic variation among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 43.37% of variation within the populations, whereas 56.63% variation was recorded among the populations. Cluster analysis also reveals high genetic variation among the genotypes. Present investigation suggests the effectiveness of SCoT marker system to estimate the genetic diversity of D. nobile and that it can be seen as a preliminary point for future research on the population and evolutionary genetics of this endangered orchid species of medicinal importance. © 2013.

  20. Size of the protected areas is the main determinant of species diversity in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schödelbauerová, Iva; Roberts, D.L.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 10 (2009), s. 2329-2334 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NDVI * Orchidaceae * Protected area * Species-area * Species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.167, year: 2009

  1. Niche conservatism of Eulophia alta, a trans-Atlantic orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eulophia embraces over 230 species distributed through the tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas. In Neotropics it is represented by a sole species – E. alta. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the difference between ecological niches occupied by American and African populations of this species based on the ecological niche modeling. The similarity between the glacial and present niches occupied by E. alta was calculated and the factors limiting the species occurrence were identified. Areas of seasonal tropical forest, tropical savanna and woodland served as refugia for the studied species during last glacial maximum and they were more widespread in Neotropics than in Africa. No significant niche shift after last glacial maximum was observed. The distribution of E. alta in its whole range is restricted mainly by temperature seasonality. The differences in the niches occupied by African and Neotropical populations of E. alta suggest preglacial disjunction of the species range and independent adaptation of both groups. Despite the significant range disjunction of E. alta the species is characterized by relatively high degree of niche conservatism.

  2. Global warming not so harmful for all plants-response of holomycotrophic orchid species for the future climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Kras, M.; Lipińska, M.; Mystkowska, K.; Szlachetko, D. L.; Naczk, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 12704. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : global warming * Orchids * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Presence, distribution and effect of white, pink and purple morphs on pollination in the orchid Orchis mascula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Schatz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How floral polymorphism of flowering plants can be maintained in evolutionary time has long intrigued ecologists and is still debated. In particular, how floral colour polymorphism influences reproductive success is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the case of Orchis mascula, a deceptive orchid species in which the presence of rare white-flowered individuals is known to increase the percentage pollination of co-occurring coloured morphs. In a brief review, we report all the orchid species for which rare colour morphs are recorded and show that colour polymorphism occurs in most orchid genera occurring in France. In this study, more than 20,000 individuals of O. mascula were surveyed and some rare clear pink morphs were recorded. The frequencies of white-flowered and clear pink-flowered individuals were 0.59% and 0.28%, respectively. These two rare-colour flowered individuals were not randomly distributed and restricted to a few populations. In addition, the presence of pink-flowered individuals and the use of experimental pink lures resulted in an increase in the percentage pollination of surrounding purple-flowered individuals, as previously shown for white-flowered individuals and white lures. These new observations favour kin selection as the means by which floral colour polymorphism is maintained in this species. We suggest conducting comparative studies of other species in order to evaluate the importance of this mechanism in orchid pollination and that of other plant families.

  4. Diversity, distribution and host-species associations of epiphytic orchids in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Timsina, B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Kindlmann, P.; Shrestha, B.; Bhattarai, B.; Raskoti, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 2803-2819 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * host * Nepal Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  5. Diversity, distribution and host-species associations of epiphytic orchids in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Timsina, Binu; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Munzbergová, Z.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Shrestha, B.; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Raskoti, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 2803-2819 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : vascular epiphytes * vertical stratification * elevational gradients * kathmandu valley * tree utilization * forest * richness * mexico * conservation * abundance * Species richness * Composition * Host * Traits * Nepal Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  6. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Rare vascular plant species at risk : recovery by seeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegtel, Dick M.

    . Rare vascular plant species are endangered worldwide. Population losses are most commonly caused by human-related factors. Conservation management seeks to halt this adverse trend and if possible, to enhance long-lasting self-sustainable populations. In general, rare species are poorly recruited

  8. Metagenomic Analyses of the Viruses Detected in Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Host Orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara; Koda, Yasunori

    2018-01-01

    In nature, mycorrhizal association with soilborne fungi is indispensable for orchid families. Fungal structures from compatible endo-mycorrhizal fungi in orchid cells are digested in cells to be supplied to orchids as nutrition. Because orchid seeds lack the reserves for germination, they keep receiving nutrition through mycorrhizal formation from seed germination until shoots develop (leaves) and become photoautotrophic. Seeds of all orchid species surely geminate with the help of their own fungal partners, and this specific partnership has been acquired for a long evolutional history between orchids and fungi.We have studied the interactions between orchids and mycorrhizal fungi and recently conducted transcriptome analyses (RNAseq) by a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. It is possible that orchid RNA isolated form naturally grown plants is contaminated with RNAs derived from mycorrhizal fungi in the orchid cells. To avoid such contamination, we here prepared aseptically germinated orchid plants (i.e., fungus-free plants) together with a pure-cultured fungal isolate and field-growing orchid samples. In the cDNA library prepared from orchid and fungal tissues, we found that partitivirus-like sequences were common in an orchid and its mycorrhizal fungus. These partitivirus-like sequences were closely related by a phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that transmission of an ancestor virus between the two organisms occurred through the specific relation of the orchid and its associated fungus.

  9. In vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Weichang; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Paphiopedilum is one of the most popular and rare orchid genera. Members of the genus are sold and exhibited as pot plants and cut flowers. Wild populations of Paphiopedilum are under the threat of extinction due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. A reduction in their commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is an option to reduce pressure from illegal collection, to attempt to meet commercial needs and to re-establish threatened species back into the wild. Although they are commercially propagated via asymbiotic seed germination, Paphiopedilum are considered to be difficult to propagate in vitro, especially by plant regeneration from tissue culture. This review aims to cover the most important aspects and to provide an up-to-date research progress on in vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum and to emphasize the importance of further improving tissue culture protocols for ex vitro-derived explants.

  10. A Study of the Epiphytic Orchids in Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIANI VIVIATI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to know the species of epiphytic orchids in Jobolarangan forest. The orchid samples were taken from all stand-plants. The plants were chosen randomly by considering the diversity and richness of orchids that attach on it. Each plant was sampled in three repetitions. Sampling of orchids existence in the plant’s stand were done using transect method through a zonation system. In this research 11 epiphytic-orchids such as Bulbophyllum bakhuizenii Stenn, Coelogyne miniata Lindl, Coelogyne rochussenii de Vr., Dendrobium bigibbum Lindl., Dendrobchilum longifolium, Eria bogoriensis, J.J.S. Liparis caespitosa (Thou. Lindl., Liparis pallida (Bl.. Pholidota globosa (Bl. Lindl., Polystachya flavescens (Bl. J.J.S., and Trichoglottis sp. were found. The host plant stand that was attached with most orchids was Schefflera fastigiata and Saurauia bracteosa, generally in zone three.

  11. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C E Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across

  12. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mouillot

    Full Text Available Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees, we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by

  13. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in biodiversity. To understand the effects of land-use change and collection on orchid species diversity and determine protection priorities, we conducted systematic field surveys, observed markets, interviewed orchid collectors, and then determined the conservation status of all orchids. We identified 426 orchid species in 115 genera in Xishuangbanna: 31% of all orchid species that occur in China. Species richness was highest at 1000-1200 m elevation. Three orchid species were assessed as possibly extinct in the wild, 15 as critically endangered, 82 as endangered, 124 as vulnerable, 186 as least concern, and 16 as data deficient. Declines over 20 years in harvested species suggested over-collection was the major threat, and utility value (i.e., medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’, a hotspot in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee fauna of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’ (REBIO Una, one of the largest Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, was surveyed for the first time. Baits with sixteen different scents were used to attract males of orchid bees. Eight hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 26 species were actively collected with insect nets during 60 hours in January and February, 2009, and January, 2010. Euglossa avicula Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa milenae Bembé, 2007 have been recorded for the first time in the state of Bahia. It was found that REBIO Una has one of the most diverse and rich orchid-bee faunas of the entire Atlantic Forest domain and holds some rare species, such as Euglossa cyanochloraMoure, 1996.

  15. Pollinator-Driven Speciation in Sexually Deceptive Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been suggested to play a major role for the origin and maintenance of the species diversity in orchids. Sexually deceptive orchids are one of the prime examples for rapid, pollinator-mediated plant radiations, with many species showing little genetic differentiation, lack of postzygotic barriers, but strong prezygotic reproductive isolation. These orchids mimic mating signals of female insects and employ male insects as pollinators. This kind of sexual mimicry leads to highly specialised pollination and provides a good system for investigating the process of pollinator-driven speciation. Here, we summarise the knowledge of key processes of speciation in this group of orchids and conduct a meta-analysis on traits that contribute to species differentiation, and thus potentially to speciation. Our study suggests that pollinator shift through changes in floral scent is predominant among closely related species in sexually deceptive orchids. Such shifts can provide a mechanism for pollinator-driven speciation in plants, if the resulting floral isolation is strong. Furthermore, changes in floral scent in these orchids are likely controlled by few genes. Together these factors suggest speciation in sexually deceptive orchids may happen rapidly and even in sympatry, which may explain the remarkable species diversity observed in this plant group.

  16. Some rare Indo-Pacific coral species are probable hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe T Richards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs worldwide face a variety of threats and many coral species are increasingly endangered. It is often assumed that rare coral species face higher risks of extinction because they have very small effective population sizes, a predicted consequence of which is decreased genetic diversity and adaptive potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that some Indo-Pacific members of the coral genus Acropora have very small global population sizes and are likely to be unidirectional hybrids. Whether this reflects hybrid origins or secondary hybridization following speciation is unclear. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The interspecific gene flow demonstrated here implies increased genetic diversity and adaptive potential in these coral species. Rare Acropora species may therefore be less vulnerable to extinction than has often been assumed because of their propensity for hybridization and introgression, which may increase their adaptive potential.

  17. RARE AND PROTECTED SPECIES IN URBAN FLORA OF GENICHESK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva S. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the most characteristic features of scientific and technological progress, which is associated with the rapid growth of cities and the urban population. It leads to irreversible processes of transformation of the natural environment. It anthropogenic transformation in connection with the development of the city and the subsequent rapid urbanization deals a devastating blow to the remnants of natural fractions urbanflora, which is preserved in the vicinity of Genichesk and would threaten the survival of a number of rare species of plants that grow here only in small areas with a small number of individuals. The article studies the protected and rare species of plants growing in the urban environment Genichesk. The study was conducted by routing way, with the implementation of standard procedures for drying, installation and post-processing of herbarium specimens. The research resulted in found new habitats of species listed in the Red Book, such as Astragalus borysthenicus Klokov, Crambe maritima L., Tulipa gesneriana L., Astrodaucus littoralis (M. Bieb. Drude, Stipa ucrainica P. Smirn., Tamarix gracillis Willd. Also in the article provides a brief description of 11 species of vascular plants and their sozological value. Saving the plants, which listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, in the city Genichesk, is a difficult task. The main limiting factors are destruction of habitat, degradation of soil cover. As a result of anthropogenic activities, cultivation, creation of pastures and destruction of natural habitats are declining habitat and abundance of rare and endemic species. Collect flowers for bouquets also reduces the number of rare species. Every year in the spring on the outskirts of the city lit dry grass, which adversely affects the early-flowering plants, including rare, such as Tulipa gesneriana L., Adonis vernalis L., Convallia majalis L. Despite this, a significant number of these plants not only grows urboecotope

  18. The use of the hypervariable P8 region of trnL(UAA intron for identification of orchid species: Evidence from restriction site polymorphism analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Kishor

    Full Text Available The P8 stem-loop region of the trnL intron, which is known to be hypervariable in size with multiple repeat motifs and created difficulties in alignment, is always excluded in phylogenetic as well as barcode analyses. This region was investigated for species discrimination in 98 taxa of orchids belonging to the tribe Vandeae using in silico mapping of restriction site polymorphism. The length of the P8 regions varied from 200 nucleotides in Aerides rosea to 669 nucleotides in Dendrophylax sallei. Forty two taxa had unique lengths, while as many as eight shared a common length of 521 nucleotides. Of the 35 restriction endonucleases producing digestions in the P8 regions, three, viz., AgsI, ApoI and TspDTI turned out to have recognition sites across all the 98 taxa being studied. When their restriction data were combined, 92 taxa could be discriminated leaving three taxon pairs. However, Acampe papillosa and Aeranthes arachnites despite having similar restriction sites differed in their P8 lengths. This is the first report on thorough investigation of the P8 region of trnL intron for search of species specific restriction sites and hence its use as a potential plant DNA barcode.

  19. Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-13

    There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Pollination ecology of the rare desert species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pollination ecology of Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass., a rare desert species endemic to central Asia, was examined by a series of observational studies and manipulative experiments in two natural populations during 2007–2008. Results showed that the duration of flowering lasted 21 and 23 ...

  1. New localities of rare species of the genus Microbotryum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbotryum bistortum, M. dianthorum, M. superbum and M. langerheimii, rare species of smut fungi are reported from new localities in Poland, mostly in protected areas. Dianthus superbus subsp. superbus is a new host for M. superbum observed. Taxonomical status of M. carthusianorum and M. superbum is discussed in the paper.

  2. Revision of the orchid genera Chrysoglossum, Collabium, Diglyphosa, and Pilophyllum (subtribe Collabiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgh, van der W.; Vogel, de E.F.

    1997-01-01

    This article contains a taxonomic revision of four orchid genera of the subtribe Collabiinae: Chrysoglossum (4 species), Collabium (11 species), Diglyphosa (2 species), and Pilophyllum (1 species). Three species are described as new: Chrysoglossum ensigerum, Collabium acuticalcar and Collabium

  3. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  4. Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Spalink, Daniel; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Hunter, Steven J.; Zuluaga, Alejandro; Iles, William J. D.; Clements, Mark A.; Arroyo, Mary T. K.; Leebens-Mack, James; Endara, Lorena; Kriebel, Ricardo; Neubig, Kurt M.; Whitten, W. Mark; Williams, Norris H.; Cameron, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species, more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here, we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. A supermatrix analysis places an additional 144 species based on three plastid genes. Orchids appear to have arisen roughly 112 million years ago (Mya); the subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae diverged from each other at the end of the Cretaceous; and the eight tribes and three previously unplaced subtribes of the upper epidendroids diverged rapidly from each other between 37.9 and 30.8 Mya. Orchids appear to have undergone one significant acceleration of net species diversification in the orchidoids, and two accelerations and one deceleration in the upper epidendroids. Consistent with theory, such accelerations were correlated with the evolution of pollinia, the epiphytic habit, CAM photosynthesis, tropical distribution (especially in extensive cordilleras), and pollination via Lepidoptera or euglossine bees. Deceit pollination appears to have elevated the number of orchid species by one-half but not via acceleration of the rate of net diversification. The highest rate of net species diversification within the orchids (0.382 sp sp−1 My−1) is 6.8 times that at the Asparagales crown. PMID:26311671

  5. New and rare species of anamorphic fungi for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of and disease symptoms caused by five fungal species parasitizing on plants of the Słowiński National Park and the Drawieński National Park (both located in north-western Poland are presented. Of the species, Ramularia celastri and Ascochyta irpina are new for Poland, and Ascochyta geraniicola, Phyllosticta caricis and Septoriella junci have earlier rarely been found in this country. Moreover, the latter three fungi were found on plants so far not reported in the literature to be their hosts. Finally, the known distribution of the fungi characterized in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented.

  6. Floral fragrance analysis of Prosthechea cochleata (Orchidaceae), an endangered native, epiphytic orchid, in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Florida is home to a number of native species of orchids. The Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge has 27 known species, including Prosthechea cochleata, the clamshell orchid, which is listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index. In a prior study done on this species in Mexico,...

  7. Study on Orchid Diversity in Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve is located in West Java Province. It covers a 15.000 hectare area of highland forest, the altitude range between 800 to 1823 m asl. Orchid inventory and exploration were conducted to study orchid diversity in this conservation areas. Living plant was collected for ex situ conservation purpose in Botanic Garden. Observation on the population of terrestrial and epiphyte orchid was also done to study the dominant orchid in that area. It was recorded that there were 137 orchid species belonging to 51 genera, 95 species of which were epiphytes and 42 other species were terrestrial orchids. 134 species of which were collected in Cibodas Botanic Garden, which is suitable place for highland plant. The most dominant terrestrial orchid was Plocoglottis javanica. Other species were also abundantly found, such as Phaius pauciflorus, Liparis rheedii, Diglyphosa latifolia, Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica, Calanthe ceciliae, C. speciosa and Phaius callosus. Some epiphyte orchids were very common found, that are Agrostophyllum majus, Coelogyne speciosa, Dendrobium mutabile, Agrostophyllum bicuspidatum, Pholidota ventricosa and Eria javanica. Some attractive orchids are potential for ornamental plant, such as Vanda tricolor, Phaius callosus, Phaius tankervilleae, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum lobbii, Coelogyne speciosa, Calanthe ceciliae, Calanthe triplicata and Calanthe speciosa.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF PRESERVATION OF THE RARE WILD ORCHID OF UKRAINIAN FLORA Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf. Soó ex E. Nelson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheiko E. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the optimal conditions for callusogenesis in (in vitro cultures of ovules, ovaries and anthers from vanishing wild orchid Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf. Soó ex E. Nelson followed by using of the obtained callus tissue to develop micropropagation techniques and conservation ex situ. In this study we used biotechnological (cultivation of explants in vitro and microscopic (making temporary preparations, light microscopy, cytomorphological callus tissue analysis methods. Nutrient media with optimal concentrations of growth regulators were selected and calluses derived from the generative organs were obtained (we used for ovaries Murashige–Skoog medium that contains 2.5 mg/l 6 of BAP and 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D; for ovules — nutrient medium Nitsch and Nitsch containing 2.0 mg/l of 6-benzyladenine and 2.5 mg/l of 2,4-D, for the explants from anther — nutrient medium Nitsch and Nitsch containing 3 mg/l 6 of 6- benzyladenine and 2.5 mg/l of IBA. Cytomorphological analysis reveals the presence of meristematic foci in calluses. It indicates the beginning of the secondary processes of differentiation in the callus tissue. The results may be used in further investigations to obtain O. sphegodes regenerated plants from callus.

  9. Microsites Matter: Improving the Success of Rare Species Reintroductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Dunwiddie

    Full Text Available Our study was undertaken to better understand how to increase the success rates of recovery plantings of a rare hemiparasite, golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta-Orobanchaceae. This species is endemic to western Washington and Oregon, USA, and southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Over 5000 golden paintbrush plants were outplanted as plugs in 2007 at six different native prairie sites that were considered to be suitable habitat, based on general evaluations of vegetation and soil conditions. Outplantings were installed at regular intervals along transects up to 1 km long to include a range of conditions occurring at each site. All plantings were re-examined five years later. The patchy distribution of surviving plugs and new recruits within each reintroduction site suggested success is strongly influenced by microsite characteristics. Indicator species analysis of taxa growing in microsites around outplanted golden paintbrush identified species that were positively or negatively associated with paintbrush survival. Species such as Festuca roemeri, Eriophyllum lanatum, and Viola adunca were strong indicators at some sites; non-natives such as Hypochaeris radicata and Teesdalia nudicaulis tended to be frequent negative indicators. Overall, higher richness of native perennial forbs was strongly correlated with both survival and flowering of golden paintbrush, a pattern that may reflect interactions of this hemiparasite with the immediately surrounding plant community. Topographic position also influenced outcomes, with greater survival occurring on mounds and in swales, where soils generally were deeper. Our findings suggest that assessments of site suitability based on vegetation alone, and coarser, site-level assessments that do not characterize heterogeneity at the microsite scale, may not be strong predictors of restoration success over the longer term and in sites with variability in vegetation and soils. By identifying suitable

  10. Rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species: A rare causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Balvant Lunge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common form of mucormycosis occurring commonly in patients of diabetic ketoacidosis. Fungi of the order Mucorales belong to six families, among whom Rhizopus is the most common, while Mucor is a rare cause. We report a 45-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus diagnosed to have rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species. The diagnosis was confirmed on histology and culture. A high-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy to optimize the outcome. Our patient succumbed to her infection.

  11. Neonatal purpura fulminans caused by rare Citrobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Vijay Choudhary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-day-old neonate, born of nonconsangious marriage, admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for hypernatremic dehydration with petechiae and ecchymotic patches and necrotic skin lesions for 10–12 days was referred to dermatology department. On the general examination, pulse was 158/min, and respiratory rate was 52/min, and systemic examination was normal. Hematological investigations showed pancytopenia. Bleeding time was normal but prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time reports were prolonged. D-dimer levels were elevated. Urine and stool were normal. Blood culture and sensitivity report revealed the growth of Citrobacter species with sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tetracycline, and resistance to Imipenem. Histopathology revealed epidermal hyperkeratosis with epidermal-dermal splitting, vessels showing fibrin occlusion with red blood cell extravasation into the perivascular areas in dermis along with dermal necrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this might be the first case of purpura fulminans in a neonate caused by rare Citrobacter species.

  12. Mutation induction of orchids by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Sakinah Ariffin; Oono, Yutaka; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono; Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Mutation induction using ionizing radiation provides an effective alternative means for improvement of orchids. In this study, ion beams were used because they have much higher linear energy transfer (LET) than X-rays or gamma rays, and subsequently lead to higher mutation frequency and broad mutation spectrum. The proto corm-like bodies (PLBs) of three orchid species (Dendrobium crumenatum, Dendrobium mirbellianum) were irradiated at various doses with 320 MeV 12 C 6+ ions accelerated by Azimuthally Varying Field (AVF) cyclotron at JAEAs Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA). The optimum irradiation condition and the effect of irradiation on each species were studied, particularly on flower colour and morphology, flowering habit and insect resistance. Dose effects on plantlet regeneration for each species were also obtained. Some morphological changes were observed in flowers of Dendrobium crumenatum, whilst one insect resistant mutant was obtained in Dendrobium mirbellianum. (author)

  13. Diversity, composition and host-species relationships of epiphytic orchids and ferns in two forest in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adhikari, Y. P.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, H. S.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Bhattarai, P.; Gruppe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 1672-6316 Grant - others:European Comission(XE) 212459 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : environmental factors * epiphytes * large trees * indicator species * multivariate and univariate analyses * permutations tests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.016, year: 2016

  14. Rare Pediastrum species (Chlorophyceae from Polish coastal lakes

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    Joanna Kowalska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the occurrence of Pediastrum (Chlorophyceae, Sphaeropleales in five eutrophic coastal lakes (Jamno, Bukowo, Gardno, Łebsko and Sarbsko in northern Poland, together with morphological data of the species and more detailed taxonomic and ecological information for three taxa which appear to be rare world wide. These are P. musterii, P. orientale and P. alternans; the first is recorded for the first time from central Europe. P. orientale and P. alternans show considerable morphological variability under different environmental conditions, indicating the need for further studies. The studied lakes seem to be especially favourable for Pediastrum, with a total of eight species (15 taxa in the phytoplankton noted during the summer. However, the relative frequency of the genus in the overall algal communities was low. The most frequent species were P. boryanum, P. kawraiskyi and P. duplex and these were accompanied by cyanobacteria, coccal green algae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae. All the Pediastrum taxa were documented using LM and SEM.

  15. Diversity, composition and host-species relationships of epiphytic orchids and ferns in two forests in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adhikari, Y. P.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, H. S.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Bhattarai, P.; Gruppe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : vascular epiphytes * kathmandu valley * managed forests * dry forest * land-use * richness * conservation * biodiversity * assemblages * preferences * Environmental factors * Epiphytes * Large trees * Indicator species * Multivariate and univariate analyses * Permutations tests Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.016, year: 2016

  16. Deceived by orchids: sex, science, fiction and Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid. Early twentieth-century botanists were able to see what their predecessors had not because orchids (along with other plants) had undergone an imaginative re-creation: Darwin's science was appropriated by popular interpreters of science, including the novelist Grant Allen; then H.G. Wells imagined orchids as killers (inspiring a number of imitators), to produce a genre of orchid stories that reflected significant cultural shifts, not least in the presentation of female sexuality. It was only after these changes that scientists were able to see plants as equipped with agency, actively able to pursue their own, cunning reproductive strategies - and to outwit animals in the process. This paper traces the movement of a set of ideas that were created in a context that was recognizably scientific; they then became popular non-fiction, then popular fiction, and then inspired a new science, which in turn inspired a new generation of fiction writers. Long after clear barriers between elite and popular science had supposedly been established in the early twentieth century, they remained porous because a variety of imaginative writers kept destabilizing them. The fluidity of the boundaries between makers, interpreters and publics of scientific knowledge was a highly

  17. Stakeholder perspectives on the importance of rare-species research for deep-sea environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Phillip J.; Campbell, Lisa M.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2017-07-01

    The apparent prevalence of rare species (rarity) in the deep sea is a concern for environmental management and conservation of biodiversity. Rare species are often considered at risk of extinction and, in terrestrial and shallow water environments, have been shown to play key roles within an ecosystem. In the deep-sea environment, current research focuses primarily on abundant species and deep-sea stakeholders are questioning the importance of rare species in ecosystem functioning. This study asks whether deep-sea stakeholders (primarily scientists) view rare-species research as a priority in guiding environmental management. Delphi methodology (i.e., an iterative survey approach) was used to understand views about whether or not 'deep-sea scientists should allocate more resources to research on rare species in the deep sea, even if this means less resources might be available for abundant-species research.' Results suggest little consensus regarding the prioritization of resources for rare-species research. From Survey 1 to Survey 3, the average participant response shifted toward a view that rare-species research is not a priority if it comes at a cost to research on abundant species. Participants pointed to the need for a balanced approach and highlighted knowledge gaps about even the most fundamental questions, including whether rare species are truly 'rare' or simply under-sampled. Participants emphasized the lack of basic biological knowledge for rare and abundant species, particularly abundant meio- and microscopic species, as well as uncertainty in the roles rare and abundant species play in ecosystem processes. Approaches that jointly consider the role of rare and abundant species in ecosystem functioning (e.g., biological trait analysis) may help to clarify the extent to which rare species need to be incorporated into deep-sea environment management in order to maintain ecosystem functioning.

  18. Oeceoclades maculata, an alien tropical orchid in a Caribbean rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ian M; Ackerman, James D

    2009-08-01

    Undisturbed forest habitat can be relatively impenetrable to invasive, non-native species. Orchids are not commonly regarded as invasive, but some species have become invasive and these generally depend on habitat disturbance. One of the most aggressive orchids is Oeceoclades maculata, a terrestrial species with remarkable ecological amplitude. Originally from tropical Africa, it is now widespread in the neotropics. By associating its local distribution with land-use history and habitat characteristics, it was determined whether O. maculata is dependent on habitat disturbance. It was also investigated whether this exotic orchid occupies the same habitat space as two sympatric native species. Six 10 m x 500 m transects were censused in June 2007 on the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot, located in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The plot had been mapped for historical land use, topography and soil type. Oeceoclades maculata was the most abundant of three orchid species surveyed and was found in all four historical cover classes. In cover class 3 (50-80 % forest cover in 1936), 192 of 343 plants were found at a density of 0.48 plants per 5 x 5 m subplot. Over 93 % of the 1200 subplots surveyed were composed of Zarzal or Cristal soil types, and O. maculata was nearly evenly distributed in both. The orchid was most common on relatively flat terrain. The distribution and abundance of two sympatric orchid species were negatively associated with that of the invasive species. Oeceoclades maculata does penetrate 'old growth' forest but is most abundant in areas with moderate levels of past disturbance. Soil type makes little difference, but slope of terrain can be important. The negative association between O. maculata and native species may reflect differences in habitat requirements or a negative interaction perhaps at the mycorrhizal level.

  19. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  20. Mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances Phalaenopsis orchid's growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phalaenopsis is the most important potted orchid genus in the world. However, the low seedling survival rate, long vegetative growth period and disease outbreak are problems in production. Orchid micorrhizal fungi (OMF) are their obligate partners in orchid physiology. Orchids use their symbionts to gain access to organic ...

  1. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers that...

  2. Irregular flowering patterns in terrestrial orchids: theories vs. empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kindlmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on many species of terrestrial orchids suggest that their between-year flowering pattern is extremely irregular and unpredictable. A long search for the reason has hitherto proved inconclusive. Here we summarise and critically review the hypotheses that were put forward as explanations of this phenomenon: irregular flowering was attributed to costs associated with sexual reproduction, to herbivory, or to the chaotic behaviour of the system represented by difference equations describing growth of the vegetative and reproductive organs. None of these seems to explain fully the events of a transition from flowering one year to sterility or absence the next year. Data on the seasonal growth of leaves and inflorescence of two terrestrial orchid species, Epipactis albensis and Dactylorhiza fuchsii and our previous results are then used here to fill gaps in what has been published until now and to test alternative explanations of the irregular flowering patterns of orchids.

  3. Sex and the Catasetinae (Darwin's favourite orchids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Whitten, W Mark; Salazar, Gerardo; Gerlach, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINA DWI YULIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yulia ND, Budiharta S (2011 Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 22-27. Natural forests in Wilis Mountain have been destroyed by forest fires, landslides and illegal logging. As a consequence, biological diversity in this area is threatened by local extinctions, particularly of orchid species. This study was aimed to explore, document and analyze the diversity of epiphytic orchids at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, a natural forest area in Wilis Mountain. Purposive sampling on 1 hectare (50 x 200 m2 contiguous plot was used. This plot was divided into eight subplots (25 x 50 m2. All data on orchid species were recorded including its number, host trees and zone of the host tree where the orchid attached. The results showed that there were 29 epiphytic orchid species recorded. Flickingeria angulata was the most abundant species (Relative Abundance of orchids/ %Fo = 38.74, continued by Appendicula sp. (%Fo = 10.91 and Eria hyacinthoides (%Fo = 6.57. The three most important host trees were Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii and Engelhardia spicata. Zone 3 (bottom part of the branches was revealed as the most favorable part at the host tree (281 individuals, while Zone 1 (bottom part of the main stem was the least preferable one.

  5. Pollination of euglossinophylic epiphytic orchids in agroecosystems and forest fragments in southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Damon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the reproductive status of the native orchids of the biodiversity “hotspot”, Biological Corridor Tacaná-Boquerón, in the region of Soconusco, southeast Mexico, which are suffering the effects of habitat degradation, unsustainable exploitation and potentially, climate change, we analysed the species richness, abundance, habitat and abiotic preferences, pollinaria transport and relation to orchid populations, of male Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidea: Euglossini in agroecosystems and forest fragments within the region. Using volatile baits we trapped 2,480 bees, consisting of 14 species, during a total of 256 hours, of which 284 individuals (11.5% had pollinaria of 18 orchid species adhered to their bodies. Three species of Eufriesia (E. caerulescens, E. mexicana, E. rugosa and one species of Euglossa (E. villosa were recorded for the first time. We report Eulaema meriana as the pollinator of the recently rediscovered Plectrophora alata. We did not detect habitat preferences for the species of Euglossini captured, and they were frequent, or even more frequent, in intensive coffee plantations, as are many of the orchid species, which can be classified as a disturbed habitat. Bees tended to be more abundant with increasing light intensity and decreasing humidity at each site. There was little indication of pollinator specificity and the position of the pollinaria of each orchid species on the bodies of the bees was also variable. We did not recover any pollinaria from various euglossinophylic, epiphytic orchid species present in the region and three bee species showed signs of population decline. However, our results indicate that many species of orchids with this pollination syndrome are receiving pollination service within an increasingly fragmented and disturbed environment, suggesting that both the orchids and the bees are adapting to the changes.

  6. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  7. Systematic adaptive cluster sampling for the assessment of rare tree species in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, B.; Bhattarai, G.; Gier, de A.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling to assess rare tree species poses methodic problems, because they may cluster and many plots with no such trees are to be expected. We used systematic adaptive cluster sampling (SACS) to sample three rare tree species in a forest area of about 40 ha in Nepal. We checked its applicability

  8. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  9. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  10. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  11. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.

    1997-01-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  12. In Vitro Propagation Of Nepalese Orchids: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jaime A. Teixeira da

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nepalese orchids are made up of 458 taxa. Despite a ban on the collection and trade of all orchid species in Nepal, numerous anthropogenic factors are leading to the rapid loss of natural stands of germplasm. Biotechnology, specifically in vitro propagation, may be the only viable solution for preserving and reintroducing endangered germplasm back into the wild. Despite the large germplasm base, only tissue culture studies have been conducted, and most have focused almost exclusively on in vitro seed germination, the bulk of which have been conducted in the past few years. No other biotechnological advances have yet been made. This brief review provides a short synopsis of the advances made thus far in the in vitro propagation of Nepalese orchids.

  13. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of the orchid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaurav

    colourful-long lasting flowers, shinning green leaves and variously shaped pseudobulbs, they are very popular around the world. A total of 90 species of orchids ... ornamental plant in many gardens, nurseries, hotels, etc. Its medicinal value is due to paste of its pseudobulb which is applied to the forehead against headache ...

  14. Macroevolution of perfume signalling in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Mitko, Lukasz; Eltz, Thomas; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2016-11-01

    Theory predicts that both stabilising selection and diversifying selection jointly contribute to the evolution of sexual signalling traits by (1) maintaining the integrity of communication signals within species and (2) promoting the diversification of traits among lineages. However, for many important signalling traits, little is known about whether these dynamics translate into predictable macroevolutionary signatures. Here, we test for macroevolutionary patterns consistent with sexual signalling theory in the perfume signals of neotropical orchid bees, a group well studied for their chemical sexual communication. Our results revealed both high species-specificity and elevated rates of evolution in perfume signals compared to nonsignalling traits. Perfume complexity was correlated with the number of congeners in a species' range, suggesting that perfume evolution may be tied to the remarkably high number of orchid bee species coexisting together in some neotropical communities. Finally, sister-pair comparisons were consistent with both rapid divergence at speciation and character displacement upon secondary contact. Together, our results provide new insight into the macroevolution of sexual signalling in insects. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Production of virus-free orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. by various tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Shreeti; Regmi, Tripti; Ranjit, Mukunda; Pant, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼) with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). To provide disease-free planting ma...

  16. Notes on some species of Ascochyta (Coelomycetes new and rare for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Ascochyta (conidial fungi, Coelomycetes are described in the paper. Ascochyta urticae A. L. Smith et Ramsbottom (on Urtica dioica L. and Ascochyta phomoides Saccardo (on Aegopodium podagraria L. are species new for Poland. Ascochyta podagrariae Bresadola (on A. podagraria L. is known from one locality only. All species are rarely noted in the world.

  17. [Chromosome variability in the tissue culture of rare Gentiana species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvardovs'ka, M O; Strashniuk, N M; Mel'nyk, V M; Adonin, V I; Kunakh, V A

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of plants and tissue culture of Gentiana lutea, G. punctata, G. acaulis has been carried out. Culturing in vitro was found to result in the changes of chromosome number in the calluses of the species involved. Species specificity for variation of the cultured cell genomes was shown. Contribution of the original plant genotypes to the cytogenetic structure of the tissue culture was established. Gentiana callus tissues (except for in vitro culture of G. punctata, derived from plant of Breskul'ska population) were found to exhibit modal class with the cells of diploid and nearly diploid chromosome sets.

  18. Orchid diversity at a residual plateu on Caroebe, Roraima

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    Francisco Joaci de Freitas Luz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchids were observed in a granitic mountain hill at the, Caroebe road 35, Roraima, at February and June of 2016. It was observed the occurrence of orchids in three different points: the base of the mountain, with typical humid tropical dry land forest; the forest around the rocky top of the mountain, with the presence of thin trees about 15 meters high, medium light entrance below the vegetation; and the granitic plateau, more sun incidence and surrounded by small shrubs. The total area surveyed was of 5 hectares. The orchids encountered in the whole trail were prior identified locally, just as their localization by GPS and according to their growth habit (epiphytic, terrestrial or rupicolous. It was found 28 species. The majority of the indivíduals identified in this survey were found on organic layers accumulated over the granitic rock, as follow: Catasetum planiceps, Catasetum discolor, Cyrtopodium andersonii, Encyclia granitica, Epidendrum ibaguense, Epidendrum viviparum, Cleistes rosea e Nohawilliamsia pirarensis. At the forest that surrounds the rocky hill it was observed, associated to small trees, the following epiphyte orchids: Dimerandra emarginata, Octomeria sp., Scaphyglottis sickii, Trigonidium acuminatum and Cattleya violacea. At the forest covering the base of the mountain it was found the larger number of species (13, with predominance of epiphytes. Besides the larger number found, the frequency of these species was very low, except for Camaridium ochroleucum and Heterotaxis superflua that were found in larger quantity associated to some sort of trees. The specie Liparis nervosa was found only associated to the base of a unique tree, over the organic matter accumulated locally. The large number of orchids found in the study area indicates its importance for more comprehensive studies and stresses the importance for conservation.

  19. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  20. Rare species of fungi parasitizing on algae. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following parasites of the genera Spirogyra Link, Mougeotia Agardh and Oedogonium Link are desribed: Myzocyutium irregulare, Woroninu glomerata, Harpochytrium tenuissimum, Woronina polycystis, Chytridium acuminatu, Myzocytium irregulare and Chytridumm acuminatum are new to Poland. Also, the first information on Woronina polycystis as a parasite on algae is presented. The figure of cystosori in a cell of Mougeotia mysorensis is the first graphic documentation of this species.

  1. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  2. Mutation Breeding of Dendrobium Orchids For Insect Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Sakinah Ariffin; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2010-01-01

    This project was a collaborative FNCA project involving Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Japan. The objective was to jointly produce new orchid mutants that resistant/tolerant to insect infestation. It focused on commercial hybrids or species of Dendrobium orchids; namely Dendrobium Sonia 17 Red from Thailand, Dendrobium jayakarta from Indonesia and Dendrobium mirbellianum from Malaysia. In this project, tissue culture orchid materials (proto corm-like-bodies or PLBs) were exchanged among the participated countries early in the project. The Malaysian research team had irradiated these PLBs with two ionizing mutagens; gamma rays and ion beams (JAEA). Following irradiation, regenerated plant lets were randomly selected from each dose and subjected to in vitro infestation with mites and thrips, to analyse their resistance towards these pests. The main aim of in vitro infestation was to pre-select potential mutants for secondary screening at flowering stage. Potential insect resistant orchid mutants were then selected and subsequently planted in the glass house. Secondary screenings were carried out at flowering stage by challenge-infestation with the target insects. This project, which was completed in December 2009, has successfully generated two D. jayakarta mutants tolerant to thrips, and one D. mirbellianum tolerant to both mite and thrips. (author)

  3. Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is a rare, central Asian desert species which shows lower fruit set and seed set (<16%) than most hermaphroditic species. We hypothesized that fruit production was limited by pollen and resources. To evaluate potential fruit abortion due to pollen limitation, su...

  4. Determining habitat potential and surveying for nine rare plant species in south-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Clark; Christine M. Groebner

    2001-01-01

    In south-central Utah, lands within and adjacent to Capitol Reef National Park contain populations of nine rare plant species. In an effort to enhance the combined knowledge about these species, the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, and the National Park Service signed an Interagency Agreement and hired an interagency biologist and field crew to...

  5. Consumer preference for seeds and seedlings of rare species impacts tree diversity at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Guevara, Roger; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-07-01

    Positive density-dependent seed and seedling predation, where herbivores selectively eat seeds or seedlings of common species, is thought to play a major role in creating and maintaining plant community diversity. However, many herbivores and seed predators are known to exhibit preferences for rare foods, which could lead to negative density-dependent predation. In this study, we first demonstrate the occurrence of increased predation of locally rare tree species by a widespread group of insular seed and seedling predators, land crabs. We then build computer simulations based on these empirical data to examine the effects of such predation on diversity patterns. Simulations show that herbivore preferences for locally rare species are likely to drive scale-dependent effects on plant community diversity: at small scales these foraging patterns decrease plant community diversity via the selective consumption of rare plant species, while at the landscape level they should increase diversity, at least for short periods, by promoting clustered local dominance of a variety of species. Finally, we compared observed patterns of plant diversity at the site to those obtained via computer simulations, and found that diversity patterns generated under simulations were highly consistent with observed diversity patterns. We posit that preference for rare species by herbivores may be prevalent in low- or moderate-diversity systems, and that these effects may help explain diversity patterns across different spatial scales in such ecosystems.

  6. The importance of associations with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi among fully mycoheterotrophic orchids is currently under-estimated: novel evidence from sub-tropical Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chih-Kai; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Most fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) orchids investigated to date are mycorrhizal with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. Only a few MH orchids are currently known to be mycorrhizal with saprotrophic, mostly wood-decomposing, fungi instead of ectomycorrhizal fungi. This study provides evidence that the importance of associations between MH orchids and saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi is currently under-estimated. Using microscopic techniques and molecular approaches, mycorrhizal fungi were localized and identified for seven MH orchid species from four genera and two subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae, growing in four humid and warm sub-tropical forests in Taiwan. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope natural abundances of MH orchids and autotrophic reference plants were used in order to elucidate the nutritional resources utilized by the orchids. Six out of the seven MH orchid species were mycorrhizal with either wood- or litter-decaying saprotrophic fungi. Only one orchid species was associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Stable isotope abundance patterns showed significant distinctions between orchids mycorrhizal with the three groups of fungal hosts. Mycoheterotrophic orchids utilizing saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi as a carbon and nutrient source are clearly more frequent than hitherto assumed. On the basis of this kind of nutrition, orchids can thrive in deeply shaded, light-limiting forest understoreys even without support from ectomycorrhizal fungi. Sub-tropical East Asia appears to be a hotspot for orchids mycorrhizal with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A revision of the orchid genera Ania Lindley, Hancockia Rolfe, Mischobulbum Schltr. and Tainia Blume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Hubert

    1992-01-01

    This study presents a taxonomic revision of the orchid genera Ania, Hancockia, Mischobulbum and Tainia. Keys to the genera and species are given, together with a desciption of each species. All species are also represented by line drawings. In toto, 31 species and 2 subspecies are recognised. Four

  8. Distribution Patterns of Ohio Stoneflies, with an Emphasis on Rare and Uncommon Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A.; Pessimo, Massimo; DeWalt, R. Edward

    2013-01-01

    Presently, 102 stonefly species (Plecoptera) have been reported from Ohio. All 9 Nearctic families are represented. Over 90% of the fauna exhibit a combination of broad Nearctic-widespread, eastern Nearctic-widespread, Appalachian, and eastern Nearctic-unglaciated distributions. In contrast, only 2 species display a central Nearctic-Prairie distribution. Seven species of Perlidae are likely no longer present (Acroneuria evoluta Klapálek, A. perplexa Frison, Attaneuria ruralis (Hagen), and Neoperla mainensis Banks) or have experienced marked range reductions (Acroneuria abnormis (Newman), A. frisoni Stark and Brown, and A. filicis Frison). Another nearly 31% of the fauna (32 species) are rare, uncommon, or have highly-limited distributions within the state. Twelve of these species have Appalachian distributions, and an additional 8 have eastern Nearctic-unglaciated distributions. The distributional status for each of the 32 rare/uncommon species is discussed. PMID:24219390

  9. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  10. Roadside verges as habitats for endangered lizard-orchids (Himantoglossum spp.): Ecological traps or refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Réka; Nagy, Timea; Bódis, Judit; Biró, Éva; Löki, Viktor; Süveges, Kristóf; Takács, Attila; Tökölyi, Jácint; Molnár V, Attila

    2017-12-31

    Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them. In this paper we present results of targeted surveys of three lizard orchid taxa on roadsides from eight European countries. During these surveys we searched for lizard orchids inhabiting roadside verges and recorded their distance from road, aspects of the roadside environment, as well as vegetative and reproductive characteristics of individual plants. We found large numbers of lizard orchids on roadside verges. Distance from roads was not uniformly distributed: orchids occurred more closely to roads than expected by chance. This suggests that regular management of roadsides (e.g. mowing) might enhance colonization and survival of lizard orchids. On the other hand, we also found that close proximity to roads negatively affects reproductive success, suggesting that the immediate vicinity of roads might act as an ecological trap (i.e. favorable in terms of colonization and survival but unfavorable in terms of reproduction). Nonetheless, the fact that significant and viable populations are maintained at roadsides suggests that traditionally managed roadside verges may allow long-term persistence of lizard orchid populations and may serve as refuges in a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolamento e identificação de fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides associados a três espécies de orquídeas epífitas neotropicais no Brasil Isolation and identification of rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi associated to three neotropical epiphytic orchid species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinto Liparini Pereira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distúrbios causados pelo homem têm resultado no aumento do risco de extinção de diversos táxons de orquídeas nativas da Mata Atlântica no Brasil. Na natureza, orquídeas utilizam obrigatoriamente fungos endomicorrízicos para a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento da plântula, ao menos nos primeiros estádios do seu ciclo de vida. Assim, fungos micorrízicos associados ao sistema radicular de orquídeas nativas vêm sendo isolados, caracterizados e armazenados para uso em futuros programas de conservação de espécies de orquídeas, por meio da germinação simbiótica. Três isolados de fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides foram obtidos do sistema radicular de três espécies de orquídeas neotropicais, Gomesa crispa, Campylocentrum organense e Bulbophyllum sp., de três diferentes fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Brasil. Estudos taxonômicos, baseados na condição nuclear, morfologia da hifa vegetativa e ultra-estrutura do septo dolipórico, revelaram que os isolados pertencem aos gêneros Ceratorhiza e Rhizoctonia. Esse é o primeiro relato do isolamento de fungos micorrízicos associados ao sistema radicular dessas espécies de orquídeas neotropicais. Aspectos relativos à taxonomia e ao uso desses isolados no contexto de um programa de conservação de orquídeas nativas são discutidos.Anthropogenic disturbances have resulted in an increased threat of extinction of many native orchid taxa in Brazil's Atlantic rain forest. In nature, orchids utilize mycorrhizal fungi to initiate seed germination and seedling development, at least in the early stages of their life cycle. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots of orchids have thus been isolated, characterized and stored as important resources for a future conservation program of orchid species through symbiotic seed germination. Three mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from roots of three neotropical orchid species Gomesa crispa, Campylocentrum organense

  12. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  13. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodulfo Ospina-Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Chocó Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championiand Eg. ignita.The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomiaspp. and Anthuriumspp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  14. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  15. Rare and endangered plant species and associations in the Moravica river (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevnaić-Mašić Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moravica is a river in the southeast of Banat (Vojvodina Province, Serbia. This relatively small river is characterised by great floristic richness. A total of 87 taxa were found in the Moravica River. It is a sanctuary for some plant species that are rare and endangered both in Serbia and in Europe. Fifty-five species are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and forty-five species are on the European Red List of Vascular Plants. Species Acorus calamus L., Alisma gramineum Gmel., Iris pseudacorus L., Marsilea quadrifolia L., Potamogeton fluitans Roth. and Utricularia vulgaris L. are protected or strictly protected by law in Serbia. Some of these rare species form stands of aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation rare both in Banat and in Serbia in general, such as: Lemnetum (minori - trisulcae Den Hartog 1963, Potametum nodosi Soó (1928 1960, Segal 1964, Acoreto - Glycerietum aquaticae Slavnić 1956, Rorippo - Oenanthetum (Soó 1927 Lohm. 1950, Pop 1968, and Bolboschoenetum maritimi continentale Soó (1927 1957 subass. marsiletosum quadrifoliae Ljevnaić-Mašić (2010. Because of its great diversity of flora and vegetation, the Moravica River could be a potential Important Plant Area (IPA in the future. Unfortunately, strong anthropogenic influence is a threat to this unique flora and vegetation, so appropriate and timely measures for protecting the aquatic ecosystem need to be implemented.

  16. Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Population biology of two rare fern species: long-life and long-lasting stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucharová, Anna; Münzbergová, Z.; Tájek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2010), s. 1260-1271 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/112/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ferns * life cycle * naturally rare species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  18. Euglossa williamsi, a new species of orchid bee from the Amazon Basin of Ecuador and Peru, with notes on its taxonomic association and biogeography (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Ismael Hinojosa-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euglossawilliamsi sp. n. is here described from the lowland Amazonianregion in Ecuador and Peru, and as part of a small species assemblage within Euglossa consisting of E. dodsoni Moure and E. obtusa Dressler. An identification key to the males of the group is provided plus detailed figures of the new species and representative illustrations for the others. A brief discussion of the taxonomic and biogeographical implications of the new species is provided. New records in Honduras and Nicaragua are provided for the related E. dodsoni.

  19. Induced mutation of Dendrobium orchid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2000-01-01

    Dendrobiiim orchids serve as the main orchid cut flower export of Malaysia. The wide range of colour and forms presently available in the market are obtained through hybridisation. Induced mutation breeding program was initiated on a commercial variety Dendrobium 'Sonia Kai' to explore the possibilities of obtaining new colour and forms. Matured seeds from self pollination were cultured and irradiated at 35 Gy at the protocorm-like bodies (PLBS) stage. Selection of induced mutations was done after the first flowering of the plants regenerated from the irradiated protocorms. Results showed changes in flower colour, shape and size. Most of these chances are expressed in different combinations in the petals, sepals and lip of the flowers. Thus, resulting. in a very wide spectrum of mutations. Some of these chances are not stable. To date, mutants that showed stable characteristics changes are grouped into 11 categories based on flower colour and form. These results show that the combination of its vitro technique and induced mutation can be applied in orchid breeding to produce new interesting and attractive variety for the market

  20. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  1. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  2. The relationship between species diversity and genetic structure in the rare Picea chihuahuana tree species community, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between

  3. Identification of Bottlenecks in the Plant Life Cycle for Sustainable Conservation of Rare and Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Aronne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term survival of a species relies on maintenance of genetic variability and natural selection by means of successful reproduction and generation turnover. Although, basic to monitor the conservation status of a plant species, life history data are rarely available even for threatened species due to the gap between the large amount of information required and the limits in terms of time and available economic resources to gather these data. Here, the focus on bottlenecks in life-cycle of rare endangered plant species is proposed as a resolving approach to address the challenges of feasible conservation actions. Basic considerations for this approach are: (a all biological and ecological studies on plant species can be scientifically important, but not all of them are equally relevant to conservation planning and management requirements; (b under a changing environment, long term survival of a species relies on generation turnover; (c for conservation purposes, priority should be given to studies aimed to focus on bottlenecks in the succession of generations because they prevent, or slow down natural selection processes. The proposed procedure, named Systematic Hazard Analysis of Rare-endangered Plants (SHARP, consists of a preliminary survey of the already available information on the species and two main components. The first component is the identification of the bottlenecks in the life cycle by means of field surveys. The second is the diagnosis of the causes of the bottleneck by appropriate experimental methods. The target is to provide researchers, managers and practitioners with substantiated indications for sustainable conservation measures.

  4. A preliminary population study of alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina) at Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    This study on Platanthera zothecina (alcove bog orchid) was initiated by the National Park Service after a recent threatened and endangered species survey at Navajo National Monument. It is listed as Category 2 (species of special concern) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Category 3 (likely to become endangered) by the Navajo Nation. Because P. zothecina is a...

  5. Himantoglossum jankae (Orchidaceae: Orchideae), a new name for a long-misnamed lizard orchid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnar, A.; Kreutz, C.A.J.; Ovari, M.; Sennikov, A.N.; Bateman, R.M.; Takacs, A.; Somlyay, L.; Sramko, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new name, Himantoglossum jankae, is given to the widely recognised lizard orchid species that is distributed primarily in the Balkan Peninsula and the northwestern region of Asia Minor and has been erroneously named H. caprinum in most previous literature. The new species differs from its closest

  6. A preliminary amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers selection for spathoglottis species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginibun, F.C.; Bhassu, S.; Khalid, N.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Othman, R.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Spathoglottis is a native terrestrial orchid that attracting horticultural interest as a landscaping plant. Distinguishing orchid at species level based on morphological characteristics is unconvincing as some characteristic may sensitive to environmental. Therefore, molecular characterization

  7. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic

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    Beczała Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.

  8. Development of Sequence-Based Microsatellite Marker for Phalaenopsis Orchid

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    FATIMAH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is one of the most interesting genera of orchids due to the members are often used as parents to produce hybrids. The establishment and development of highly reliable and discriminatory methods for identifying species and cultivars has become increasingly more important to plant breeders and members of the nursery industry. The aim of this research was to develop sequence-based microsatellite (eSSR markers for the Phalaenopsis orchid designed from the sequence of GenBank NCBI. Seventeen primers were designed and thirteen primers pairs could amplify the DNA giving the expected PCR product with polymorphism. A total of 51 alleles, with an average of 3 alleles per locus and polymorphism information content (PIC values at 0.674, were detected at the 16 SSR loci. Therefore, these markers could be used for identification of the Phalaenopsis orchid used in this study. Genetic similarity and principle coordinate analysis identified five major groups of Phalaenopsis sp. the first group consisted of P. amabilis, P. fuscata, P. javanica, and P. zebrine. The second group consisted of P. amabilis, P. amboinensis, P. bellina, P. floresens, and P. mannii. The third group consisted of P. bellina, P. cornucervi, P. cornucervi, P. violaceae sumatra, P. modesta. The forth group consisted of P. cornucervi and P. lueddemanniana, and the fifth group was P. amboinensis.

  9. New find of the rare and endangered species Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

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    Simić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about distribution of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh indicate that this species was found on relatively small number of localities in freshwaters in Europe and world. In Red List of Algae, in some countries, this species is defined as a extinct (Ex (Poland or as endangered (En (Slovakia. In this study, morphological and ecological characteristics of rare and endangered species B. atropurpurea that was found on three localities in Serbia: in Trgoviški Timok River (East Serbia, Gvozdačka Reka River (West Serbia and Raška River (South-western Serbia. The Raška River is new find of the species B. atropurpurea.

  10. Transcriptome and proteome data reveal candidate genes for pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A; Gupta, Alok K; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, and the development of

  11. Predicting habitat suitability for rare plants at local spatial scales using a species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol-Prokurat, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    If species distribution models (SDMs) can rank habitat suitability at a local scale, they may be a valuable conservation planning tool for rare, patchily distributed species. This study assessed the ability of Maxent, an SDM reported to be appropriate for modeling rare species, to rank habitat suitability at a local scale for four edaphic endemic rare plants of gabbroic soils in El Dorado County, California, and examined the effects of grain size, spatial extent, and fine-grain environmental predictors on local-scale model accuracy. Models were developed using species occurrence data mapped on public lands and were evaluated using an independent data set of presence and absence locations on surrounding lands, mimicking a typical conservation-planning scenario that prioritizes potential habitat on unsurveyed lands surrounding known occurrences. Maxent produced models that were successful at discriminating between suitable and unsuitable habitat at the local scale for all four species, and predicted habitat suitability values were proportional to likelihood of occurrence or population abundance for three of four species. Unfortunately, models with the best discrimination (i.e., AUC) were not always the most useful for ranking habitat suitability. The use of independent test data showed metrics that were valuable for evaluating which variables and model choices (e.g., grain, extent) to use in guiding habitat prioritization for conservation of these species. A goodness-of-fit test was used to determine whether habitat suitability values ranked habitat suitability on a continuous scale. If they did not, a minimum acceptable error predicted area criterion was used to determine the threshold for classifying habitat as suitable or unsuitable. I found a trade-off between model extent and the use of fine-grain environmental variables: goodness of fit was improved at larger extents, and fine-grain environmental variables improved local-scale accuracy, but fine-grain variables

  12. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Comizzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks. Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world′s unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda. Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools. However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  13. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda). Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools). However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  14. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  15. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMondragón Palomino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  16. Modeling the Distribution of Rare or Cryptic Bird Species of Taiwan

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    Tsai-Yu Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the study of the macroecology and conservation of Taiwan’s birds, there was an urgent need to develop distribution models of bird species whose distribution had never before been modeled. Therefore, we here model the distributions of 27 mostly rare and cryptic breeding bird species using a statistical approach which has been shown to be especially reliable for modeling species with a low sample size of presence localities, namely the maximum entropy (Maxent modeling technique. For this purpose, we began with a dedicated attempt to collate as much high-quality distributional data as possible, assembling databases from several scientific reports, contacting individual data recorders and searching publicly accessible database, the internet and the available literature. This effort resulted in 2022 grid cells of 1 × 1 km size being associated with a presence record for one of the 27 species. These records and 10 pre-selected environmental variables were then used to model each species’ probability distribution which we show here with all grid cells below the lowest presence threshold being converted to zeros. We then in detail discuss the interpretation and applicability of these distributions, whereby we pay close attention to habitat requirements, the intactness and fragmentation of their habitat, the general detectability of the species and data reliability. This study is another one in an ongoing series of studies which highlight the usefulness of using large electronic databases and modern analytical methods to help with the monitoring and assessment of Taiwan’s bird species.

  17. Seedling emergence response of rare arable plants to soil tillage varies by species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra, Joel; Recasens, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz

    2018-01-01

    Very little information is available on emergence of rare arable plants (RAP) in relation to soil disturbance and seed burial conditions in Europe. This information is essential to design conservation and soil management strategies to prevent the decline of these species in agroecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of soil cultivation with burial time on the emergence and seed persistence of RAP. Seeds of 30 RAP species were collected from Spanish arable fields and subjected to two tillage treatments: (a) no soil disturbance, and (b) autumnal soil disturbance down to 10 cm depth every year. The treatments simulated no-till and tilled (disking), respectively. In plots under no-till, RAP seeds were sown at 1-cm depth. In the tilled plots, seeds were sown homogeneously mixed in the top 1-10 cm of soil. The trial was established every two consecutive seasons, and each trial was maintained for two years. Annual cumulative plant emergence was calculated each year; whereas the first trial was monitored for a third year to estimate seed longevity using a persistence index. The response in emergence of the 30 RAP to annual tillage varied among species. With burial time (number of years), higher emergence was observed for seeds sown in tilled soil. This was true across all species, and with strong season effects. The persistence index was correlated with seed weight, species with bigger seeds had low persistence indices while no pattern was observed for small seeded species. Most RAP species, particularly those with high persistence, showed induction of secondary dormancy processes, highlighting the importance of tillage to promote RAP emergence, and hence, seed bank replenishment. Therefore, as time passes the absence of soil tillage may represent a driver of RAP seed bank decline for those species with secondary dormancy processes. In conclusion, it is important to design soil management strategies, such as regular tillage to promote

  18. Classic metapopulations are rare among common beetle species from a naturally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; McQuillan, Peter B; Bonham, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    -sink metapopulations are probably rare in this large-scale, naturally fragmented system, although dispersal processes like those occurring in metapopulations may have a substantial influence on community composition. However, deterministic processes (niche specialisation, species-sorting metacommunities and deterministic metapopulations) drive the occurrence or frequency of the majority of species. We urge further research into the prevalence of spatial ecological processes in large-scale natural ecosystems to expand our understanding of the processes that may be important in nature.

  19. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES, ANDERSON; WERNECK, HUGO A.; POMPOLO, SILVIA G.; LOPES, DENILCE M.

    2013-01-01

    Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species...

  20. Synopsis of the vernacular names and the economic use of the indigenous orchids of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.

    1937-01-01

    The Netherlands’ Indies are part of those humid tropical regions where innumerable species of orchids either may hang down, sometimes in large numbers, from the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs or grow terrestrially in woods or elsewhere. Nevertheless, to every naturalist who takes the

  1. New locality records of the ‘Dancing Girl’ of Mizoram, a rare zinger species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita De

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mantisia spathulata (Roxb. Schult. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is a rare ornamental Zingiber distributed from eastern Himalaya to Myanmar.  In India, this species is confined to very few localities of northeastern India.  A new location for the species was discovered at Kolasib, Mizoram.  The species was recorded growing at an altitude of 662m.  A thorough ecological sampling was done for the population.  Density of flowering individuals and non-flowering young individuals were estimated.  The species has never been recorded at this altitude previously and, as per record, no ecological work has been done earlier.  The average density of Mantisia spathulata within its growing patch is 18(±2 individuals per m2.  A total of 120 juvenile individuals (without flowers were recorded from a 1×1 m2 plot; indicating a very good regeneration of the species within the patch where it is growing.

  2. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  3. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  4. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. RARE ISOTOPIC SPECIES OF SULFUR MONOXIDE: THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM IN THE THz REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Valerio; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail: lattanzi@mpe.mpg.de [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Many sulfur-bearing species have been detected in different astronomical environments and have allowed us to derive important information about the chemical and physical composition of interstellar regions. In particular, these species have also been shown to trace and probe hot-core environment time evolution. Among the most prominent sulfur-bearing molecules is SO, the sulfur monoxide radical, one of the more ubiquitous and abundant, which is also observed in its isotopic substituted species such as {sup 34}SO and S{sup 18}O. Due to the importance of this simple diatomic system, and in order to face the challenge of modern radioastronomical facilities, an extension to the THz range of the rare isotopologues of sulfur monoxide has been performed. High-resolution rotational molecular spectroscopy has been employed to extend the available data set of four isotopic species, SO, {sup 34}SO, S{sup 17}O, and S{sup 18}O, up to the 1.5 THz region. The frequency coverage and spectral resolution of our measurements allowed a better constraint of the molecular constants of the four species considered, specifically focusing on the two oxygen-substituted isotopologues. Our measurements were also employed in an isotopically invariant fit including all of the available pure rotational and ro-vibrational transitions for all of the SO isotopologues, thus enabling accurate predictions of the rotational transitions at higher frequencies. We also provide comparisons with recent works performed on the same system, demonstrating the quality of our experiment and the improvement of the data sets for all of the species considered. Transition frequencies for this system can now be used with confidence by the astronomical community well into the THz spectral region.

  6. Increasing populations of Kentucky lady’s slipper orchid on the Kisatchie National Forest: seedling production and outplanting trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Shannan Sharp; Kevin Allen; Andy Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed) is a tall, stately perennial plant with the largest flowers of any Cypripedium known. Its range includes much of the Southeastern United States, though it is rare throughout its range due to specific edaphic and climatic habitat requirements. In Louisiana, a...

  7. A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while

  8. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  9. Conservation Genetics of an Endangered Lady’s Slipper Orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China

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    Xin Qian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR diversity (109 loci in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 11.19%, Nei’s gene diversity (H = 0.0416 and Shannon’s information index (I = 0.0613 and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928 and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt = 0.698 than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei’s genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures.

  10. The Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Facultatively Eusocial Orchid Bee Euglossa dilemma

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    Philipp Brand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant–insect interactions, and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. E. dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States. We provide a high-quality assembly of the 3.3 Gb genome, and an official gene set of 15,904 gene annotations. We find high conservation of gene synteny with the honey bee throughout 80 MY of divergence time. This genomic resource represents the first draft genome of the orchid bee genus Euglossa, and the first draft orchid bee mitochondrial genome, thus representing a valuable resource to the research community.

  11. Conservation Genetics of an Endangered Lady’s Slipper Orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Li, Quan-Jian; Liu, Fen; Gong, Mao-Jiang; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tian, Min

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11.19%, Nei’s gene diversity (H) = 0.0416 and Shannon’s information index (I) = 0.0613) and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928) and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt) = 0.698) than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei’s genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures. PMID:24983476

  12. Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitko, Lukasz; Weber, Marjorie G; Ramirez, Santiago R; Hedenström, Erik; Wcislo, William T; Eltz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous analysis of tibial compounds among sympatric species revealed substantial chemical disparity in chemical composition among lineages with outstanding divergence between closely related species. Here, we tested whether specific perfume phenotypes coevolve with matching olfactory adaptations in male orchid bees to facilitate the location and harvest of species-specific perfume compounds. We conducted electroantennographic (EAG) measurements on males of 15 sympatric species in the genus Euglossa that were stimulated with 18 compounds present in variable proportions in male hind tibiae. Antennal response profiles were species-specific across all 15 species, but there was no conspicuous differentiation between closely related species. Instead, we found that the observed variation in EAG activity follows a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, where the probability of differentiation increases proportionally with lineage divergence time. However, we identified strong antennal responses for some chemicals that are present as major compounds in the perfume of the same species, thus suggesting that sensory specialization has occurred within multiple lineages. This sensory specialization was particularly apparent for semi-volatile molecules ('base note' compounds), thus supporting the idea that such compounds play an important role in chemical signaling of euglossine bees. Overall, our study found no close correspondence between antennal responses and behavioral

  13. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  14. Patterns and correlates of plant diversity differ between common and rare species in a neotropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetetla-Rangel, Erika; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Hoekstra, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Determining which factors affect species richness is important for conservation theory and practice. However, richness of common and rare species may be affected by different factors. We use an extensive inventory of woody plants from a tropical dry forest landscape in Yucatan, Mexico to assess the

  15. [Using IRAP markers for analysis of genetic variability in populations of resource and rare species of plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronnikova, S V; Kalendar', R N

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific LTR retrotransposons were first cloned in five rare relic species of drug plants located in the Perm' region. Sequences of LTR retrotransposons were used for PCR analysis based on amplification of repeated sequences from LTR or other sites of retrotransposons (IRAP). Genetic diversity was studied in six populations of rare relic species of plants Adonis vernalis L. by means of the IRAP method; 125 polymorphic IRAP-markers were analyzed. Parameters for DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity of A. vernalis populations were determined.

  16. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

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    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  18. Influência da qualidade de luz e silício no crescimento in vitro de orquídeas nativas e híbridas Light quality and silicon on growth in vitro of native and hybrid orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Pasqual

    2011-09-01

    L flasks containing 60 mL of culture medium MS, plus calcium silicate (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in environments of culture [natural (a greenhouse and artificial (in a growth room] in all possible combinations. The culture medium had its pH adjusted to 5.8 ± 0.1 and solidified with 5.5 g L-1 of agar before autoclaving at 121º C and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After 150 days biometrics and ultrastructural analysis (scanning microscopy were carried out. Greater growth of seedlings was obtained with the use of 2.0 mg L-1 and 1.0 mg L-1 of calcium silicate for hybrid and native species, respectively. The orchid species in study are anfistomatic with the type tetracytic (hybrid and anomocytic (native stomata. The presence of silicon in the leaf structure provided correct development (absence of structural deformations of seedlings of orchids.

  19. Introduction prospects for rare species of flora in Crimea fur use in urban landscaping

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    Pidgaynaya Elena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents introduction prospects for rare and endangered plants of the Crimean flora. The target of research puts together types of the Crimean natural flora included to the global and regional protection documents; such plants grow in the N. V. Bagrov Botanical Garden of the Taurida Academy, V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, in Simferopol. The observations were conducted in 2010-2016. As a result of an integral assessment of plants decorative features, 34 promising and 20 highly decorative species have been marked for wide cultivation and introduction into planting of the Crimean foothill. The studied species are recommended for use in planting of various flowerbeds’ types as accent, dominant, shading, and auxiliary plants. Some 24 of the proposed types are heliophyte plants and are recommended for planting the solar sites; 10 types are suitable for half-shaded and shaded areas. In the wild, the majority of these plants are adapted to dry growing conditions; this improves their cultivation prospects in the arid areas.

  20. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  1. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity.

  2. Azole-Resistance in Aspergillus terreus and Related Species: An Emerging Problem or a Rare Phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zoran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied.Methods: A global set (n = 498 of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin, tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene.Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8%, followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4%, A. hortai (2.6%, A. alabamensis (1.6%, A. neoafricanus (0.2%, and A. floccosus (0.2%. One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4% of all tested isolates, 6.2% of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s. were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0% in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7% in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V.Conclusions:Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4% of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus

  3. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of two Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee faunas of the ‘Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil’ (8,500 ha and ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ (6,000 ha, two Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were surveyed. Seventeen chemical compounds were used as scent baits to attract orchid-bee males. Seven hundred and twelve males belonging to 20 species were actively collected with insect nets during 80 hours in February and April, 2009. Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive orchid-bee species of the Atlantic Forest, was recorded at both preserves, though in low abundance. ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ is the smallest forest patch where Euglossa marianae has ever been recorded.

  4. Pollinator-independent orchid attracts biotic pollinators due the production of lipoidal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Bergamo, P J; Ferreira-Caliman, M J

    2018-03-01

    Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinator pressure. In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system. The flowers of C. candida are strongly protandrous and pollinated by workers of the social native bee Tetragonisca angustula. The bees collect labellar lipoidal substances (wax scales), which are transported to the nest. The lipoidal substance is composed of sterols, hydrocarbons and terpenes. The last presumably protects the bees and their nests against pathogens and other arthropods. C. candida sets fruits through biotic self- and cross-pollination, and spontaneously due the action of raindrops on flowers. Our results indicate that in C. candida, although rain-mediated spontaneous self-pollination happens, fructification mediated by biotic pollinations also occurs, which may result in fruit set by cross-pollination. A mixed pollination system must result in higher genetic variability when compared to species whose fruits are produced entirely by self-pollination. On the other hand, autogamy is a form of reproductive assurance, and has commonly evolved where pollination services are rare or absent. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. SENSITIVITY OF PIGMENT CONTENT OF BANANA AND ORCHID TISSUE CULTURE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Prihatini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum cultures were exposed to 6 and 12 mT ELF-EMF generated by controllable ELF-EMF built up machine for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours. After exposure, the banana and orchid cultures were incubated at 25° C for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the ELF-EMF exposure had different effects on banana and slipper orchid cultures though both plant species belong to monocotyledon. The highest increase in chlorophyll content on banana was resulted by the high intensity and long duration of ELF-EMF exposure (12 mT for 4 hours, whereas on slipper orchid the modest and short duration of ELF-EMF exposure produced the most excessive chlorophyll content. Different ELF-EMF exposures (12 mT for 4 hours and 6 mT for 30 minutes had potential to be applied on each plant to improve in vitro plant (banana and slipper orchid, respectively growth. The increased chlorophyll and carotene/xanthophyll content on banana indicated that the banana was more tolerant to ELF-EMF exposure compared to slipper orchid

  6. Organic Additives Improves the in Vitro Growth of Native Orchid Vanda helvola Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina DAVID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seed germination has been proven to be the most efficient technique to propagate orchid. The application of this aseptic technique has contributed to conservation of many endangered orchid species. In this study, undehisced capsules of Vanda helvola Blume were collected from Orchid Conservation Centre in Lagud Sebrang Agriculture Park, after 120 days from hand pollination and aseptically cultured on three types of basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS, Knudson C (KC and Vacin and Went (VW. After 90 days of culture, 66.40 ± 4.14% of seeds successfully germinated on KC medium. The effect of organic additives such as tomato juice, coconut water, peptone and yeast extract at different level of concentrations in KC basal medium were also tested on seed germination and seedling development of this native orchid. After 90 days of culture, over 90% of seeds were tremendously germinated on KC medium supplemented with 10% or 15% (v/v of tomato juice. The incorporation of peptone at 0.1% (w/v in KC basal media promoted rapid development of protocorm to seedling. Seedlings on this treatment produced an average of three leaves and two roots after 90 days of culture and were successfully acclimatized.

  7. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Marchezi Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coconut, coffee husk, carbonized rice husk, pinus husk. After eleven months of the experiment, the following variables were evaluated: plant height; largest pseudo-bulb diameter; number of buds; shoot fresh dry matter; the longest root length; number of roots; root fresh matter; root dry matter; and electric conductivity; pH and water retention capacity of the substrates. Except the expanded clay, the other substrates showed satisfactory results in one or more traits. Standing out among these substrates pinus husk + coffee husk and pine bark + fibered coconut, which favored the most vegetative and root characteristic of the orchid. The mixture of pinus husk + coffee husk and pinus husk + fibered coconut, provided the best results in vegetative and root growth of the orchid Oncidium baueri and the expanded clay did not show favorable results in the cultivation of this species.

  8. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-amplification and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Neotropical orchid genus Epidendrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the cross-amplification of 33 microsatellite loci previously developed for two closely related Neotropical orchid genera (Epidendrum and Laelia. A set of ten loci were polymorphic across five examined species (20 individuals each with 2 to 15 alleles per locus. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity (average across species ranged from 0.34 to 0.82 and from 0.27 to 0.85, respectively. In addition we tested all loci in 35 species representative of the genus Epidendrum. Of these, 26 loci showed successful amplification. Cross-application of these loci represent a potential source of co-dominant markers for evolutionary, ecological and conservation studies in this important orchid genus.

  10. Genetics of Pseudococcusmicrocirculus on orchids RESEARCH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Genetic Structure of Pseudococcusmicrocirculus (Hemiptera: .... these orchids are listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index (Coile and Garland 2003). .... other samples, which we did not have sufficient statistical power to detect. ... males and minute first instar nymphs can use wind currents for dispersal.

  11. Effects of seed cryopreservation, stratification and scarification on germination for five rare species of pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sruti; Jenkins, Heather; Bucalo, Kylie; Determann, Ron O; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Pullman, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and over collection have caused North American pitcher plants to become rare, including U.S. federally endangered Sarracenia alabamensis and S. oreophila, and S. leucophylla, S. psittacina and S. purpurea spp. venosa, endangered in several states. To develop reliable seed cryopreservation protocols for endangered Sarracenia species enabling similar germination percentages before and after storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) either in vivo or using in vitro tools. Seed germination pre- and post-cryopreservation were compared following seed drying with germination in soil, aseptic environment with wet filter paper or enriched medium, and using scarification or stratification for dormancy removal. After cryostorage, germination in vitro (1/6- or 1/3-strength MS medium) increased compared to germination on peat moss. Germination pre- and post-cryopreservation was similar for S. alabamensis and S. oreophila when seeds were stratified and grown in vitro. S. leucophylla and S. psittacina also showed high germination after cryopreservation when germinated on medium following stratification. Rapid liquid nitrogen exposure and rewarming induced seed coat cracking that damaged seeds, likely allowing internal damage during acid scarification and microbial entry during germination in non-sterile environments.

  12. Rare or rarely detected? Ceraceosorus guamensis sp. nov.: a second described species of Ceraceosorales and the potential for underdetection of rare lineages with common sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijpornyongpan, Teeratas; Catherine Aime, M

    2016-08-01

    Ceraceosorales is a monotypic order in Ustilaginomycotina. Its namesake, Ceraceosorus bombacis, was described as a phytopathogen of Bombax ceiba in India. In this study, we describe Ceraceosorus guamensis sp. nov., collected on the South Pacific island of Guam, which appears to represent the second isolation of any member of this order in over 40 years. Ceraceosorus species are monokaryotic and filamentous in culture, producing conidia on potato dextrose agar. However, both species behave yeast-like when cultured on corn meal agar. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (spanning the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) in both species of Ceraceosorus is highly heterogeneous containing multiple disparate copies that can vary intragenomically by up to 3.5 %. Moreover, this region could not be amplified using the fungal ITS primers most frequently used for culture-independent methods of assessing fungal biodiversity. This fact, combined with the extremely slow growth rates on commonly employed media, may indicate that members of this lineage are potentially underdetected by current sampling methods.

  13. Rare species of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy S. Zheltukhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on 23 rare species of the Central Forest Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The state of their populations (groups of populations is assessed. The characteristics of landscape and coenotic confinement are given. Their biological and ecological features are briefly described, and the limiting factors determining the reduction in the number of some species are indicated. Over 85 years, many species have remained their biological positions in the Reserve, and their quantity has remained stable. At the same time, species of sedentary birds (Bubo bubo, Lagopus lagopus rossicus and birds nesting in the Protected Area (representatives of the Accipitridae family are now few in number due to the changes in the main habitats and deterioration of the forage resources. It is noted that the Central Forest Reserve is the largest Protected Area in Central Russia for the rare lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Menegazzia terebrata.

  14. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  15. REUSING STOCKS SOLUTIONS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATED FOR ORCHID FERTILIZER ACCLIMATIZATION PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. C. Issa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are ornamental plants that stand out by their colors, types, shapes, size, beauty. Additionally, some species have aromas. This diversity of orchids makes it be greatly appreciated as potted plants, landscaping, with high commercial value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of orchids at different levels of fertilization by reusing nutrients added to the culture medium for cultivation in vitro is also analyzing the different times of acclimatization. The micropropagated orchids removed from the growth chamber, were transported to greenhouse composing the different treatments for acclimatization (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days. To be transplanted were placed in pine bark substrate and Sphagnum being placed in trays. After 30 days the seedlings were transplanted to styrofoam trays was initiated plant fertilization weekly with different formulated by administering 5 ml each (1 humic acid, 2nd potassium nitrate (KNO3, 3rd humic acid + Nitrate potassium (KNO3, 4th calcium chloride (CaCl2, 5 ° control. Six months after withdrawal of the growth room the plants was carried out the evaluation of the experiment where the plant survival was evaluated by the number of shoots, number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf and root presence. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 6x5, with the time of acclimatization (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days the first factor and the second, the type of fertilizer used (4 formulated and the witness with 8 replicates per treatment. The data were submitted to deviance analysis in the software R. In this study, the need to fertilize with nutrient rich formulations for orchids in the acclimatization phase was contacted and that these should remain for a few days inside the jars in a greenhouse environment.

  16. Formation of social acceptability judgments and their implications for management of rare and little-known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Stankey; Bruce. Shindler

    2006-01-01

    Effective policies for management of rare and little-known species (RLKS) must be not only scientifically valid and cost-effective but also consistent with prevailing social beliefs and values. Limited public awareness of RLKS, however; constrains efforts to frame such policies. Lacking public support, resistance to RLKS programs is likely, particularly when other uses...

  17. Empyema of preexisting subdural hemorrhage caused by a rare salmonella species after exposure to bearded dragons in a foster home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarani, Christy M; Bennett, Nicholas J; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Botash, Ann S; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2010-02-01

    An infant had a subdural empyema caused by the rare Salmonella species enterica subspecies houtenae (IV) serotype 44:z4,z23:- after only indirect exposure to exotic reptiles in her foster home. Infants recovering from preexisting subdural hematoma are at risk for development of empyema. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inventory of orchids in Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve, Tolitoli Regency, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYAN MEININGSASI SISWOYO PUTRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to inventory the flora of Sulawesi, especially orchids in the Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve and to collect the plant materials for planting as a collection plants in Bali Botanical Garden. The method used in this research was explorative method at the place with altitude more than 700 m above sea level. The result of the research was 50 collection number of orchids which was consist of 72 specimens, 19 families and 24 species found in the Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve, Tolitoli Regency, Central Sulawesi. Two numbers of them that unidentified yet called as a genus dubious. Dendrobium and Eria were the genus that dominant in the natural reserve and one species that predicted as a new collection for the Bali Botanic Garden was Macodes petola Lindl.

  19. Sample preparation method for induced mutation on orchid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Musa; Sakinah Ariffin

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the induction of mutation in Dendrobium orchid at MINT has produced a number of new orchid mutant cultivars. Tissue culture techniques on orchid seeds and meristem cloning are employed in preparing the samples for the mutation induction. Solid medium based on the Murashige and Skoog (1962) and liquid medium based on Vacin and Went (1949) were found to be suitable in producing protocorm like bodies (PLBs) that are required for the irradiation treatment. (Author)

  20. Cloning and transcription analysis of an AGAMOUS- and SEEDSTICK ortholog in the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (Reichb. f.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Martin; Johansen, Louise Buchholt; Pedersen, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that several plant species posses AGAMOUS (AG) and SEEDSTICK (STK) orthologs. These genes are part of the so-called C- and D MADS-box gene lineages and play key roles in ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have cloned an AG- and STK ortholog in the orchid Dendrobium...

  1. Asymbiotic germination in three Chloraea species (Orchidaceae) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, GUILLERMO; ALBORNOZ, VERÓNICA; ROMERO, CHRISTIAN; LARA, SEBASTIÁN; SÁNCHEZ-OLATE, MANUEL; RÍOS, DARCY; ATALA, CRISTIAN

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orchids require symbiotic fungi and/or specific conditions to germinate. Asymbiotic techniques have been shown successful for orchid germination. In Chile, Chloraea include many endemic, and potentially ornamental, terrestrial orchid species. In this study, individuals of Chloraea crispa, C. gavilu and C. virescens were manually autopollinated. The resulting capsules were sterilized and seeds were aseptically obtained. We evaluated asymbiotic germination in: Agar Water (AW), Knudson ...

  2. A Study on Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Six Rare and Endangered Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailin ZHONG; Guangwu ZHAO; Jiamiao CHU; Xiaomin GUO; Genyou LI

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyl fluorescence in leaves of six rare and endangered species Neolitsea sericea, Cinnamomum japonicum var. cheni , Sinojackia microcarpa, Discocleidion glabrum var. trichocarpum, Parrotia sub-aequalis, Cercidiphyl um japonicum were measured in fields. The results showed that there were significant differences in photosynthetic capacity, intrinsic water use effi-ciency (WUEi ), the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ and its potential activity, the quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport, and the potential ca-pacity of heat dissipation among the six species. However, there was no significant difference in WUE. The highest values of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) occurred in D. glabrum var. trichocarpum and the lowest in S. microcarpa. On the contrary, D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had the lowest WUE, intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi ) and S. microcarpa had the highest. The results indicated that D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had higher photo-synthetic capacity and poorer WUE, while S. microcarpa had lower photosynthetic capacity and greater WUE. Furthermore, the mean values of maximal fluorescence (Fm), potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm),ΦPSⅡ, actual efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (F′v/F′m) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were the highest in S. micro-carpa, indicating that its PSⅡ had higher capacity of heat dissipation and could prevent photosynthetic apparatus from damage by excessive light energy. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among photosynthetic physi-ological parameters. However, the initial fluorescence (Fo) was not significantly cor-related with any other parameters. This study also revealed the extremely significant positive correlations between Pn and Tr, gs, apparent quantum yield (AQY), be-tween Tr and

  3. San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Rare Plant Monitoring Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlik, Bruce M.; Rebman, Jon; Sutter, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the south part of San Diego County, under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 (California Department of Fish and Game) and the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1531-1544.) The Program is on the leading edge of conservation, as it seeks to both guide development and conserve at-risk species with the oversight of both State and Federal agencies. Lands were identified for inclusion in the MSCP based on their value as habitat for at-risk plants or plant communities (Natural Community Conservation Planning, 2005). Since its inception in the mid-1990s the Program has protected over 100,000 acres, involving 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in the conservation of 87 taxa. Surveys for covered species have been conducted, and management and monitoring have been implemented at some high priority sites. Each jurisdiction or agency manages and monitors their conservation areas independently, while collaborating regionally for long-term protection. The San Diego MSCP is on the forefront of conservation, in one of the most rapidly growing urban areas of the country. The planning effort that developed the MSCP was state-of-the-art, using expert knowledge, spatial habitat modeling, and principles of preserve design to identify and prioritize areas for protection. Land acquisition and protection are ahead of schedule for most jurisdictions. Surveys have verified the locations of many rare plant populations known from earlier collections, and they provide general information on population size and health useful for further conservation planning. Management plans have been written or are in development for most MSCP parcels under jurisdictional control. Several agencies are developing databases for implementation

  4. A new, rare and distinctive species of Panorthoptera (Insecta, Archaeorthoptera from the Upper Carboniferous of Xiaheyan (Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaheyan locality is providing abundant material on one of the earliest insect faunas. The most common species are comparatively remote relatives of Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets and katydids, belonging to the Archaeorthoptera nec Panorthoptera (the latter including crown Orthoptera. We establish the genus Sinogerarus gen. nov. to accommodate a new, rare species, S. pectinatus spec. nov., which can be conclusively assigned to Panorthoptera. It therefore represents the second occurrence of the group at this locality. The new species displays a distinctive combination of character states, adding to the knowledge of a number of Upper Carboniferous Panorthoptera whose relationships are poorly understood.

  5. Diversity of orchids epiphytes, in a tropical rain forest (bh-T) of Department Choco, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Rosero, Heidy; Pino Benitez, Nayive

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of epiphytes orchids in a tropical humid forest of the municipality of Tutunendo (Quibdo) was evaluated. According to its level of intervention, it was established three zones in the forest: low (300 m 2 ), medium (400 m 2 ) and highly intervened (300 m 2 ); 66 forofitos with a DAP ≥ 20 cm were recorded, in which orchids guests were sampled giving a total record of 1348 specimens, distributed in 49 species and 20 genera. In terms of number of species, the most representative genera were Maxillaria (11) and Dichaea (5). According to the Shannon-Weiner index a high diversity of epiphytes orchids can be observed in the area of study (H'= 3.30). Regarding to areas according to the level of intervention, the low and medium intervened forest showed the highest diversity, however, the highly intervened, where tomb cultivation, sowing logging is constant, presented the lowest results. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, these areas showed significant differences (P <0.05) in terms of richness and abundance of recorded species. Evidently, the high diversity of this group of plants may be due to certain climatic conditions (precipitation, humidity and light intensity), facilitating their establishment in the area.

  6. Successful disinfection protocol for orchid seeds and influence of gelling agent on germination and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž JEVŠNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial propagation of endangered orchid species is one of the most important actions of conservationists often jeopardized by low numbers of acquired seed, its contamination and viability. Disinfection and chemical composition of media are two of the most important factors contributing to better germination in temperate orchid species. The article deals with three world genera (Epidendrum nocturnum, Prosthechea garciana, Maxillaria rufescens and one commercial hybrid (Zygopetalum and describes an effective method of orchid seed disinfection carried out in a centrifuge. Germination percentages of all three genera and one hybrid were between 60 and 90 % from which we concluded that the risk of physical damage to the seeds by centrifugation is not significant. The time needed for disinfected seeds (E. nocturnum, P. garciana, M. rufescens to swell-form protocorms was 10 days shorter compared to undisinfected seeds (Zygopetalum hybrid - green capsule method and some other studies. Adequate wetting and stratification of the seed is very important for successful germination, which resembles processes in natural environment. Additionally, this method solves the problems of collecting and transferring the seeds after disinfection. It is also important that the time needed for disinfection is shorter, which is desirable for some sensitive species. Our study also focuses on importance of gelling agent, namely Gellan gum and agar, since we noticed an obvious superiority of the former in all phases of in vitro development.

  7. In vitro multiplication of the rare and endangered slipper orchid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... 2Biodiversity Unit, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia ... Thus, an in vitro tissue culture technique was explored in order to ..... peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Indian J. Crop Sci.

  8. Looking beyond rare species as umbrella species: Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and conservation of grassland and shrubland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Andrew D.; Elmore, R.D.; Leslie,, David M.; Will, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover throughout the eastern half of North America have caused substantial declines in populations of birds that rely on grassland and shrubland vegetation types, including socially and economically important game birds such as the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhites). As much attention is focused on habitat management and restoration for bobwhites, they may act as an umbrella species for other bird species with similar habitat requirements. We quantified the relationship of bobwhites to the overall bird community and evaluated the potential for bobwhites to act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds. We monitored bobwhite presence and bird community composition within 31 sample units on selected private lands in the south-central United States from 2009 to 2011. Bobwhites were strongly associated with other grassland and shrubland birds and were a significant positive predictor for 9 species. Seven of these, including Bell's Vireo (Vireo bell), Dicksissel (Spiza americana), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), are listed as species of conservation concern. Species richness and occupancy probability of grassland and shrubland birds were higher relative to the overall bird community in sample units occupied by bobwhites. Our results show that bobwhites can act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds, although the specific species in any given situation will depend on region and management objectives. These results suggest that efficiency in conservation funding can be increased by using public interest in popular game species to leverage resources to meet multiple conservation objectives.

  9. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  10. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups

  11. Predicting Environmental Suitability for a Rare and Threatened Species (Lao Newt, Laotriton laoensis) Using Validated Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunco, Amanda J.; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Sivongxay, Niane; Stuart, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The Lao newt (Laotriton laoensis) is a recently described species currently known only from northern Laos. Little is known about the species, but it is threatened as a result of overharvesting. We integrated field survey results with climate and altitude data to predict the geographic distribution of this species using the niche modeling program Maxent, and we validated these predictions by using interviews with local residents to confirm model predictions of presence and absence. The results of the validated Maxent models were then used to characterize the environmental conditions of areas predicted suitable for L. laoensis. Finally, we overlaid the resulting model with a map of current national protected areas in Laos to determine whether or not any land predicted to be suitable for this species is coincident with a national protected area. We found that both area under the curve (AUC) values and interview data provided strong support for the predictive power of these models, and we suggest that interview data could be used more widely in species distribution niche modeling. Our results further indicated that this species is mostly likely geographically restricted to high altitude regions (i.e., over 1,000 m elevation) in northern Laos and that only a minute fraction of suitable habitat is currently protected. This work thus emphasizes that increased protection efforts, including listing this species as endangered and the establishment of protected areas in the region predicted to be suitable for L. laoensis, are urgently needed. PMID:23555808

  12. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae, Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H L Nunes-de-Almeida

    Full Text Available Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  13. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  14. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIBOWO MANGUNWARDOYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 2091, Candida tropicalis LIPIMC 203, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Twelve species of endophytic fungi were identified from 60 samples obtained from D. crumenatum. Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis were the dominant endophytic fungi. Screening of the anti-microorganism activity of the endophytic fungi revealed that Fusarium nivale inhibited C albicans and C. tropicalis. All specimens did not inhibit B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. aureus.

  15. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  16. Limiting factors of five rare plant species in mesic forests of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Five rare or endangered plant species native to Kīpuka Puaulu and Kīpuka Kī were studied for two years to determine their stand structure, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, potential pollinators, greenhouse seed germination rates, presence of soil seed banks, impacts of seed-predating rats, seed predation by insects, seedling predation by Kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos), and seedling survival with different treatments. Species monitored were the trees Hibiscadelphus giffardianus (hau kuahiwi), Melicope hawaiensis (manena), M. zahlbruckneri (alani), and Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. dipetalum (kāwa`u), and the vine Sicyos macrophyllus (`ānunu).

  17. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee.

  18. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  19. Projections of suitable habitat for rare species under global warming scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Flores-Lopez Celestino

    2010-01-01

    Premise of the study: Modeling the contemporary and future climate niche for rare plants is a major hurdle in conservation, yet such projections are necessary to prevent extinctions that may result from climate change. Methods: We used recently developed spline climatic models and modifi ed Random Forests...

  20. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. II. Parasites of Desmidiaceae

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    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out on the Desmidiaceae revealed the following species of fungi parasitizing on desmids: Myzocytium megastomum, Lagenidium closterii, Ancylistes closterii and Rhizophydium globosum. Legenidium closterii is new in Poland. It is the first information of this species as a parasite on the algae from the genus Tetmemorus. Figures of sporangia of Rhizophydium globosum on Euastrum ansatum, Cosmarium botrytis, C. pseudamoenum and a resting spore on Staurastrum punctulatum are the first graphic documentation of this species.

  1. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Braun de Torrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys (‘mobile transects’ have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park: (1 mobile transects, (2 stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3 stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm. Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  2. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth C; Wallrichs, Megan A; Ober, Holly K; McCleery, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys ('mobile transects') have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park): (1) mobile transects, (2) stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3) stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm). Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  3. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  4. Verrucaria species and other rare amphibious lichens in the Beskid Sądecki Mts

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    Natalia Matura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten freshwater lichen species from the Beskid Sądecki Mts are presented. Seven of them: Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Thelidium aquaticum, T. minutulum, T. zwackhii, Verrucaria dolosa, V. elaeomelaena and V. submersella, are new to the region. Three species: Verrucaria elaeina, V. hydrophila and V. latebrosa, were previously known from single localities.

  5. Gene Flow among Populations of Two Rare Co-Occurring Fern Species Differing in Ploidy Level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucharová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), e45855 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06178; GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetic variation * tetraploid species * diploid species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  6. Salacia hallei, a name for a rare Celastraceae species from western central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Salaria hallei (Celastraceae), from Gabon and Angola is described and illustrated. The species is unique by the combination of glabrous leaves with a transverse tertiary venation, a conspicuous pedunculate inflorescence and glabrous flowers with 3-4 mm wide, almost round, petals and 4

  7. Production of virus-free orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. by various tissue culture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Shreeti; Regmi, Tripti; Ranjit, Mukunda; Pant, Bijaya

    2016-10-01

    Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼) with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses. In the present study, in vivo -grown source (mother) plants and tissue culture-derived plants of C. aloifolium were tested for CymMV virus using Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). All the tissue cultured plants were found to be 100% virus-free whereas the in vivo grown source plants were highly affected by CymMV virus (83.33%). The virus-free in vitro plantlets were multiplied in large scale and then acclimatized on earthen pot containing a mixture of cocopeat, litter and clay in the ratio of 3:2:1. Eighty five percent of acclimatized plantlets survived making this method an efficient mass production system for high quality virus-free C. aloifolium for commercial floriculture and germplasm preservation.

  8. Production of virus-free orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L. Sw. by various tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeti Pradhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼ with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid. To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses. In the present study, in vivo-grown source (mother plants and tissue culture-derived plants of C. aloifolium were tested for CymMV virus using Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. All the tissue cultured plants were found to be 100% virus-free whereas the in vivo grown source plants were highly affected by CymMV virus (83.33%. The virus-free in vitro plantlets were multiplied in large scale and then acclimatized on earthen pot containing a mixture of cocopeat, litter and clay in the ratio of 3:2:1. Eighty five percent of acclimatized plantlets survived making this method an efficient mass production system for high quality virus-free C. aloifolium for commercial floriculture and germplasm preservation. Keywords: Biological sciences, Plant biology

  9. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus)

  10. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Lee, Tamsin E; Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L

    2016-10-01

    The wildlife trade is a lucrative industry involving thousands of animal and plant species. The increasing use of the internet for both legal and illegal wildlife trade is well documented, but there is evidence that trade may be emerging on new online technologies such as social media. Using the orchid trade as a case study, we conducted the first systematic survey of wildlife trade on an international social-media website. We focused on themed forums (groups), where people with similar interests can interact by uploading images or text (posts) that are visible to other group members. We used social-network analysis to examine the ties between 150 of these orchid-themed groups to determine the structure of the network. We found 4 communities of closely linked groups based around shared language. Most trade occurred in a community that consisted of English-speaking and Southeast Asian groups. In addition to the network analysis, we randomly sampled 30 groups from the whole network to assess the prevalence of trade in cultivated and wild plants. Of 55,805 posts recorded over 12 weeks, 8.9% contained plants for sale, and 22-46% of these posts pertained to wild-collected orchids. Although total numbers of posts about trade were relatively small, the large proportion of posts advertising wild orchids for sale supports calls for better monitoring of social media for trade in wild-collected plants. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. A new species of the rare endoparasitic copepod Entobius (Copepoda: Entobiidae) from Mexico with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: In a study of the benthic polychaete fauna of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, several specimens of the terebellid polychaete Scionides reticulata (Ehlers) were found to host endoparasitic copepods that represent an undescribed species of the rare cyclopoid genus Entobius Dogiel, 1948. The new species, E. scionides sp. n., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a genital region without constrictions, three-segmented antennules, a reduced antenna with a blunt terminal process, reduced ornamentation of endopods of legs 1-4 and its relatively small size (2.3-2.7 mm). It is the smallest species of the genus. Comments on immature females are also provided, but males of this species remain unknown. It has a high prevalence (53%) in populations of the terebellid S. reticulata in the southern Gulf of Mexico, but it is absent from the Caribbean. This is the first occurrence of this copepod genus in the Americas. The finding of the new species of Entobius in S. reticulata confirms the strict specificity of most members of the genus and expands the host range of this copepod genus. A key for the identification of the species of Entobius is provided.

  12. Overexpression of an orchid (Dendrobium nobile SOC1/TM3-like ortholog, DnAGL19, in Arabidopsis regulates HOS1-FT expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ru eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flowering in the appropriate season is critical for successful reproduction in angiosperms. The orchid species, Dendrobium nobile, requires vernalization to achieve flowering in the spring, but the underlying regulatory network has not been identified to date. The MADS-box transcription factor DnAGL19 was previously identified in a study of low-temperature treated D. nobile buds and was suggested to regulate vernalization-induced flowering. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of DnAGL9 and the MADS-box containing proteins showed that DnAGL19 is phylogenetically closely related to the SOC1-like protein from orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile, DOSOC1. The orchid clade closed to but is not included into the SOC1-1/TM3 clades associated with either eudicots or monocots, suggesting that DnAGL19 is an SOC1-1/TM3-like ortholog. DnAGL19 was found to be highly expressed in pseudobulbs, leaves, roots and axillary buds but rarely in flowers, and to be substantially upregulated in axillary buds by prolonged low-temperature treatments. Overexpression of DnAGL19 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a small but significantly reduced time to bolting, suggesting that flowering time was slightly accelerated under normal growth conditions. Consistent with this, the A. thaliana APETELA1 (AP1 gene was expressed at an earlier stage in transgenic lines than in wild type plants, while the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene was suppressed, suggesting that altered regulations on these transcription factors caused the weak promotion of flowering. HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE 1 (HOS1 was slightly activated under the same conditions, suggesting that the HOS1-FT module may be involved in the DnAGL19-related network. Under vernalization conditions, FT expression was significantly upregulated, whereas HOS1 expression in the transgenic A. thaliana has a level similar to that in wild type. Taken together, these results suggest that DnAGL19 controls the action of the

  13. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  14. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Borowiec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides: L. gracilis sp. n. based on workers from Mexico and Guatemala, L. erinys sp. n. based on workers and a gyne from Ecuador, and L. femoralis sp. n. based on workers from Venezuela. The description of L. gracilis is a northern extension of the known range of the genus, now numbering eleven described species. We also describe and discuss three unassociated male morphotypes from Central America. We report the occurrence of a metatibial gland in Leptanilloides and a fused promesonotal connection (suture in some species. We provide a modified, detailed diagnosis of the genus and a revised key to the worker caste of the known species.

  15. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-03-11

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  17. [Visitation of orchid by Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bee threatened with extinction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Helder C; Barros, Fábio de; Campos, Lúcio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2008-01-01

    The stingless bee Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo is a species restricted to the Atlantic forest in the Domingos Martins, Conceição do Castelo, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Afonso Cláudio County, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Despite its cological importance as pollinator few studies have examined the ecology and biology of this bee. This note relates a case of the M. capixaba workers carrying pollinarium attached to the scuttellum. The pollinaria were identified as belonging to the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae species possibly of the genus Maxillaria sensu lato or Xylobium.

  18. New Records and Name Changes for the Orchids in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One genus (Anoectochilus and 12 species (Agrostophyllum neoguineense, Anoectochilus papuanus, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum aemulum, B. bisepalum, B. nubigenum, B. ochroleucum, B. phreatiopse, Corybas solomonensis, Crepidium laevis, Didymoplexis striata, Epipogium roseum of orchids (Orchidaceae are first recorded to the flora of the Solomon Islands during the 2012–2015 field expeditions. Geographic data, ecological and taxonomic notes and illustrations of those species are provided. A new combination (Pinalia oligotricha and a new name (Dendrobium bougainvilleanum are also proposed for fitting recent systematic alterations within Orchidaceae.

  19. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpenter

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L. DC., Panicum virgatum L. and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L. in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50 causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18 fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12 falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that

  20. Climate change likely to reduce orchid bee abundance even in climatic suitable sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Frederico Valtuille; Nemésio, André; Loyola, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Studies have tested whether model predictions based on species' occurrence can predict the spatial pattern of population abundance. The relationship between predicted environmental suitability and population abundance varies in shape, strength and predictive power. However, little attention has been paid to the congruence in predictions of different models fed with occurrence or abundance data, in particular when comparing metrics of climate change impact. Here, we used the ecological niche modeling fit with presence-absence and abundance data of orchid bees to predict the effect of climate change on species and assembly level distribution patterns. In addition, we assessed whether predictions of presence-absence models can be used as a proxy to abundance patterns. We obtained georeferenced abundance data of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Sampling method consisted in attracting male orchid bees to baits of at least five different aromatic compounds and collecting the individuals with entomological nets or bait traps. We limited abundance data to those obtained by similar standard sampling protocol to avoid bias in abundance estimation. We used boosted regression trees to model ecological niches and project them into six climate models and two Representative Concentration Pathways. We found that models based on species occurrences worked as a proxy for changes in population abundance when the output of the models were continuous; results were very different when outputs were discretized to binary predictions. We found an overall trend of diminishing abundance in the future, but a clear retention of climatically suitable sites too. Furthermore, geographic distance to gained climatic suitable areas can be very short, although it embraces great variation. Changes in species richness and turnover would be concentrated in western and southern Atlantic Forest. Our findings offer support to the ongoing debate of suitability

  1. Morphological characteristics of a rare endemic species, Erysimum croceum M. Pop. (Brassicaceae from Trans-Ili Alatau, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karime T. Abidkulova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Erysimum croceum is a rare endemic species listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan. In 2015–2017 we studied three populations of this species on the territory of the Ile-Alatau National Park (Trans-Ili Alatau, Northern Tian-Shan. As a result of the inventory of sampling plots, we estimated the elevation range occupied by the species and identified age structure and population density. Our results confirmed earlier reports of low population counts of E. croceum. We also studied biometric characteristics of virginal and generative individuals of E. croceum from different populations, and measured parameters of their seeds. The morphometric parameters were highly variable across the studied populations. The only exception was the morphometric parameters of the seeds, which had low or very low variability. We conclude that these parameters are the most stable characteristics of the species. The results of the study can contribute to our understanding of population structure and dynamics of E. croceum and assist in developing effective conservation strategies for this species.

  2. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae I. Parasites of Spirogyra and Mougeotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out on the genus Spirogyra Link and Mougeotia Agardh revealed the following species of fungi parasiting in the Spirogyra and Mougeotia cells: Olpidium endogenum, Blyttiomyces helicus, B. spinulosus, Micromyces zygogonii and Rhizophydium ampullaceum. First information on B. helicus as parasitic on algae is presented.

  3. High prices for rare species can drive large populations extinct: the anthropogenic Allee effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew H; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2017-09-21

    Consumer demand for plant and animal products threatens many populations with extinction. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) proposes that such extinctions can be caused by prices for wildlife products increasing with species rarity. This price-rarity relationship creates financial incentives to extract the last remaining individuals of a population, despite higher search and harvest costs. The AAE has become a standard approach for conceptualizing the threat of economic markets on endangered species. Despite its potential importance for conservation, AAE theory is based on a simple graphical model with limited analysis of possible population trajectories. By specifying a general class of functions for price-rarity relationships, we show that the classic theory can understate the risk of species extinction. AAE theory proposes that only populations below a critical Allee threshold will go extinct due to increasing price-rarity relationships. Our analysis shows that this threshold can be much higher than the original theory suggests, depending on initial harvest effort. More alarmingly, even species with population sizes above this Allee threshold, for which AAE predicts persistence, can be destined to extinction. Introducing even a minimum price for harvested individuals, close to zero, can cause large populations to cross the classic anthropogenic Allee threshold on a trajectory towards extinction. These results suggest that traditional AAE theory may give a false sense of security when managing large harvested populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  5. Population ecology of turbot and brill: What can we learn from two rare flatfish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hammen, Tessa; Poos, Jan Jaap; van Overzee, Harriët M. J.; Heessen, Henk J. L.; Magnusson, Arni; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2013-11-01

    Turbot and brill are widely distributed in the Northeast Atlantic but occur at low abundance. They are ecologically very similar and closely related. The low abundance and the similarities make them particularly interesting to study the population dynamics because it raises the questions how the populations can sustain themselves at low abundances and how turbot and brill avoid strong interspecific competition. Knowledge of both species is hampered by lack of analysed data. The main objective of this study is therefore to increase the knowledge of turbot and brill and in particular to compare the two species in order to address the above questions. Based on biological samples collected in the North Sea, we calculated seasonal von Bertalanffy growth parameters, maturity ogives, monthly gonado-somatic indices (GSI) and condition factors (Fulton's K) and indices of inter- and intraspecific mean crowding and compared the results for turbot and brill. The main differences between the two species were found in their spawning period, with brill having a more protracted spawning period. Brill also showed an earlier peak in their GSI values, suggesting an earlier start of their spawning period. The mean crowding showed that interspecific competition was lower than intraspecific competition. The exploitation pattern was also studied. Turbot and brill are exploited as a bycatch species in the mixed demersal fishery. We found that productivity is highest in areas where the maximum temperature is close to the optimal temperature for growth (16-18 °C) and landings decrease where salinity falls below ~ 5 psu (turbot) and ~ 15 psu (brill). Recent fishing mortality rates of North Sea turbot are around 0.5-0.7, but there is no indication that recruitment is impaired at low levels of spawning stock biomass. We conclude that although both species have similar ecological characteristics, differences may reduce inter-specific competition.

  6. A Dual Repeat Cis-Element Determines Expression of GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE for Monoterpene Production in Phalaenopsis Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chuang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis bellina is a scented orchid emitting large amount of monoterpenes. GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (PbGDPS is the key enzyme for monoterpene biosynthesis, and shows concomitant expression with the emission of monoterpenes during flower development in P. bellina. Here, we identified a dual repeat cis-element in the GDPS promoter that is critical for monoterpene biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids. A strong correlation between the dual repeat and the monoterpene production was revealed by examination of the GDPS promoter fragments over 12 Phalaenopsis species. Serial-deletion of the 2-kb GDPS promoter fragments demonstrated that the integrity of the dual repeat was crucial for its promoter activities. By screening the Arabidopsis transcription factors (TFs cDNA library using yeast one-hybrid assay, AtbZIP18, a member of group I of bZIP TFs, was identified to be able to bind the dual repeat. We then identified PbbZIP4 in the transcriptome of P. bellina, showing 83% identity in the DNA binding region with that of AtbZIP18, and the expression level of PbbZIP4 was higher in the scented orchids. In addition, PbbZIP4 transactivated the GDPS promoter fragment containing the dual repeat in dual luciferase assay. Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PbbZIP4 induced a 10-fold production of monoterpenoids in the scentless orchid. In conclusion, these results indicate that the dual repeat is a real TF-bound cis-element significant for GDPS gene expression, and thus subsequent monoterpene biosynthesis in the scented Phalaenopsis orchids.

  7. Two rare species of tylenchids, Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. and Labrys chinensis Qing Bert, 2018 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konani, Ehsan; Panahandeh, Yousef; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid

    2018-04-23

    Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.

  8. Can the reproductive system of a rare and narrowly endemic plant species explain its high genetic diversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele M. Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reproductive system of flowering plants can be highly variable, affecting their biology, gene flow and genetic variability among populations. Petunia secreta is a rare annual endemic species of Pedra do Segredo, located in the municipality of Caçapava do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Although rare, the species possesses a high level of genetic variability. We investigated the reproductive system of P. secreta, including fruit production and seed germinability, in order to determine if its reproductive system can explain its genetic diversity. We sampled five populations and conducted five greenhouse hand-pollination treatments: 1 autonomous apomixis; 2 self-pollination; 3 hand self-pollination; 4 geitonogamy; and 5 cross-pollination. We analysed a total of 40 plants, 468 flowers, and 6,500 seeds. Only autonomous apomixis and self-pollination did not produce fruit. No differences in fruit weight were observed among pollination treatments (P > 0.05. Seeds of two colours were produced, with no differences in germinability. Considering all plants, populations, and treatments, the average germinability was 73 % (range 9 % to 100 %. These results, along with other previous studies, indicate that the reproductive systems of P. secreta, and its large effective population size, can explain its high genetic diversity.

  9. Mapping Habitat Connectivity for Multiple Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species on and Around Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    population sizes, reduced flow of individuals and genes between populations, and greater risk of extinction of native species (Fisher and Lindenmayer 2007...allow recolonization of both original and restored breeding sites where the local population has gone extinct , or simply to increase the chance that...movement for pollen dispersal by honey bees . Ecology 74:493-500. Müller, J., J. Stadler, R. Brandl., 2009. Composition versus physiognomy of vegetation

  10. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  11. Floral display, reproductive success, and conservation of terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2005), s. 136-144 ISSN 0361-185X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : deceptiveness * fruit set * number of flowers * Orchis morio * terrestrial orchids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  13. Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The classification of the genus Eulaema is modified in order to make it congruent with recent phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular data. The speciosa group, containing E. peruviana, E. speciosa and related species, is removed from E. (Eulaema and transferred to E. (Apeulaema. New morphological characters are presented to support the revised scope of the subgenera and their diagnostic features are revised. Six species groups are recognized herein: two in E. (Apeulaema and four in E. (Eulaema. A list of valid species in each species group and an identification key to males of each of the subgenera and species groups are provided. Finally, an older overlooked designation of a type species for Eulaema is presented in the Appendix.

  14. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  15. Evolution of the climatic tolerance and postglacial range changes of the most primitive orchids (Apostasioideae) within Sundaland, Wallacea and Sahul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanowska, Marta; Mystkowska, Katarzyna; Kras, Marta; Dudek, Magdalena; Konowalik, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The location of possible glacial refugia of six Apostasioideae representatives is estimated based on ecological niche modeling analysis. The distribution of their suitable niches during the last glacial maximum (LGM) is compared with their current potential and documented geographical ranges. The climatic factors limiting the studied species occurrences are evaluated and the niche overlap between the studied orchids is assessed and discussed. The predicted niche occupancy profiles and reconstruction of ancestral climatic tolerances suggest high level of phylogenetic niche conservatism within Apostasioideae.

  16. Evolution of the climatic tolerance and postglacial range changes of the most primitive orchids (Apostasioideae) within Sundaland, Wallacea and Sahul

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Mystkowska, K.; Kras, M.; Dudek, M.; Konowalik, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, aug (2016), č. článku e2384. ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : phylogenetic analysis * niche models * diversification * asia * distributions * improve * guinea * origin * areas * Ecology * Orchids * Species distribution modeling * Climatic tolerance * Postglacial migration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  17. Neonatal CNS infection and inflammation caused by Ureaplasma species: rare or relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P

    2015-02-01

    Colonization with Ureaplasma species has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and perinatal transmission has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. Little is known about Ureaplasma-mediated infection and inflammation of the CNS in neonates. Controversy remains concerning its incidence and implication in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. In vivo and in vitro data are limited. Despite improving care options for extremely immature preterm infants, relevant complications remain. Systematic knowledge of ureaplasmal infection may be of great benefit. This review aims to summarize pathogenic mechanisms, clinical data and diagnostic pitfalls. Studies in preterm and term neonates are critically discussed with regard to their limitations. Clinical questions concerning therapy or prophylaxis are posed. We conclude that ureaplasmas may be true pathogens, especially in preterm neonates, and may cause CNS inflammation in a complex interplay of host susceptibility, serovar pathogenicity and gestational age-dependent CNS vulnerability.

  18. Rare species of the genus Oxytropis DC. (Fabaceae) from the flora of the Republic of Bashkortostan under cultivation within the city of Ufa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, N. V.; Elizaryeva, O. A.; Galikeeva, G. M.; Tyutyunova, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations introducing eight rare species of the genus Oxytropis DC. from the flora of the Republic of Bashkortostan into the city of Ufa. Seven species are characterized as promising ornamental plants. According to the integrated evaluation scale of introduction effectiveness based on seven indices, two species were considered as very promising (O. spicata (Pall.) O. et B. Fedtsch., O. knjazevii Vasjukov), five species as promising (O. approximata Less., O. baschkirensis Knjasev, O. hippolyti Boriss., O. gmelinii Boriss., O. kungurensis Knjasev) and one species as non-promising (O. sordida (Willd.) Pers.). The ornamental quality assessment of rare species of the genus Oxytropis based on ten indices showed that these species can be used to create ornamental compositions in the landscape design style.

  19. Synecology of Cutandia maritima (L. Barbey, a rare psammophytic species along the Montenegrin Coast (East Adriatic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach in Ulcinj (Montenegro but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes, [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes, and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.

  20. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Williams-Tripp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra. The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range.

  1. Air pollution as it affects orchids at the New York Botanical Garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adderley, L.

    1965-08-01

    A general discussion of the effects of air pollution on orchids is presented, along with ameliorative measures. One orchid, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, is suggested as an air pollution bioassay tool, in that it is extremely sensitive to air pollution.

  2. Karyotype diversity and genome size variation in Neotropical Maxillariinae orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Koehler, S; Cabral, J S; Gomes, S S L; Viccini, L F; Barros, F; Felix, L P; Guerra, M; Forni-Martins, E R

    2017-03-01

    Orchidaceae is a widely distributed plant family with very diverse vegetative and floral morphology, and such variability is also reflected in their karyotypes. However, since only a low proportion of Orchidaceae has been analysed for chromosome data, greater diversity may await to be unveiled. Here we analyse both genome size (GS) and karyotype in two subtribes recently included in the broadened Maxillariinea to detect how much chromosome and GS variation there is in these groups and to evaluate which genome rearrangements are involved in the species evolution. To do so, the GS (14 species), the karyotype - based on chromosome number, heterochromatic banding and 5S and 45S rDNA localisation (18 species) - was characterised and analysed along with published data using phylogenetic approaches. The GS presented a high phylogenetic correlation and it was related to morphological groups in Bifrenaria (larger plants - higher GS). The two largest GS found among genera were caused by different mechanisms: polyploidy in Bifrenaria tyrianthina and accumulation of repetitive DNA in Scuticaria hadwenii. The chromosome number variability was caused mainly through descending dysploidy, and x=20 was estimated as the base chromosome number. Combining GS and karyotype data with molecular phylogeny, our data provide a more complete scenario of the karyotype evolution in Maxillariinae orchids, allowing us to suggest, besides dysploidy, that inversions and transposable elements as two mechanisms involved in the karyotype evolution. Such karyotype modifications could be associated with niche changes that occurred during species evolution. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-01-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  4. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: okikuchi@net.ipen.br

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  5. Protecting rare, old-growth, forest-associated species under the Survey and Manage program guidelines of the northwest forest plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Molina; Bruce G. Marcot; Robin. Lesher

    2006-01-01

    The Survey and Manage Program of the Northwest Forest Plan (MFP) represents an unparalleled attempt to protect rare, little-known species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests on more than 7.7 million ha of federal lands. Approximately 400 species of amphibians, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, mollusks, vascular plants, arthropod functional groups, and...

  6. New Workflows for Born-Digital Assets: Managing Charles E. Bracker's Orchid Photographs Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Amanda A.; Runyon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    Charles E. Bracker was a professor of botany and plant pathology at Purdue University from 1964 to 1999. His late wife, Anri, was an orchid enthusiast who began collecting and housing orchids in the 1980s. In 2009, Bracker's 30,000 digital orchid photographs were donated to Ball State University Libraries, where both of this article's authors…

  7. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  8. Status and limiting factors of two rare plant species in dry montane communities of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Two rare plants native to montane dry forests and woodland communities of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were studied for more than two years to determine their stand structure, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, floral visitor composition, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. Phyllostegia stachyoides, a shrubby Hawaiian mint (Lamiaceae) that is a species of concern, was studied within two small kīpuka at a natural population on the park’s Mauna Loa Strip, and three plantings at sites along the Mauna Loa Road were also monitored. Silene hawaiiensis, a threatened shrub species in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), was monitored at two natural populations, one on Mauna Loa at the Three Trees Kīpuka and the second on Kīlauea Crater Rim south of Halema`uma`u. Silene hawaiiensis plantings were also made inside and outside ungulate exclosures at the park’s Kahuku Unit

  9. Confirmation by DNA analysis that Contarinia maculipennis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a polyphagous pest of orchids and other unrelated cultivated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, N; Tokuda, M; Yukawa, J; Kawamura, F; Teramoto, K K; Harris, K M

    2003-12-01

    The cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in mitochondrial DNA of 53 larvae of Contarinia maculipennis Felt from flower buds of various host plants, collected from Hawaii, Japan and Thailand was analysed. Monophyly of the clade including C. maculipennis from Hawaii, Thailand and Japan was supported. There was no sequential variation within the specimens from Hawaii and Japan, which differed from one another by 6 bp (1.37%). Three haplotypes were recognized in specimens from Thailand but differences from Hawaiian and Japanese specimens were small. Overall, there were no differences in the 146 deduced amino acid residues. It is therefore concluded that C. maculipennis is a polyphagous species that can develop on plant hosts representing at least seven botanical families. This pest of Dendrobium flower buds in glasshouses is considered to have entered Hawaii, Florida and Japan from Southeast Asia, and was recently intercepted in the Netherlands. Infestations have established and spread in orchid glasshouses, causing concern about the possibility of more extensive damage to orchids and to crops, such as bitter gourd, grown in close proximity to orchid glasshouses in Japan. The potential usefulness of DNA analysis in determining host plant ranges of morphologically identical cecidomyiid species that are currently identified solely on differences of host plant is emphasized.

  10. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii: Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects.

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    Kerstin Stejskal

    Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.

  11. Estimating density of a rare and cryptic high-mountain Galliform species, the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii

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    Yu Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of abundance or density are essential for wildlife management and conservation. There are few effective density estimates for the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, a rare and elusive high-mountain Galliform species endemic to western China. In this study, we used the temporary emigration N-mixture model to estimate density of this species, with data acquired from playback point count surveys around a sacred area based on indigenous Tibetan culture of protection of wildlife, in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, during April-June 2009. Within 84 125-m radius points, we recorded 53 partridge groups during three repeats. The best model indicated that detection probability was described by covariates of vegetation cover type, week of visit, time of day, and weather with weak effects, and a partridge group was present during a sampling period with a constant probability. The abundance component was accounted for by vegetation association. Abundance was substantially higher in rhododendron shrubs, fir-larch forests, mixed spruce-larch-birch forests, and especially oak thickets than in pine forests. The model predicted a density of 5.14 groups/km², which is similar to an estimate of 4.7 - 5.3 groups/km² quantified via an intensive spot-mapping effort. The post-hoc estimate of individual density was 14.44 individuals/km², based on the estimated mean group size of 2.81. We suggest that the method we employed is applicable to estimate densities of Buff-throated Partridges in large areas. Given importance of a mosaic habitat for this species, local logging should be regulated. Despite no effect of the conservation area (sacred on the abundance of Buff-throated Partridges, we suggest regulations linking the sacred mountain conservation area with the official conservation system because of strong local participation facilitated by sacred mountains in land conservation.

  12. An overview of the Phalaenopsis orchid genome through BAC end sequence analysis

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    Hsiao Yu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phalaenopsis orchids are popular floral crops, and development of new cultivars is economically important to floricultural industries worldwide. Analysis of orchid genes could facilitate orchid improvement. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences (BESs can provide the first glimpses into the sequence composition of a novel genome and can yield molecular markers for use in genetic mapping and breeding. Results We used two BAC libraries (constructed using the BamHI and HindIII restriction enzymes of Phalaenopsis equestris to generate pair-end sequences from 2,920 BAC clones (71.4% and 28.6% from the BamHI and HindIII libraries, respectively, at a success rate of 95.7%. A total of 5,535 BESs were generated, representing 4.5 Mb, or about 0.3% of the Phalaenopsis genome. The trimmed sequences ranged from 123 to 1,397 base pairs (bp in size, with an average edited read length of 821 bp. When these BESs were subjected to sequence homology searches, it was found that 641 (11.6% were predicted to represent protein-encoding regions, whereas 1,272 (23.0% contained repetitive DNA. Most of the repetitive DNA sequences were gypsy- and copia-like retrotransposons (41.9% and 12.8%, respectively, whereas only 10.8% were DNA transposons. Further, 950 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs were discovered. Dinucleotides were the most abundant repeat motifs; AT/TA dimer repeats were the most frequent SSRs, representing 253 (26.6% of all identified SSRs. Microsynteny analysis revealed that more BESs mapped to the whole-genome sequences of poplar than to those of grape or Arabidopsis, and even fewer mapped to the rice genome. This work will facilitate analysis of the Phalaenopsis genome, and will help clarify similarities and differences in genome composition between orchids and other plant species. Conclusion Using BES analysis, we obtained an overview of the Phalaenopsis genome in terms of gene abundance, the presence of repetitive

  13. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  14. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Species discovery patterns have been under study since the past ... frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids – in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity centre in India. Our .... This analysis is an alternative to logistic regression; it.

  15. Responses to simulated nitrogen deposition by the neotropical epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison A. Díaz-Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potential ecophysiological responses to nitrogen deposition, which is considered to be one of the leading causes for global biodiversity loss, were studied for the endangered endemic Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa, via a shadehouse dose-response experiment (doses were 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in order to assess the potential risk facing this orchid given impending scenarios of nitrogen deposition. Lower doses of nitrogen of up to 20 kg N ha yr−1, the dose that led to optimal plant performance, acted as fertilizer. For instance, the production of leaves and pseudobulbs were respectively 35% and 36% greater for plants receiving 20 kg N ha yr−1 than under any other dose. Also, the chlorophyll content and quantum yield peaked at 0.66 ± 0.03 g m−2 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively, for plants growing under the optimum dose. In contrast, toxic effects were observed at the higher doses of 40 and 80 kg N ha yr−1. The δ13C for leaves averaged −14.7 ± 0.2‰ regardless of the nitrogen dose. In turn, δ15N decreased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0.9 ± 0.1‰ under 2.5 kg N ha−1yr−1 to −3.1 ± 0.2‰ under 80 kg N ha−1yr−1, indicating that orchids preferentially assimilate NH4+ rather than NO3− of the solution under higher doses of nitrogen. Laelia speciosa showed a clear response to inputs of nitrogen, thus, increasing rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition can pose an important threat for this species.

  16. Ionocidium ‘Cerrado 101’: intergeneric orchid hybrid with high quality of blooming

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    Jean Carlos Cardoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are considered one of the most important potted-flowering in the world. Oncidium genus, as well their hybrids group (OHGs has used for the flower market as pot or cut flower.  However, some horticultural characteristics require improvements, e.g. the production of precocious cultivars, independent-season blooming or easy flowering induction, high quality and durability of flowers and variations in color of flowers, to compete with Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium orchids, as other flower groups. Aiming this purpose there were used hand-crossing pollination between the Oncidium ‘Sweet Sugar’ and Ionopsis utricularioides, a Brazilian wild species, for evaluate the capacity of crossing and to select progenies with interest of use in floriculture as new cultivar. The seeds obtained from this cross were seeded on in vitro conditions, followed by acclimatization and cultivation on greenhouse conditions until de flowering time. One of the plants obtained presented interesting characteristics, as good and rapid vegetative development and high quality of blooming. This hybrid obtained from an intergeneric crossing resulted in a plant with vegetative and flower type characteristics and color similar of Oncidium female parent, but with larger number of ramifications in inflorescence and number of flowers (60% and 219,4%, respectively than Oncidium parent (♀, and with more similarity with Ionopsis (♂. This hybrid cultivar, called Ionocidium ‘Cerrado 101’ is one more option of OHGs in this competitive market and can be used either for pot and also for cut orchid flowers production, main because it longer inflorescence (83 cm.

  17. Orchids mimic green-leaf volatiles to attract prey-hunting wasps for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Hölzler, Gerald; Zhang, Qing-He; Ayasse, Manfred

    2008-05-20

    An outstanding feature of orchids is the diversity of their pollination systems [1]. Most remarkable are those species that employ chemical deceit for the attraction of pollinators [2]. The orchid Epipactis helleborine is a typical wasp flower, exhibiting physiological and morphological adaptations for the attraction of pollinating social wasps [3]. As noted by Darwin [1], this species is almost entirely overlooked by other potential pollinators, despite a large nectar reward. Therefore, the mechanism for the attraction of pollinating social wasps was something of a mystery. By using a combination of behavioral experiments, electrophysiological investigations, and chemical analyses, we demonstrate for the first time that the flowers of E. helleborine and E. purpurata emit green-leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are attractive to foragers of the social wasps Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris. GLVs, emitted by damaged plant tissues, are known to guide parasitic wasps to their hosts [4]. Several E. helleborine GLVs that induced response in the antennae of wasps were also emitted by cabbage leaves infested with caterpillars (Pieris brassicae), which are common prey items for wasps [5]. This is the first example in which GLVs have been implicated in chemical mimicry for the attraction of pollinating insects.

  18. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi-Cheng; Burgess, Kevin S; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Xu-Li; Huang, Hui; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum , in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum) did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44%) with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35%) at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  19. IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF ORCHID Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl. WITH DIFFERENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Setiawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl. is one of the orchid species which is often seeked. It is because this species has a mystique appearance and special fragrance. The research aimed to observe the growth and developing responses of protocorm like bodies (PLBs of D. heterocarpum after 12 weeks in three different medium, i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS, Kursor C and Western 3 (W3. The D. heterocarpum seeds were planted in MS, Kursor C and W3 medium. Qualitatively the orchid growth were observe including growth score and colour score. The result showed that growing time of MS was 4 weeks, a week faster than the growing time on Kursor C and W3 medium. The growing phase on MS medium and Kursor C medium reached phase 1 whereas on W3 medium reached phase 2. PLB’s colour after 12 weeks on MS medium reached phase E, strong yellowish green phase (142A. Meanwhile, on Kursor C and W3 was on phase D, moderate yellowish green (143D.

  20. Molecular techniques as complementary tools in orchid mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran; Sakinah Ariffin [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    2002-02-01

    Orchid breeders have always been dependent on hybridization technology to produce new orchid hybrids and varieties. The technology has proven very reliable and easy to use and has produced wide range of successful cultivars with attractive combinations of spray length, bud number, flower colour and form, vase life, fragrance, seasonality, and compactness. By introducing mutagenesis however, wide variations of flower colours, form and size can still be obtained in addition to overcoming the problem of sexual incompatibility and sterility. In addition, complementary use of molecular techniques will allow breeders to target more specific characteristic changes and cut short breeding time. PCR-based techniques used to analyse the DNA of mutagenic clones found polymorphic fragments that can be developed as molecular markers. This paper describes how mutagenesis and molecular techniques can be used to enhance orchid breeding efforts. (author)

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  2. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum

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    Zeljka Rupcic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF or (as established more recently brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre. While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF, which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  3. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupcic, Zeljka; Rascher, Monique; Kanaki, Sae; Köster, Reinhard W; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin

    2018-03-06

    Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion's Mane mushroom ( Hericium erinaceus ) strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre ). While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF , which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  4. Culture media used in the micropropagation of orchids hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Yuriko Miyata; Fabíola Villa

    2014-01-01

    In orchid cultivation, tissue culture has been an important and effective tool for obtaining good quality seedlings on a large scale and within a short period of time. This study aims to evaluate culture media on the in vitro growth and development of orchid hybrids. Seedlings 1-1.5 cm long, deriving from in vitro germination of seeds, were inoculated in 250 mL flasks containing 50 mL of culture medium, with salts from the media where each of them were treated. Treatments consisted of applyin...

  5. The effects of planting media and leaf fertilizers on the growth of jamrud orchid (Dendrobium macrophyllum A. Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE TIRTA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Jamrud orchid (Dendrobium macrophyllum A. Rich. have attractive flowers which make the orchid become one of high economic ornamental plants. The orchid is one of endangered species. Its growth is slow, however appropriate planting media and leaf fertilizers can improve the growth of the orchid. The experiment was conducted from February to June 2003, at “Eka Karya” Bali Botanic Garden. The design used in the experiment was completely randomized block with two treatments and four replicates. The first factor were six kinds of planting medias (roots of C. contaminans, roots of Asplenium nidus, charcoal, roots of C. contaminans+roots of A. nidus, roots of C. contaminans+charcoal and roots of A. nidus+charcoal. The second factor were four kinds of fertilizers (plant catalyst, super bionik, inabio and subur inti persada and one treatment without fertilizer. The results of experiment showed that the interaction between planting medias and leaf fertilizers significantly affected increment of plant height at 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after planting, of leaf number at 14, 16 and 18 weeks after planting, of root length, of plant fresh weight and oven dry weight. Treatment of C. contaminans roots and of A. nidus roots combined with inabio fertilizer produced the highest vegetative growth. This treatment increased the total oven dry weight of plant (54.81%, increased the weight of plant (67.48%, of root length (41.63%, of total leaf number (70.73%, of plant height (59.01% and bud number (72.22% compared with treatment without fertilizer in the same media.

  6. Organic Additives Improves the in Vitro Growth of Native Orchid Vanda helvola Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina DAVID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seed germination has been proven to be the most efficient technique to propagate orchid. The application of this aseptic technique has contributed to conservation of many endangered orchid species. In this study, undehisced capsules of Vanda helvola Blume were collected from Orchid Conservation Centre in Lagud Sebrang Agriculture Park, after 120 days from hand pollination and aseptically cultured on three types of basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS, Knudson C (KC and Vacin and Went (VW. After 90 days of culture, 66.40 ± 4.14% of seeds successfully germinated on KC medium. The effect of organic additives such as tomato juice, coconut water, peptone and yeast extract at different level of concentrations in KC basal medium were also tested on seed germination and seedling development of this native orchid. After 90 days of culture, over 90% of seeds were tremendously germinated on KC medium supplemented with 10% or 15% (v/v of tomato juice. The incorporation of peptone at 0.1% (w/v in KC basal media promoted rapid development of protocorm to seedling. Seedlings on this treatment produced an average of three leaves and two roots after 90 days of culture and were successfully acclimatized.

  7. Protocorms of an epiphytic orchid (Epidendrum amphistomum A. Richard recovered in situ, and subsequent identification of associated mycorrhizal fungi using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence W. Zettler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic orchids have received considerable study, yet little has been published on their germination requirements in situ involving mycorrhizal fungi. Such research has been hampered by the small, dust-like size of seeds and leafless seedlings (protocorms which are difficult to pinpoint on natural substrates, especially those on arboreal substrates (tree limbs. We report a novel seed sowing and retrieval method, modified from one applied to terrestrial orchids, used in the acquisition of epiphytic orchid protocorms from the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. Seeds from two epiphytic orchid species (Epidendrum amphistomum A. Richard, E. nocturnum Jacquin were placed in separate nylon mesh packets secured within 35 mm plastic slide mounts, and affixed to tree bark using gutter mesh and a staple gun. To confirm that the embryos were viable, some seeds were also sown on asymbiotic media in the laboratory which subsequently germinated after 52 days incubation. Of 60 packets distributed among 18 tree limb sites, one packet – harboring seeds of E. amphistomum affixed to pop ash (Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. on a moss substrate – harbored protocorms after 267 days. Using molecular markers, a fungus assignable to the Ceratobasidiaceae, appears to be the mycorrhizal associate of these protocorms suggesting that this fungus may be associated with the germination process in situ.

  8. Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis orchids via protocorms and protocorm-like bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee Yoeup; Hahn, Eun Joo; Park, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Phalaenopsis orchids have high economic value in the floriculture industry. Hybridization or cross-pollination in the breeding program have proven to be very reliable techniques for the production of a wide range of successful cultivars with attractive combinations of spray length, bud number, flower color and type, fragrance, seasonality, and compactness. In vitro propagation makes it possible to clonally mass propagate hybrids of commercial value and conserved species. However, in vitro culture technologies are still a challenge because of the slow growth of plantlets, low multiplication rate, poor rooting, and somaclonal variation. Although seed-raised plants can be used for conservation and breeding for the selection of superior features, genetic characteristics including seasonality, inflorescence, flower color, and type are not uniform. In this regard, micropropagation through protocorm-like bodies obtained from germinating embryos and somatic tissues is an important strategy in obtaining genetically stable plants and the improvement of quality. However, not all genotypes of Phalaenopsis respond to the same protocol under the same culture conditions and often result in the development of undesirable characteristics. In this chapter, plantlet production in Phalaenopsis orchids via the culture of protocorms from seeds and protocorm-like bodies from leaf sections and root tips are detailed.

  9. Blown by the wind: the ecology of male courtship display behavior in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Tamara; Vogler, Ira; Losch, René; Schlütting, Patrick; Juarez, Pedro; Bissantz, Nicolai; Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Many insects rely on chemical signals to transmit precise information on the location, identity, and quality of potential mates. Chemical signals are often broadcasted at sites with physical properties that maximize signal propagation and signal transmission. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) perch and display on vertical branches and tree trunks in the forest to expose volatile blends (perfumes) that they previously collected from their environment. Previous studies have shown that the chemical composition of perfume blends is highly differentiated even between closely related species. However, variation in behavioral components of perfume exposure and male display remain poorly understood. We conducted a four-year study on orchid bee display sites (8 species) in pacific Costa Rica, using field observations along with chemical analysis and cage experiments to assess display niche partitioning among sympatric species. We evaluated the influence of physical factors (terrain, wind, light) on the distribution of perch sites and on display behavior, and tested a prediction of the sex pheromone-analogue hypothesis, i.e., that displaying males have above-average quantities or qualities of acquired perfumes. Males of different species displayed in the same general area and sometimes in close proximity to each other, but partitioned the display niche by selecting different perch diameters, display heights, and by displaying at different times of the day. Most perch sites were located inside the forest on elevated ground, especially along ridges, where stronger winds may help disperse perfume signals. Furthermore, the angular position of displaying males on perches was narrowly determined by wind direction, with males being positioned on the downwind side of the perch, where they would be most conspicuous to conspecifics approaching on an odor trail. Although our results generally support the hypothesis that perfumes serve as pheromone analogues, we did not find

  10. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weeks in March 2002 in the Southern Regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa and Ruvuma) to study aspects of the extent of the distribution, diversity and density of edible orchids. Tools for identification included structured questionnaire, on-the-spot identification as well as using herbarium voucher samples and keys.

  11. Cytokinin treatment and flower quality in Phalaenopsis orchids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously documented an N-6-benzyladenine (BA) protocol to increase spike and flower number in Phalaenopsis orchids. To increase options for growers, we tested two additional cytokinins, kinetin (Kin) and 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2-iP), comparing them with BA. Two key commercial cultivars were used ...

  12. Effect of floral display on reproductive success in terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 47-60 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6141302; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1124 Keywords : deceptivity * floral display * orchid * reproductive success * reward Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  13. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 7: The status (threatened, rare, vulnerable, endangered, or extinct) of forest dependent species at risk of not maintaining viable breeding populations, as determined by legislation or scientific assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Taylor H. Ricketts; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael S. Knowles; John P. Fay; Jason McNees

    2003-01-01

    As the number of species classified as rare increases, the likelihood of species extinction also increases. This indicator focuses on species that have the greatest chance of being lost from the biotic community and therefore presages potential declines in species richness. The trend in species extinction since the turn of the 20th century varies by taxonomic group....

  14. First experimental evidence for carbon starvation at warm temperatures in epiphytic orchids of tropical cloud forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Guenter; Roemer, Helena; Fioroni, Tiffany; Olmedo, Inayat; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cloud forests are among the most climate sensitive ecosystems world-wide. The lack of a strong seasonality and the additional dampening of temperature fluctuations by the omnipresence of clouds and fog produce year-round constant climatic conditions. With climate change the presence of clouds and fog is, however, predicted to be reduced. The disappearance of the cooling fog cover will have dramatic consequences for air temperatures, that are predicted to increase locally well over 5 °C by the end of the 21st century. Especially the large number of endemic epiphytic orchids in tropical cloud forests that contribute substantially to the biological diversity of these ecosystems, but are typically adapted to a very narrow climate envelope, are speculated to be very sensitive to the anticipated rise in temperature. In a phytotron experiment we investigated the effect of increasing temperatures on the carbon balance (gas-exchange and the carbon reserve household) of 10 epiphytic orchid species from the genera Dracula, native to tropical, South-American cloud forests. The orchids were exposed to three temperature treatments: i) a constant temperature treatment (23°C/13°C, day/night) simulating natural conditions, ii) a slow temperature ramp of +0.75 K every 10 days, and iii) a fast temperature ramp of +1.5 K every 10 days. CO2 leaf gas-exchanges was determined every 10 days, and concentrations of low molecular weight sugars and starch were analyses from leaf samples throughout the experiment. We found that increasing temperatures had only minor effects on day-time leaf respiration, but led to a moderate increase of respiration during night-time. In contrast to the rather minor effects of higher temperatures on respiration, there was a dramatic decline of net-photosynthesis above day-time temperatures of 29°C, and a complete stop of net-carbon uptake at 33°C in all investigated species. This high sensitivity of photosynthesis to warming was independent of the

  15. The Tergal Gland Secretion of the Two Rare Myrmecophilous Species Zyras collaris and Z. haworthi (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and the Effect on Lasius fuliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stoeffler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The beetle species Zyras collaris and Z. haworthi belong to the rove beetle tribe Myrmedoniini (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae, which comprises many myrmecophilous species. Due to their rareness, it is unknown how the two species interact with their host ants. GC-MS analyses revealed that both species release α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and limonene from their defensive tergal glands. This composition of tergal gland secretion is unique within the subfamily Aleocharinae. In biotests, Lasius fuliginosus ants showed increased antennation towards filter paper balls treated with mixtures of these substances in natural concentrations. Because these monoterpenes are also present in some aphid species which are attended by ants, we hypothesize that Zyras beetles mimic the presence of aphids and thereby achieve acceptance by their host ants.

  16. Occurrence of Morphological and Anatomical Adaptive Traits in Young and Adult Plants of the Rare Mediterranean Cliff Species Primula palinuri Petagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Micco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  17. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  18. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) on Planting and Maintenance of Orchid at Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Abu Sari; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Research on orchid mutation breeding has been carried out at Malaysian Nuclear Agency since 1990s. In this study, a large number of irradiated orchid seedlings were planted for screening and the mutants obtained were propagated from time to time. Care should be taken to make sure plants are healthy, hence resulted in reliable and accurate data. For this purpose, SOP for orchid cultivation and maintenance need to be developed. A short attachment on training was carried at Hexagon Green Sdn. Bhd orchid farm, Bukit Changgang, Banting. Besides learning the cultivation, maintenance and management of orchids, consequently the experience obtained from this attachment helped in preparing SOP at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This paper will discuss the SOP on cultivation and maintenance of orchid from the hardening until maturation stage in the glass house to ensure plants are healthy, produce of high quality flowers and disease free. (author)

  19. Ultrastructure study of Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid's protocorm-like body

    OpenAIRE

    Gnasekaran,Pavallekoodi; Mahmood,Maziah; Subramaniam,Sreeramanan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growing orchids has been classified as an international business since it covers 8% of the world floriculture trade. Thus, large-scale micropropagation of orchid using tissue culture techniques and improvement of some essential traits, such as resistances to various diseases and pests, and tolerances to environmental stresses, such as low temperatures and low light intensities, via genetic engineering acknowledged the orchids as one of the top ten cut flowers. Protocorm-like bodies (...

  20. Les orchidées comestibles chez le peuple Bagam, au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzepoh, SB.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible orchids by the Bagam tribe in Cameroon. In the Zambezian region of Africa, tuber orchids are renowned for their food, medicinal and economic values. In central Africa and in Cameroon in particular, socio-economic role of orchids is still to be documented. The current paper focuses on two orchids, Habenaria keayi Summerh. and Habenaria zambesina Rchb.f. which tuber and roots respectively are used to prepare a food called "napssié" or ground meat by the Bagam tribe in the subdivision of Galim, Western region of Cameroon. The paper also mentions their socio-economic role, threat and pleads for their domestication.

  1. The occurence of rare and protected plant species on the peat bog near Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a pilot field study, conducted in July 2007, designed to make floristic evaluation of the peat bog area adjacent to the western shore of Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. The main aim of the study was to confirm the occurrence of populations of rare and legally protected plant species in this area and to identify, on a preliminary basis, habitat conditions in their stands. The occurrence of populations of the following strictly protected plant species: Betula humilis, Salix lapponum, Salix myrtilloides, Carex limosa, Drosera intermedia, Drosera rotundifolia, Dactylorhiza incarnata; and partially protected species: Menyanthes trifoliata, has been confirmed in the studied peat bog. Both an investigation of abiotic factors, conducted in situ, and an analysis of the species composition of the flora in terms of habitat preferences of particular groups of taxa have shown that the described rare plant species find suitable conditions for their growth and development in the studied peat bog.

  2. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cheng Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum, in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44% with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35% at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  3. Photoprotection related to xanthophyll cycle pigments in epiphytic orchids acclimated at different light microenvironments in two tropical dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa-Manzano, Edilia; Andrade, José Luis; García-Mendoza, Ernesto; Zotz, Gerhard; Reyes-García, Casandra

    2015-12-01

    Epiphytic orchids from dry forests of Yucatán show considerable photoprotective plasticity during the dry season, which depends on leaf morphology and host tree deciduousness. Nocturnal retention of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin was detected for the first time in epiphytic orchids. In tropical dry forests, epiphytes experience dramatic changes in light intensity: photosynthetic photon flux density may be up to an order of magnitude higher in the dry season compared to the wet season. To address the seasonal changes of xanthophyll cycle (XC) pigments and photosynthesis that occur throughout the year, leaves of five epiphytic orchid species were studied during the early dry, dry and wet seasons in a deciduous and a semi-deciduous tropical forests at two vertical strata on the host trees (3.5 and 1.5 m height). Differences in XC pigment concentrations and photosynthesis (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II; F v/F m) were larger among seasons than between vertical strata in both forests. Antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin retention reflected the stressful conditions of the epiphytic microhabitat, and it is described here in epiphytes for the first time. During the dry season, both XC pigment concentrations and photosystem II heat dissipation of absorbed energy increased in orchids in the deciduous forest, while F v/F m and nocturnal acidification (ΔH(+)) decreased, clearly as a response to excessive light and drought. Concentrations of XC pigments were higher than those in orchids with similar leaf shape in semi-deciduous forest. There, only Encyclia nematocaulon and Lophiaris oerstedii showed somewhat reduced F v/F m. No changes in ΔH(+) and F v/F m were detected in Cohniella ascendens throughout the year. This species, which commonly grows in forests with less open canopies, showed leaf tilting that diminished light interception. Light conditions in the uppermost parts of the canopy probably limit the distribution of epiphytic orchids and the retention of

  4. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Cryptosporidium Species are Frequently Present but Rarely Detected in Clinical Samples from Children with Diarrhea in a Developed Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaards, Daniel M; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Skov, Marianne N

    2018-01-01

    Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015 Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study PCR detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1,3%) of 304...... children. Cryptosporidium species is as frequent as other intestinal pathogens in childhood diarrhea. Testing is relevant....

  6. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON FERNANDES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species. The distribution and amount of heterochromatin regions differed in the two species analyzed, where they were classified as “high” or “low” heterochromatin content, similarly to what has already been performed in social bee species of the genus Melipona. Banding patterns found in this study suggest that other mechanisms may have occurred in the karyotype evolution of this group, unlike those suggested for social bees and ants. Karyotype evolution of solitary bees appears to have occurred as an event separate from other hymenopterans and did not involve chromosome fissions and heterochromatin amplification.

  7. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anderson; Werneck, Hugo A; Pompolo, Silvia G; Lopes, Denilce M

    2013-09-01

    Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species. The distribution and amount of heterochromatin regions differed in the two species analyzed, where they were classified as “high” or “low” heterochromatin content, similarly to what has already been performed in social bee species of the genus Melipona. Banding patterns found in this study suggest that other mechanisms may have occurred in the karyotype evolution of this group, unlike those suggested for social bees and ants. Karyotype evolution of solitary bees appears to have occurred as an event separate from other hymenopterans and did not involve chromosome fissions and heterochromatin amplification.

  8. An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Raskoti, B. B.; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2013), s. 511-550 ISSN 0107-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : orchids * checklist * Nepal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2013

  9. Native and exotic earthworms affect orchid seed loss

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Melissa K.; Parker, Kenneth L.; Szlavecz, Katalin; Whigham, Dennis F.

    2013-01-01

    Non-native earthworms have invaded ecosystems around the world but have recently received increased attention as they invaded previously earthworm-free habitats in northern North America. Earthworms can affect plants by ingesting seeds and burying them in the soil. These effects can be negative or positive but are expected to become increasingly negative with decreasing seed size. Orchids have some of the smallest seeds of any plants, so we hypothesized that earthworm consumption of seeds wou...

  10. Culture media used in the micropropagation of orchids hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Yuriko Miyata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In orchid cultivation, tissue culture has been an important and effective tool for obtaining good quality seedlings on a large scale and within a short period of time. This study aims to evaluate culture media on the in vitro growth and development of orchid hybrids. Seedlings 1-1.5 cm long, deriving from in vitro germination of seeds, were inoculated in 250 mL flasks containing 50 mL of culture medium, with salts from the media where each of them were treated. Treatments consisted of applying culture media (MS; DSD1; Knudson; B5; and WPM, combined with 5 orchid hybrids (CW1, CW2, CW3, CI e BLC. The media were added 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal and solidified with 5 g L-1 of agar, and their pH was adjusted to 5.8 ± 0.1, before autoclaving at 121°C and at 1.1 atm for 20 minutes. After sterilization of media, seedlings were inoculated in a laminar flow chamber and then kept in a growth room at the temperature of 25 ± 1ºC, with photoperiod of 16 h and irradiance of 32 ?mol.m–2.s–1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial 5 x 5 scheme, containing 6 seedlings per repetition. After 120 days, we evaluated root number, shoot number, leaf and root length, and fresh root weight. In in vitro cultivation of orchids, the media standing out are MS and DSD1 and the hybrids CI, CW1, and BLC.

  11. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  12. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  13. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  14. An Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plant Species Found in the St. Louis, Missouri, Corps of Engineers District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    from the staminate spike. Leaves 7-15 mm wide. Habitat: Edge of lake. Range: Maine to South Dakota, south to Missouri, Ala- bama, and North Carolina... staminate . Leaves of pistillate plants broadly lanceolate, to 13 mm long, to 4 mm broad. Sepals 3. Petals 3. Leaves of staminate plants linear to linear...Missouri: Rare. 0 Description: Aquatic. Leaves floating, heart-shaped, with spongy air cells on the lower surface. Flowers uni- sexual. Ovary inferior

  15. Western Pairie Fringed Orchid: Its Status, Ecology, and in Vitro Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna Sharma; J. W. Van Sambeek; Christopher J. Starbuck

    2002-01-01

    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles), listed in 1989 as federally threatened, has been extirpated from 75% of historic sites throughout its range. We describe (a) threats to the orchid; (b) seed germination on synthetic medium; and (c) in vitro germination with mycorrhizal fungi. Destruction of prairies for...

  16. A Protoplast Transient Expression System to Enable Molecular, Cellular, and Functional Studies in Phalaenopsis orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Yin Lin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The enigmatic nature of the specialized developmental programs of orchids has fascinated plant biologists for centuries. The recent releases of orchid genomes indicate that orchids possess new gene families and family expansions and contractions to regulate a diverse suite of developmental processes. However, the extremely long orchid life cycle and lack of molecular toolkit have hampered the advancement of orchid biology research. To overcome the technical difficulties and establish a platform for rapid gene regulation studies, in this study, we developed an efficient protoplast isolation and transient expression system for Phalaenopsis aphrodite. This protocol was successfully applied to protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interaction studies. Moreover, it was confirmed to be useful in delineating the PaE2F/PaDP-dependent cell cycle pathway and studying auxin response. In summary, the established orchid protoplast transient expression system provides a means to functionally characterize orchid genes at the molecular level allowing assessment of transcriptome responses to transgene expression and widening the scope of molecular studies in orchids.

  17. A comparative study of radioresistance of rare and non-disappearing species of tulipal from the flora of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibadov, O.V.; Askerov, I.T.; Medzhidov, M.M.; Alekperov, U.K.

    1983-01-01

    Eichle and Sclimid bulds irradiated by gamma-rays of different doses (1-1 Gy) have been investigated. Morphological and phenological observations are carried out, decorative propertie the tested plants are estimated. It is found that low radiation doses (1-5 Gy) stimulate the sprouting of these species, while high doses suppress it. The Eichler species being somewhat more radioresistant than those of Schmi type

  18. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. PMID:27413188

  20. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  1. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masih, A.; Singh, P.K.; Kathuria, S.; Agarwal, K.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Chowdhary, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study

  2. Description of the tadpoles of three rare species of megophryid frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhummer, Evelyne; Barten, Catherin; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander; Hertwig, Stefan T

    2014-07-09

    The megophryid frogs Leptobrachella brevicrus, Leptolalax dringi and Megophrys dringi are species exclusively known  from highly localised areas in isolated mountain ranges on Borneo. The tadpoles and adults in this study were collected at the shared type locality for the three species in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo). The species identities of larvae were determined via comparison to syntopic adults using DNA barcoding techniques based on partial 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences. The genetic data supported the status of the three taxa as valid species. Descriptions of colouration in life and after preservation, external morphological features, morphometric measurements and ecological notes in comparison to congeneric species are supplied. The tadpoles of L. brevicrus and L. dringi show similar adaptations to a fossorial lifestyle. These include an elongated, vermiform body, a relatively long tail and small eyes. Both were found in the gravel beds of a small mountain stream. In contrast, the larvae of M. dringi are adapted to occupying and feeding at the surface of pools within the stream. 

  3. A Search for Rarely Seen Ultraviolet Coma Emissions and New Species Upper Limits at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Using the Rosetta-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, J.; Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. W.; Keeney, B. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Feldman, P.; Steffl, A.; Feaga, L. M.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Alice far/extreme-UV spectrograph aboard Rosetta is one of three US instruments provided by NASA; it is the first UV spectrograph to reach any comet. Numerous scientific results have been obtained regarding 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by this instrument. Here we summarize two new sets of results from a search for rarely appearing atomic and molecular spectral emission features and a grand sum spectrum allowing us to place new atomic and molecular neutral and ionized species upper limits in the comet's coma.

  4. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((∗)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (∗)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards

  5. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  6. Susceptibility to Laurel Wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, Pondberry and Pondspice Plant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich; T Harrington; C Bates; J Johnson; L. Reid; Glenda Susan Best; T Leininger; Tracy Hawkins

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, has been responsible for extensive losses of redbay (Persea borbonia) in South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Symptoms of the disease have been noted in other species of the Lauraceae such as the federally endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) and the threatened pondspice (Litsea aestivalis). Pondberry and pondspice...

  7. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  8. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Han, Xuesong; Wen, Lijia

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane ( Grus monacha , n  = 33), White-naped Crane ( Grus vipio , n  = 40), and Black-necked Crane ( Grus nigricollis , n  = 75) in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model), Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree) and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models). In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC) and true skill statistic (TSS)) were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial) ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  9. Adding Biotic Interactions into Paleodistribution Models: A Host-Cleptoparasite Complex of Neotropical Orchid Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paiva Silva

    Full Text Available Orchid bees compose an exclusive Neotropical pollinators group, with bright body coloration. Several of those species build their own nests, while others are reported as nest cleptoparasites. Here, the objective was to evaluate whether the inclusion of a strong biotic interaction, such as the presence of a host species, improved the ability of species distribution models (SDMs to predict the geographic range of the cleptoparasite species. The target species were Aglae caerulea and its host species Eulaema nigrita. Additionally, since A. caerulea is more frequently found in the Amazon rather than the Cerrado areas, a secondary objective was to evaluate whether this species is increasing or decreasing its distribution given South American past and current climatic conditions. SDMs methods (Maxent and Bioclim, in addition with current and past South American climatic conditions, as well as the occurrences for A. caerulea and E. nigrita were used to generate the distribution models. The distribution of A. caerulea was generated with and without the inclusion of the distribution of E. nigrita as a predictor variable. The results indicate A. caerulea was barely affected by past climatic conditions and the populations from the Cerrado savanna could be at least 21,000 years old (the last glacial maximum, as well as the Amazonian ones. On the other hand, in this study, the inclusion of the host-cleptoparasite interaction complex did not statistically improve the quality of the produced models, which means that the geographic range of this cleptoparasite species is mainly constrained by climate and not by the presence of the host species. Nonetheless, this could also be caused by unknown complexes of other Euglossini hosts with A. caerulea, which still are still needed to be described by science.

  10. Orchid diversity in China’s Hainan Island: Distribution and conservation

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    Hu, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are widely distributed in many terrestrial ecosystems except for polar and desert areas and constitute a “flagship group” in biological conservation. As the largest tropical island of China, Hainan has five tropical forest vegetation types, namely deciduous monsoon forest, lowland rainforest, montane rainforest, montane evergreen forest, and montane cloud forest. There are 317 orchid species in the island, including 33 endemic, 158 epiphytic, 148 terrestrial, and 11 saprophytic species. Most orchids, which are mainly located in central and southern parts of the island, are generally distributed in damp tropical forests in mountains at an altitude of 500–1500 m. Highest level of endemism is also centred in these areas. Orchids are especially threatened by habitat fragmentation because they grow in small populations, and fragmentation may block gene flow and result in lower genetic diversity. In addition, due to their ornamental and medicinal value, many orchids are over-collected. Therefore, orchid conservation in Hainan Island is very urgent. The aim of this article is to determine the distribution pattern of orchids and expound research and conservation status in Hainan Island, and to propose conservation strategies for the future.Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se

  11. Substrate scope of a dehydrogenase from Sphingomonas species A1 and its potential application in the synthesis of rare sugars and sugar derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Barbara; Pick, André; Döring, Manuel; Lommes, Petra; Sieber, Volker

    2018-04-26

    Rare sugars and sugar derivatives that can be obtained from abundant sugars are of great interest to biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Here, we describe the substrate scope of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Sphingomonas species A1 (SpsADH) in the oxidation of aldonates and polyols. The resulting products are rare uronic acids and rare sugars respectively. We provide insight into the substrate recognition of SpsADH using kinetic analyses, which show that the configuration of the hydroxyl groups adjacent to the oxidized carbon is crucial for substrate recognition. Furthermore, the specificity is demonstrated by the oxidation of d-sorbitol leading to l-gulose as sole product instead of a mixture of d-glucose and l-gulose. Finally, we applied the enzyme to the synthesis of l-gulose from d-sorbitol in an in vitro system using a NADH oxidase for cofactor recycling. This study shows the usefulness of exploring the substrate scope of enzymes to find new enzymatic reaction pathways from renewable resources to value-added compounds. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. How many species of mammals are there in Brazil? New records of rare rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae from Amazonia raise the current known diversity

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    Alexandre R. Percequillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Since 1996, when Vivo questioned how many species of mammals occur in Brazil, there has been a huge effort to assess this biodiversity. In this contribution, we present new records for rare species of the sigmodontine rodent genera Rhagomys and Neusticomys previously unknown to Brazilian Amazon. We provided detailed information on the morphologic variation to allow the proper identification of these species. We also furnished updated information on their collection, aiming to establish hypothesis of their geographic distribution, based on SDM’s, aiming to hypothesize potential occurrence areas for these species. Methods Rodent specimens were sampled in separate inventories in two sites of Rondônia State (Hydroelectric Dam Jirau and Parque Nacional de Pacaás Novos and one site in Pará State (Pacajá, Brazil, and were compared to specimens from museum collections to apply appropriate names. The SDM were conducted using two algorithms for rare species, MaxEnt and randomForest (RF, and were based on seven localities for Rhagomys, and 10 for Neusticomys. Results All specimens were collected with pitfall traps. One specimen of genus Rhagomys was trapped in the Hydroelectric Dam Jirau. We identified this specimen as R. longilingua, and the SDM species indicates suitable areas for its occurrence at high elevations near on the Andes and lowlands of Amazon Basin to the South of the Rio Amazonas. Two specimens of Neusticomys were recorded, and we identified the specimen from Pacaás Novos as N. peruviensis, with SDM suggesting main areas of occurrence on Western Amazon. We applied the name N. ferreirai to the specimen from Pacajá, with SDM recovering suitable areas in Eastern Amazon. Discussion We reinforced the importance of pitfall traps on the study of Neotropical rodents. We described morphologic variation within and among all species that do not invalidate their specific status, but in the near future a re-evaluation will be mandatory

  13. A low false negative filter for detecting rare bird species from short video segments using a probable observation data set-based EKF method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dezhen; Xu, Yiliang

    2010-09-01

    We report a new filter to assist the search for rare bird species. Since a rare bird only appears in front of a camera with very low occurrence (e.g., less than ten times per year) for very short duration (e.g., less than a fraction of a second), our algorithm must have a very low false negative rate. We verify the bird body axis information with the known bird flying dynamics from the short video segment. Since a regular extended Kalman filter (EKF) cannot converge due to high measurement error and limited data, we develop a novel probable observation data set (PODS)-based EKF method. The new PODS-EKF searches the measurement error range for all probable observation data that ensures the convergence of the corresponding EKF in short time frame. The algorithm has been extensively tested using both simulated inputs and real video data of four representative bird species. In the physical experiments, our algorithm has been tested on rock pigeons and red-tailed hawks with 119 motion sequences. The area under the ROC curve is 95.0%. During the one-year search of ivory-billed woodpeckers, the system reduces the raw video data of 29.41 TB to only 146.7 MB (reduction rate 99.9995%).

  14. Limiting factors of four rare plant species in `Ōla`A Forest of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Pratt, Linda W.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Three endangered or candidate endangered plant species native to `Ōla`a Forest (Cyrtandra giffardii, ha`iwale; Phyllostegia floribunda, a mint with no common name; and Sicyos alba, `ānunu) were studied for more than 2 years to determine their stand structures, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, presence of soil seed bank, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. The role of rodents as seed predators was evaluated for S. alba using seed offerings in open and closed stations. A 4th endangered species at a remote site in `Ōla`a (Cyrtandra tintinnabula) was visited to determine its stand structure and mortality rate.

  15. Tree species traits but not diversity mitigate stem breakage in a subtropical forest following a rare and extreme ice storm.

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    Karin Nadrowski

    Full Text Available Future climates are likely to include extreme events, which in turn have great impacts on ecological systems. In this study, we investigated possible effects that could mitigate stem breakage caused by a rare and extreme ice storm in a Chinese subtropical forest across a gradient of forest diversity. We used Bayesian modeling to correct stem breakage for tree size and variance components analysis to quantify the influence of taxon, leaf and wood functional traits, and stand level properties on the probability of stem breakage. We show that the taxon explained four times more variance in individual stem breakage than did stand level properties; trees with higher specific leaf area (SLA were less susceptible to breakage. However, a large part of the variation at the taxon scale remained unexplained, implying that unmeasured or undefined traits could be used to predict damage caused by ice storms. When aggregated at the plot level, functional diversity and wood density increased after the ice storm. We suggest that for the adaption of forest management to climate change, much can still be learned from looking at functional traits at the taxon level.

  16. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  17. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  18. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren C J; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  19. Genetic Patterns of Myrceugenia correifolia, a Rare Species of Fog-Dependent Forests of Mediterranean Chile: Is It a Climatic Relict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Fernanda; Hinojosa, Luis F; Peralta, Gioconda; Montenegro, Paz; Irarrázabal, Carla; Cossio, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Rare species frequently occur in areas with microclimatic conditions that are atypical for their regions, but that were more common in the past, and that probably have operated as climatic refugia for a long time. Myrceugenia correifolia is a rare arboreal species that grows in deep canyons and hilltops of the Coast Range of north-central Chile between 30° and 35°S. In the northern edge of its distribution M. correifolia grows in small patches of fog-dependent forest surrounding by xeric vegetation. These forest formations are thought to be remnants of an ancient and continuous rainforest that according to some authors became fragmented during aridization of the Neogene (Neogene relict) and to others during warm-dry cycles of the Pleistocene (glacial relicts). Here we asked whether the northernmost populations of M. correifolia are Neogene relicts, glacial relicts, or the result of a recent northward colonization. To answer this question we examined genetic diversity and population divergence of M. correifolia using microsatellite markers, tested various competing population history scenarios with an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method, and complemented these data with ecological niche modeling (ENM). We detected three genetic clusters with a distinctive latitudinal pattern (north, center, and south) and high levels of differentiation ( F ST = 0.36). Demographic inference supported an admixture event 31 kya between two populations that diverged from an ancient population 139 kya. The admixture time coincides with the beginning of a period of wet conditions in north-central Chile that extended from 33 to 19 kya and was preceded by dry and cold conditions. These results suggest that increased precipitation during glacial periods triggered northward expansion of the range of M. correifolia , with subsequent admixture between populations that remained separated during interglacial periods. Accordingly, ENM models showed that suitable habitats for M

  20. Orchid woods and floating islands - the ecology of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-02-01

    The article reviews the ecology of disused pulverised fuel ash (PFA) from fossil-fuel power plants and suggests methods by which PFA can be used as a conservation resource. Plants which grow on weathered PFA are listed. They include mosses and orchids. PFA contains cenopheres which are hollow and buoyant, known as floaters. Those can accumulate as white scum on ash lagoons and can be colonised by aquatic plants which bind at the roots to form floating islands. Examples of sites where this has happened in the UK are given. Banks of PFA have provided resting place for sand martins and digging ground for badgers and foxes. PFA sites need careful management as floral succession progresses. The successional habitats on PFA and other industrial wastes are a declining ecosystem, owing to the advent of tougher waste-disposal legislation, banning the bad old ways of dumping and forgetting. Unless PFA areas start to be specifically created with conservation in mind, it is unlikely that the next generation will ever see orchid glades in a PFA woodland. 24 refs., 6 photos.

  1. Distribution, biology and habitat of the rare European osmiine bee species Osmia (Melanosmia pilicornis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Osmiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Prosi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmia pilicornis is distributed from western temperate Europe to western Siberia, where it exclusively occurs in open-structured, mesophilous and mainly deciduous woodland below 1000 m a.s.l. In Central Europe, its peak activity ranges from the last third of March to the first third of June. Due to its rarity and its low population densities over most of its range, the biology of O. pilicornis was only fragmentarily known. The discovery of six nests in the course of the present study revealed that females of O. pilicornis have a unique nesting behaviour among the osmiine bees: they gnaw their nests in dead wood with the aid of their strong mandibles, which have a peculiar chisel-like shape hypothesized to be an adaptation to the species’ specialized nesting behaviour. All six nests were in dead fallen branches of different tree and shrub species and of varying wood hardness. The nesting branches had a diameter of 1.5–6.1 cm, lay on sun-exposed ground and were largely hidden under vegetation. The nests contained one to three linearly arranged brood cells. Both cell partitions and nest plug were built from chewed leaves harvested from Fragaria vesca. Osmia pilicornis was identified as a new host of the chrysidid wasp Chrysura hirsuta, and the ichneumonid wasp Hoplocryptus confector developed in its nests. Microscopical analysis of scopal pollen loads of collected females revealed that pollen is mainly collected from three plant taxa, i.e. Pulmonaria (Boraginaceae, Fabaceae (e.g. Lathyrus, Vicia and Lamiaceae (e.g. Ajuga, Glechoma. On flowers of Pulmonaria, which is the most important pollen host over most of the species’ range, the females use specialized bristles on their proboscis to brush pollen out of the narrow corolla tube, they almost exclusively exploit pollen-rich flowers in the early red stage and they often steal pollen from still closed flowers by forcefully opening buds. On their search for females, males of O. pilicornis patrol

  2. Multiple shifts to different pollinators fuelled rapid diversification in sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Hendrik; Onstein, Renske E; Cafasso, Donata; Schlüter, Philipp M; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Episodes of rapid speciation provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species radiations and patterns of biodiversity. Here we investigated the radiation of sexually deceptive bee orchids (Ophrys). Based on a time-calibrated phylogeny and by means of ancestral character reconstruction and divergence time estimation, we estimated the tempo and mode of this radiation within a state-dependent evolutionary framework. It appears that, in the Pleistocene, the evolution of Ophrys was marked by episodes of rapid diversification coinciding with shifts to different pollinator types: from wasps to Eucera bees to Andrena and other bees. An abrupt increase in net diversification rate was detected in three clades. Among these, two phylogenetically distant lineages switched from Eucera to Andrena and other bees in a parallel fashion and at about the same time in their evolutionary history. Lack of early radiation associated with the evolution of the key innovation of sexual deception suggests that Ophrys diversification was mainly driven by subsequent ecological opportunities provided by the exploitation of novel pollinator groups, encompassing many bee species slightly differing in their sex pheromone communication systems, and by spatiotemporal fluctuations in the pollinator mosaic. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Preliminary Survey on Native Orchids of Hkakabo-razi National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw Lwin

    2005-10-01

    Hkakabo-razi is rich in biodiversity of flora and fauna which is situated in Northern Kachin State. Total area of Hkakabo-razi is 1472 sq miles and is the biggest National Park in Myanmar. Abundance of wild orchids, rhododendrons, ferns, trees, temperate and sub-tropical wild flowers grow well naturally in primary dense forests of this area. This area is habitat of CITES Appendis (I) listed orchid Paphiopedilum wardii and other uncommon and unusual native wild orchids. Three biological expeditions in 1997, 1998 and 2000 undertook the task of surveying the flora and fauna of this region jointlyh co-sponsored by Forest Department of Myanmar and Wildlife Conservation Society from United States. In this presentation, the native orchids of this area were described and presented as the preliminary result of above three biological expeditions conducted in Hkakabo-razi National Park.

  4. Climate change, tourism and historical grazing influence the distribution of Carex lachenalii Schkuhr - A rare arctic-alpine species in the Tatra Mts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czortek, Patryk; Delimat, Anna; Dyderski, Marcin K; Zięba, Antoni; Jagodziński, Andrzej M; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan

    2018-03-15

    Mountain vegetation is highly specialized to harsh climatic conditions and therefore is sensitive to any change in environment. The rarest and most vulnerable plants occurring in alpine regions are expected to respond rapidly to environmental changes. An example of such a species is Carex lachenalii subsp. lachenalii Schkuhr, which occurs in Poland on only a few isolated sites in the Tatra Mts. The aim of this study was to assess changes in distribution of C. lachenalii in the Tatra Mts over the past 50-150years and the effects of climate change, tourism and historical grazing on the ecological niche of C. lachenalii. We focused on changes in the importance of functional diversity components in shaping plant species composition. Over the past 50-150years, the elevation of the average distribution of C. lachenalii shifted about 178m upward alongside a significant prolongation of the vegetative season by approximately 20days in the last 50-60years. Species composition of plots without C. lachenalii was characterized by competition between plants, whereas on plots with C. lachenalii habitat filtering was the most important component. Our results suggest that climate change was the main factor driving upward shift of C. lachenalii. Moderate trampling enhanced horizontal spread of this plant, whereas cessation of grazing grazing caused decline of C. lachenalii. The three environmental factors studied that determined shifts in distribution of C. lachenalii may also contribute to changes in distribution of other rare mountain plant species causing changes in ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ceratobasidium como hongo micorrízico de orquídeas en Colombia Ceratobasidium as orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T. Mosquera-Espinosa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las orquídeas se caracterizan por su relación micorrízica obligada para la germinación de las semillas. El micosimbionte es principalmente del género-forma Rhizoctonia, al igual que sus teleomorfos de los géneros Ceratobasidium, Tulasnella, Thanatephorus y Sebacina. En Colombia hasta la fecha son muy pocos los reportes sobre hongos micorrízicos de orquídeas. Para el presente estudio se planteó el aislamiento e identificación de hongos micorrízicos de algunas orquídeas de diferentes há bitats en Colombia, siguiendo la metodología de contaje de núcleos en células de hifas jóvenes y la secuenciación de la región ITS de los genes ribosomales nucleares. Se identificaron doce aislamientos provenientes de ocho plantas de especies diferentes de orquídeas. Tanto búsquedas BLAST del GenBank como el número de núcleos los agruparon en el género Ceratobasidium. Los resultados sugieren que este género se asocia con una amplia diversidad de orquídeas de há bitats variados en Colombia, además que para esta planta puede ser un importante hongo micorrízico. Sin embargo, surgen preguntas relacionadas con la patogenicidad de los Ceratobasidium micorrízicos sobre otros hospederos y su posible potencial biocontrolador de hongos patógenos en plantas cultivadas como arroz.Orchids require a mycorrhizal relationship for seed germination. Many mycorrhizal fungi are in the form-genus Rhizoctonia, with teleomorphs in the genera Ceratobasidium, Tulasnella, Thanatephorus and Sebacina. So far there are very few reports of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Colombia. The objectives of the present study were to isolate mycorrhizal fungi of orchids from different habitats in Colombia, and identify them by counting nuclei in young hyphae and sequencing the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal genes. We identified 12 isolates from 8 plants of different species of orchids. BLAST searches in GenBank and binucleate cellsplaced all isolates in the genus

  6. A revision of the Indian species of Oberonia (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, R.; Balakrishnan, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the orchid genus Oberonia Lindley for India with 41 species is presented. Two new species, O. balakrishnanii and O. nayarii are established. Oberonia bisaccata and O. rangannaiana are considered conspecific with O. platycaulon and O. chandrasekharanii respectively. Oberonia

  7. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    OpenAIRE

    Mondrag?n-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported...

  8. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima R. N. Knoll; Leandro M. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured) were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini) in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71...

  9. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rotational spectra of rare isotopic species of fluoroiodomethane: determination of the equilibrium structure from rotational spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Cazzoli, Gabriele; López, Juan Carlos; Alonso, José Luis; Baldacci, Agostino; Baldan, Alessandro; Stopkowicz, Stella; Cheng, Lan; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-07-14

    Supported by accurate quantum-chemical calculations, the rotational spectra of the mono- and bi-deuterated species of fluoroiodomethane, CHDFI and CD(2)FI, as well as of the (13)C-containing species, (13)CH(2)FI, were recorded for the first time. Three different spectrometers were employed, a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, a millimeter/submillimter-wave spectrometer, and a THz spectrometer, thus allowing to record a huge portion of the rotational spectrum, from 5 GHz up to 1.05 THz, and to accurately determine the ground-state rotational and centrifugal-distortion constants. Sub-Doppler measurements allowed to resolve the hyperfine structure of the rotational spectrum and to determine the complete iodine quadrupole-coupling tensor as well as the diagonal elements of the iodine spin-rotation tensor. The present investigation of rare isotopic species of CH(2)FI together with the results previously obtained for the main isotopologue [C. Puzzarini, G. Cazzoli, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, A. Baldacci, A. Baldan, S. Stopkowicz, L. Cheng, and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 174312 (2011); G. Cazzoli, A. Baldacci, A. Baldan, and C. Puzzarini, Mol. Phys. 109, 2245 (2011)] enabled us to derive a semi-experimental equilibrium structure for fluoroiodomethane by means of a least-squares fit procedure using the available experimental ground-state rotational constants together with computed vibrational corrections. Problems related to the missing isotopic substitution of fluorine and iodine were overcome thanks to the availability of an accurate theoretical equilibrium geometry (computed at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level augmented by a perturbative treatment of triple excitations).

  11. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M; Lonsinger, Robert C; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models) and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes). Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry) appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects) were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat transects may be

  12. Protocols for In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Analysis of Medicinally Important Phenolics of a Salep Orchid, Satyrium nepalense D.Don ("Salam Mishri").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Shashi B; Singh, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Satyrium nepalense is a rare and threatened medicinal orchid, populations of which in its native habitats are dwindling because of indiscriminate collections and habitat destruction, thus necessitating the development of methods for its in situ and ex situ conservation. Because of non-endospermous nature of the seeds and the immature embryos at seed dispersal stage, orchids cannot be seed-propagated as other plants. Micropropagation, using plant tissue culture techniques, offers an effective method for the multiplication of orchids. In this chapter, a five-step efficient reproducible protocol for large-scale in vitro multiplication of Satyrium nepalense is described. The first step involves asymbiotic germination of seeds isolated from immature green pods and cultured on Mitra's medium (M) gelled with 0.8 % agar and supplemented with 2 % sucrose and 1 % peptone (hereafter referred to as basal medium, BM). On this medium, seeds start germinating after a week of culture. Protocorms developed from the seeds are sub-cultured on BM fortified with 4 μM kinetin (Kn) after 8 weeks, for shoot differentiation and multiplication. The shoots developed on Kn-supplemented medium are transferred to BM alone for their elongation for the same period. The elongated shoots are transferred to the rooting medium, comprising BM supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid, for further 8 weeks. The regenerated plantlets are transferred to a potting mix of sand and vermiculite (1:1) for acclimatization. The tubers and leaves excised from both in vitro-developed plants and those from their native habitats are analyzed and compared for the contents and concentration of medicinally important phenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), details of which are provided in this chapter.

  13. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Musharof Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723 supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1, were studied on seed germination and subsequent development of embryos. Maximum seed germination (100% was recorded in P723 medium fortified with 1.0 mgL−1 BAP + 2.0 gL−1 activated charcoal. The different developmental stages of protocorm morphogenesis were traced out. In subsequent subcultures, the protocorms proliferated profusely and developed rhizome-like bodies (RLBs with numerous hair-like structures. These RLBs were transferred to pots containing potting mixture composed of humus + coir dust + saw dust (1 : 1 : 1 where ∼80% of RLBs survived and produced 1–3 seedlings per RLB. This is the first time report for in vitro germination of seeds and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro raised RLBs in Eulophia promensis. This is a time saving and cost effective protocol that could be extended to other economically important, rare, and endangered orchids for propagation and conservation.

  14. Phytotoxic activity of bibenzyl derivatives from the orchid Epidendrum rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romero, Yanet; Acevedo, Laura; Sánchez, María de los Angeles; Shier, W Thomas; Abbas, Hamed K; Mata, Rachel

    2005-08-10

    A whole plant chloroform-methanol extract of the orchid Epidendrum rigidum inhibited radicle growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus seedlings (IC50 = 300 microg/mL). Bioassay-guided fractionation furnished four phytotoxins, namely, gigantol (1), batatasin III (2), 2,3-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenathrene-4,7-diol (9), and 3,4,9-trimethoxyphenanthrene-2,5-diol (11), along with the known flavonoids apigenin, vitexin, and isovetin and the triterterpenoids 24,24-dimethyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3beta-ol (14) and 24-methyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3beta-ol (15). Stilbenoids 1, 2, 9, and 11 inhibited radicle growth of A. hypochondriacus with IC50 values of 0.65, 0.1, 0.12, and 5.9 microM, respectively. Foliar application of gigantol (1) at 1 microM to 4 week old seedlings of A. hypochondriacus reduced shoot elongation by 69% and fresh weight accumulation by 54%. Bibenzyls 1 and 2, as well as synthetic analogues 4'-hydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzyl (3), 3,3',4',5-tetramethoxybibenzyl (4), 3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl (5), 3'-O-methylbatatasin III (6), 3,3',5-trihydroxybibenzyl (7), and 3,4',5-trihydroxybibenzyl (8), were tested for phytotoxicity in axenic cultures of the small aquatic plant Lemna pausicostata. All bibenzyls derivatives except 7 and 8 inhibited growth and increased cellular leakage with IC50 values of 89.9-180 and 89.9-166 microM, respectively. The natural and synthetic bibenzyls showed marginal cytotoxicity on animal cells. The results suggest that orchid bibenzyls may be good lead compounds for the development of novel herbicidal agents.

  15. Recolonization after habitat restoration leads to decreased genetic variation in populations of a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, K; Gristina, A S; De Hert, K; Meekers, T; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Honnay, O

    2012-09-01

    Colonization is crucial to habitat restoration projects that rely on the spontaneous regeneration of the original vegetation. However, as a previously declining plant species spreads again, the likelihood of founder effects increases through recurrent population founding and associated serial bottlenecks. We related Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers genetic variation and fitness to colonization history for all extant populations of the outcrossing terrestrial orchid Dactylorhiza incarnata in an isolated coastal dune complex. Around 1970, D. incarnata suffered a severe bottleneck yet ultimately persisted and gradually spread throughout the spatially segregated dune slacks, aided by the restoration of an open vegetation. Genetic assignment demonstrated dispersal to vacant sites from few nearby extant populations and very limited inflow from outside the spatially isolated reserve. Results further indicated that recurrent founding from few local sources resulted in the loss of genetic diversity and promoted genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.35) among populations, but did not influence population fitness. The few source populations initially available and the limited inflow of genes from outside the study reserve, as a consequence of habitat degradation and spatial isolation, may have magnified the genetic effects of recurrent population founding. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Acclimatization of the endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Mireya Ortega-Loeza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation could be an alternative for the conservation of the endemic and endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol that would enhance acclimatization of in vitro – derived L. speciosa plantlets – a critical stage in propagation and subsequent conservation. Observations of stomata opening during ex vitro acclimatization, and the time of in vitro culture (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 days in greenhouse conditions (pre-acclimatization, on the survival and development of seedlings during the ex vitro acclimatization were carried out. In addition, the effect of different levels of nutrients (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%-strength salts and sucrose (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g l−1 in the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS on the same parameters were measured. Plantlets incubated 20 days in greenhouse conditions before ex vitro acclimatization also displayed the best growth with a survival rate of 97.5%, related with high stomata opening. Plantlets on MS containing 100%-strength salts (with 20 days of pre-acclimatization, 40 g l−1 sucrose had the highest rate (97.5–100% of survival and vigor when acclimatized. By improving micropropagation through acclimatization, the sustainable management of L. speciosa now more likely, benefitting the conservation of this endangered species.

  17. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Victor A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These

  18. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  19. Fine-scale spatial distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of host-rich grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyron, Samuele; Ercole, Enrico; Ghignone, Stefano; Perotto, Silvia; Girlanda, Mariangela

    2017-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the survival of orchid seedlings under natural conditions. The distribution of these fungi in soil can constrain the establishment and resulting spatial arrangement of orchids at the local scale, but the actual extent of occurrence and spatial patterns of orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi in soil remain largely unknown. We addressed the fine-scale spatial distribution of OrM fungi in two orchid-rich Mediterranean grasslands by means of high-throughput sequencing of fungal ITS2 amplicons, obtained from soil samples collected either directly beneath or at a distance from adult Anacamptis morio and Ophrys sphegodes plants. Like ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycobionts, OrM fungi (tulasnelloid, ceratobasidioid, sebacinoid and pezizoid fungi) exhibited significant horizontal spatial autocorrelation in soil. However, OrM fungal read numbers did not correlate with distance from adult orchid plants, and several of these fungi were extremely sporadic or undetected even in the soil samples containing the orchid roots. Orchid mycorrhizal 'rhizoctonias' are commonly regarded as unspecialized saprotrophs. The sporadic occurrence of mycobionts of grassland orchids in host-rich stands questions the view of these mycorrhizal fungi as capable of sustained growth in soil. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. A novel technique for determination of the fructose, glucose and sucrose distribution in nectar from orchids by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Dan Nybro; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Rasmussen, Lars Holm

    2018-04-01

    The dominant components in floral nectar is fructose, glucose and sucrose. The concentration and the ratio between the sugars are indicative for plant species and play an important part in the interplay between plants and pollinators. In this paper we present a novel HPLC-ELSD based analytical method for sugar characterization of nectar from orchids. Nectar was collected on Whatman No. 1 paper and preserved in the field by 70 v/v% ethanol. The analytical method had a linear range up to at least 3000 mg L -1 for all 3 sugars with a precision of 1.5-1.7%. Correlation coefficients were 0.9999 to 1.0000. The LOD of all sugars were 5-7 mg L -1 and the LOQ were 17-19 mg L -1 . Field samples were stable for min. 7 weeks at -18 °C. The technique was applied to two species of Platanthera (Orchidaceae) in order to test whether species-related differences in sugar composition could be observed. No differences were found between the two species, which were sucrose-dominant (53.5-100%) though with high variation within species and between individual flowers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 ( AP1 ) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1 -like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1 , from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis , and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1 , which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family.

  2. Orchid: a novel management, annotation and machine learning framework for analyzing cancer mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Clinton L; Witte, John S

    2018-03-15

    As whole-genome tumor sequence and biological annotation datasets grow in size, number and content, there is an increasing basic science and clinical need for efficient and accurate data management and analysis software. With the emergence of increasingly sophisticated data stores, execution environments and machine learning algorithms, there is also a need for the integration of functionality across frameworks. We present orchid, a python based software package for the management, annotation and machine learning of cancer mutations. Building on technologies of parallel workflow execution, in-memory database storage and machine learning analytics, orchid efficiently handles millions of mutations and hundreds of features in an easy-to-use manner. We describe the implementation of orchid and demonstrate its ability to distinguish tissue of origin in 12 tumor types based on 339 features using a random forest classifier. Orchid and our annotated tumor mutation database are freely available at https://github.com/wittelab/orchid. Software is implemented in python 2.7, and makes use of MySQL or MemSQL databases. Groovy 2.4.5 is optionally required for parallel workflow execution. JWitte@ucsf.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis, and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1, which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family. PMID:28386268

  4. Applicability of ISSR and DAMD markers for phyto-molecular characterization and association with some important biochemical traits of Dendrobium nobile, an endangered medicinal orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2015-09-01

    Dendrobium nobile is an important medicinal orchid having profound importance in traditional herbal drug preparations and pharmacopeias worldwide. Due to various anthropogenic pressures the natural populations of this important orchid species are presently facing threats of extinction. In the present study, genetic and chemical diversity existing amongst 6 natural populations of D. nobile were assessed using molecular markers, and the influence of genetic factors on its phytochemical activity especially antioxidant potential was determined. Molecular fingerprinting of the orchid taxa was performed using ISSR and DAMD markers along with the estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloid contents. Antioxidant activity was also measured using DPPH and FRAP assays which cumulatively revealed a significant level of variability across the sampled populations. The representatives from Sikkim in Northeast India revealed higher phytochemical activity whereas those from Mizoram showed lesser activity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that variation amongst the populations was significantly higher than within the populations. The data generated by UPGMA and Bayesian analytical models were compared in order to estimate the genetic relationships amongst the D. nobile germplasm sampled from different geographical areas of Northeast India. Interestingly, identical grouping patterns were exhibited by both the approaches. The results of the present study detected a high degree of existing genetic and phytochemical variation amongst the populations in relation to bioclimatic and geographic locations of populations. Our results strongly establish that the cumulative marker approach could be the best suited for assessing the genetic relationships with high accuracy amongst distinct D. nobile accessions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogeography of the endangered orchid Dendrobium moniliforme in East Asia inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meirong; Liu, Wei; Xue, Qingyun; Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to elucidate the phylogeographic history of Dendrobium moniliforme, an endangered orchid species, based on two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (trnC-petN and trnE-trnT). One hundred and thirty-five samples were collected from 18 natural populations of D. moniliforme covering the entire range of the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia. A total of 35 distinct cpDNA haplotypes were identified in these populations, of which 23 haplotypes were each present in only one sample and thus restricted to a single population. The significantly larger N ST value (0.586) than G ST (0.328) (p < 0.05) demonstrated the presence of strong phylogeographic structure. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all haplotypes were clustered into two lineages. The genetic diversity of D. moniliforme was high at the species level, reflected in its haplotype diversity (H d =0.8862), nucleotide diversity (P i =0.00361), total genetic diversity (H T =0.9011), and significant differentiation (Φ ST =0.5482). Based on mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests, population expansion was evident in all sampled populations and also in all populations sampled in mainland China. Three refuge areas were identified, one each in southwestern China, central-southeastern China, and the CKJ (Taiwan, Japan and Korea) Islands. The results supported the hypothesis that glacial refugia were maintained on different spatial-temporal scales in the SJFR during the last glacial maximum or earlier cold periods, suggesting that Quaternary refugial isolation promoted allopatric speciation of D. moniliforme in East Asia.

  6. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at characterising the ecological niche of a typical forest orchid (Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Vegetation-environmental data were collected across mountain ranges and  their foothills in the Western Carpathians in 2011. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main forest vegetation types and a linear mixed effect model was applied to reveal differences between plots with versus without E. pontica. This endangered species of Slovak flora grows in thermophilous turkey oak forests (Quercion confertae-cerris, mesophilous broad-leaved mixed oak-hornbeam forests (Carpinion betuli, but most stands correspond to the acidic (Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae and mesotrophic beech forests (Fagion sylvaticae. Principal component analysis supported the floristic separation of plant communities and showed some significant vegetation environmental relationships. E. pontica prefers forests with closed canopy (mean canopy openness: 8.5–15.1% occurring especially on slightly acidic (soil reaction: 4.48–5.65 and nutrient-poor soils (soil conductivity: 43.1–72.6 μS/cm. The proposed Ellenberg indicator values for light (4, temperature (5, continentality (4, moisture (5, soil reaction (6 and nutrients (5 follow species composition pattern of vascular plants in Slovak phytosociological relevés with E. pontica occurrence. They are also in accordance with its habitat conditions and ecological requirements in other parts of its range. The linear mixed effect model did not confirm any environmental peculiarity of plots with the presence of E. pontica at a microscale level and this result was consistent across the studied sites.

  7. ORCHIDS: an Observational Randomized Controlled Trial on Childhood Differential Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhangur Rabia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central tenet in developmental psychopathology is that childhood rearing experiences have a major impact on children’s development. Recently, candidate genes have been identified that may cause children to be differentially susceptible to these experiences (i.e., susceptibility genes. However, our understanding of the differential impact of parenting is limited at best. Specifically, more experimental research is needed. The ORCHIDS study will investigate gene-(gene-environment interactions to obtain more insight into a moderating effects of polymorphisms on the link between parenting and child behavior, and b behavioral mechanisms that underlie these gene-(gene-environment interactions in an experimental design. Methods/Design The ORCHIDS study is a randomized controlled trial, in which the environment will be manipulated with an intervention (i.e., Incredible Years parent training. In a screening, families with children aged 4–8 who show mild to (subclinical behavior problems will be targeted through community records via two Dutch regional healthcare organizations. Assessments in both the intervention and control condition will be conducted at baseline (i.e., pretest, after 6 months (i.e., posttest, and after 10 months (i.e., follow-up. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that investigates gene-(gene-environment interactions in the development of child behavior. Two hypotheses will be tested. First, we expect that children in the intervention condition who carry one or more susceptibility genes will show significantly lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of prosocial behavior after their parent(s received the Incredible Years training, compared to children without these genes, or children in the control group. Second, we expect that children carrying one or more susceptibility genes will show a heightened sensitivity to changes in parenting behaviors, and

  8. Performance of four Dactylorhiza species over a complex trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E; Grootjans, AB

    Spontananeous distribution and survival in experimental plots of four marsh orchids (Dactylorhiza spp.) in a hay-meadow complex were related to mineral composition of groundwater, soil nutrient availability and species composition of the vegetation. Differences in Ca2+ contents of the groundwater

  9. Telipogon diabolicus (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae), a new species from southern Colombia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Szlachetko, D. L.; Trejo, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Jul (2016), s. 113-124 ISSN 1314-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Andean orchid * biodiversity * new species * Putumayo Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.116, year: 2016

  10. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  11. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livingston

    Full Text Available The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1 oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2 orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  12. European orchid cultivation – from seed to mature plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for growing orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza and Ophrys, two European members of the subfamily Orchidoideae, from seeds to mature plants using asymbiotic in vitro cultures and glasshouse pot cultures. Four media were used: two new media 1/4–2 and Mo2 and two modifications of Michl medium (Michl 1988. We also describe a highly efficient technique for seed disinfection using a syringe. We tested the effects of ethanol treatment on Anacmaptis morio (L R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. seeds, sugar media composition on Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb. P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Oeceoclades decaryana (H. Perrier ex Guillaumin & Manguin Garay & Taylor and Ophrys lojaconoi P. Delforge and the effect of kinetin on Dactylorhiza majalis protocorm growth. Sucrose was the best carbon source, while hexose resulted in the inhibition of protocorm development at early stages. The addition of kinetin at 10 mg/l resulted in the formation of the largest protocorms. Ethanol can have positive effect on seed germination when applied for a short time (2 min, while long-time ethanol exposure (60 min can kill the seeds.

  13. Disinfestation and vase-life extension of orchids by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriyathamrong, S.; Chouvalitvongporn, P.; Sudathit, B.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on disinfestation and vase-life extension of orchids by irradiation were conducted to determine whether gamma-radiation can be effectively used to eliminate thrips and prolong the vase life of cut flowers. Cut flowers of Dendrobium Pompadour were subjected to Co-60 irradiation at 0, 50, l00, l50, and 200 krd doses 5 to 6 hours after picking. The flowers were separated into two groups. The first group was used to count the number of thrips. The other group was held at controlled room temperature (20 0 C and 80 percent RH) for 36 hours before being unpacked and placed in water. The results of two experiments illustrated that at 2 days after irradiation at l50 and 200 krad no thrips were found on the flowers, whereas on flowers untreated and those treated at 50 and l00 krad, a higher number of thrips were detected. As far as the vase life is concerned, treated flowers have a shorter life. Irradiation at 0, 50, l00, l05, and 200 krad doses resulted in average vase life of l8.75, l2.l5, l0.85, 8.85, and 6.20 days, respectively, in the first test and l4.60, l0.05, 8.75, 7.35, and 6.85, respectively, in the second test. Increased doses of radiation caused flowers to wilt and drop off within a few days. Further study is being conducted

  14. Decision Making of Thai Entrepreneur to Internationalize Thai Orchid to Swedish Market

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanonta, Thitipong; Kulasabjira, Sompoch

    2010-01-01

    Background     International trade could be seen as the phenomenon beating the resources imbalance among countries in the global market. Therefore, our seeking the competitive advantage of Thailand is to the orchid which is viewed industrial drop of country to increase expansion of export and generate income for Thailand. Moreover, Thailand is one of the leaders which have exported the orchids to foreign countries. For this reason, we would like to study factors which affect to make a decisio...

  15. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  16. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats.

  17. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants. PMID:20007181

  18. Colour-scent associations in a tropical orchid: three colours but two odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Juillet, Nicolas; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Grison, Claude; Barthes, Nicolas; Pailler, Thierry; Dormont, Laurent; Schatz, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Colour and scent are the major pollinator attractants to flowers, and their production may be linked by shared biosynthetic pathways. Species with polymorphic floral traits are particularly relevant to study the joint evolution of floral traits. We used in this study the tropical orchid Calanthe sylvatica from Réunion Island. Three distinct colour varieties are observed, presenting lilac, white or purple flowers, and named respectively C. sylvaticavar.lilacina (hereafter referred as var. lilacina), C. sylvaticavar. alba (var. alba) and C. sylvatica var. purpurea (var. purpurea). We investigated the composition of the floral scent produced by these colour varieties using the non-invasive SPME technique in the wild. Scent emissions are dominated by aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, the presence of the terpenoid (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triène (DMNT) is diagnostic of var. purpurea, with the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by some individuals containing up to 60% of DMNT. We evidence specific colour-scent associations in C. sylvatica, with two distinct scent profiles in the three colour varieties: the lilacina-like profile containing no or very little DMNT (2%). Calanthe sylvatica var. alba individuals group with one or the other scent profile independently of their population of origin. We suggest that white-flowered individuals have evolved at least twice, once from var. lilacina and at least once from var. purpurea after the colonisation of la Réunion. White-flowered individuals may have been favoured by the particular pollinator fauna characterising the island. These flowering varieties of C. sylvatica, which display three colours but two scents profiles prove that colour is not always a good indicator of odour and that colour-scent associations may be complex, depending on pollination ecology of the populations concerned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IN VITRO GERMINATION AND ITS SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF AN ORCHID OF Vanda tricolor Lindl. var. suavis FROM BALI ON COMPLEX ADDITIVES ENRICHED MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindang Dwiyani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanda tricolor Lindl. var. suavis is an Indonesian wild orchid that has been rare in nature, so it needs attention to take care and conserve them. The objective of the research was to investigate the effect of coconut water and / or tomato juice on the growth of protocorm of V. tricolor Lindl. var suavis from Bali grown in vitro. The experiment was laid out in the factorial design, with two factors (coconut water/CW and tomato juice/TJ, each contained three concentration (CW: 0, 100, and 200 cc L-1; TJ: 0, 100 and 200 g L-1 resulted in nine combination of treatments and replicated four times. The results showed that tomato juice with concentration of 100 gL-1 or 200 gL-1 promotes growth of protocorms of Vanda tricolor Lindl. var. suavis from Bali regardless the presence of coconut water.

  20. The effect of some organic compounds and NAA application on the in vitro growth of the black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI UNTARI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is a lowland epiphytic orchid that has pale green flowers with typically black markings on the lips. This species conventionally propagated asexually by rhizome. This orchid is now facing a great conservation problem and threatened to extinction due to human exploitation. That is why conservation activities such as developing proper cultivation, are urgently required. An in vitro experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture at Bogor Botanic Garden. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with two factors and ten replications. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal media i.e. Vacin and Went added with sugar, activated charcoal and agar, with 30 different combinations of organic compounds i.e., coconut water 250 mL/L, banana 150 g/L, potato 200 g/L, sweet potato 150 g/L, soybean 150 g/L and no organic compound as a control, and application of NAA (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm. The result showed that there was a significant effect of the organic compounds and NAA application on the length and the number of roots, height, number of leaves and number of shoots produced by the explants. The combination of sweet potato 150 g/L without NAA application showed the best result.

  1. Lack of S-RNase-Based Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility in Orchids Suggests That This System Evolved after the Monocot-Eudicot Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ce Niu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is found in approximately 40% of flowering plant species and at least 100 families. Although orchids belong to the largest angiosperm family, only 10% of orchid species present SI and have gametophytic SI (GSI. Furthermore, a majority (72% of Dendrobium species, which constitute one of the largest Orchidaceae genera, show SI and have GSI. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanism of GSI. The S-determinants of GSI have been well characterized at the molecular level in Solanaceae, Rosaceae, and Plantaginaceae, which use an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase-based system. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Orchidaceae uses a similar S-RNase to those described in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae SI species. In this study, two SI species (Dendrobium longicornu and D. chrysanthum were identified using fluorescence microscopy. Then, the S-RNase- and SLF-interacting SKP1-like1 (SSK1-like genes present in their transcriptomes and the genomes of Phalaenopsis equestris, D. catenatum, Vanilla shenzhenica, and Apostasia shenzhenica were investigated. Sequence, phylogenetic, and tissue-specific expression analyses revealed that none of the genes identified was an S-determinant, suggesting that Orchidaceae might have a novel SI mechanism. The results also suggested that RNase-based GSI might have evolved after the split of monocotyledons (monocots and dicotyledons (dicots but before the split of Asteridae and Rosidae. This is also the first study to investigate S-RNase-based GSI in monocots. However, studies on gene identification, differential expression, and segregation analyses in controlled crosses are needed to further evaluate the genes with high expression levels in GSI tissues.

  2. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  3. Effects of ion beam irradiation on Oncidium lanceanum orchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of an orchid (Oncidium lanceanum) were irradiated using 220 MeV 12 C 5+ ions, accelerated by AVF cyclotron at JAEA, Japan in 2005. Five different doses were applied to the PLBs; 0, 1.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy. Following irradiation, these PLBs were maintained in cultures for germination and multiplication. Irradiation effects on growth and seedling regeneration patterns as well as molecular characteristics of the in vitro cultures were monitored and recorded. In general, average fresh weights of the irradiated PLBs increased progressively by irradiating the explants at 1.0, 2.0 and reached the maximum at 6.0 Gy. The figure however dropped when the explants were irradiated at 12 Gy. Surprisingly, although the highest average fresh weight was recorded on PLBs irradiated at 6.0 Gy, most of these PLBs were not able to regenerate into complete shoots. On average, after 4 months of irradiation, only 21 seedlings were successfully regenerated from each gram of these PLBs. The highest shoot regeneration was recorded on cultures irradiated at 2.0 Gy in which 102 seedlings were obtained from one gram of the PLBs. Some morphological changes were seen on in vitro plantlets derived from PLBs irradiated at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. Most of the regenerated seedlings have been transferred to glasshouse for further morphological selection. Molecular analysis showed the presence of DNA polymorphisms among the seedlings from different doses of irradiation. (Author)

  4. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  5. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  6. Cytological observations in relation to the taxonomy of the Orchids of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, E.

    1963-01-01

    1. The Orchids in the Netherlands have been subjected to a cytological investigation. 2. The division of the genera Orchis (L.) Klinge into two new genera: Orchis (L.) Vermln. and Dactylorchis (Kl.) Vermln. (Vermeulen, 1947), could be confirmed. 3. In Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. the diploid chromosome

  7. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Extent and reasons for meadows in South Bohemia becoming unsuitable for orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štípková, Z.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2015), s. 142-147 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : extinction * meadows * terrestrial orchids * South Bohemia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of fungicides and bactericides on orchid seed germination and shoot tip cultures in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, DM; Groom, CL; Cvitanik, M; Brown, M; Cooper, JL; Arditti, J

    1981-01-01

    Amphotericin B, benomyl, gentamycin, nystatin, quintozene penicillin G, sodium omadine, and vancomycin singly and in several combinations have no deleterious effects on the germination of orchid seeds, but inhibit the growth in vitro of shoot tip explants. © 1981 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. Peptone and tomato extract induced early stage of embryo development of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nintya Setiari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germination and growth of orchid seeds can be accelerated by the addition of organic supplement and plant extract in culture medium. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of peptone and tomato extract on early stage of embryo development of Dendrobium phalaenopsis orchids. Orchid seeds were sown on NP and VW medium with addition of 10% of CW (NPCW and VWCW.  Five weeks after seed germination, about 58.03% seed germination was observed on VWCW medium, and only 37.45% seed germination on NPCW. Tomato extract and peptone were added in VWCW, resulting VWCWTP medium. After 4-8 weeks on VWCWTP, 94.42% seeds was germinated into plantlet, but only 67.30% germinated seeds on VWCW. To get optimal growth and development of  D.  phalaenopsis orchids embryos in the in vitro condition, supplement of 100 ml.L-1 coconut water, 100 mg.L-1 tomato extract and 2 mg.L-1 peptone into VW basic medium is required.

  12. Possible chemical mimicry of the European lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przybyłowicz, T.; Roessingh, P.; Groot, A.T.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Chittka, L.; Gravendeel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Pollination based on insect deception has been debated in the scientific community since it was first reported over two hundred years ago. A vast majority of deceptive syndromes occur within the orchid family. While many cheating flowers have been de- scribed and are well known, there are still many

  13. Auxin is required for pollination-induced ovary growth in Dendrobium orchids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketsa, S.; Wisutiamonkul, A.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    In Dendrobium and other orchids the ovule becomes mature long after pollination, whereas the ovary starts growing within two days of pollination. The signalling pathway that induces rapid ovary growth after pollination has remained elusive. We placed the auxin antagonist ¿-(p-chlorophenoxy)

  14. 76 FR 78008 - Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings and Orchid Cellmark Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... relevant equipment, books and records, and other information necessary for DDC to bid competitively for... requiring the parties to divest Orchid's U.S. government paternity testing business to DDC. LabCorp also must divest testing equipment along with contract and service information necessary to enable DDC to...

  15. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling. PMID:26886766

  16. Identifying orchid hotspots for biodiversity conservation in Laos: the limestone karst vegetation of Vang Vieng District, Vientiane Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A project to study the phytodiversity of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot (IBBH was initiated by Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, in 2011, with the aim of surveying primary forest fragments and identifying conservation priorities within this expansive but highly threatened ecoregion. Vang Vieng District of Vientiane Province, northern Laos, was chosen as a focus for a pilot expedition, since it features an extensive karst landscape that has barely been explored. Together with officials from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Lao PDR, surveys of three sites were conducted in April 2012, at the end of the dry northeast monsoon season. Emphasis was placed on Orchidaceae because it is among the most species-rich and commercially exploited flowering plant families in the region. A total of 179 specimens were collected, of which approximately 135 were unique taxa accounting for 29.6% of the orchids found in Laos and 5.8% of those found in IBBH as a whole, and equivalent to 0.27 species/hectare within the area surveyed, substantially higher than published figures for other limestone areas in the region, such as Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam (0.0055 species/hectare and Perlis State in Peninsular Malaysia (0.0036 species/hectare.  At least one is a species new to science, nine represent new distributional records for Laos and a further nine are new records for Vientiane Province. A list of the species encountered during the study is presented and the significance of the findings is discussed. Major threats to the natural environment in northern Laos are highlighted.

  17. Why Mycophoris is not an orchid seedling, and why Synaptomitus is not a fungal symbiont within this fossil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selosse, Marc-Andre; Brundrett, Mark; Dearnaley, John

    2017-01-01

    A recent publication in Botany introduced two new taxa: a fossil orchid seed (Mycophoris) and a fossilized basidiomycete fungus (Synaptomitus) in an alleged relationship with this orchid, encased in 15–20 million year old Dominican amber (Poinar, G. 2017. Two new genera, Mycophoris gen. nov......., (Orchidaceae) and Synaptomitus gen. nov. (Basidiomycota) based on a fossil seed with developing embryo and associated fungus in Dominican amber. Botany, 95: 1–8). From the working knowledge of extant orchid seeds, seedlings, and mycorrhiza shared among us, we cannot support these interpretations. Here we...... analyse: (i) why Mycophoris may not be an orchid seed, (ii) why Mycophoris is not a germinating seed, (iii) why fungal hyphae and a symbiotic fungus are absent in Mycophoris, and (iv) why Synaptomitus is likely not a fossil basidiomycete....

  18. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62

  19. Contribution to a Revised Orchid Flora of Taiwan (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jye Su

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Orchidaceae, Listera meifongensis is described from Taiwan. The native species of Galeola in Taiwan are also revised. Illustrations and taxonomic notes are given for these species.

  20. Sensitivity of Pigment Content of Banana and Orchid Tissue Culture Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fiel

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini, Riry; Saleh, Norihan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan) corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothsc...

  1. In vitro growth of Brassocattleya orchid hybrid in different concentrations of KNO3, NH4NO3 and benzylaminopurine

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,Jean C; Ono,Elizabeth O

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important applications of plant tissue culture is mass propagation of ornamental plants. This experiment evaluated the effect of different concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 and BAP on the in vitro growth of orchid hybrid Brassocattleya 'Pastoral'. Seedlings of this orchid hybrid were used as explants and cultivated in medium with mineral salts and vitamins from the MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962), with the macronutrients P, Ca and Mg reduced by half, and with an additi...

  2. Artkunskap och intresse för arter hos blivande lärare för grundskolan. "Student teachers’ knowledge of and interest in species"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmeli Palmberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to recent research, the knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences arethe factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues and sustainable life style. However, during the past 20 years the knowledge of species has decreased alarmingly among pupils, but also among their teachers. The aim of this study is to make a survey of student teachers’ level of knowledge of species and of factors that have influenced their interest in and capacity for identifying species. Totally 335 student teachers were tested through a species identification test, a questionnaire, and completing interviews. Pupils in grades 7 and 9 and adults were used as reference groups. Student teachers had very varying levels of knowledge of species. Most of them, however, considered it useful to know the most common species of plants and animals in their local environment. The student teachers who had nature-related hobbies as well as practical nature studies in their education, had a considerably better level of knowledge than the others. More than 25 % of the student teachers, however, had a lower level of knowledge (of species than the average pupils ingrades 7 and 9.

  3. Dispersal and disturbance as factors limiting the distribution of rare plant species at the Savannah River Site and the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primack, Richard; Walker, Joan.

    2003-12-10

    An experiment was conducted to identify effective methods of creating new populations of herbaceous species in managed upland longleaf pine forest at two locations in the Fall-line Sandhills of South Carolina. We included thirteen species and a variety of site treatments. All sites were burned and lightly raked prior to planting. Sowing seeds on untreated or fertilized treatments resulted in the lowest establishment of all treatments. Digging the planting area to remove belowground plant structures and using hardware cloth cages to exclude potential mammalian seed predators and herbivores led to increased establishment of target species. Establishment was higher using seedling transplants compared to seeds. Success rate was highly variable among sites so population establishment efforts should try to incorporate many sites initially to find the sites that give the greatest chance of success, or increase efforts to carefully identify species, habitat requirements and screen potential sites accordingly. Some species showed very low rates of success despite the variety of methods used; for such species additional work is required on their basic ecology, in particular germination biology and site requirements, as part of a restoration project. The overall low rate of establishment success emphasizes the need to protect and manage existing populations of uncommon Sandhills species, and to recognize that establishing large, long-term, reproducing populations of such species will be difficult.

  4. Revision of the rare centipede genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934, with description of a new species from Thailand (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muadsub, Sawitree; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Pimvichai, Piyatida

    2012-01-01

    (type species of Sterropristes) and S.metallicus (Verhoeff, 1937) from Penang Hill, Penang, Malaysia (type species of Malaccolabis) are redescribed based on their type material, together with newly collected topotypes of S. metallicus. Sterropristes violaceus Muadsub and Panha n. sp., found under leaves...

  5. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of ‘Reserva Ecológica Michelin’, ‘RPPN Serra Bonita’ and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita’ (RSB and ‘Reserva Ecológica Michelin’ (REM, and a forest fragment inside the campus of the ‘Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz’, were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996—one of the rarest orchid bee species—was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river.

  6. Controle químico de brilhantina (Pilea microphylla no cultivo de orquídeas Chemical control of Pilea microphylla in orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2007-09-01

    were carried out in a randomized block design, arranged in a factorial scheme 2 x 7, with three replicates. One trial was composed by two orchid species (Epidendrum ibaguensis and Dendrobium sp. and seven oxyfluorfen rates (0.000, 0.024, 0.072, 0.144, 0.216, 0.288 and 0.36 L ha-1 of i.a., sprayed over the total area and the other was composed by the same species and seven oxyfluorfen concentrations (0.00000, 0.00036, 0.00072, 0.00144, 0.00288, 0.00576 and 0.01152% of i.a., directly sprayed without reaching the orchid leaves. Each experimental unit was represented by a pot with an orchid plant infested with Pilea microphylla. At 15, 30 and 60 days after application (DAA visual evaluations of toxicity on orchid and Pilea microphylla control were performed, using a scale from 0 (toxicity absence to 100 (plant death. No interaction between species and rate or concentration of herbicide and no difference in herbicide behavior or symptoms of toxicity on orchid plants were observed in either experiment. Efficient control of Pilea microphylla was verified for rates superior to 0.26 and 0.25 L ha-1 at 30 and 60 DAA, respectively, in the total area application, and for concentrations superior to 0.0020 and 0.0019%, at 30 and 60 DAA, respectively in direct spray. Oxyfluorfen provided efficient control of Pilea microphylla with spray in total area and direct spray, without harming the orchid plants.

  7. Rare Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Limited Operational Exercise 1. 1A Limited Operational Exercise is a multiplayer experiment designed to exploit and study information sharing and...1.4 Summary of the Study The “rare event” of interest is an extreme, deliberate act of violence , destruction or socioeconomic disruption, such as an...connection with terrorism inves- tigations. The programs then use some combination of doctrinal revision and rewards to induce the people to abandon violence

  8. The life of phi: the development of phi thickenings in roots of the orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nurul A; Collings, David A

    2015-02-01

    Phi thickenings, bands of secondary wall thickenings that reinforce the primary wall of root cortical cells in a wide range of species, are described for the first time in the epiphytic orchid Miltoniopsis. As with phi thickenings found in other plants, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis contain highly aligned cellulose running along the lengths of the thickenings, and are lignified but not suberized. Using a combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques, thickening development can be categorized into three different stages. Microtubules align lengthwise along the thickening during early and intermediate stages of development, and callose is deposited within the thickening in a pattern similar to the microtubules. These developing thickenings also label with the fluorescently tagged lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). These associations with microtubules and callose, and the WGA labeling, all disappear when the phi thickenings are mature. This pattern of callose and WGA deposition show changes in the thickened cell wall composition and may shed light on the function of phi thickenings in plant roots, a role for which has yet to be established.

  9. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. CROSTI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  10. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FABRINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  11. Radiosensitivity studies on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, orchidophilus aterrimus (waterhouse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Reyes, M.R.; Resilva, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different radiation doses on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse) was investigated. Among the different stages, the egg was found the most sensitive while the adult weevil was the most resistant to gamma radiation. The younger the insect within a stage, the more sensitive they are to the lethal effect of radiation. For instance, one-to three-day-old eggs were found most sensitive followed by four-to seven-day-old eggs, two- to four-day-old and 30-day-old larvae and early pupae. Late pupae and adults were the most radioresistant when irradiated with doses ranging from 150 to 450 Gy. Furthermore, young adults treated with 150 to 460 Gy did not lay any eggs while mature adults lay a few eggs but none of them hatched. Our data indicate that gamma radiation may be used as an alternative quarantine treatment for disinfestation of orchids. (author)

  12. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

  13. A garden of orchids: a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestel, B D; Osbaldestin, A H

    2004-01-01

    We consider a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational flux, showing, in the strong coupling limit, the fluctuations of the exponentially decaying eigenfunctions are governed by the dynamics of a renormalization operator on a renormalization strange set. This work generalizes previous analyses which have considered only the golden mean case. Projections of the renormalization strange sets are illustrated analogous to the 'orchid' present in the golden mean case

  14. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  15. Darwin's bee-trap: The kinetics of Catasetum, a new world orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Charles C; Bales, James W; Palmer-Fortune, Joyce E; Nicholson, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    The orchid genera Catasetum employs a hair-trigger activated, pollen release mechanism, which forcibly attaches pollen sacs onto foraging insects in the New World tropics. This remarkable adaptation was studied extensively by Charles Darwin and he termed this rapid response "sensitiveness." Using high speed video cameras with a frame speed of 1000 fps, this rapid release was filmed and from the subsequent footage, velocity, speed, acceleration, force and kinetic energy were computed.

  16. A garden of orchids: a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestel, B D [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Osbaldestin, A H [Department of Mathematics, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3HE (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    We consider a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational flux, showing, in the strong coupling limit, the fluctuations of the exponentially decaying eigenfunctions are governed by the dynamics of a renormalization operator on a renormalization strange set. This work generalizes previous analyses which have considered only the golden mean case. Projections of the renormalization strange sets are illustrated analogous to the 'orchid' present in the golden mean case.

  17. 1-MCP pretreatment prevents bud and flower abscission in Dendrobium orchids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uthaichay, N.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium orchid inflorescences were treated for 4 h at 25 °C with or without 100¿500 nl/l 1-MCP and were then placed in water at 25 °C to follow abscission. In controls, depending on the experiment, 20¿80% of the floral buds and 0¿20% of the open flowers abscised within 1 week. The 1-MCP

  18. Substrate specific hydrolysis of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic esters in orchid tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that tissue cultures of higher plants were able, similarly as microorganisms, to transform low-molecular-weight chemical compounds. In tissue cultures of orchids (Cymbidium 'Saint Pierre' and Dendrobium phalaenopsis acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed, whereas methyl esters of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic acids did not undergo this reaction. Acetates of racemic aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed with distinct enantiospecificity.

  19. EFFECT OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON GROWTH PLANLET OF DENDROBIUM ORCHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Raodah Garuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniqueness of stunning Dendrobium variety such as shapes, colors, and sizes are main attraction of this plant. Germination oforchid seeds can be carried out in a laboratory with in vitro techniques.Medium used for germination of orchid seeds are Vacin and Went medium. Researcher stried to add other substances that may increase growth explants, such as complex organic compounds. Study aims to determine effect of complex organic compounds into growth medium VW Dendrobium plantlets. Research used complete randomized design consist five treatment:VW medium without extract (control, VW medium+banana extract, VW medium+ melon extrac, VW medium+guava extract and VW medium+pepaya extract, with three replications, each replication consist two culture bottles.. Each culture bottle planted four planlets. Addition of complex organic compounds such as melon extract gave best vegetative growth of leaves quantity, roots quantity, root length and fresh weight. While guava extract provide best results to plantlet high and saplings. Plant lets with melon extract treatment showed appearance of muscular orchid plantlets is characteristic of plants that can survive during acclimatization. While both guava extract is best used for purpose of orchid plantlets regeneration.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the wild orchid Cattleya maxima Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Yadira Cueva-Agila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocorms are unique anatomical structures; they are akin to rhizoids and are formed by young orchid seedlings under physiological conditions. Explanted orchid tissues produce similar structures called protocorm-like bodies (PLBs when exposed to appropriate in vitro growing conditions. Both the propagative nature of PLBs and the easiness by which they can be generated, make these structures an attractive alternative to seed-mediated production for growing large numbers of plants. To increase somatic embryogenesis and optimize the procedure, PLBs of Cattleya maxima were transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The T-DNA carried a Hygromycin-resistance gene, a visible marker (GFP5-GUSA and a rice gene encoding the Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase, deemed to be important for somatic embryogenesis. Treated PLBs generated somatic embryos developing Hygromycin-resistant plantlets. The insertion of T-DNA was confirmed by PCR, and GFP expression was observed using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Transformed Cattleya maxima PLBs were more efficient in forming somatic embryos (60 - 80 % than untransformed controls (45 - 57 %, and this contrast was maximized in hormone-free, Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (80 % of the transformed plants compared to 57 % of the untransformed ones. This finding supports the notion that SERK plays an important role in Orchid embryogenesis

  1. Effects of Melatonin on Colchicine-Treated PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 Orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M S; Antony, J J J; Islam, S M Shahinul; Suhana, Z; Sreeramanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium hybrid orchid is popular in orchid commercial industry due to its short life cycle and ability to produce various types of flower colours. This study was conducted to identify the morphological, biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis in the Dendrobium sonia-28 orchid plants. In this study, 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated Dendrobium sonia-28 (4-week-old culture) protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were treated in different concentrations of melatonin (MEL) posttreatments (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM). Morphological parameters such as number of shoots, growth index and number of PLBs were determined. In the 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated PLBs which were posttreated with 0.05 μM MEL resulted in the highest value of the morphological parameters tested based on the number of shoots (84.5 and 96.67), growth index (16.94 and 12.15) and number of PLBs (126.5 and 162.33), respectively. SEM analysis of the 0.05 μM MEL posttreatment on both the colchicine-treated regenerated PLBs showed irregular cell lineages, and some damages occurred on the stomata. This condition might be due to the effect of plasmolyzing occurred in the cell causing irregular cell lineages.

  2. NIR-assisted orchid virus therapy using urchin bimetallic nanomaterials in phalaenopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Cheng, Liang-Chien; Chen, Chieh-Wei; Lee, Po-Han; Liu, Ru-Shi; Yu, Fengjiao; Zhou, Wuzong

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles has drawn special attention, particularly in the treatment of plant diseases. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ring spot virus (ORSV) are the most prevalent and serious diseases that affect the development of the orchid industry. In this study we treated nanoparticles as a strategy for enhancing the resistance of orchids against CymMV and ORSV. After chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were injected into Phalaenopsis leaves, the injected leaves were exposed to 980 nm laser for light–heat conversion. To evaluate virus elimination in the treated Phalaenopsis leaves, the transcripts of coat protein genes and the production of viral proteins were assessed by reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of coat protein genes for both CymMV and ORSV was significantly lower in the chitosan-modified Au NP-treated Phalaenopsis leaves than in the control. Similarly, the amount of coat proteins for both viruses in the Phalaenopsis leaves was lower than that in the control (without nanoparticle injection). We propose that the temperature increase in the chitosan-modified Au NP-treated Phalaenopsis tissues after laser exposure reduces the viral population, consequently conferring resistance against CymMV and ORSV. Our findings suggest that the application of chitosan-modified Au NPs is a promising new strategy for orchid virus therapy. (paper)

  3. Comparative study of the oospore morphology of two populations of a rare species Chara baueri A. Braun in Cedynia (Poland and Batzlow (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pukacz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of oospores of Chara baueri A. Braun, one of the rarest charophyte species worldwide, were studied based on 100 oospores collected from a small and temporarily dried mid-field pond near Cedynia, Western Poland. This is the first Polish and fifth presently known locality of this species. For comparison 67 oospores from a German population (similar pond localized near Batzlow, Germany were also measured. So far, data on morphology of C. baueri oospores as well as the species ecology are limited. The only more detailed study of oospores for this species was earlier performed on 15 oospores from Kazakhstan. Largest polar axis (LPA, length, largest equatorial diameter (LED, width, isopolarity index (ISI = LPA/LED × 100, number of ridges, width of fossa, distance from apical pole to LED (AND and anisipolarity index (ANI = AND/LPA × 100 were measured. The comparative analysis revealed that the oospores from Poland are generally bigger and more prolate than the Ger­man ones. The differences for most of studied parameters were statistically significant. The finding is discussed in the context of habitat differentiation of both studied sites. Moreover, the results obtained of oospore measurements for both populations differs from most of the data known so far from the literature.

  4. [Clonal micropropagation of a rare species Hedysarum theinum Krasnob (Fabaceae) and assessment of the genetic stability of regenerated plants using ISSR markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erst, A A; Svyagina, N S; Novikova, T I; Dorogina, O V

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a protocol was developed for the in vitro propagation of a rare medicinal plant, Hedysarum theinum (tea sweetvetch), from axillary buds, and identification of the regenerants was performed with the use of ISSR markers. It was demonstrated that Gamborg and Eveleigh medium supplemented with 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine was the best for H. theinum for initial multiplication. On the other hand, half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 7 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid proved to be the best for explant rooting. Molecular genetic analysis of the H. theinum mother plants and the obtained regenerants was performed with six ISSR markers. Depending on the primer, four to ten amplified fragments with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 bp were identified. Our results confirmed the genetic stability of regenerants obtained in five passages and their identity to the mother plant.

  5. Identification and quantification of expression levels of three FRUITFULL-like MADS-box genes from the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (Reichb. f.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Martin; Pedersen, Kim B.; Johansen, Louise Buchholt

    2005-01-01

    Orchids serve as useful model plants for the discovery and study of genes involved in novel processes in floral development because of their highly modified flowers. In this study three different FRUITFULL (FUL)-like MADS-box genes, DthyrFL1, -2, and -3 have been isolated from the orchid Dendrobium...

  6. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  7. Status and limiting factors of three rare plant species in the coastal lowlands and mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Two endangered plant species (Portulaca sclerocarpa, `ihi mākole, and Sesbania tomentosa, `ōhai) and a species of concern (Bobea timonioides, `ahakea) native to the coastal lowlands and dry mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park were studied for more than two years to determine their stand structure, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, presence of soil seed bank, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. The role of rodents as fruit and seed predators was evaluated using exclosures and seed offerings in open and closed stations or cages. Rodents were excluded from randomly selected plants of P. sclerocarpa and from branches of S. tomentosa, and flower and fruit production were compared to that of adjacent unprotected plants. Tagged S. tomentosa fruit were also monitored monthly to detect rodent predation.

  8. Phytochemical profile of the rare, ancient clone Lomatia tasmanica and comparison to other endemic Tasmanian species L. tinctoria and L. polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Bianca J; Tedone, Laura; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2018-06-07

    An investigation of the previously unexamined ancient Tasmanian clone Lomatia tasmanica W. M. Curtis (Proteaceae) and two other endemic species Lomatia tinctoria R. Br. and Lomatia polymorpha (Labill.) R. Br. was undertaken. This represents the first extensive natural products study in which individual phytochemical components have been isolated and identified from these three Lomatia species. Extraction of L. tasmanica leaves provided the naphthoquinone juglone (0.34% w/w), and n-alkanes nonacosane and heptacosane (0.30% w/w combined). L. polymorpha afforded the flavonoid glycosides dihydroquercetin 3-O-β-D-xyloside (0.22% w/w) and quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucose (0.14% w/w), as well as the naphthalene glucoside 1,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalene-1-O-β-d-glucose (0.04% w/w) and 4-O-p-coumaroyl-d-glucose (0.03% w/w). In addition, both L. polymorpha and L. tinctoria contained juglone (0.32% w/w and 0.58% w/w, respectively). L. polymorpha provided tetracosan-1-ol, hexacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol (0.07% w/w combined), while L. tinctoria gave nonacosane (0.13% w/w). Analysis of three individual specimens from each of the three species demonstrated consistency in the respective phytochemical profiles of these populations and tentatively suggests limited intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. To the knowledge of rare species of Acrididae from Protected Areas in North-Western Russia: Chorthippus brunneus brevis (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander A. Benediktov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus brevis (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Gomphocerinae has been confirmed for the Vyborg district mainland of the Leningrad region, Russia, for the first time since 1908. Information about its habitats, characteristics of morphology, as well as calling signals of males is presented. The differences of the stridulatory file structure in the males of the closely related species Ch. brunneus brunneus, Ch. brunneus brevis and Ch. porphyropterus from the territory of Russia are considered. Information on the difference in calling of both subspecies of Ch. brunneus is given.

  10. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  11. EFFECTS OF MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON IN-VITRO NITROGEN RESPONSE OF SOME DUTCH INDIGENOUS ORCHID SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, E; ECK, ND

    The effect of mycorrhizal infection on the response to mineral nitrogen was studied in Orchis morio L., Dactylorhiza praetermissa (Druce) Soo var. junialis (Vermin.) Sengh., Dactylorhiza majalis (Reichb.) Hunt & Summerh., and Dactylorhiza incarnara (L.) Soo, using two strains of Ceratorhiza sp. and

  12. Ophrys apifera Huds. (Orchidaceae, a new orchid species to the flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiadacz Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on the first locality of Ophrys apifera Huds. s. str. in Poland. Information about its geographical distribution and ecological features is given. A newly discovered population, found in a worked-out dolomite quarry near Imielin (Silesian Upland, is described and illustrated, as also, O. apifera is compared with O. insectifera L.

  13. Plant and fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of the orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Nerva, Luca; Sillo, Fabiano; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known on the molecular bases of plant-fungal interactions in orchid mycorrhiza. We developed a model system to investigate gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of Serapias vomeracea colonised by Tulasnella calospora. Our recent results with a small panel of genes as indicators of plant response to mycorrhizal colonization indicate that genes related with plant defense were not significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues. Here, we used laser microdissection to investigate whether expression of some orchid genes was restricted to specific cell types. Results showed that SvNod1, a S. vomeracea nodulin-like protein containing a plastocyanin-like domain, is expressed only in protocorm cells containing intracellular fungal hyphae. In addition, we investigated a family of fungal zinc metallopeptidases (M36). This gene family has expanded in the T. calospora genome and RNA-Seq experiments indicate that some members of the M36 metallopeptidases family are differentially regulated in orchid mycorrhizal protocorms.

  14. Responses of Dendrobium 'darrenn glory' and Mokara 'calypso jumbo' orchids to 1-methylcyclopropene and aqueous ozone postharvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Almasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrchids possess a very special place amongst ornamental plants. But high ethylene sensitivity and early flower senescence of orchid result in a short vase life and rapid quality deterioration which is of great concern for the growers, traders and consumers. An attempt was made to study the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (0 and 300 nL L–1 and аquеous ozone (0 and 5.2 nL L–1 in prolonging vase life and maintaining quality of two cut orchid hybrids Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' (DDG and Mokara “Calypso Jumbo” (MCJ. Results showed that orchid hybrids exhibited differences in their ethylene sensitivity, vase life, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC oxidase activities. Pre-treatment with 1-MCP resulted in reduced ethylene production, vase life, ACC content and ACC oxidase activities, but increased bud opening %. Pre-treatment with аquеous ozone failed to influence all those parameters except bud opening %. Interaction effects of hybrid and 1-MCP were significant for ethylene production, hybrid and ozone for vas life, 1-MCP and ozone for bud opening %, and hybrid, 1-MCP and ozone for ethylene production and vase life. Aqueous ozone markedly contributed to the inhibition of microbial growth in vase solution. Pre-treatment of the cut orchid flowers with 300 nL L–11-MCP, followed by using 5.2 mg L–1 aqueous ozone as the vase solution could be recommended to maintain quality and extend vase life of both the DDG and MCJ orchid hybrids.

  15. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: does farm size affect their abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Ingemar; Denzel, Andrew; Owens, Gareth

    2006-09-01

    The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs nonorganic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test). However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms.

  16. Multiple factors contribute to reproductive isolation between two co-existing Habenaria species (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliu Zhang

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is a key feature that forms barriers to gene flow between distinct plants. In orchids, prezygotic reproductive isolation has been considered to be strong, because their associations with highly specific pollinators. In this study, the reproductive ecology and reproductive isolation of two sympatric Habenaria species, H. davidii and H. fordii, was investigated by floral phenology and morphology, hand-pollination experiments and visitor observation in southwest China. The two species were dependent on insects for pollination and completely self-compatible. A number of factors have been identified to limit gene flow between the two species and achieved full reproductive isolation. Ecogeographic isolation was a weak barrier. H. fordii and H. davidii had completely overlapped flowering periods, and floral morphology plays an important role in floral isolation. The two species shared the same hawkmoth pollinator, Cechenena lineosa, but the pollinaria of the two orchids were attached on different body parts of pollinators. Prezygotic isolation was not complete, but the interspecific pollination treatments of each species resulted in no seed sets, indicating that unlike many other orchid species, in which the postzygotic reproductive isolation is very weak or complete absence, the post-zygotic isolation strongly acted in the stage of seed production between two species. The results illustrate the reproductive isolation between two species involves multiple plant life-history stages and a variety of reproductive barriers can contribute to overall isolation.

  17. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansiddhi, K.; Siriphontangmun, S.

    1999-01-01

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  18. Gene expression in mycorrhizal orchid protocorms suggests a friendly plant-fungus relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, Silvia; Rodda, Marco; Benetti, Alex; Sillo, Fabiano; Ercole, Enrico; Rodda, Michele; Girlanda, Mariangela; Murat, Claude; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2014-06-01

    Orchids fully depend on symbiotic interactions with specific soil fungi for seed germination and early development. Germinated seeds give rise to a protocorm, a heterotrophic organ that acquires nutrients, including organic carbon, from the mycorrhizal partner. It has long been debated if this interaction is mutualistic or antagonistic. To investigate the molecular bases of the orchid response to mycorrhizal invasion, we developed a symbiotic in vitro system between Serapias vomeracea, a Mediterranean green meadow orchid, and the rhizoctonia-like fungus Tulasnella calospora. 454 pyrosequencing was used to generate an inventory of plant and fungal genes expressed in mycorrhizal protocorms, and plant genes could be reliably identified with a customized bioinformatic pipeline. A small panel of plant genes was selected and expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal protocorm tissues. Among these genes were some markers of mutualistic (e.g. nodulins) as well as antagonistic (e.g. pathogenesis-related and wound/stress-induced) genes. None of the pathogenesis or wound/stress-related genes were significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues, suggesting that fungal colonization does not trigger strong plant defence responses. In addition, the highest expression fold change in mycorrhizal tissues was found for a nodulin-like gene similar to the plastocyanin domain-containing ENOD55. Another nodulin-like gene significantly more expressed in the symbiotic tissues of mycorrhizal protocorms was similar to a sugar transporter of the SWEET family. Two genes coding for mannose-binding lectins were significantly up-regulated in the presence of the mycorrhizal fungus, but their role in the symbiosis is unclear.

  19. Weak trophic links between a crab-spider and the effective pollinators of a rewardless orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Carolina; Corley, Juan C.; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Sit and wait predators hunting on flowers are considered to be exploiters of plant-pollinator mutualisms. Several studies have shown that plant-pollinator interactions can be highly susceptible to the impact of a third trophic level, via consumptive (direct) and non-consumptive (indirect) effects that alter pollinator behavior and, ultimately, plant fitness. However, most flowering plants attract a wide array of flower visitors, from which only a subset will be effective pollinators. Hence, a negative effect of an ambush predator on plant fitness should be expected only when: (i) the effective pollinators are part of the predators' diet and/or (ii) the non-consumptive effects of predator presence (e.g. dead prey) alter the behavior of effective pollinators and pollen movement among individual plants. We analyzed the direct and indirect effects of a crab-spider (Misumenops pallidus), on the pollination and reproductive success of Chloraea alpina, a Patagonian rewardless orchid. Our results indicate that most of the flower visitors do not behave as effective pollinators and most effective pollinators were not observed as prey for the crab-spider. In terms of non-consumptive effects, inflorescences with and without spiders and/or dead-prey did not vary the frequency of flower visitors, nor pollinia removal or deposition. Hence, it is not surprising that M. pallidus has a neutral effect on pollinia removal and deposition as well as on fruit and seed set. Similar to other rewardless orchids, the low reproductive success of C. alpina (∼6% fruit set) was associated with the limited number of visits by effective pollinators. Negative top-down effects of a flower-visitor predator on plant pollination may not be anticipated without studying the direct and indirect effects of this predator on the effective pollinators. In pollination systems where effective pollinators visited flowers erratically, such as in deceptive orchids, we expect weak or no effect of predators on

  20. Microsatellite Markers in the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Ross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Primers for 31 microsatellite-containing loci were developed for the threatened orchid Platanthera praeclara to enable characterization of the population genetics of this tallgrass prairie native. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from four populations. Six of these loci were not in linkage disequilibrium. The average number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 6.4 to 8.9. Conclusions: The results indicate that six of the polymorphic loci will be useful in future studies of population structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity.

  1. A National Survey of Exposure to Power Frequency Magnetic Fields ('ORCHID')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareuveny, R.; Eliyahu, I.; Yaffe, Y.; Ben David, I.; Riven, M.; Kandel, S.; Kheifets, L.

    2014-01-01

    This abstract briefly presents ORCHID - a national survey of exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. While the initial focus of the project was the MFs survey, the extraordinary interest and skills of the gifted children and willingness to participate in the project, persuaded us to increase its educational component. Over 50 'double' measurements (Spot and Personal) out of 100 planed have been completed. 10-15 different educational centers in Israel already applied to join the project. Extension of this project into other countries is being considered

  2. Golden mean renormalization for a generalized Harper equation: The Ketoja-Satija orchid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestel, B.D.; Osbaldestin, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    We provide a rigorous analysis of the fluctuations of localized eigenstates in a generalized Harper equation with golden mean flux and with next-nearest-neighbor interactions. For next-nearest-neighbor interaction above a critical threshold, these self-similar fluctuations are characterized by orbits of a renormalization operator on a universal strange attractor, whose projection was dubbed the ''orchid'' by Ketoja and Satija [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2762 (1995)]. We show that the attractor is given essentially by an embedding of a subshift of finite type, and give a description of its periodic orbits

  3. No Evidence of Habitat Loss Affecting the Orchid Bees Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Eufriesea auriceps Friese (Apidae: Euglossini) in the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D P; De Marco, P

    2014-12-01

    Habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, and agriculture intensification constitute the main threats to bees. As the organisms responsible for almost one third of the food produced worldwide, there are growing concerns on bees' response to human-related disturbances. Among all bee groups, orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) compose an interesting group to test landscape-related hypotheses. In here, we tested the effect of landscape features (amount of anthropic areas and isolation) on the probability of occurrence and the abundances of both Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Eufriesea auriceps Friese in the Cerrado savanna. In general, we did not observe any effect of landscape features on the probability of occurrence and abundances of both species in our sampling sites. Given their potential high dispersal abilities, these bee species may be less sensitive to fragmented landscapes or even positively affected by the increase of anthropic habitats. Since we sampled many E. nigrita specimens in highly preserved Cerrado savanna areas, we believe that at least for this biome, this species may not be a good indicator of landscape disturbance.

  4. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  5. Semente de amendoeira (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas epífitas = Tropical almond seeds (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae as a substrate for epiphytic orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de semente de Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas das espécies Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. e Brassavola tuberculata Hook. foi comparado ao do xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. Esta espécie é muito usada para o cultivo de orquídeas, mas está ameaçada de extinção e com a sua exploração proibida por lei. Ao final de 12 meses de cultivo, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, número de pseudobulbos e pH.Não houve interação significativa entre substratos e espécies para as variáveis avaliadas. As orquídeas desenvolvidas em substrato de T. catappa e em xaxim apresentaram alturas da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos e número de pseudobulbos equivalentes. O substrato de T. catappa apresentou baixa velocidade de decomposição, o que manteve a sua boa capacidade de aeração, desenvolvimento das raízes e valor de pH próximo ao encontrado para o xaxim. O uso de T. catappa apresentou-se viável como substituto ao xaxim para o cultivo das orquídeas avaliadas.The use of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae seeds as a substrate for growing orchids of the species Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and Brassavola tuberculata Hook was compared to the tree fern fiber Dicksonia sellowiana Hook, largely used for that purpose. This species is endangered and its exploitation is prohibited by law. After twelve months, the following parameters were evaluated: aerial part height, pseudo bulb diameter, number of pseudo bulbs and pH of substrate. There was no significant interaction between substrates and species for the evaluated parameters. The orchids developed on T. catappa substrate and tree fern fiber showed similar aerial parts, diameter and number of pseudo bulbs. T. catappa substrate showed a low rate of decomposition, which maintained good aeration capacity, root development and pH values close to

  6. Local-scale spatial structure and community composition of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in semi-natural grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oja, J.; Vahtra, J.; Bahram, M.; Kohout, Petr; Kull, T.; Rannap, R.; Köljalg, U.; Tedersoo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 355-367 ISSN 0940-6360 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mycorrhiza * orchids * fungal community composition * calcareous grassland * spatial distribution * grazing intensity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2016

  7. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papenfus, H. B.; Naidoo, D.; Pošta, Martin; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2016), s. 289-294 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ansellia africana * developmental rate index * germination rate index * karrikinolide * leopard orchid * smoke-water * trimethylbutenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.106, year: 2016

  8. The significance of gathering wild orchid tubers for orphan household livelihoods in a context of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Niehof, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of gathering and selling the edible tubers of wild orchids by children orphaned by AIDS as one of their livelihood strategies, through a household survey administered to 152 households in three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania during 2006 and 2007.

  9. Cell-specific expression of plant nutrient transporter genes in orchid mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochi, Valeria; Falla, Nicole; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2017-10-01

    Orchid mycorrhizal protocorms and roots are heterogeneous structures composed of different plant cell-types, where cells colonized by intracellular fungal coils (the pelotons) are close to non-colonized plant cells. Moreover, the fungal coils undergo rapid turnover inside the colonized cells, so that plant cells containing coils at different developmental stages can be observed in the same tissue section. Here, we have investigated by laser microdissection (LMD) the localization of specific plant gene transcripts in different cell-type populations collected from mycorrhizal protocorms and roots of the Mediterranean orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora. RNAs extracted from the different cell-type populations have been used to study plant gene expression, focusing on genes potentially involved in N uptake and transport and previously identified as up-regulated in symbiotic protocorms. Results clearly showed that some plant N transporters are differentially expressed in cells containing fungal coils at different developmental stages, as well as in non-colonized cells, and allowed the identification of new functional markers associated to coil-containing cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Total fatty acid composition in the characterization and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the main mycorrhizal fungi in orchid roots. Morphological characterization and analysis of conserved sequences of genomic DNA are frequently employed in the identification and study of fungi diversity. However, phytopathogenic Rhizoctonia-like fungi have been reliably and accurately characterized and identified through the examination of the fatty acid composition. To evaluate the efficacy of fatty acid composition in characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi in orchids, three Epulorhiza spp. mycorrhizal fungi from Epidendrum secundum, two unidentified fungi isolated from Epidendrum denticulatum, and a phytopathogenic fungus, Ceratorhiza sp. AGC, were grouped based on the profile of their fatty acids, which was assessed by the Euclidian and Mahalanobis distances and the UPGMA method. Dendrograms distinguished the phytopathogenical isolate of Ceratorhiza sp. AGC from the mycorrhizal fungi studied. The symbionts of E. secundum were grouped into two clades, one containing Epulorhiza sp.1 isolates and the other the Epulorhiza sp.2 isolate. The similarity between the symbionts of E. denticulatum and Epulorhiza spp. fungi suggests that symbionts found in E. denticulatum may be identified as Epulorhiza. These results were corroborated by the analysis of the rDNA ITS region. The dendrogram constructed based on the Mahalanobis distance differentiated the clades most clearly. Fatty acid composition analysis proved to be a useful tool for characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi.

  11. Monitoring and Precision Spraying for Orchid Plantation with Wireless WebCAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grianggai Samseemoung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through processing images taken from wireless WebCAMs on the low altitude remote sensing (LARS platform, this research monitored crop growth, pest, and disease information in a dendrobium orchid’s plantation. Vegetetative indices were derived for distinguishing different stages of crop growth, and the infestation density of pests and diseases. Image data was processed through an algorithm created in MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, USA. Corresponding to the orchid’s growth stage and its infestation density, varying levels of fertilizer and chemical injections were administered. The acquired LARS images from wireless WebCAMs were positioned using geo-referencing, and eventually processed to estimate vegetative-indices (Red = 650 nm and NIR = 800 nm band center. Good correlations and a clear cluster range were obtained in characteristic plots of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI against chlorophyll content. The coefficient of determination, the chlorophyll content values (μmol m−2 showed significant differences among clusters for healthy orchids (R2 = 0.985–0.992, and for infested orchids (R2 = 0.984–0.998. The WebCAM application, while being inexpensive, provided acceptable inputs for image processing. The LARS platform gave its best performance at an altitude of 1.2 m above canopy. The image processing software based on LARS images provided satisfactory results as compared with manual measurements.

  12. Rare Animal Education Usingaugmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Artdias

    2018-01-01

    They are extinction because destruction of forest habitats, a conflict between humans and animals, trade, hunting, the arrests beyond capacity. [1]. Is that the issue of the extinction of the animals is dominated by human behavior and nature of the wrath of them. For that, education game “Rare Animal” become formulations to raise awareness of endangered species.

  13. Community Assembly Processes of the Microbial Rare Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcão Salles, Joana

    2018-03-14

    Our planet teems with microorganisms that often present a skewed abundance distribution in a local community, with relatively few dominant species coexisting alongside a high number of rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that these rare taxa serve as limitless reservoirs of genetic diversity, and perform disproportionate types of functions despite their low abundances. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling rarity and the processes promoting the development of the rare biosphere. Here, we propose the use of multivariate cut-offs to estimate rare species and phylogenetic null models applied to predefined rare taxa to disentangle the relative influences of ecoevolutionary processes mediating the assembly of the rare biosphere. Importantly, the identification of the factors controlling rare species assemblages is critical for understanding the types of rarity, how the rare biosphere is established, and how rare microorganisms fluctuate over spatiotemporal scales, thus enabling prospective predictions of ecosystem responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of photoperiod, plant growth regulators and culture media on in vitro growth of seedlings of Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. an endemic and endangered orchid from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. is an endemic and seriously endangered orchid species endemic in the Loja Province (Southern Ecuador. The main goals of this research were to analyze how culture media, plant growth regulators and photoperiod affect the growth of C. loxense. Eight month old plants (approximate 1 – 1.5 cm in height obtained by in vitro germination, were cultivated on MS media or Knudson C; MS with three levels of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2/0.5; 1/0.5 y 0.5/ 0.5 mg-1L; and three photoperiodic regimes (24/0, 16/8, 8/16 h on MS with and without plant growth regulators. No significant differences of shoot induction were observed on media with or without plant growth regulators, and all tested photoperiods. The highest growth (1.2 cm was observed in plantlets cultivated on growth regulator-free media with a 16/8 photoperiod. Also the shoot and root formation was better in this species in absence of plant growth regulators. Probably this response is due to the endogenous hormone levels in the tissues or due to the kind and concentrations of PGRs used were too low to induce positive morphogenetic responses.

  15. The Nonwhite Woman Surgeon: A Rare Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Heather A; Nguyen, Thu-Hoai C; Co, Franka; Rosemurgy, Alexander S; Ross, Sharona B

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 39% of medical student graduates were nonwhite, yet very few nonwhite women graduates chose to become surgeons. To better understand issues regarding nonwhite women in surgery, an online survey was sent to surgeons across the United States. Results are based on self-reported data. Mean data are reported. A total of 194 surgeons (42% women) completed the survey; only 12% of responders were nonwhite. Overall, 56% of nonwhite women felt they earned less than what men surgeons earn for equal work. Nonwhite women surgeons earned less than what men surgeons ($224,000 vs. 351,000, p women surgeons ($285,000, p = 0.02) earned. Overall, 96% of nonwhite surgeons believed that racial discrimination currently exists among surgeons. The few nonwhite women surgeons in the United States recognize that they are paid significantly less than what other surgeons are paid. Inequitable remuneration and a discriminatory work environment encountered by nonwhite women surgeons must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Tyteca, Daniel; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Floral nectar of animal-pollinated plants is commonly infested with microorganisms, yet little is known about the microorganisms inhabiting the floral nectar of orchids. In this study, we investigated microbial communities occurring in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species. Culturable bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, respectively. Using three different culture media, we found that bacteria were common inhabitants of the floral nectar of Epipactis. The most widely distributed bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in nectar of Epipactis were representatives of the family of Enterobacteriaceae, with an unspecified Enterobacteriaceae bacterium as the most common. In contrast to previous studies investigating microbial communities in floral nectar, very few yeast species (mainly of the genus Cryptococcus) were observed, and most of them occurred in very low densities. Total OTU richness (i.e., the number of bacterial and yeast OTUs per orchid species) varied between 4 and 20. Cluster analysis revealed that microbial communities of allogamous species differed from those of autogamous and facultatively autogamous species. This study extends previous efforts to identify microbial communities in floral nectar and indicates that the floral nectar of the orchids investigated mainly contained bacterial communities with moderate phylogenetic diversity. PMID:23836678

  17. Unusual 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase activity from tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstolski, Andrzej; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Malinowski, Jacek; Blount, Jack W; Kourteva, Galina; Dixon, Richard A

    2002-11-01

    Tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid, Vanilla planifolia, produce the flavor compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) and vanillin precursors such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. A constitutively expressed enzyme activity catalyzing chain shortening of a hydroxycinnamic acid, believed to be the first reaction specific for formation of vanilla flavor compounds, was identified in these cultures. The enzyme converts 4-coumaric acid non-oxidatively to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the presence of a thiol reagent but with no co-factor requirement. Several forms of this 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase (4HBS) were resolved and partially purified by a combination of hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. These forms appear to be interconvertible. The unusual properties of the 4HBS, and its appearance in different protein fractions, raise questions as to its physiological role in vanillin biosynthesis in vivo.

  18. AN EFFECTIVE IN VITRO SLOW GROWTH PROTOCOL FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ORCHID Epidendrum chlorocorymbos SCHLTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Lopez-Puc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient slow growth protocol for the orchid E. chlorocorymbos Schltr. was developed using in vitro conservation studies. Seedlings were placed in MS culture medium and a 2x3x3 factorial design applied to evaluate the effects of supplementing the medium with mannitol (0, 1, 2 and 3%, sucrose (0, 1, 2 and 3% or sorbitol (0, 1, 2 and 3%. Experimental conditions were a 16:8 h photoperiod, 23 ± 2 °C temperature and 50-80% relative humidity. At 6 months, the best treatment was MS medium at half ionic strength with 1% sorbitol. The culture was also free of contamination. This resulted in slow growth and normal morphology during maintenance and successful growth afterwards. Shoots were subsequently recovered, multiplied and rooted on MS medium with sucrose 3% without addition of growth regulators.

  19. Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence – an increase in death rate with advancing age – is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain...... the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32-year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment......, for individuals under two types of land-use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best-approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region...

  20. Cannibals and Orchids: Cannibalism and the Sensory Imagination of Papua New Guinea

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    Ilaria Vanni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Leona Miller’s book Cannibal and Orchids (1941 as an example of how place, in this case Papua New Guinea (PNG, is imagined according to a particular sensorium. It follows the ‘sensory turn in anthropology’ and the studies developed in the last two decades that take the senses as their object of enquiry. This body of theory is mobilised to analyse Miller’s biographical narrative recounting how PNG is imagined, represented and produced in terms of a disarray of the (Western senses, coalescing in the trope of cannibalism. This article argues that the experience of PNG as the place of otherness is narrated both in terms of the author’s sensory displacement and of the indigenous sensorium as abject.

  1. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  2. Growth regulators in reducing the size of orchid Fire-of-Star for commercialization in vase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire-of-star (Epidendrum radicans Pav. ex Lindl. is a terrestrial orchid, native to Brazil, tussocks with leafy stems, always with many adventitious roots, releasing its long inflorescence with about 1.0 m from the apex of the stem, showing great potential in floriculture, but long flowering stem complicates their marketing vase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ and mepiquat chloride (CLM the reduction of the size of the orchid E. radicans. Plants with an average height of 15 cm were cultivated in a greenhouse with 50% shading. The growth regulators used were PBZ at doses of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 mg L-1, and the CLM at doses of 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5 mg L-1. The frequency of application was fortnightly, totaling ten applications. The experiment was installed on a randomized complete blocks, one block to the PBZ with 5 treatments and 10 replications and another block to the CLM, with 6 treatments and 10 replications. Data were submitted to analysis of variance at 5% probability and significance when seen performed regression analysis. The variables evaluated were number shoots, plant height (cm, number of flower stems and leaf area. The results indicated that E. radicans treated with 5 mg L-1 PBZ were 50% lower in height than the control plants. When CLM treated with a dose of 1 mg L-1 plants were 25% lower in height than the control plants, maintaining its aesthetic characteristics suitable for marketing in vases. Growth regulators in the applied doses did not affect the number of shoots and flower stems. PBZ treated plants had 50% of their leaf area compared to control while those treated with CLM doses remained with the same average leaf area of control.

  3. Ecology and exploration of the rare biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael D J; Neufeld, Josh D

    2015-04-01

    The profound influence of microorganisms on human life and global biogeochemical cycles underlines the value of studying the biogeography of microorganisms, exploring microbial genomes and expanding our understanding of most microbial species on Earth: that is, those present at low relative abundance. The detection and subsequent analysis of low-abundance microbial populations—the 'rare biosphere'—have demonstrated the persistence, population dynamics, dispersion and predation of these microbial species. We discuss the ecology of rare microbial populations, and highlight molecular and computational methods for targeting taxonomic 'blind spots' within the rare biosphere of complex microbial communities.

  4. Investigation of the effects of monochromatic lights combination on Phalaenopsis orchid and chrysanthemum in vitro plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tien Thanh; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Huynh Thi Trung; Vu Thi Trac; Pham Van Nhi

    2016-01-01

    Eleven independent monochromatic light combination systems were established using super blue and red light LEDs. These are adjustable for mixing ratio of red and blue lights, the intensity and time for illumination. A fluorescent light illumination system was included as control. These were used to implement experiments for investigation effects of monochromatic lights combination in in vitro plantlet fully-forming stage on in vitro plantlet fully-forming and on the development of plant in nursery of chrysanthemum and Phalaenopsis orchid. Results from these experiments showed that illumination with intensity of 750 lx and light mixture of 20% blue-80% red is suitable for Phalaenopsis orchid; illumination with intensity of 1100 lx and light mixture of 90% red light-10% blue light is suitable for chrysanthemum. (author)

  5. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  6. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrina Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.

  7. Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP. PMID:21281460

  8. A novel technique for determination of the fructose, glucose and sucrose distribution in nectar from orchids by HPLC-ELSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Dan Nybro; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Rasmussen, Lars Holm

    2018-01-01

    method for sugar characterization of nectar from orchids. Nectar was collected on Whatman No. 1 paper and preserved in the field by 70 v/v% ethanol. The analytical method had a linear range up to at least 3000 mg L−1 for all 3 sugars with a precision of 1.5–1.7%. Correlation coefficients were 0.9999 to 1...

  9. Overexpression of DOSOC1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SOC1, promotes flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lihua; Wang, Yanwen; Yu, Hao

    2013-04-01

    SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) encodes a MADS-box protein that plays an essential role in integrating multiple flowering signals to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the model plant Arabidopsis. Although SOC1-like genes have been isolated in various angiosperms, its orthologs in Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, are so far unknown. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of flowering time control in orchids, we isolated a SOC1-like gene, DOSOC1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOSOC1 was highly expressed in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, pedicels, floral buds and open flowers. Its expression significantly increased in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, which usually occurred after 8 weeks of culture in Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. In the shoot apex at the floral transitional stage, DOSOC1 was particularly expressed in emerging floral meristems. Overexpression of DOSOC1 in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering, which was coupled with the up-regulation of two other flowering promoters, AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 and LEAFY. In addition, overexpression of DOSOC1 was able partially to complement the late-flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis soc1-2 loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, we successfully created seven 35S:DOSOC1 transgenic Dendrobium orchid lines, which consistently exhibited earlier flowering than wild-type orchids. Our results suggest that SOC1-like genes play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering in the Orchidaceae family, and that DOSOC1 isolated from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile could serve as an important target for genetic manipulation of flowering time in orchids.

  10. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  11. Mining with Rare Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gary M.

    Rare cases are often the most interesting cases. For example, in medical diagnosis one is typically interested in identifying relatively rare diseases, such as cancer, rather than more frequently occurring ones, such as the common cold. In this chapter we discuss the role of rare cases in Data Mining. Specific problems associated with mining rare cases are discussed, followed by a description of methods for addressing these problems.

  12. Positive selection and ancient duplications in the evolution of class B floral homeotic genes of orchids and grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Marcus A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive selection is recognized as the prevalence of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions in a gene. Models of the functional evolution of duplicated genes consider neofunctionalization as key to the retention of paralogues. For instance, duplicate transcription factors are specifically retained in plant and animal genomes and both positive selection and transcriptional divergence appear to have played a role in their diversification. However, the relative impact of these two factors has not been systematically evaluated. Class B MADS-box genes, comprising DEF-like and GLO-like genes, encode developmental transcription factors essential for establishment of perianth and male organ identity in the flowers of angiosperms. Here, we contrast the role of positive selection and the known divergence in expression patterns of genes encoding class B-like MADS-box transcription factors from monocots, with emphasis on the family Orchidaceae and the order Poales. Although in the monocots these two groups are highly diverse and have a strongly canalized floral morphology, there is no information on the role of positive selection in the evolution of their distinctive flower morphologies. Published research shows that in Poales, class B-like genes are expressed in stamens and in lodicules, the perianth organs whose identity might also be specified by class B-like genes, like the identity of the inner tepals of their lily-like relatives. In orchids, however, the number and pattern of expression of class B-like genes have greatly diverged. Results The DEF-like genes from Orchidaceae form four well-supported, ancient clades of orthologues. In contrast, orchid GLO-like genes form a single clade of ancient orthologues and recent paralogues. DEF-like genes from orchid clade 2 (OMADS3-like genes are under less stringent purifying selection than the other orchid DEF-like and GLO-like genes. In comparison with orchids, purifying selection

  13. Changes in orchid populations and endophytic fungi with rainfall and prescribed burning in Pterostylis revoluta in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, N U; Huynh, T; Lawrie, A C

    2018-02-12

    Wildfires are common in seasonally dry parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate. Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel load and fire risk, but often without reliable information on its effects. This study investigated the effects of prescribed burns in different seasons on Pterostylis revoluta, an autumn-flowering Australian terrestrial orchid, and its orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMFs) to find the least damaging season for a prescribed burn. Burns were conducted mid-season in spring and summer 2011 and autumn and winter 2012. Orchids were enumerated and measured during their flowering season in autumn 2011-2014 and mycorrhizal fungi were isolated before and after the burns in autumn 2011, 2012 and 2014. Micro-organisms isolated were characterized. DNA was extracted from the OMFs, and the internal transcribed spacer region was amplified by PCR. Amplicons were clustered by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative amplicons were sequenced. OMF were tested for sensitivity to smoke water. The number of plants increased up to 4-fold and 90 % of plants became vegetative during this study. Isolation of mycorrhizal fungi increased and isolation of bacteria decreased. Before the burns, the main OMF isolated was unexpectedly Tulasnella calospora (Boud.) Juel. By 2014, after the burns, the expected Ceratobasidium sp. D.P. Rogers was the only OMF isolated in most burnt quadrats, whereas T. calospora was confined to a minority of unburnt 'control' and the 'spring burn' quadrats, which were also the only ones with flowering plants. The decline in rainfall during 2010-2012 probably caused the switch from mainly flowering to mainly vegetative plants and the change in OMFs. Burning in spring to summer was less damaging to this orchid than burning in autumn to winter, which should be noted by authorities in fire management plans for fire-prone areas in which this orchid occurs. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  14. Fungal and plant gene expression in the Tulasnella calospora-Serapias vomeracea symbiosis provides clues about nitrogen pathways in orchid mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochi, Valeria; Chitarra, Walter; Kohler, Annegret; Voyron, Samuele; Singan, Vasanth R; Lindquist, Erika A; Barry, Kerrie W; Girlanda, Mariangela; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis; Balestrini, Raffaella; Perotto, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Orchids are highly dependent on their mycorrhizal fungal partners for nutrient supply, especially during early developmental stages. In addition to organic carbon, nitrogen (N) is probably a major nutrient transferred to the plant because orchid tissues are highly N-enriched. We know almost nothing about the N form preferentially transferred to the plant or about the key molecular determinants required for N uptake and transfer. We identified, in the genome of the orchid mycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella calospora, two functional ammonium transporters and several amino acid transporters but found no evidence of a nitrate assimilation system, in agreement with the N preference of the free-living mycelium grown on different N sources. Differential expression in symbiosis of a repertoire of fungal and plant genes involved in the transport and metabolism of N compounds suggested that organic N may be the main form transferred to the orchid host and that ammonium is taken up by the intracellular fungus from the apoplatic symbiotic interface. This is the first study addressing the genetic determinants of N uptake and transport in orchid mycorrhizas, and provides a model for nutrient exchanges at the symbiotic interface, which may guide future experiments. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Phylogenetic constrains on mycorrhizal specificity in eight Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Ma, Xueting; Men, Jinxin; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Shunxing

    2017-05-01

    Plant phylogeny constrains orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungal community composition in some orchids. Here, we investigated the structures of the OrM fungal communities of eight Dendrobium species in one niche to determine whether similarities in the OrM fungal communities correlated with the phylogeny of the host plants and whether the Dendrobium-OrM fungal interactions are phylogenetically conserved. A phylogeny based on DNA data was constructed for the eight coexisting Dendrobium species, and the OrM fungal communities were characterized by their roots. There were 31 different fungal lineages associated with the eight Dendrobium species. In total, 82.98% of the identified associations belonging to Tulasnellaceae, and a smaller proportion involved members of the unknown Basidiomycota (9.67%). Community analyses revealed that phylogenetically related Dendrobium tended to interact with a similar set of Tulasnellaceae fungi. The interactions between Dendrobium and Tulasnellaceae fungi were significantly influenced by the phylogenetic relationships among the Dendrobium species. Our results provide evidence that the mycorrhizal specificity in the eight coexisting Dendrobium species was phylogenetically conserved.

  16. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  17. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  18. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium floribundum) attracts the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) with a mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 10-hydroxy- (E)-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Michio; Izutsu, Kazunari; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Sakamoto, Fumio

    2013-02-01

    The flower of the oriental orchid Cymbidium floribundum is known to attract the Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica. This effect is observed not only in workers but also drones and queens; that is, it attracts even swarming and absconding bees. A mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3-HOAA) and 10-hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) was identified as the active principles from the orchid flower, whereas these compounds individually have no such activity. Both compounds are also mandibular gland components of worker honeybees with related compounds. This strongly supports the idea that orchid flowers mimic bee secretions, although the ecological consequences of this relationship remain unknown. Because the flower is used to capture swarms, the present identification may contribute to the development of new techniques in traditional beekeeping for Japanese bees as well as A. cerana in Southeast Asia.

  19. Uncommon Species and Other Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department's Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI) maintains a database of uncommon, rare, threatened and endangered species and natural...

  20. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the recalcitrant Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid with higher efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi James; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4 mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A 600 nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200 μM acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 30 mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes.

  2. A re-evaluation of the final step of vanillin biosynthesis in the orchid Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailian; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Kourteva, Galina; Rao, Xiaolan; Chen, Fang; Shen, Hui; Liu, Chenggang; Podstolski, Andrzej; Belanger, Faith; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Dixon, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    A recent publication describes an enzyme from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia with the ability to convert ferulic acid directly to vanillin. The authors propose that this represents the final step in the biosynthesis of vanillin, which is then converted to its storage form, glucovanillin, by glycosylation. The existence of such a "vanillin synthase" could enable biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid using a "natural" vanilla enzyme. The proposed vanillin synthase exhibits high identity to cysteine proteases, and is identical at the protein sequence level to a protein identified in 2003 as being associated with the conversion of 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. We here demonstrate that the recombinant cysteine protease-like protein, whether expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system, E. coli, yeast, or plants, is unable to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Rather, the protein is a component of an enzyme complex that preferentially converts 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, as demonstrated by the purification of this complex and peptide sequencing. Furthermore, RNA sequencing provides evidence that this protein is expressed in many tissues of V. planifolia irrespective of whether or not they produce vanillin. On the basis of our results, V. planifolia does not appear to contain a cysteine protease-like "vanillin synthase" that can, by itself, directly convert ferulic acid to vanillin. The pathway to vanillin in V. planifolia is yet to be conclusively determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Studies on Protoplast Isolation of Ludisia discolor, A Wild Orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Zakaria, Rahmad; Hamzah, Syed Mohd Edzham Syed; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2016-11-01

    The terrestrial Ludisia discolor , also referred to as the jewel orchid is prized for the quality of its leaves. L. discolor is known as a medicinal herb and is touted for its heat- and pathogen-resisting qualities. L. discolor is valuable in the production of both flavonoids and anthocyanins, antioxidants that are exalted in the health industry. Plant cell cultures have emerged as alternative sources of anthocyanin production. Plant protoplast cultures are used frequently in transient gene expression studies and in the establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures. Benefits of plant protoplast system include similarity to cells found in plant tissues, reproduction under controlled conditions, and prevention of masking of stress responses to previous handling techniques. A study was conducted to assess the amenability of the stem and leaves of L. discolor to protoplast isolation. The stem and leaf segments were weighed, sliced into thin layers, immersed in a digestion medium, washed and then cultured onto a recovery medium. Results indicated that the production of plant protoplasts from L. discolor may be viewed as an alternative in the generation of cell cultures and ultimately in the production of anthocyanins from the cell cultures.

  4. Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Johan Petter; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen R; Øien, Dag-Inge; Moen, Asbjørn; Sletvold, Nina

    2016-11-16

    The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival-reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen R.; Øien, Dag-Inge; Moen, Asbjørn; Sletvold, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence—an increase in death rate with advancing age—is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival–reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics. PMID:27852801

  6. New perspective of dendrobium crumenatum orchid for antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrasagaran, U.M.; Murugaiyah, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential anti-microbial activity from different parts of Dendrobium crumenatum (leaf, stem, root and pseudo-bulb) against 8 pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using disc diffusion assay, microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The methanolic extracts of stem, root and pseudo-bulb displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the standard antibiotics. Stem extract of D. crumenatum had the most potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 0.39, 0.195 and 0.195 mg/mL, respectively. Root and stem extracts were found to be active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Shigella dysentriae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values of 0.78 mg/ml compared to 0.00312 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.0125 mg/mL of standard antibiotics of amoxcillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Stem and root extracts yield MBC values in the range of 0.78 mg/mL to 6.25 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The present study showed that D. crumenatum exhibited potential antimicrobial activity which could be due to the presence of alkaloid and flavonoid compounds and this is a first report on South East Asia region's wild orchid. (author)

  7. Towards Rare Itemset Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Szathmary , Laszlo; Napoli , Amedeo; Valtchev , Petko

    2007-01-01

    site de la conférence : http://ictai07.ceid.upatras.gr/; International audience; We describe here a general approach for rare itemset mining. While mining literature has been almost exclusively focused on frequent itemsets, in many practical situations rare ones are of higher interest (e.g., in medical databases, rare combinations of symptoms might provide useful insights for the physicians). Based on an examination of the relevant substructures of the mining space, our approach splits the ra...

  8. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Lee, Y.-I.; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina

    2018-01-01

    Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344......Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344...

  9. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  10. Temporal and spatial regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis provide diverse flower colour intensities and patterning in Cymbidium orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Albert, Nick W; Zhang, Huaibi; Arathoon, Steve; Boase, Murray R; Ngo, Hanh; Schwinn, Kathy E; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H

    2014-11-01

    This study confirmed pigment profiles in different colour groups, isolated key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and established a basis to examine the regulation of colour patterning in flowers of Cymbidium orchid. Cymbidium orchid (Cymbidium hybrida) has a range of flower colours, often classified into four colour groups; pink, white, yellow and green. In this study, the biochemical and molecular basis for the different colour types was investigated, and genes involved in flavonoid/anthocyanin synthesis were identified and characterised. Pigment analysis across selected cultivars confirmed cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside as the major anthocyanins detected; the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside and robinoside were also present in petal tissue. β-carotene was the major carotenoid in the yellow cultivars, whilst pheophytins were the major chlorophyll pigments in the green cultivars. Anthocyanin pigments were important across all eight cultivars because anthocyanin accumulated in the flower labellum, even if not in the other petals/sepals. Genes encoding the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes chalcone synthase, flavonol synthase, flavonoid 3' hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were isolated from petal tissue of a Cymbidium cultivar. Expression of these flavonoid genes was monitored across flower bud development in each cultivar, confirming that DFR and ANS were only expressed in tissues where anthocyanin accumulated. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a cytochrome P450 sequence as that of the Cymbidium F3'H, consistent with the accumulation of di-hydroxylated anthocyanins and flavonols in flower tissue. A separate polyketide synthase, identified as a bibenzyl synthase, was isolated from petal tissue but was not associated with pigment accumulation. Our analyses show the diversity in flower colour of Cymbidium orchid derives not from different individual pigments but from subtle

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of root shape in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis sp.: a biomimicry methodology for robotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anand Kumar; Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2018-04-25

    Within the field of biorobotics, an emerging branch is plant-inspired robotics. Some effort exists in particular towards the production of digging robots that mimic roots; for these, a deeper comprehension of the role of root tip geometry in excavation would be highly desirable. Here we demonstrate a photogrammetry-based pipeline for the production of computer and manufactured replicas of moth orchid root apexes. Our methods yields faithful root reproductions. This can be used either for quantitative studies aimed at comparing different root morphologies, or directly to implement a particular root shape in a biorobot.

  12. Vanillin-bioconversion and bioengineering of the most popular plant flavor and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, biotechnology-derived production of flavors and fragrances has expanded rapidly. The world's most popular flavor, vanillin, is no exception. This review outlines the current state of biotechnology-based vanillin synthesis with the use of ferulic acid, eugenol, and glucose as substrates and bacteria, fungi, and yeasts as microbial production hosts. The de novo biosynthetic pathway of vanillin in the vanilla orchid and the possible applied uses of this new knowledge in the biotechnology-derived and pod-based vanillin industries are also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Axenic Seed Culture and in vitro mass propagation of Malaysian Wild Orchid Cymbidium finlaysonianum LINDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, T.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Islam, S. M. S.; Uddain, J.; Subramaniam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Under this study an efficient protocol on mass propagation of Cymbidium finlaysonianum an epiphytic Malaysian wild orchid has been established using axenic culture. To obtain an axenic seed culture, it is important to perform an adequate a disinfection procedure in tissue culture. Four nutrient media viz. MS, 0.5MS, KC and VW were evaluated on In vitro seed germination with callus initiation. The maximum seed germination with callus initiation (100 percentage) was recorded in MS basal medium with a short span of time (40 days after culture). After 45 days of callus initiation the effect of eight different treatments (T /sub 1/-T /sub 8/) on callus size and nature were also studied. The experiment revealed that in T /sub 3/ (MS + 2.0 mgl /sup -1/ BAP + 0.5 mg /sup -1/ NAA) was found to be the best for callus development (1.98 cm length and 1.01 cm breadth). The effect of different concentration of BAP was evaluated on protocorm formation and its proliferation. Maximum number (7.75) and percentage (81.40) of PLBs was recorded in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg-1 BAP. Very good PLBs development was recorded also in MS + BAP 1.0 mg-1 + NAA 0.5 mg /sup -1/. The highest elongation of shoot (3.80 cm) was observed in MS + 1.0 mg-1 BAP + 0.50 mg /sup -1/ NAA. For root induction 1.0 mg-1 NAA has proven to the best in 0.5 MS medium. The In developed seedlings were finally transferred to pots by successive phases of acclimatization. (author)

  14. In vitro behaviour of Aspasia variegata, an epiphytic orchid from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vespasiano Borges de Paiva Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspasia variegata occurs naturally in the savanna of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil and it has been widely collected for its beautiful flowers. Additionally, its habitat has been greatly reduced and little or no investigation of its spread has been performed. Aiming to establish a protocol to obtain seedlings of the orchid A. variegata, different compositions of culture medium were tested to identify which one provided better in vitro growth and development and to assess the influence of these media in seedling acclimatisation. Thus, seeds obtained from mature capsules were inoculated in Knudson culture medium for 120 days until the protocorm stage. They were transferred to different culture media formulations, including MS and Knudson with half or full formulation, and 3.0 and 6.0g L-1 activated charcoal were added to them or not. After 180 days of protocorm inoculation, seedlings were evaluated for length of roots and shoots, number of roots and leaves, and chlorophyll contents. After that, seedlings were transferred to trays containing a mixture of Plantmax® and coconut fibre (1:1 for acclimatisation. Best results for the in vitro growth of A. variegata were obtained with the use of MS medium supplemented with 6.0g L-1 activated charcoal. Higher levels of chlorophyll were obtained, however, in treatments containing MS salts without activated charcoal presence, and lower levels in media containing Knudson salts with the presence of activated charcoal. The seedlings originated by higher chlorophyll levels during in vitro cultivation presented the highest survival rates and better development in the acclimatisation phase.

  15. Rare Disease Video Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis

    2011-01-01

    Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.

  16. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  17. Genome sequencing and transposon mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 identify genes contributing to suppression of orchid necrosis caused by B. gladioli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty six strains of Burkholderia spp. isolated from sugarcane were evaluated for biological control of leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. Twenty nine of the sugarcane strains suppressed the disease in greenhouse assays. We generated a draft genomic sequence of one suppr...

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Dickeya sp. Isolates B16 (NIB Z 2098) and S1 (NIB Z 2099) Causing Soft Rot of Phalaenopsis Orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alič, Špela; Naglič, Tina; Llop, Pablo; Toplak, Nataša; Koren, Simon; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2015-09-10

    The genus Dickeya contains bacteria causing soft rot of economically important crops and ornamental plants. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Dickeya sp. isolates from rotted leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids. Copyright © 2015 Alič et al.

  19. Investigation of Endophytic Bacterial Community in Supposedly Axenic Cultures of Pineapple and Orchids with Evidence on Abundant Intracellular Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Polesi, Natalia Pimentel; de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita Fiori; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2017-01-01

    Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates, PCR-DGGE from total genomic DNA of microplants and ultrastructural analysis of leaves were performed. In the culture-dependent technique, it was only possible to obtain bacterial isolates from pineapple microplants. In this case, the bacteria genera identified in the isolation technique were Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Methylobacterium. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses revealed the presence of endophytic bacteria in intracellular spaces in the leaves of pineapple and orchid microplants, independent of the laboratory or cultivation protocol. Our results strongly indicate that there are endophytic bacterial communities inhabiting the microplants before initiation of the in vitro culture and that some of these endophytes persist in their latent form and can also grow in the culture medium even after long-term micropropagation, thus discarding the concept of "truly axenic plants."

  20. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.